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Metal

Cutting, Metal Forming & Metrology


Questions & Answers-2014 (All Questions are in Sequence)
IES-1992-2013 (22 Yrs.), GATE-1992-2013 (22 Yrs.), GATE (PI)-2000-2012 (13 Yrs.), IAS-19942011 (18 Yrs.), some PSUs questions and conventional questions are added.
SectionI: Theory of Metal Cutting
Chapter-1: Basics of Metal Cutting Chapter-2: Force & Power in Metal Cutting Chapter-3: Tool life, Tool Wear, Economics and Machinability Page-1 Page-7 Page-13

SectionII: Metal Forming


Chapter-4:Cold Working, Recrystalization and Hot Working Chapter-5:Rolling Chapter-6:Forging Chapter-7:Extrusion & Drawing Chapter-8:Sheet Metal Operation Chapter-9:Powder Metallurgy Page-24 Page-27 Page-30 Page-37 Page-43 Page-52

SectionIII: Metrology
Chapter-10: Limit, Tolerance & Fits Chapter-11: Measurement of Lines & Surfaces Chapter-12: Miscellaneous of Metrology SectionIV: Cutting Tool Materials Page-56 Page-61 Page-65 Page67

For2014(IES,GATE&PSUs)

IES2013
Carbide tool is used to machine a 30 mm diameter

S2001 200 IES


For cutting of brass with singlepoint cutting tool on a lathe, tool should have ( ) Negative (a) N ti rake k angle l (b) Positiverakeangle (c) Zerorakeangle (d) Zerosidereliefangle

TheoryofMetalCutting

steel shaft at a spindle speed of 1000 revolutions per minute. The cutting speed of the above turning operation is: (a) 1000 rpm

B SKMondal By M d l

(b) 1570 m/min (c) 94.2 m/min (d) 47.1 m/min

IES1995
Singlepointthreadcuttingtoolshouldideally have: a) ) Zerorake b) Positiverake c) Negativerake d) Normalrake

GATE1995;2008
Cutting C tti powerconsumption ti in i turning t i canbe b significantly g yreducedby y (a)Increasingrakeangleofthetool (b)Increasingthecuttinganglesofthetool (c)Wideningthenoseradiusofthetool (d)Increasing I i the h clearance l angle l

IES1993
Assertion (A): For a negative rake tool, the specific cutting pressure is smaller than for a positive rake tool under otherwise identical conditions. Reason (R): The shear strain undergone by the chip in the case of negative rake tool is larger. larger (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2005 200 IES


Assertion (A): Carbide tips are generally given negative rake angle. Reason (R): Carbide tips are made from very hard materials. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2002 IES
Assertion (A): Negative rake is usually provided on carbide tipped tools. Reason (R): Carbide tools are weaker in compression. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES2011
Which one of the following statement is NOT correct with reference to the purposes and effects of rake angle of a cutting tool? (a) To guide the chip flow direction (b) To reduce the friction between the tool flanks and the machined surface (c) To add keenness or sharpness to the cutting edges. (d) To provide better thermal efficiency.

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

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( ) GATE 2008(PI)
Brittle materials are machined with tools having zero or negative rake angle because it (a) results in lower cutting force ( ) improves surface finish (b) (c) provides adequate strength to cutting tool (d) results in more accurate dimensions

IES2007
Cast iron with impurities of carbide requires a particular rake angle for efficient cutting with single point tools, what is the value of this rake angle, give reasons for your answer. answer [2marks]

S 1994 99 IAS
Considerthefollowingcharacteristics 1. Thecuttingedgeisnormaltothecuttingvelocity. 2. The Th cutting tti f forcesoccuri int twodi directions ti only. l 3. Thecuttingedgeiswiderthanthedepthofcut. Thecharacteristicsapplicabletoorthogonalcutting wouldinclude (a) 1and2 (b) 1and3 (c) 2and3 (d) 1, 1 2and3

IES 2012
Duringorthogonalcutting,anincreaseincuttingspeed causes (a)Anincreaseinlongitudinalcuttingforce (b)Anincreaseinradialcuttingforce (c)Anincreaseintangentialcuttingforce (d) ( )Cutting gforcestoremainunaffected

IES2006
Whichofthefollowingisasinglepointcutting tool? (a) Hacksawblade (b) Millingcutter (c) Grindingwheel (d) Parting P ti tool t l

IES 2012
) Negative g g arepreferred p g set Statement( (I): rakeangles onrigid upsforinterruptedcuttinganddifficulttomachine materials. Statement(II):Negativerakeangledirectsthechipsontothe machinedsurface ( ) Both (a) B h Statement S (I) and d Statement S (II) are individually i di id ll true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually (II) ) is not the correct explanation p of true but Statement ( Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

IES1995
The the and Th angle l between b t th face f d the th flank fl k of f the th single point cutting tool is known as a) Rake angle b) Clearance angle g c) Lip angle d) Point angle. angle

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Assertion (A): For drilling cast iron, iron the tool is provided with a point angle smaller than that required for a ductile material. material Reason (R): Smaller point angle results in lower rake k angle. l (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES2006

IES2002
Consider the following statements: The strength of a single point cutting tool depends upon 1. Rake angle 2. Clearance angle 3. Lip angle Which of these statements are correct? ( ) 1 and (a) d3 (b) 2 and d3 (c) 1 and 2 (d) 1, 2 and 3

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IES 2012
Toollifeincreasewithincreasein (a)Cuttingspeed (b)Nose N radius di (c)Feed (d)Depthofcut

IES2009
Consider the following statements with respect to the effects of a large nose radius on the tool: 1. It deteriorates d t i t surface f fi i h finish. 2. It increases the possibility of chatter. 3. It improves tool life. Which of the above statements is/are correct? (a) 2 only (b) 3 only ( ) 2 and (c) d 3 only l (d) 1, 2 and d3

IES1995
Consider the following statements about nose radius 1 It improves tool life 1. 2. It reduces the cutting force 3. It improves the surface finish. Select the correct answer using g the codes g given below: (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 1 2 and 3

IES1994
Tool geometry of a single point cutting tool is specified by the following elements: 1. Back rake angle 2. Side rake angle 3. End cutting edge angle 4. Side cutting edge angle 5. Side relief angle 6. End relief angle 7. Nose radius The correct sequence of these tool elements used for correctly specifying the tool geometry is ( ) 1,2,3,6,5,4,7 (a) ( ) 1,2,6,5,3,4,7 (b) (c) 1,2,5,6,3,4,7 (d) 1, 2, 6, 3, 5, 4,7

IES2009
The following tool signature is specified for a single point cutting tool in American system: 10, 12, 8, 8 6, 6 15, 20, 3 What does the angle 12 represent? (a) Side cuttingedge angle (b) Side rake angle (c) Back rake angle (d) Side Sid clearance l angle l

S1993 993 IES


In ASA System, System if the tool nomenclature is 8655 10152mm, then the side rake angle will be ( ) 5 (a) (b) 6 ( ) 8 (c) (d) 10

ISRO2011
A cutting tool having tool signature as 10, 9, 6, 6, 8, 8, 2 will have side rake angle (a) 10o (b) 9o (c) 8o (d) 2o

GATE2008
In a single point turning tool, the side rake angle and orthogonal rake angle are equal. is the principal cutting edge angle and its range is 0o 90o . The chip flows in the orthogonal plane. The value of is closest to (a) 00 (b) 450 0 (c) 60 (d) 900

G 20 0( ) GATE 2010 (PI)


The tool geometry of a single point right handed turning tool is provided in the orthogonal rake system (ORS). The sum of the principal (major) cutting edge angle and the auxiliary (minor) cutting edge angle of the above tool is 90o. The inclination angles of the principal and the auxiliary cutting edges are both 0o. The principal and auxiliary orthogonal clearance angles are 10o and 8o, respectively. The rake angle (in degree) measured on the orthogonal plane is (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 8 (d) 10

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

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GATE2001
During D i orthogonal h l cutting i of f mild ild steel l with ih a 10 rake angle tool, the chip thickness ratio was obtained as 0.4. The shear angle (in degrees) g ) evaluated from this data is (a)6.53 (b)20.22 ( )22.94 (c) ( )50.00 (d)

