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CHAPTER II

FRAME OF THEORIES

2.1. The definition of Vocabulary mastery

Vocabulary is one of the language aspects which should be learnt.

Learning vocabulary is important because we are able to speak, write, and listen

nicely we have to know vocabulary first. A person said to ‘know ‘ a word if they

can recognize its meaning when they see it (Cameron, 2001: 75). It means that in

learning vocabulary we have to know the meaning of it and also understand and

can use it in sentence context.

According to Red John (2000: 16) vocabulary is knowledge involves

knowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary test in

to find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym, a

dictionary – tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language.

In learning vocabulary automatically we have to know the meaning of

words it self and can use it in sentences. Wilkins (1972: 130) states that

vocabulary learning is learning to discriminate progressing the meaning of words

in the target language from the meanings of their nearest ‘equivalent’ in the

mother tongue. It is also learning to make the most appropriate lexical choices for

particular linguistic and situational context.

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2.1.1. Kinds of Vocabulary

Surely, there are some words in a sentence and those collections of words

include to the vocabulary because vocabulary is a list or collections of words

arranged in alphabetical order and explained. Those words could be Noun which

is usually used as subject or object, Verb or it is usually used as predicate in a

sentence, Adverbs etc.

The sentence may be further divided according to the functions of each word

has in the subject – predicate relationship – each of these functions is classified as

a different part of speech. They are :

1. Noun

It is one of most important part of speech. It is arrangement with the

verb helps to form the sentence core which is essential to every

complete sentence. It could be the name of person, place, thing or idea.

Example :

a. It is a magazine

b. There is an umbrella

2. Verb

It is the word which expresses an action or a help to make a statement.

Example :

a. Mr. Herman is teaching mathematic.

b. The students are playing football


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3. Adjective

It is the word used to qualify noun or pronoun.

Example :

a. Mr. Herman is clever

b. This magazine is expensive

5. Adverb

It is a word used for qualifying the meaning of verb, adjective, or

another adverb.

Example :

a. Mrs. Nurul is teaching in the classroom.

b. I go to campus at nine o’clock

6. Conjunction

It is a word used to relate one word to another one, or one sentence to

another one.

Example :

a. I have to called him before I go.

b. Irma and I are student at untirta.

7. Pronoun

It is the word which can take the place of a noun.

Example :

a. They are my lecture.

b. He goes to office.
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8. Interjection

It is a word put into a sentence to express a sudden feeling of mind or

emotion.

Example :

a. Hurrah! I am the winner.

b. Oh my god, I can’t believe it’s real.

(Frank, 1972: 1)

2.1.2. Material of vocabulary

In learning vocabulary, there are some materials that relate with

vocabulary like word family, word classes, synonyms, antonyms that can help

learners in comprehending vocabulary deeper.

1. Word Family

Word family is a word is constructed by adding prefix and suffix in base

word or root. In word family, we discuss about affixes. There are two affixes.

They are prefix and suffix. Here is the explanation and example both of them.

1.1 Prefix

Prefix is a syllable added at the beginning of words to change their

meaning. The words of prefixes are un-, in-, dis-, mis-, re-, pre-, etc. the prefix un-

and in-, are the most common negative prefix which both mean not. Prefix mis-,

means wrong, pre-, means before, re-, means again, etc. the example words of

prefixes are :
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Words Added prefix Meaning

Popular Unpopular not popular

Active Inactive not active

Consistent Inconsistent not consistent

Writing Prewriting before writing

Build Rebuild build again

For example in sentence :

He is not popular artist (without Prefix)

He is unpopular artist. (adding by Prefix Un-)

From the example, we can see both of them have similar meaning, but the

difference only in the “popular” word. In the first sentence, the popular word does

not use prefix but it used to be + Not to express negative meaning. While in the

second sentence, the popular word is added by prefix un-to express negative

meaning too, the word become unpopular.

1.2 Suffix

Suffix is syllable added at the end of words to change their meaning or

their part of speech. The words of suffix are -ment, -ion, -ness, -less, -er/-or, -ist,

etc. the suffix –ment, -er /-or, and –ist are changed verb form becomes noun. The

example is act (Verb) added suffix or becomes actor (Noun), etc. while the

suffixness is used to change adjective form becomes noun. The example is weak
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(Adj) added suffix ness becomes weakness (Noun). While the suffix less means

without. The example words of suffix are :

Word Added suffix

Art artist

Direct director

Use useless

Kind kindness

Agree agreement

For example in sentence :

They plays football in the yard. (As a Verb)

They are a good football player. (As a Noun)

From the example, we can see both of them have differences in the word

classes. In the first sentence, the word of play without added by suffix and the

word class is verb. It describes about what the noun does. While in the second

sentence, the word play is added by suffix –er. So, the word class changes from

verb (play) become noun (player). It indicates noun in the sentence.

