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The Nile Valley

Egypt Civilization

Geography

Settling in the Nile


The first people settled between 6000 and 5000 BC The settled along the Nile river and started villages

The Nile River


Very warm, sunny and dry desert Relied on the river for water to drink, bath, farm, cook and clean Today it flows from the middle of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea 4000 miles Nile River Delta lots of different branches of the river that flow into the Mediterranean Sea

Sahara Desert
Located on both sides of the Nile River Largest desert in the world Called the Red Land because of the burning heat Desert served as a protective barrier for the early civilizations from enemies Also protected by the shallow Nile River

Other Geographic Features


Mediterranean Sea to the North and Red Sea to the East allowed for easy trade

The River People

Regular Flooding
Happened every spring Every spring heavy rain from central Africa and melting snow from the mountains caused the river to flood It flooded between July to October Flooding left behind a layer of dark fertile mud

Using the Nile


Used it for farming They planted wheat, barley and wheat, flax seeds Grew more than enough food to feed themselves and their animals Started to use irrigation
Dug basins, bowl shape holes

Hieroglyphics
Papyrus reed plant that grew along the Nile River
Used to make rafts, baskets, sandals and paper

Originally made up of picture symbols then they created symbols that represented sounds The combination of both of these things was called Hieroglyphics Some men learned to write - scribes

A United Egypt

Supplies
Because there was extra food this freed some people to be artisans They created pottery, cloth, carved statues or shaped cooper into weapons They also started to trade with each other traveling to other villages. When they traveled the gathered ideas to bring back to their villages

Government
Government was needed to manage Egypt as the population grew The earliest rulers were village chiefs The chiefs came together to unit villages and make small kingdoms The stronger kingdoms took over weaker kingdoms eventually forming two kingdoms in Egypt Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt

Ruling Families
In 3100 BC Narmer brings Egypt together. He did this but taking Upper Egypt (King) armies and took over Lower Egypt After Narmers death his family continued to rule Egypt (Dynasty)

Egyptian Life

Social Classes

Social Classes
Upper class nobles, priests and other wealthy Egyptians worked as government officials
Lived in the cities and along the Nile River in elegant homes They had servants to wait on them They dressed in white linen clothing with eye makeup and jewlery

Middle Class people who ran businesses or produced goods Artisans were an important part of this group
Lived in small houses and dressed simply

Lower Class Farmers who either rented their land from the nobles or worked for the nobles
Lived in one room huts along the Nile River They ate bread, beer, vegetables and fruit

Unskilled Labor made up of many of Egypts city dwellers who did physical labor Some unloaded cargo from boats and carried it to markets Other made bricks Even smaller houses compared to the farmers

Family Life
Male was in charge of the house but women did have some rights (most did not in early civilizations) Women were able to buy things and ask for divorces Most Egyptian children did not go to school but were taught by the mother instead