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FOOD PRESERVATION

1.Food preservation is a process that makes food last longer.

2.Food preservation makes food last longer by delaying it from becoming bad.

3.Food preservation is very important because :

a)It makes food last longer

b)It kills bacteria and fungi

c)It can slow down the activity of disease-causing bacteria.

1.We can preserve food by killing bacteria and fungi besides preventing oxidation.

2.We can make the environment unsuitable for microorganisms to live in.

3.We preserve food by

a)keeping it dry

b)keeping it hot or frozen

c)keeping it airtight

7. Food can preserved in several ways.


DRYING/DEHYDRATION

1)We can dry food to preserve it (to make the food last longer).

2)Drying involves the removal of water from food substances.

3)We can dry food by :

a)Drying the food under hot sun . Examples :- prawns, squid, vegetables, chillies and
anchovies.

b)Heating it in the oven. Heating food to a high temperature. Examples : meat and biscuit.

c)Heating it with a flame. Examples: tea leaves, coffee powder and milk powder.

4)Without water and food, bacteria and fungi cannot grow.

5)This can make the food last longer.

6)Examples of food preserved by drying are fish, prawns, cuttlefish and fruits.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DRYING

Advantages Disadvantages
A cost effective method of Most of the nutrients in the food are
food preservation destroyed.
Food last longer The taste of the food is no longer the
same
REFRIGERATING

i.Cooling

1)Food can be preservde by storing them in a cool place below the room temperature such as
putting them in a place that is between 0ºC to 5ºC in a refrigerator.

2)In a cool condition, bacteria become inactive ( slow bacteria action) and do not reproduce or
give off poisonous gases. It does not kill the bacteria, but it slows down their growth.

3)Bacteria and fungi become active again when the food is taken out from the
refrigerator.Therefore, after taking out food from refrigerator, it must be cooked or eaten
quickly before its spoil.

4)Cooling still retain the texture of the food.

5)Examples of food preserved by cooling are vegetables, fruits, eggs and milk.

6)Cooling can be done by keeping the food in a refrigerator at home.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COOLING/ REFRIGERATING

Advantages Disadvantages

Allows perishable food such Food preserved this way cannot be


as fruits and vegetables to be brought along while traveling.
kept longer.

ii.Freezing
1)We can preserve food by keeping it frozen.

2)Food is kept frozen at a temperature of -10°C.

3)Food can last longer because bacteria and fungi cannot grow at a very low temperature. The
microorganisms become inactive.

4)Freezing preserves the quality and nutrient content of the food.

5)Foods that can be preserved by freezing are chicken, meat, prawns and cuttlefish.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FREEZING

Advantages Disadvantages
The taste and nutritional Microorganisms become inactive only.
value of the food is preserved They become active again at room
temperature.
There is no change in size,
shape and colour of the food

VACUUM-PACKAGING
1)Vacuum-packaging is the preservation of food by sealing it in a pack after air has been
removed.

2)The food is kept in airtight packages.

3)Microorganisms cannot survive without air as they require air for respiration.

4)Airtight packages are packages where all the air has been expelled out.

5)Foods suitable for vacuum packing include sausages, coffee powder, biscuits, peanuts,
vegetables and fruits.

The steps involved in vacuum packing

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VACUUM PACKAGING


Advantages Disadvantages
The quality of food is It is suitable only for certain food
maintained
It needs a special and expensive
Food can be transported from equipments.
one country to another

PICKLING
1)Pickling is done by soaking or keeping food in vinegar, salt solution or sugar solution.

2)Pickling reduces the water content of food. This prevents the growth of bacteria and fungi.

3)Food preserved by pickling will last longer.

4)However, its taste and nutrient content will be different.

5)Food that can be reserved by pickling are fruits and vegetables.( unripe papaya, and chilies)

6)Microorganisms cannot grow under acidic conditions.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PICKLING

Advantages Disadvantages
Fruits and vegetables can be Food experiences a change in taste and
preserved. colour.

Nutritional value is changed.

May affect health, cause diabetes or high


blood pressure.

CANNING
1)We can also preserve food by putting it in airtight cans

2)Food can last very long if kept in airtight cans

3)The food is cooked and all the air is expelled from it before canning

4)Bacteria and fungi cannot grow without air.

5)Food suitable to be preserved this way includes fish, meat, fruits and vegetables.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BOTTLING AND CANNING

Advantages Disadvantages
Portable, canned food can be Flavour of food is changed.
taken anywhere easily
Preservatives are added to the food
Food can be easily prepared
for consumption. Nutrient content is low
PASTEURISATION

1)Pasteurisation can destroy microorganisms in milk, ice-cream and fruit juice.

2)During pasteurization, the food is heated quickly for a few second.

3)Milk is pasteurized by heating it in 72 °C for fifteen second or at 65°C for 30 minutes.

4)Pasteurisation still retain the original flavour and taste of the food.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PASTEURISATION.

Advantages Disadvantages
The nutritional value and Food cannot be kept long once the bottle
quality of the milk is is opened
maintained

The taste is unchanged


IRRADIATION

1) Irradiation is able to kill bacteria without significantly changing the food


containing the bacteria.

2) If you seal food in plastic and then radiate it,the food will become sterile and can be stored
on a shelf without refrigeration

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRRADIATION

Advantages Disadvantages
The food texture is not It reduces the content of several key
changed nutrients.
Is ineffective against viruses.
FERMENTATION

1)Food could be preserved via fermentation.

2)In fermentation, yeast is added to fruit juice or other substances.

3)This process produces ethanol which stops the activity of microorganisms.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FERMENTATION

Advantages Disadvantages
The food texture is not It reduces the content of several key
changed nutrients.
Is ineffective against viruses.
FREEZE-DRYING

1)Freeze-drying works by freezing the material and then reducing the surrounding pressure and
adding enough heat to allow the frozen water in the material to sublime directly from the solid
phase to gas.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FREEZE-DRYING

Advantages Disadvantages
Does not cause shrinkage or It is an expensive process.
toughening of the food dried

The food's taste and smell


remain unchanged
FOOD ADDITIVES

1)A food additive is any substance added to food.

2)Sugar, salt, and corn syrup are the most commonly used food additives.

3)Food additives keep foods fresh, slow microbial growth, give desired texture and appearance, aid
in processing and preparation.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FOOD ADDITIVES

Advantages Disadvantages
Help assure availability of May be used.to make bad food look like
wholesome, appetising, and good.
affordable that meet Many people are allergic to certain
consumers' demand. additives
Help prevent food poisoning
BIOLOGY FORM 4

FOOD PRESERVATION

NAME : RUBAN A/L SELVARAJAH


CLASS : 4 ELIT
TEACHER : PN. RAJESWARY