GATE2011
A single point cutting tool with 12 12 rake angle is used to machine a steel work piece. The depth of cut i.e. cut, i e uncut thickness is 0.81 0 81 mm. mm The chip thickness under orthogonal machining condition is 1 8 mm. 1.8 mm The shear angle is approximately (a) 22 (b) 26 (c) 56 5 (d) 76

The following parameters determine the model of continuous chip formation: 1. True T f d feed 2. Cutting g velocity y 3. Chip thickness 4. Rake R k angle l of f the h cutting i tool. l The p parameters which g govern the value of shear angle would include ( ) 1,2 and (a) d 3 (b) 1,3 and d4 (c) 1,2 and 4 (d) 2,3 and 4

IES1994

IES 2009
Minimum shear strain in Mi i h i i g turning g with a cutting g orthogonal tool of zero rake angle is (a) 0.0 00 (b) ( ) 0.5 5 (c) 1.0 (d) 2.0

IES 2004
In a machining operation chip thickness ratio is 0.3 0 3 and the rake angle of the tool is 10. What is the value l of f the th shear h strain? t i ? (a) ( ) 0.31 3 (b) ( ) 0.13 3 (c) 3.00 (d) 3.34

GATE2012
p g to an orthogonal g g Details pertaining metal cutting process are given below. Chip thickness ratio 04 0.4 Undeformed thickness 0.6 mm R k angle Rake l +10 Cutting speed 2.5 m/s Mean thickness of primary shear zone 25 microns The shear strain rate in s1 during the process is (a) 0.1781105 (b) 0.7754105 5 ( ) 1.010410 (c) (d) 4.397105

IES2004
Considerthefollowingstatementswithrespectto thereliefangleofcuttingtool: 1 Thisaffectsthedirectionofchipflow 1. 2.Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool and dwork kpiece i 3.Thisaffectstoollife 4.Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool workp pieceinterface Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect? (a) 1and2 (b) 2and3 (c) 2and4 (d) 3and4

IES2006
Considerthefollowingstatements: 1. Alargerakeanglemeanslowerstrengthofthe cuttingedge. edge 2. Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle. Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveis/arecorrect? (a) ( ) Only y1 (b) ( ) Only y2 (c) Both1and2 (d) Neither1nor2

IES2004
Match.ListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: ListI ListII A. Planapproachangle 1. Toolface B Rakeangle B. 2 2. Toolflank C. Clearanceangle 3. Toolfaceandflank D Wedge D. W d angle l 4. C i edge Cutting d 5. Toolnose A B C D A B C D (a) 1 4 2 5 (b) 4 1 3 2 (c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 1 4 3 5

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IES2003
The angle of inclination of the rake face with respect to the tool base measured in a plane perpendicular to the base and parallel to the width of the tool is called (a) Back rake angle (b) Side rake angle (c) Side cutting edge angle (d) ( ) End cutting g edge g angle g

IES2004,ISRO2009
The rake angle of a cutting tool is 15 15, shear angle 45 and cutting velocity 35 m/min. Wh t is What i the th velocity l it of f chip hi along l th tool the t l face? (a) 28.5 m/min (b) 27.3 m/min (c) 25.3 25 3 m/min (d) 23.5 23 5 m/min

IES2008
Considerthefollowingstatements: Inanorthogonalcuttingthecuttingratioisfoundtobe 075.Thecuttingspeedis60m/minanddepthofcut24 mm.Whichofthefollowingarecorrect? 1 1. Chipvelocitywillbe45m/min. m/min 2. Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min. 3 Chipthicknesswillbe18mm 3. mm. 4. Chipthicknesswillbe32mm. Select l the h correctanswerusingthe h code d givenb below: l (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4 (c) 2and3 (d) 2and4

If is the rake angle of the cutting tool, tool is the shear angle and V is the cutting velocity, then the velocity l it of f chip hi sliding lidi along l th shear the h plane l i is given by (a) (c)
V cos cos( )
V cos sin( )

IES2001

IES2003
An orthogonal cutting operation is being carried out under the following conditions: cutting tti speed d = 2 m/s, / depth d th of f cut t = 0.5 mm, chip thickness = 0.6 mm. Then the chip velocity is (a) 2.0 2 0 m/s (b) 2.4 2 4 m/s (c) 1.0 m/s (d) 1.66 m/s

IAS2003
Inorthogonalcutting,shearangleistheanglebetween (a) Shearplaneandthecuttingvelocity (b) Shearplaneandtherakeplane (c) Shearplaneandtheverticaldirection (d) Shear Sh plane l and dthe h direction di i of felongation l i of fcrystals l in i thechip

(b) (d)

V sin cos ( )

V sin sin( )

IAS2002

IAS2000

IAS1998
The cutting velocity in m/sec, for turning a work piece of diameter 100 mm at the spindle speed of 480 RPM is (a) 1.26 (b) 2.51 (c) 48 (d) 151

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IAS1995
In an orthogonal cutting, the depth of cut is halved and the feed rate is double. If the chip thickness ratio is unaffected with the changed g cutting g conditions, , the actual chip thickness will be (a) ( ) Doubled (b) ( ) halved (c) Quadrupled (d) Unchanged.

G )CommonDataS1 GATE 2009( (PI)


An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20 m/min cutting speed, using a cutting tool of rake angle 15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip thickness hi k i 0.2 mm. is The shear plane angle (in degrees) is (a) ( ) 26.8 (b) ( ) 27.8 7 (c) ( ) 28.8 (d) ( ) 29.8 9

G )CommonDataS2 GATE 2009( (PI)


An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20 m/min cutting speed, using a cutting tool of rake angle 15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip thickness hi k i 0.2 mm. is The chip velocity (in m/min) is (a) ( )8 (b) ( ) 10 (c) ( ) 12 (d) ( ) 14 4

GATE1995
Plainmillingofmildsteelplateproduces (a)Irregular egu a shaped s apedd discontinuous sco t uousc chips ps (b)Regularshapeddiscontinuouschip (c)Continuouschipswithout ithoutbuiltupedge (d)Joinedchips

IES2007
Duringmachining,excessmetalisremovedintheform ofchipasinthecaseofturningonalathe.Whichofthe followingarecorrect? C ti Continuous ribbon ibb lik likechip hi i isf formed dwhen h turning t i 1. Atahighercuttingspeed 2. At A al lowercutting i speed d 3. Abrittlematerial 4. Aductile d il material i l Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: ( ) 1and (a) d3 (b) 1and d4 (c) 2and3 (d) 2and4

IAS1997
Considerthefollowingmachiningconditions:BUEwill formin (a) Ductilematerial. (b) Highcuttingspeed. (c) Smallrakeangle. (d) Smalluncutchipthickness.

GATE2002
Abuilt isformed b iltupedge d i f dwhile hil machining hi i (a)Ductilematerialsathighspeed (b)Ductilematerialsatlowspeed p (c)Brittlematerialsathighspeed (d)Brittlematerialsatlowspeed

IES1997
Assertion (A): For high speed turning of cast iron pistons, carbide tool bits are provided with chip breakers. Reason (R): High speed turning may produce long, ribbon type continuous chips which must be broken into small lengths which otherwise would be difficult to handle and may prove hazardous. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation l i of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

Ch1:MechanicsofBasicMachiningOperation
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Option p C B D C B D B A B B Q. No 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Option p D D B C D B B D D B

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

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ESE2000(Conventional)
F Force & Power P in i M Metal t lC Cutting tti
The the Th following f ll i data d t from f th orthogonal th l cutting tti test t t is available. Rake angle = 100, chip thickness ratio = 0.35, uncut t chip hi thickness thi k = 0.51 mm, width idth of f cut t= 3 mm, yield shear stress of work material = 285 2, mean friction N/ N/mm f i ti coefficient ffi i t on tool t l face f = 0.65, Determine () (i) Cutting force (F ( c) (ii) Radial force (iii) Normal force (N) on tool and (iv) Shear force (Fs ). )

ESE2005Conventional
Mild steel machined l is i being b i hi d at a cutting i speed of 200 m/min with a tool rake angle of 10. The width of cut and uncut thickness are 2 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. p y If the average g value of coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip is 0.5 0 5 and the shear stress of the work material is 400 N/mm2, Determine (i) shear angle and (ii) Cutting and thrust component of the force.