2. Synonyms and Antonyms

Learning Vocabulary, it means that we learn about meaning. Many words

in English sometimes have more that one meaning. So there are many words

although different but has similar meaning called synonyms. Beside similar,
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sometimes we must know the opposite meaning of the word called antonym. To

appropriate in using synonyms we must consider with the context.

2.1 Synonyms

Synonyms are words that share a similar meaning. For example, old,

ancient, antique, elderly are all synonyms in that they share the common meaning

of not young /new. However, there the similarity ends. Synonyms are similar, but

seldom the same. Even between words that seem interchangeable, such as taxi and

cab or aubergine and eggplant, one will be preferred over the other in certain

context and by particular speakers.

For example :

Words Synonyms

Look See

Use Wear

Good Excellent

For example in sentence :

Andi uses bicycle to go to school.

He is wear blue t-shirt.

From the example, we can see that the uses of use, and wear, in the sentence

have same meaning or synonyms but it s used in different context. Use can be

used to describe for everything in general, while for wear is used to describe for

something that will be used in the body.


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2.2 Antonym

Antonyms are words with the opposite meaning. For example like old and

new. It is called antonym, because the antonym of old is new. Like synonyms, the

relation between such opposite is not always black and white (to use two

antonyms) and the very notion of oppositeness is troublesome. The opposite of an

old woman is a young woman, but opposite of an old record is a new record not a

young record. So, it can be assumed that both synonyms and antonyms have

useful defining function and it depends on the context.

For example :

Words Antonyms

Man woman

Old New

Young New

The example in sentence :

1. Mr. Yayan karyana is a young man

2. He is an old man.

The example in sentence :

1. My uncle has two old car

2. My uncle has two new car


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From the examples, we can compare between first example and second

example. Although both of the sentences use old word but the antonym is

different. For the first example, the antonym of old is young because it describes

age. While for the second example, the opposite meaning of old is new because it

describe the condition of car. So, the writer can assumes that when we will use

both antonym and synonym, it must be appropriate with the context in a sentence

or text.

2.1.3 Teaching vocabulary

In learning, learners must be master in vocabulary. To improve students’

vocabulary, teacher taught the vocabulary in the classroom. According to Emerald

(1981: 149), there are some steps in teaching and developing vocabulary to

students :

1. Present the word clearly written in a paper or write it on the

blackboard.

2. Pronounce the world for the child, making sure that he or she looks at

the words as it is pronounced.

3. Have the child pronounce the word, a gain making sure that the child

looks at the word when it is pronounced.

4. Explain the meaning of the word and present the word in written

sentence context :

a. Read the sentence to the students.

b. Have the students read the sentence aloud.


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c. Have the students identify the word, underlined the word and give

its meaning.

5. Have the students make a sentence using the word.

6. Have the students look at the sentence and read it aloud

7. Present the word in isolation again, let the students pronounce it and

give its meaning.

2.1.4 Tool for developing vocabulary

Dictionary is one of tool for developing vocabulary. It gives the

information of the meaning of words alphabetically. It can be used as a last resort

when guessing from context’s strategies fail. But, it can also be used productively,

both for generating text and as resources for vocabulary acquisition. Its usefulness

depends on learners being able to access the information they contain both

speedily and accurately. There are some key skills in using dictionary effectively :

1. Recognizing feature of dictionary layout, such as use of alphabetical

order, hard words, grammar and pronunciation information, definition,

etc.

2. Discriminating between the different meanings of words.

3. Cross-checking (when using the bilingual dictionary) that the

translation equivalent that is offered is the best choice for the meaning

that is required.
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4. Using synonyms, antonyms and other information to narrow the choice

of best words for the meaning intended.

5. Inferring the spelling of an unfamiliar word from only having heard it,

in order to check its meaning in the dictionary.