BySKMondal

GATE2008(PI)LinkedS1
g g experiment, p g In an orthogonal cutting an HSS tool having the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference system (ORS) ( ) has h been b used: d 0107710751. Given width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece material = 460 N/mm2; depth of cut = 0.25 mm; coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0.7. Sh Shear plane l angle l (in (i degree) d ) for f minimum i i cutting tti force f is (a) 20.5 (b) 24.5 (c) 28.5 (d) 32.5

GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2
g g experiment, p g In an orthogonal cutting an HSS tool having the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference system (ORS) ( ) has h been b used: d 0107710751. Given width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece material = 460 N/mm2; depth of cut = 0.25 mm; coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0.7. Mi i Minimum power requirement i t (in (i kW) at t a cutting tti speed d of 150 m/min is (a) 3.15 (b) 3.25 (c) 3.35 (d) 3.45

t 1 GATE 2007(PI)C CommonD Data


g g test, , the following g In an orthogonal machining observations were made Cutting force 1200 N Thrust force 500 N T l rake Tool k angle l zero Cutting speed 1 m/s Depth of cut 0.8 mm Chip thickness 1.5 mm Friction angle during machining will be ( ) 22.6 (a) 6o (b) 32.8 8o ( ) 57.1o (c) (d) 67.4 6 o

t 2 GATE 2007(PI)C CommonD Data


g g test, , the following g In an orthogonal machining observations were made Cutting force 1200 N Thrust force 500 N T l rake Tool k angle l zero Cutting speed 1 m/s Depth of cut 0.8 mm Chip thickness 1.5 mm Chip speed along the tool rake face will be ( ) 0.83 (a) 8 m/s / (b) 0.53 m/s / (c) 1.2 m/s (d) 1.88 m/s

GATE2007
In orthogonal turning of a low carbon steel bar of diameter 150 mm with uncoated carbide tool the cutting velocity is 90 m/min. tool, m/min The feed is 0.24 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 2 mm. The chip thickness obtained is 0.48 0 48 mm. mm If the orthogonal rake angle is zero and the principal cutting edge angle is 90 90, the shear angle is degree is ( ) 20.56 (a) 6 (b) 26.56 6 6 (c) 30.56 (d) 36.56

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

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During turning a carbon steel rod of 160 mm diameter by a carbide bid tool l of f geometry; 0, 0, 10, 8, 8 15, 75, 0 (mm) ( ) at speed d of f 400 rpm, feed of 0.32 mm/rev and 4.0 mm depth of cut, the following observation were made. made Tangential component of the cutting force, Pz = 1200 N Axial component of the cutting force, force Px = 800 N Chip thickness (after cut), 2 = 0.8 mm. For the above machining condition determine the values of (i) Friction force, F and normal force, N acting at the chip tool interface. interface (ii) Yield shears strength of the work material under this machining condition. (iii) Cutting power consumption in kW.

S 2003 Conventional C i l ESE

Rev.0

GATE 1995Conventional
While Whil turning t i a C15 steel t l rod d of f 160 6 mm diameter di t at t 315 rpm, 2.5 mm depth of cut and feed of 0.16 mm/rev / b a tool by t l of f geometry t 00, 100, 80, 90,150, 750, 0(mm), the following observations were made. Tangential component of the cutting force = 500 N Axial component p of the cutting g force = 200 N Chip thickness = 0.48 mm Draw schematically the Merchant Merchants s circle diagram for the cutting force in the present case.

IAS2003MainExamination
During D i turning t i process with ith 7 6 6 8 30 1 (mm) ASA tool the undeformed chip thickness of 2.0 mm and d width idth of f cut t of f 2.5 mm were used. d The Th side rake angle of the tool was a chosen that the machining hi i operation ti could ld be b approximated i t d to t be b orthogonal cutting. The tangential cutting force and th thrust t force f were 1177 N and d 560 6 N respectively. ti l Calculate: [30 marks] ( ) The (i) h side d rake k angle l (ii) Coefficient of friction at the rake face (iii) The dynamic shear strength of the work material

IES 2004
A medium carbon steel workpiece is turned on a lathe at 50 m/min. cutting speed 0.8 mm/rev feed and 1.5 mm depth of cut. What is the rate of metal removal? (a) 1000 mm3/min (b) 60,000 mm3/min (c) 20,000 mm3/min (d) ( ) Can not be calculated with the g given data

GATE2013
A steel bar 200 mm in diameter is turned at a feed of 0.25 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 4 mm. The rotational speed of the workpiece is 160 rpm. The material removal rate in mm3/s is (a) 160 (b) 167.6 167 6 (c) 1600 (d) 1675.5 1675 5

GATE2007
In turning The I orthogonal th lt i of fmedium di carbon b steel. t l Th specificmachiningenergyis2.0J/mm3.Thecutting velocity, l it f feed dand ddepth d thof fcut tare120m/min, / i 0.2 mm/revand2mmrespectively.Themaincutting f force i inNi is (a)40 (b)80 (c)400 (d)800

C D Question Q i GATE2013(PI)Common Data


A disc of 200 mm outer and 80 mm inner diameter is faced of 0.1 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 1 mm. The facing operation is undertaken at a constant cutting speed of 90 m/min in a CNC lathe. The main (tangential) cutting force is 200 N. Neglecting the contribution of the feed force towards cutting power, power the specific cutting energy in J/mm3 is ( ) 0.2 (a) (b) 2 ( ) 200 (c) (d) 2000

Example
Whentherakeangleiszeroduringorthogonalcutting, showthat

ForPSU&IES
In strain gauge dynamometers the use of how many active gauge makes the dynamometers more effective (a) Four (b) Three (c) Two T o (d) One Ans. (a)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(1)
In I anorthogonal th lmachining hi i operation: ti Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N A Assume M Merchant's h t' th theory. Thecoefficientoffrictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis ( )0.23 (a) (b)0.46 (c)0.85 (d)0.95

s
pc

(1 r ) r
1+ r2 p c = specific power of cutting p thickness ratio r = chip = coefficient of friction in tool chip interface

Where s is the shear strengrh of the material

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GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(2)
In I anorthogonal th lmachining hi i operation: ti Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N A Assume M Merchant's h t' th theory. Thepercentageoftotalenergydissipateddueto f friction atthe h tool lchip h interface f is (a)30% (b)42% (c)58% (d)70%

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(3)
In I anorthogonal th lmachining hi i operation: ti Uncutthickness=0.5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce=1200N A Assume M Merchant's h t' th theory. Thevaluesofshearangleandshearstrain, respectively, l are (a)30.3 and1.98 (b)30.3 and4.23 (c)40.2 and2.97 (d)40.2 and1.65

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(1)
A cylinder is turned lathe li d i t d on a l th with ith orthogonal th l machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The axial i l feed f d rate t is i 0.25 mm per revolution. l ti D th of Depth f cut t is i 0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found th t the that th shear h angle l is i 27.75 Thethicknessoftheproducedchipis (a)0.511mm (b)0.528mm (c)0.818mm (d)0.846mm

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(2)
A cylinder is turned lathe li d i t d on a l th with ith orthogonal th l machining principle. Spindle rotates at 200 rpm. The axial i l feed f d rate t is i 0.25 mm per revolution. l ti D th of Depth f cut t is i 0.4 mm. The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found th t the that th shear h angle l is i 27.75 Intheaboveproblem,thecoefficientoffrictionat thechiptoolinterfaceobtainedusingEarnestand Merchanttheoryis (a)0.18 (b)0.36 (c)0.71 (d)0.98

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(1)
Orthogonal O th l turning t i is i performed f d on a cylindrical li d i l work k piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following conditions diti are used: d cutting tti velocity l it is i 180 8 m/min. / i feed f d is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness ratio ti = 0.5. The Th orthogonal th l rake k angle l is i 7o. Apply A l Merchant's theory for analysis. Theshearplaneangle(in ( degree) )andtheshear forcerespectivelyare (a)52:320N (b)52:400N (c)28:400N (d)28:320N

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(2)
Orthogonal O th l turning t i is i performed f d on a cylindrical li d i l work k piece with shear strength of 250 MPa. The following conditions diti are used: d cutting tti velocity l it is i 180 8 m/min. / i feed f d is 0.20 mm/rev. depth of cut is 3 mm. chip thickness ratio ti = 0.5. The Th orthogonal th l rake k angle l is i 7o. Apply A l Merchant's theory for analysis. Thecuttingandfrictionalforces,respectively,are (a)568N;387N (b)565N;381N (c)440N;342N (d)480N;356N

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS1
In orthogonal turning of an engineering alloy, it has been observed that the friction force acting at the chip tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting velocity. The ratio of friction force to normal force associated with the chiptool interface is 1. The uncut chip thickness is 0.2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4 mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s. The shear force (in N) acting along the primary shear plane is (a) 180.0 (b) 240.0 (c) 360.5 (d) 402.5

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS2
g g of an engineering g g alloy, y, it has In orthogonal turning been observed that the friction force acting at the chip tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting velocity. l it The Th ratio ti of f friction f i ti f force t normal to l force f associated with the chiptool interface is 1. The uncut chip thickness is 0.2 0 2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4 04 mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s. Assume that the energy expended during machining is completely converted to heat. The rate of heat generation (in W) at the primary shear plane is (a) 180.5 (b) 200.5 (c) 302.5 (d) 402.5

LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S1
In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm and cutting velocity of 90 m/min, it is observed that the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular to friction force acting at the chiptool interface. interface The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N.
The orthogonal rake angle of the cutting tool in degree is

(a) zero

(b) 3.58

(c) 5

(d) 7.16

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LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S2
In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm and cutting velocity of 90 m/min, it is observed that the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular to friction force acting at the chiptool interface. interface The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N.
The normal force acting at the chiptool interface in N is

GATE 2011(PI)LinkedS1
During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data is obtained: Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm Chip thickness = 0.75 0 75 mm Width of cut = 2.5 mm N Normal l force f = 950 N Thrust force = 475 N The shear angle and shear force, respectively, are (a) 71.565 71 565o, 150.21 150 21 N (b) 18.435 18 435o , 751.04 751 04 N (c) 9.218o, 861.64 N (d) 23.157o , 686.66 N

GATE 2011(PI)LinkedS2
During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data is obtained: Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm Chip thickness = 0.75 0 75 mm Width of cut = 2.5 mm N Normal l force f = 950 N Thrust force = 475 N Theultimateshearstress(inN/mm2)ofthework materialis (a)235 (b)139 (c)564 (d)380

(a) 1000 (b) 1500

(c) 20oo

(d) 2500

IES 2012
Duringorthogonalcutting,anincreaseincuttingspeed causes (a)Anincreaseinlongitudinalcuttingforce (b)Anincreaseinradialcuttingforce (c)Anincreaseintangentialcuttingforce (d) ( )Cutting gforcestoremainunaffected

IES2010
The relationship between the shear angle , the friction angle and cutting rake angle is given as

IES2005
Which is Whi h one of f the h following f ll i i the h correct expression for the Merchant's machinability constant? (a) 2 + (b) 2 + (c) 2 (d) + (Where = shear angle, = friction angle and = rake angle)

GATE1997
In using I atypical i lmetal lcutting i operation, i i a cuttingtoolofpositiverakeangle=10,it wasobservedthattheshearanglewas20. Thefrictionangle g is (a)45 (b)30 ( )60 (c) ( )40 (d)

S 1999 999 IAS


In an orthogonal cutting process, rake angle of the tool is 20 and friction angle is 25.5. Using Merchant's Merchant s shear angle relationship, the value of shear angle will be (a) 39.5 39 5 (b) 42.25 42 25 (c) 47.75 (d) 50.5

IES2003
In = I orthogonal h l cutting i test, the h cutting i force f 900 N, the thrust force = 600 N and chip shear angle is 30o. Then the chip shear force is (a) 1079.4 1079 4 N (b) 969.6 969 6 N (c) 479.4 N (d) 69.6 N

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IES2000
In an orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force and thrust force were observed to be 1000N and 500 N respectively. If the rake angle of tool is zero, the coefficient of friction in chiptool interface will be

IES1996
Which of the following forces are measured directly by strain gauges or force dynamometers during metal g? cutting 1. Force exerted by the tool on the chip acting normally to the tool face. 2. Horizontal cutting force exerted by the tool on the work piece. 3. Frictional resistance of the tool against the chip flow acting along the tool face. 4. Vertical V i l force f which hi h helps h l i holding in h ldi the h tool l in i position. ( ) 1 and (a) d3 (b) 2 and d4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3

GATE2007
In carbon I orthogonal th l turning t i of f low l b steel t l pipe i with ith principal cutting edge angle of 90, the main cutting f force i 1000 N and is d the th feed f d force f i 800 is 8 N. N The Th shear h angle is 25 and orthogonal rake angle is zero. E Employing l i M h t theory, Merchants th th ratio the ti of f friction f i ti force to normal force acting on the cutting tool is ( ) 1.56 (a) ( ) 1.25 (b) (c) 0.80 (d) 0.64

(a)2

( b)2

( c)

( d) 2 2

IES1997
Consider the forces acting on a C id h following f ll i f i finish turning tool: 1. Feed force 2 Thrust force 2. 3. Cutting g force. The correct sequence of the decreasing order of the magnitudes of these forces is (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 3, 2, 1

IES1999
The in single Th radial di l force f i i l point i tool l during d i turning operation varies between (a) 0.2 to 0.4 times the main cutting force (b) 0.4 0 4 to 0.6 0 6 times the main cutting force (c) 0.6 to 0.8 times the main cutting g force (d) 0.5 to 0.6 times the main cutting force

IES1995
The tool used Th primary i l force f d in i calculating l l i the total power consumption in machining is the (a) Radial force (b) Tangential force (c) Axial force (d) Frictional force.

IES2002
In process, the I a machining hi i h percentage of f heat carried away by the chips is typically (a) 5% (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75%

IES1998
In operation, the I metal l cutting i i h approximate i ratio of heat distributed among chip, tool and work, in that order is (a) 80: 10: 10 (b) 33: 33: 33 (c) 20: 60: 10 (d) 10: 10: 80

S 2003 IAS
Asthecuttingspeedincreases (a) Moreheatistransmittedtotheworkpieceandless heatistransmittedtothetool (b) Moreheatiscarriedawaybythechipandlessheatis t transmitted itt dto t the th tool t l (c) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththechipandthe tool (d) ( ) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththeworkp pieceand thetool

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IES2001
Power consumption in is P i i metal l cutting i i mainly due to (a) Tangential component of the force (b) Longitudinal component of the force (c) Normal component p of the force (d) Friction at the metaltool interface

S 1995 99 IAS
Thrustforcewillincreasewiththeincreasein (a) Sidecuttingedgeangle (b)Tool T lnoseradius di (c) Rakeangle (d)Endcuttingedgeangle.

IES2010
Consider the following statements: In an orthogonal, singlepoint metal cutting, as the th side id cutting tti edge d angle l is i increased, i d 1. The tangential g force increases. 2. The longitudinal force drops. 3. The Th radial di l force f i increases. Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only ( ) 2 and 3 only (c) ( ) 1, 2 and 3 (d)

IES1993
A 'Dynamometer' used the 'D ' is i a device d i d for f h measurement of (a) Chip thickness ratio (b) Forces during metal cutting (c) Wear of the cutting g tool (d) Deflection of the cutting tool

IES2011
Theinstrumentordeviceusedtomeasurethecutting forcesinmachiningis: ( )Tachometer (a) T h t (b)Comparator (c)Dynamometer (d)Lactometer

S2001 200 IAS


) Piezoelectric transducers and preferred p Assertion ( (A): over strain gauge transducers in the dynamometers for measurement of threedimensional cutting forces. Reason (R): In electric transducers there is a significant leakage of signal from one axis to the other, such cross error is negligible in the case of piezoelectric transducers. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2003 IAS
The heat generated in metal conveniently be determined by (a) Installing thermocouple on the job (b) Installing thermocouple on the tool (c) Calorimetric setup (d) ( ) Using g radiation py pyrometer cutting can