2.1.5 Mastery of students’ vocabulary

In learning vocabulary, people will experience development each year

appropriate with their age. According to Richard (1989: 177) for native speakers

of language, they continue to expand their vocabulary in adulthood. In social role

and mode of discourse taking place in adulthood, in vocabulary there is continued

development beyond the childhood years with adults constantly adding new words

to their vocabulary through reading, occupation, and other activities. The primary

period for conceptual development, however, is early childhood.

Measurement of vocabulary knowledge is difficult and it is only

approximately. According to Watts (1994) suggest that the average child enters

elementary school with a recognition vocabulary of 2.000 words, that at age 7 this

has reached some 7.000 words, so at age 14, the child should be able to recognize

14.000 words. According to Mackey (1965: 173) the vocabulary of adults has

been variously estimated at between 10.000 words for non-academic adult to over

150.000 for a professional scientist. College students are estimated to understand

some 60.000 to 100.000 words. Berry estimates that for spoken English the
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average person speaking on a telephone makes use of a vocabulary of only some

2.000 words (Mackey, 1965).

Meanwhile, for Indonesian learners who learn English as one of foreign

language that is taught in school, they have limited words or vocabulary that they

now or understand of the language. So, they experience low development in

expanding the vocabularies.

2.2. Concept of reading

Reading is one of the important skills in English. We can get up date

information that happens worth knowledge by reading. Reading books, magazine,

newspaper, and literary works in English can help learners to increase their

mastery in vocabulary.

According to Harris and Sipay (1997: 7) state that reading is mainly

concerned with learning to recognize the printed symbols, which present speech,

and to respond intellectually and emotionally as he would if the material were

spoken rather than printed. According Widdowson (1985: 5) reading is the process

of getting linguistics information via print.

From the expert’s opinion above, the writer can assumes that reading is a

process to get information, knowledge, from a literary that is written by someone

and printed out via print and it is a process to recognized the printed symbols to

the reader.
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2.2.1 The concept of Reading

Reading is one of the information skills in English, we can get actual

news, up-date information that happens and worth knowledge by reading. Reading

books, newspaper, magazine, and literary works in English can help learners to

increase their mastery in vocabulary.

According to Wddowson (in Alderson and Urquhart, 1985: 5) reading is

the process of getting linguistics information via print. Harirs and Sipay (1997: 7)

state that reading is mainly concerned with learning to recognized the printed

symbols, which present speech, and to respond intellectually and emotionally as

he would if the material were spoken rather than printed.

From the expert above, the writer can assumes that reading is process to

get information, knowledge from literary that is written by someone and is

printed out via print and it is a process to recognized the printed symbols to the

reader.

2.2.2 Technique of Reading

In reading a literature, reader used technique to make easer for them in

getting information. There are two techniques in reading, they are scanning and

skimming.

1. Scanning

Scanning is technique used to look for specific information. Scanning is not fast

reading but rather a process or technique of reading. In reading at a normal speed,


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readers concentrate on horizontal distance between pauses, but when they scan

they also use the vertical extent. In scanning, the reader lets his eyes low down the

page, maybe following a set pattern, may be reading around word that catches his

eyes. The exact technique Scanning depends on the purpose. Scanning is used to

locate specific information, for example in encyclopedia or an index. It also can

be used to review an article just read in order to mentally fix the important

information, to discover the general organization or framework of the article, or to

preview an article.

2. Skimming

Skimming is used to quickly identify the main idea of the text. Skimming is done

at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when

they have lots material to read in a limited amount of time.

There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people

used strategy by reading the first and last paragraphs using heading, summarizes

and other organizer as they move down the page or screen. You also might read

the title, subtitle, subheading and illustration.

2.3 The Definition of Horoscope

Horoscope as etymology in the middle English from Latin language.

Horoscopus it is from Greek 14th century a go hora – skopos is a diagram of the

relative positions of planets and signs of the zodiac at a specific time (as at one’s

birth) for use by astrologers in inferring individual character and personality traits
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and in for telling events of a person’s life. Horoscope the representation made of

the aspect of the heavens at the moment of person’s birth, by which the astrologer

professed to foretell the events of the person’s life; especially the sign of zodiac

rising above the horizon at such a moment. (Webster’s Revised Unbridge

Dictionary 1993 http://www.com/dictionary/horoscope/24-01-08.at 03.57 pm).

Horoscopes in English language newspaper and magazines are often a

good place to find idioms about moods and states, since the horoscope usually

tries to tell you how you are going to feel during the coming day, week, and

month.

A Horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the sun,

moon, and planets, the astrological aspects, and sensitive angles at the time of an

event, such as the moment of a person’s birth. (wikipedia.Org/wiki/horoscope

astrology)

As a teacher will try find essential to develop systematic strategies for the

methodological and progressive development of those skill which are necessary to

achieve in reading. “ with development of standard grade, teachers are now

consciously developing strategies to help pupils, they are aided in this by

materials which have been issued trough the support system. The principles is

now widespread of enabling pupils to understand, teacher often present the pupils

with articles or text for stimulating in them greater interest in reading and improve

them in vocabulary. The Variety of subject, and many of them, consequently, lack

knowledge about or interest in Greek and Rome antiquity. But they all had an
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interest in concepts like ‘fate’ and ‘destiny’, because these imply questions which

effect the students’ own lives. Seem this background, a course in Greek and Rome

astrology is still around and constantly brought to our attention through horoscope

in the newspaper, TV-show. (Stephen Heilen.

2005:22.http://www.jstor.Org/pss/3585558).

According to Ward R., and Grasha A. Using astrology to teach in research

methods to introductory psychology students, a classroom demonstration designed

to test an astrological hypothesis can help teach introductory psychology students

about research design and data interpretation.

So from the definition above Horoscope is prediction of someone such as

money, love and lucky based on individual’s birth itself. It’s mean horoscope used

to analyzed the character of individual’s born at that time, providing information

about the current state of their future. And the function of horoscope itself in

process teaching learning are :

1. To make interest the students in learning English, especially vocabulary.

2. To motivate the students in learning English, especially vocabulary.

3. To enrich the students vocabulary in learning vocabulary.

2.4. The definition of C’nS Magazine

Now day, English is as an international language. Many people want to

master it. Because by knowing and understanding it, we will be capable to


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communicate either in our country or foreign. But learning the language is not

easy . sometimes we get the difficulties in learning it, for example when we find

the new words, especially at the beginners level of non native speaker.

In this case, we need the media in learning, so that the learning process

occurred maximal. As Sadiman (2003: 6) states that media is all of the things

which could be used to convey the message from the sender to the receiver, so it

can stimulate the thinking, feeling, talent, and also the students’ attention in order

that the learning process occurred.

One media which used in teaching learning process is magazine that are a

great source of ideas and materials for teaching and keep your students interested

and talking for ours on a whole range of subjects. C’nS (Cool and Smart)

Magazine it is one media would be interested and feel easier directly In learning

vocabulary, especially for teenager or students.

C’nS magazine is the first English magazine in Indonesia. It’s magazine

for English learners in Indonesia between 15-22 years of age who want to

improve their English competence in a fun and entertaining way. Its objective is to

publish educational materials in the form of books, magazines, and journals both

for the use of participants of Yayasan LIA’s English language programs and for

the general public. (www.cnsmag.com 08-july-08.at 14.35 pm).

Magazine is publication containing articles and stories. They are written

by various writers. A magazine is issued at intervals, for example weekly or

monthly.
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2.5 The procedures teaching English vocabulary through horoscope

According to Jo Bertrand. http;//www.asian-efl-journal.com/dec-03-

sub.sta.php. at. 13.30. 06. January 2009

The procedure of teaching English vocabulary through horoscope are :

1. Ask learner to skim the text.

2. Learners read the text again and are asked to attempt a rough summary

of its gist.

3. Ask learners to find all the examples of the lexical feature that is being

targeted.

4. Learners then work out the meanings of the phrases either from their

components, or from their context, or both. At this point, they could be

allowed to consult dictionaries.

5. Alternatively, provide definitions, synonyms or L1 translations of the

targeted words, and ask them to find the words in the text that match.

6. Ask learners to study the targeted items and analyze them in terms of

their formal features.

7. Provide the learners with the same texts, but with the targeted items

blanked out.

8. Ask learners to write their own texts, to include some of the items they

have been studying.


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According to Kenneth Beare. http://esl.about.com/od/vocabularyadvanced

/ig/zodiac-personality.-Ho/ at 13.24. 06 January 09. Studying horoscope or zodiac

sign and the personality traits that are associated with these signs is great way to

quickly improve your vocabulary related to personality. In your English class you

can use them to find out about your students personalities while having fun with

the future