IES1998
The of pick Th gauge factor f f a resistive i i i kup of f cutting force dynamometer is defined as the ratio of (a) Applied strain to the resistance of the wire (b) The proportional change in resistance to the applied strain (c) The resistance to the applied strain (d) Change in resistance to the applied strain
Page 12 of 76

IES2000
Assertion (A): the A i (A) In I metal l cutting, i h normal l laws of sliding friction are not applicable. Reason (R): Very high temperature is produced at the toolchip interface. interface (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A ( ) A is (c) i true but b R is i false f l (d) A is false but R is true Rev.0

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

GATE1992
The of angle h effect ff f rake k angle l on the h mean friction f l in machining can be explained by (A) sliding (Coulomb) model of friction (B) sticking and then sliding model of friction (C) sticking friction (D) ( ) Sliding g and then sticking g model of friction

IES2004
Assertion (A): The ratio of uncut chip thickness to actual chip thickness is always less than one and is termed as cutting g ratio in orthogonal g cutting g Reason (R): The frictional force is very high due to the occurrence of sticking g friction rather than sliding g friction (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

GATE1993
The Th effect ff t of f rake k angle l on the th mean friction f i ti angle l in i machining can be explained by ( ) Sliding (coulomb) (a) ( ) model of friction (b) sticking g and then siding g model of friction (c) Sticking friction (d) sliding and then sticking model of friction

IAS 2009Main
Explainsuddendeathmechanismoftoolfailure.

During machining, the wear land (h) has been plotted against machining time (T) as given in i hi i i i i the h following f ll i figure.

GATE2008(PI)

ToolWear,ToolLife&Machinability

[4 marks] k ]

B SKMondal By M d l

For a critical wear land of 1.8 mm, the cutting tool life (in minute) is (a) 52.00 (b) 51.67 (c) 51.50 (d) 50.00

IES2009Conventional
Show Sh crater t wearand dflank fl kwearonasingle i l point i t cuttingtool.Statethefactorsresponsibleforwear onat turning i t tool. l [2marks]

IES2010
Flank wear occurs on the (a) Relief face of the tool (b) Rake face (c) Nose of the tool (d) Cutting edge

S 2007 200 IES


Flankwearoccursmainlyonwhichofthe following? (a) Nosepartandtopface (b) Cuttingedgeonly (c) Nosepart,frontreliefface,andsiderelieffaceofthe cuttingtool (d) Faceofthecuttingtoolatashort distancefrom gedge g thecutting

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S 2004 200 IES


Consider the following statements: During the third stage of toolwear, rapid deterioration of tool edge takes place because 1. Flank wear is only marginal 2. Flank wear is large 3. Temperature 3 p of the tool increases g gradually y 4. Temperature of the tool increases drastically Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3

S 2002 IES
Craterwearontoolsalwaysstartsatsomedistance fromthetooltipbecauseatthatpoint (a) Cuttingfluiddoesnotpenetrate (b) Normalstressonrakefaceismaximum (c) Temperatureismaximum (d) ( ) Toolstrength g isminimum

S 2007 200 IAS


Whydoescraterwearstartatsomedistancefrom thetooltip? (a) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion (b) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion (c) Tooltemperatureismaximuminthatregion (d) ( ) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion g

S 2000 IES
Craterwearstartsatsomedistancefromthetooltip because (a) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion (b) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion (c) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion (d) ( ) Tooltemperature p ismaximumatthatregion g

S 1996 996 IES


Notchwearattheoutsideedgeofthedepthofcutis dueto (a) Abrasiveactionoftheworkhardenedchipmaterial (b) Oxidation (c) Slipstickactionofthechip (d) ( ) Chipping. pp g

S 1995 99 IES
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrect answerusingthecodesgivenbelowthelists: ListI(Weartype) ListII(Associatedmechanism) A. Abrasivewears 1. Galvanicaction B. Adhesivewears 2. Ploughing action C. Electrolytic y wear 3. 3 Moleculartransfer D. Diffusionwears 4. Plasticdeformation 5 5. Metallicbond Code:A B C D A B C D (a) 2 5 1 3 (b) 5 2 1 3 (c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 5 2 3 4

S 1995 99 IES
Craterwearispredominantin (a) Carbonsteeltools (b) Tungsten T t carbide bid tools t l (c) Highspeedsteeltools (d) Ceramictools

S 1994 99 IES
Assertion(A):Toolwearisexpressedintermsof flankwearratherthancraterwear. Reason(R):Measurementofflankwearissimple andmoreaccurate. ( ) Both (a) B thAand dRareindividually i di id ll true t and dRis i the th correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

S 2008 IES
Whatarethereasonsforreductionoftoollifeina machiningoperation? 1 Temperatureriseofcuttingedge 1. 2. Chippingoftooledgeduetomechanicalimpact 3. Gradualwearsattoolpoint 4. Increaseinfeedofcutatconstantcutting 4 gforce Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegiven below: (a) 1,2and3 (b) 2,3and4 ( ) 1,3and (c) d4 (d) 1,2and d4

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S 2002 IAS
Consider the following actions: 1. Mechanical abrasion 2. Diffusion 3. Plastic Pl ti deformation d f ti 4. O id ti Oxidation Which of the above are the causes of tool wear? (a) 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3

S 1999 999 IAS


The type of wear that occurs due to the cutting action of the particles in the cutting fluid is referred to as (a) Attritions wear (b) Diffusion Diff i wear (c) Erosive wear (d) Corrosive wear

S 2003 IAS
Consider the following statements: Chipping of a cutting tool is due to 1. Tool T l material t i l being b i too t brittle b ittl 2. Hot hardness of the tool material. 3. High positive rake angle of the tool. Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3 ( ) 2 and (c) d3 (d) 1 and d2

IES 2012
InTaylor stoollifeequationVTn =C,theconstantsn Taylors andCdependupon 1 Workpiecematerial 1. 2.Toolmaterial 3.Coolant (a) ( )1,2,and3 (b)1and2only (c)2and3only (d)1and3only

IFS2009
With the help of Taylors tool life equation, determine the shape of the curve between velocity of cutting and life of the tool. Assume an HSS tool and steel as work material. material [10Marks] [ ]

S2010 20 0C i l IES Conventional


Drawtoollifecurvesforcastalloy,Highspeedsteeland ceramictools. [2 Marks]

Ans.

1.Highspeedsteel

2.castalloyand3.ceramictools.

IES1996
Chip equivalent is increased by (a) An increases in sidecutting edge angle of tool (b) An increase in nose radius and side cutting edge angle of tool (c) Increasing the plant area of cut (d) Increasing the depth of cut.

S 1992 992 IES


Toollifeisgenerallyspecifiedby (a) Numberofpiecesmachined (b) Volume V l of fmetal t lremoved d (c) Actualcuttingtime (d) Anyoftheabove

G 200 GATE 2004


In a machining operation, operation doubling the 1 cutting speed reduces the tool life to 8 th of th original the i i l value. l Th exponent The t n in i Taylor's T l ' n tool life equation VT = C, is
(a ) 1 8 (b) 1 4 (c ) 1 3 (d ) 1 2

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S 2000 IES
In a tool life test, doubling the cutting speed reduces the tool life to 1/8th of the original. The Taylor's Taylor s tool life index is
( a )2
1

S 1999 999 IES


Inasinglepointturningoperationofsteelwitha cementedcarbidetool,Taylor'stoollifeexponentis 0.25.Ifthecuttingspeedishalved,thetoollifewill increaseby (a) Twotimes (b) Fourtimes (c) Eighttimes (d) Sixteentimes

S 2008 IES
InTaylor stoollifeequationisVTn =constant. Taylor's Whatisthevalueofnforceramictools? ( ) 0.15to (a) t 0.25 (b) 0.4to t 0.55 (c) 0.6to0.75 (d) 0.8to0.9

( b )3

( c )4

( d ) 8

S 2006 IES
Which of the following values of index n is associated with carbide tools when Taylor's tool life equation, V.Tn = constant is applied? (a) 01 to 015 (b) 02 to 04 ( ) 0.45 to (c) t 06 (d) 065 6 to t 09

S 1999 999 IES


The approximately variation of the tool life exponent 'n' of cemented carbide tools is (a) 0.03 0 03 to 0.08 0 08 (b) 0.08 0 08 to 0.20 0 20 (c) 0.20 to 0.48 (d) 0.48 to 0.70

S 1998 998 IAS


gtoolmaterial) )withList II MatchList I( (Cutting (Typicalvalueoftoollifeexponent'n'intheTaylor's equationV.Tn =C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing th codes the d given i b below l the th lists: li t List I List II A HSS A. 1. 0.18 8 B. Castalloy 2. 0.12 C Ceramic C. C i 3. 0.25 D. Sinteredcarbide 4. 0.5 Codes: d A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 3 4 ( ) 2 (c) 1 4 3 ( ) 1 (d) 2 4 3

( ) GATE2009(PI)
In an orthogonal machining operation, the tool life obtained is 10 min at a cutting speed of 100 m/min, while at 75 m/min cutting speed, the tool life is 30 min The value of index (n) in the Taylor min. Taylors s tool life equation (a) 0.262 (b) 0.323 (c) 0.423 (d) 0.521

IES2013
A carbide tool(having n = 0.25) 0 25) with a mild steel workpiece was found to give life of 1 hour 21 minutes while cutting at 60 m/min. The value of C in Taylors tool life equation would be equal to: (a) 200 (b) 180 (c) 150 (d) 100

ISRO2011
A 50 mm diameter steel d l rod d was turned d at 284 rpm and d tool failure occurred in 10 minutes. minutes The speed was changed to 232 rpm and the tool failed in 60 minutes. Assuming straight line relationship between cutting speed d and d tool l life, l f the h value l of f Taylorian l Exponent is (a) 0.21 0 21 (b) 0.13 0 13 (c) 0.11 0 11 (d) 0.23 0 23

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IES2010
The above figure shows a typical relationship between tool life and cutting g speed p for different materials. Match the graphs for HSS, Carbide and Ceramic tool materials i l and d select l the h correct answer using the code given below the lists: Code: HSS Carbide Ceramic (a) 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 (c) 1 3 2 (d) 3 1 2

G 20 0 GATE 2010
For tool A, s tool life exponent (n) is A Taylor Taylors 0.45 and constant (K) is 90. Similarly for tool B n = 0.3 and B, d K = 60. 6 The Th cutting tti speed d (in (i m/min) above which tool A will have a higher tool life than tool B is (a) 26.7 26 7 (b) 42.5 42 5 (c) 80.7 80 7 (d) 142.9 142 9

GATE2013
Two cutting tools are being compared for a machining operation. The tool life equations are: Carbide tool: VT 1.6 = 3000 HSS tool: VT 0.6 = 200 Wh Where V is i the h cutting i speed d in i m/min / i and d T is i the h tool life in min. The carbide tool will p provide higher g tool life if the cutting speed in m/min exceeds (a) 15.0 (b) 39.4 (c) 49.3 (d) 60.0

Example p
Thefollowingdatawasobtainedfromthetoollife cuttingtest: CuttingSpeed, d m/min:49.74 49 4 49 49.23 23 48 48.67 6 4 45.76 6 42 42.58 8 Toollife,min 2.94 3.90 4.77 9.87 28.27 DeterminetheconstantsoftheTaylortoollifeequation VTn =C

G GATE 2003
A batch of 10 cutting tools could produce 500 components while working at 50 rpm with a tool feed of 0.25 mm/rev and depth of cut of 1 mm. A similar batch of 10 tools of the same specification could produce 122 components while working at 80 rpm with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev and 1 mm depth of cut. cut How many components can be produced with one cutting tool at 60 rpm? (a) 29 (b) 31 (c) 37 (d) 42

S 1994, 99 200 IES 2007


Forincreasingthematerialremovalrateinturning, withoutanyconstraints,whatistherightsequence toadjustthecuttingparameters? 1. Speed 2. Feed 3. Depthofcut Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: (a) 1 2 3 (b) 2 3 1 (c) 3 2 1 (d) 1 3 2

IES2010
Tool life is affected mainly with (a) Feed (b) Depth of cut (c) Coolant (d) Cutting speed

S 1997 99 IES
Considerthefollowingelements: 1. Noseradius 2. Cuttingspeed 3. Depth D thof fcut t 4. F d Feed ThecorrectsequenceoftheseelementsinDECREASING orderoftheirinfluenceontoollifeis (a) ( ) 2,4 4,3 3,1 (b) ( ) 4 4,2,3 3,1 (c) 2,4,1,3 (d) 4,2,I,3

ISRO2012
What is the correct sequence of the following parameters t i in order d of f their th i maximum i t to minimum influence on tool life? 1. Feed d rate 2. Depth of cut 3. Cutting speed Select the correct answer using the codes given below (a) 1, 1 2, 2 3 (b) 3, 3 2, 2 1 (c) 2, 2 3, 3 1 (d) 3, 3 1, 1 2

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S 1992 992 IES


Toollifeisgenerallybetterwhen (a) Grainsizeofthemetalislarge (b) Grain G i size i of fthe th metal t lis i small ll (c) Hardconstituentsarepresentinthemicrostructure ofthetoolmaterial (d) ( ) Noneoftheabove
1. 2. 3. 4.

S 2003 IAS
ThetoollifecurvesfortwotoolsAandBareshownin thefigureandtheyfollowthetoollifeequationVTn =C. Considerthefollowing gstatements:
Valueofnforboththetoolsissame. ValueofCforboththetoolsissame. ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB. Value a ueof o Cfor o tool too Bwillbegreater g eate than t a that t atfor o the t etool too A. .

S 2002 IAS
UsingtheTaylorequationVTn =c,calculatethe percentageincreaseintoollifewhenthecutting speedisreducedby50%(n=05andc=400) (a) 300% (b) 400% ( ) 100% (c) % (d) 50% %

Whichofthesestatementsis/arecorrect? (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4 (c) 2only (d) 4only

S 2002 IAS
Optimum cutting speed for minimum cost (Vc min i ) and optimum cutting speed for maximum production rate (Vr max ) have which one of the following relationships? (a) Vc min = Vr max (b) Vc min > Vr max (c) Vc min < Vr max (d) V2c min = Vr max

IES2010
With increasing cutting velocity, the total time for machining a component ( ) Decreases (a) D (b) ( ) Increases (c) Remains unaffected (d) First Fi decreases d and d then h increases i

S 2000 IAS
Considerthefollowingstatements: Thetoollifeisincreasedby 1. Built B ilt upedge d f formation ti 2. Increasingcuttingvelocity 3. Increasingbackrakeangleuptocertainvalue Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect? (a) 1and3 (b) 1and2 ( ) 2and (c) d3 (d) 1,2and d3

S 1997 99 IAS
In the Taylor s tool life equation, VTn = C, the value Taylor's of n = 0.5. The tool has a life of 180 minutes at a cutting speed of 18 m/min. If the tool life is reduced to 45 minutes, then the cutting speed will be (a) 9 m/min (b) 18 m/min (c) 36 m/min (d) 72 m/min

S 1996 996 IAS


Thetoollifeincreaseswiththe (a) Increaseinsidecuttingedgeangle (b) Decrease D i inside id rake k angle l (c) Decreaseinnoseradius (d) Decreaseinbackrakeangle

S 1995 99 IAS
Inasinglepointturningoperationwithacemented carbideandsteelcombinationhavingaTaylor exponentof0.25,ifthecuttingspeedishalved,then thetoollifewillbecome (a) Half (b) Twotimes (c) Eighttimes (d) ( ) Sixteentimes.

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S 1995 99 IAS
Assertion (A): An increase in depth of cut shortens the tool life. Reason(R): Increases in depth of cut gives rise to relatively small increase in tool temperature. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2006conventional i l IES
An HSS tool is used for turning operation operation. The tool life is 1 hr. when turning is carried at 30 m/min. / i The Th tool t l life lif will ill be b reduced d d to t 2.0 min i if the cutting speed is doubled. Find the suitable speed in RPM for turning 300 mm diameter so that tool life is 3 30 min.

S 1999; 999 IAS S2010 20 0C i l ESE Conventional


The following equation for tool life was obtained for HSS tool. A 60 min tool life was obtained using the following cutting condition VT0.13f0.6d0.3= C. v = 40 m/min, f = 0.25 mm, d = 2.0 mm. Calculate the effect on tool life if speed, feed and depth of cut are together increased by 25% and also if they are increased individually by 25%; where f = feed, d = depth of cut, v = speed.

S2009Conventional C i l IES
Determine the optimum cutting speed for an operation on a Lathe machine using the following information: Tool change time: 3 min T l regrinds Tool i d time: ti 3 min i Machine running cost Rs.0.50 per min Depreciation of tool regrinds Rs. 5.0 The constants in the tool life equation are 60 and 0.2

S 2001 200 C i l ESE Conventional


In a certain machining operation with a cutting speed of 50 m/min, tool life of 45 minutes was observed. b d When Wh the th cutting tti speed d was increased i d to 100 m/min, the tool life decreased to 10 min. Estimate the cutting speed for maximum productivity p y if tool change g time is 2 minutes.

IAS 2011Main
Determine the optimum speed for achieving maximum production rate in a machining operation. The data is as follows : Machining time/job = 6 min. min Tool life = 90 min. Ta lor's Taylor s equation constants C = 100, 00 n = 0.5 0 Job handling time = 4 min./job Tool l changing h i time i = 9 min. i [10Marks]

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(1)
Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) 60 81 90 36 Theexponent p (n) ( )andconstant(k) ( )oftheTaylor's y toollifeequationare (a)n=0.5andk=540 (b)n n=1andk k=4860 4860 (c)n=1andk=0.74 (d)n0.5andk=1.15

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(2)
Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) 60 81 90 36 Whatisthep percentage g increaseintoollifewhen thecuttingspeedishalved? (a)50% (b)200% (c)300% (d)400%

G 999 GATE 1999


What is approximate percentage change is the life, t, of a tool with zero rake angle used i orthogonal in th l cutting tti when h it clearance its l o o angle, , is changed from 10 to 7 ? (Hint: Flank wear rate is proportional to cot (a) 30 % increase (b) 30%, 30% decrease (c) 70% increase (d) 70% decrease

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 19 of 76

Rev.0

G 200 GATE 2005

S 2007 200 Contd C d IAS


g g economics with A diagram related to machining various cost components is given above. Match List I (Cost Element) with List II (Appropriate Curve) and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: ListI ListII (CostElement) (AppropriateCurve) A. Machiningcost 1. Curvel 2. Curve2 B. Toolcost C. Toolgrindingcost 3. Curve3 D Nonproductivecost 4. D. 4 Curve4 5. Curve5

Contd Contd. From previous slide

Code:A (a) 3 (c) 3

B 2 1

C 4 4

D 5 2

(b) (d)

A 4 4

B 1 2

C 3 3

D 2 5

S 1998 998 IES


The variable cost and production rate of a machining process against cutting speed are shown in the given figure. For efficient machining, the range of best cutting speed would be between (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 5 (c) 2 and 4 (d) ( ) 3 and 5

S 1999 999 IES


Consider the following approaches normally applied for the economic analysis of machining: 1 Maximum production rate 1. 2. Maximum profit criterion 3. Minimum cost criterion The correct sequence q in ascending g order of optimum p cutting speed obtained by these approaches is (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 1, 3, 2 (c) 3, 2, 1 (d) 3, 1, 2

IES2011
The optimum cutting speed is one which should have: 1. High Hi h metal t l removal l rate t 2. High cutting tool life 3. Balance the metal removal rate and cutting tool life (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only ( ) 3 only (d)

S 2000 IES
The magnitude of the cutting speed for maximum profit rate must be (a) In between the speeds for minimum cost and maximum production rate (b) Higher Hi h than th the th speed d for f maximum i production d ti rate t (c) Below the speed for minimum cost (d) Equal to the speed for minimum cost

S 2004 200 IES


g statements: Consider the following 1. As the cutting speed increases, the cost of production initially reduces, then after an optimum cutting speed it increases 2. As the cutting speed increases the cost of production also l increases i and d after f a critical i i l value l it i reduces d 3. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed reduces cost of production 4. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed increases the cost of production Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 only

S 2002 IES
Ineconomicsofmachining,whichoneofthe followingcostsremainsconstant? (a) Machiningcostperpiece (b) Toolchangingcostperpiece (c) Toolhandlingcostperpiece (d) ( ) Toolcostp perpiece p

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Page 20 of 76

Rev.0

S 2007 200 IAS


Assertion (A): The optimum cutting speed for the minimum cost of machining may not maximize the profit. Reason (R): The profit also depends on rate of production. production (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1997 99 IAS
Inturning,theratiooftheoptimumcuttingspeed forminimumcostandoptimumcuttingspeedfor maximumrateofproductionisalways (a) Equalto1 (b) In I th therangeof f0.6 6t to1 (c) Intherangeof0.1to0.6 (d) Greaterthan1

IES 2012
The usual method of defining machinability of a material is by an index based on (a) Hardness of work material (b) Production rate of machined parts (c) Surface finish of machined surfaces (d) ( ) Tool life

ti l IES2011C Conventional
g elements on the Discuss the effects of the following machinability of steels: (i) Aluminium and silicon (ii) Sulphur and Selenium (iii) Lead L d and d Tin Ti (iv) Carbon and Manganese (v) Molybdenum and Vanadium

S 1992 992 IES


Easeofmachiningisprimarilyjudgedby (a) Lifeofcuttingtoolbetweensharpening (b) Rigidity Ri idit of fwork k piece i (c) Microstructureoftoolmaterial (d) Shapeanddimensionsofwork

S 2007, 200 2009 IES


Considerthefollowing: 1. Toollife 2. Cutting C tti f forces 3. Surfacefinish Whichoftheaboveis/arethemachinability criterion/criteria? (a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and3only (c) 2and3only (d) 2only

[5 Marks]

ISRO2007
Machinablity depends on ( ) Microstructure, physical (a) h l and d mechanical h l properties and composition of workpiece material. (b) Cutting forces (c) ( ) Type yp of chip p (d) Tool life

S 2003 IES
) The machinability y of steels improves p Assertion ( (A): by adding sulphur to obtain so called 'Free Machining Steels. Reason (R): Sulphur in steel forms manganese sulphide inclusion which helps to produce thin ribbon like continuous chip. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2009 IES
The elements which, added to steel, help in chip formation during machining are (a) Sulphur, Sulphur lead and phosphorous (b) Sulphur, lead and cobalt (c) Aluminium, lead and copper (d) ( ) Aluminium, titanium and copper pp

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 21 of 76

Rev.0

S 1998 998 IES


Considerthefollowingcriteriainevaluating machinability: 1 Surfacefinish 2. 1. 2 Typeofchips 3. Toollife 4. Powerconsumption InmodernhighspeedCNCmachiningwithcoated carbidetools,thecorrectsequenceofthesecriteria inDECREASINGorderoftheirimportanceis (a) ( ) 1,2,4 4,3 (b) ( ) 2,1,4 4,3 (c) 1,2,3,4 (d) 2,1,3,4

S 1996 996 IES


Which of the following machinability? 1 Smaller shear angle 1. 2. Higher cutting forces 3. Longer tool life 4. Better surface finish. 4 (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 2 (d) 3 and 4 indicate better

S 1996 996 IES


Small amounts of which one of the following elements/pairs of elements is added to steel to increase its machinability? (a) Nickel (b) Sulphur and phosphorus ( ) Silicon (c) Sili (d) Manganese M and d copper

S 1995 99 IES
Inlowcarbonsteels,presenceofsmallquantities sulphur improves (a) Weldability (b) Formability (c) Machinability (d) Hardenability

S 1992 992 IES


Machiningoftitaniumisdifficultdueto (a) Highthermalconductivityoftitanium (b) Chemical Ch i lreaction ti b between t tool t land dwork k (c) Lowtoolchipcontactarea (d) Noneoftheabove

S 1996 996 IAS


Assertion(A):Themachinabilityofamaterialcan bemeasuredasanabsolutequantity. Reason(R):Machinabilityindexindicatesthecase withwhichamaterialcanbemachined ( ) Both (a) B thAand dRareindividually i di id ll true t and dRis i the th correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

IES1995
Consider thef following C id th ll i work kmaterials: t i l 1. Titanium 2. Mildsteel 3. Stainlesssteel 4. Greycastiron. Thecorrectsequenceofthesematerialsintermsof increasingorderofdifficultyinmachiningis (a) 4,2,3,1 4 2 3 1 (b) 4,2, 4 2 1 1,3 3 (c) 2,4,3,1 (d) 2,4,1,3.

G GATE 2009
Frictionatthetoolchipinterfacecanbe reducedby ( )decreasingtherakeangle (a) (b)increasingthedepthofcut (c)Decreasingthecuttingspeed (d)increasingthecuttingspeed

IES 2002
The value of surface roughness 'h' h obtained during the turning operating at a feed 'f' with a round nose tool having radius 'r' r is given as

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 22 of 76

Rev.0

IAS 1996
Given that S = feed in mm/rev. and R = nose radius di in i mm, the maximum height of surface roughness Hmax produced by a singlepoint turning tool is given by (a) ( ) S2/2R (b) S2/4R (c) S2/4R (d) S2/8R

IES 1999
In turning operation, the feed could be doubled to increase the metal removal rate. To keep the same level of surface finish, the nose radius of the tool should be (a) Halved (b) Kept unchanged (c) doubled (d) Made four times

GATE 1997
Acuttingtoolhasaradiusof1.8mm.Thefeedrate foratheoreticalsurfaceroughnessofRa =5 mis (a) 0.36 0 36mm/rev (b) 0.187mm/rev (c) 0.036mm/rev (d) ( ) 0.0187 7mm/rev

GATE 2007(PI)
A tool with Side Cutting Edge angle of and o End Cutting Edge angle of 10 is used for fine turning with a feed of 1 mm/rev. mm/rev Neglecting nose radius of the tool, the maximum (peak to valley) h i h of height f surface f roughness h produced d d will ill be b (a) ( ) 0.16 mm (b) ( ) 0.26 mm (c) 0.32 mm (d) 0.48 mm 30o

GATE 2005
Two tools P and Q have signatures 5 55 56 66 68 830 30 0 and 55778150 (both ASA) respectively. They are used to turn components under the same machining conditions. If hp and hQ denote the peak tovalley heights of surfaces produced by the tools P and Q, the ratio hp/hQ will be

1993 ISRO2008 IES 1993,


For achieving a specific surface finish in single point turning the most important factor to be controlled is (a) Depth of cut (b) Cutting speed ( ) Feed (c) F d (d) Tool T l rake k angle l

tan 8o + cot15o tan 8o + cot 30o tan15o + cot7o (c ) tan 30o + cot7o (a)

tan15o + cot 8o tan 30o + cot 8o tan7o + cot15o (d ) tan7o + cot 30o (b)

IES 2006
In the selection of optimal cutting conditions, the requirement of surface finish would put a limit on which of the following? (a) The maximum feed (b) The Th maximum i d th of depth f cut t (c) The maximum speed (d) The maximum number of passes

GATE2010(PI)
During turning of a low carbon steel bar with TiN coated carbide insert, one need to improve surface finish without h sacrificing f material l removal l rate. To achieve h improved surface finish, one should (a) decrease nose radius of the cutting tool and increase depth of cut (b) Increase nose radius of the cutting tool (c) Increase feed and decrease nose radius of the cutting tool

IAS2009Main
Whatareextremepressurelubricants?

[3 marks] g pressures and rubbing p g action are Where high encountered, hydrodynamic lubrication cannot be maintained; so Extreme Pressure (EP) additives must be added dd d to the h lubricant. l bi EP lubrication l b i i is i provided id d by b a number of chemical components such as boron, phosphorus sulfur, phosphorus, sulfur chlorine, chlorine or combination of these. these The compounds are activated by the higher temperature resulting from extreme pressure. pressure As the temperature rises, EP molecules become reactive and release derivatives such as iron chloride or iron sulfide and forms a solid protective coating.

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

(d) Increase depth of cut and Page 23 increase of 76 feed

Rev.0

IES 2001
Dry and compressed air is used as cutting fluid for machining (a) Steel (b) Aluminium (c) Cast iron (d) Brass

IES 2012
Themostimportantfunctionofthecuttingfluidisto (a)Providelubrication (b)Cool C lth thet tool land dwork kpiece i (c)Washawaythechips (d)Improvesurfacefinish

Ch3:CuttingTools,ToolLifeandCuttingFluid
Q. No Q 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Option p B A A D D D B A A D C Q. No Q 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Option p C A A B B B A B A B B Q. No Q 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Option p A C C B B A B A C B C

Ch4:EconomicsofMachiningOperation
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 Option C B A C A Q. No 6 7 8 9 Option B A C A

GATE1995
A test specimen is stressed slightly beyond the

MetalForming
B SKMondal By M d l

yield point and then unloaded. Its yield strength (a) Decreases ( ) Increases (b) (c) Remains same (d) Become equal to UTS

IES2013
Statement (I): At higher strain rate and lower temperature structural steel tends to become brittle. Statement (II): At higher strain rate and lower temperature the yield strength of structural steel tends to increase. increase (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and d Statement S (II) is i the h correct explanation l i of f Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement ( (I) ) is true but Statement ( (II) ) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

IES2011
Assertion (A): Lead, Lead Zinc and Tin are always hot worked. R Reason (R) : If they th are worked k d in i cold ld state t t they cannot retain their mechanical properties. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT p of A the correct explanation (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

G 2003 GATE
Cold working of steel is defined as working (a) At its recrystallisation temperature (b) Above Ab it recrystallisation its t lli ti temperature t t (c) Below its recrystallisation temperature (d) At two thirds of the melting temperature of the metal

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 24 of 76

Rev.0

G 2002, 2002 ISRO S O2012 20 2 GATE


Hot rolling of mild steel is carried out (a) At recrystallisation temperature (b) Between B t 100C C to t 150C C (c) Below recrystallisation temperature (d) Above recrystallisation temperature

ISRO2010
Materials after cold working are subjected to following process to relieve stresses (a) Hot working (b) Tempering (c) Normalizing (d) Annealing

S 2006 IES
Which one of the following is the process to refine the grains of metal after it has been distorted by hammering or cold working? (a) Annealing (b) Softening ( ) Re (c) R crystallizing t lli i (d) Normalizing N li i

S 2004 200 IES


Consider the following statements: In comparison to hot working, in cold working, 1. Higher Hi h forces f are required i d 2. No heating is required 3. Less ductility is required 4. Better surface finish is obtained Which of the statements given above are correct? ( ) 1, 2 and (a) d 3 (b) 1, 2 and d4 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4

S 2009 IES
Consider the following characteristics: 1. Porosity in the metal is largely eliminated. 2. Strength St th is i decreased. d d 3. Close tolerances cannot be maintained. Which of the above characteristics of hot working is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 3 only (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3

S 2008 IES
Consider the following statements: 1. Metal forming decreases harmful effects of impurities and improves mechanical strength. strength 2. Metal working process is a plastic deformation process. 3. Very intricate shapes can be produced by forging process as compared to casting process. Which of the statements g given above are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only

S 2008 IES
Cold forging results in improved quality due to which of the following? 1 Better mechanical properties of the process. 1. process 2. Unbroken grain flow. 3. Smoother finishes. 4. High 4 g p pressure. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1, 1 2 and 3 (b) 1, 1 2 and 4 (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4

S 2004 200 IES


Assertion (A): Cold working of metals results in increase of strength and hardness Reason (R): Cold working reduces the total number of dislocations per unit volume of the material ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2003 IES
Cold working produces the following effects: 1. Stresses are set up in the metal 2. Grain G i structure t t gets t distorted di t t d 3. Strength and hardness of the metal are decreased 4. Surface finish is reduced Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1and 2 (b) 1, 2 and 3 ( ) 3 and (c) d4 (d) 1 and d4

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Page 25 of 76

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S 2000 IES
Assertion (A): To obtain large deformations by cold working intermediate annealing is not required. Reason (R): Cold working is performed below the recrystallisation temperature of the work material. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

ISRO2009
In the metal forming process, the stresses encountered t d are (a) Greater than yield strength but less than ultimate l strength h (b) Less than yield strength of the material (c) Greater than the ultimate strength of the material (d) Less than the elastic limit

S 1997 99 IES
Inmetalssubjectedtocoldworking,strain hardeningeffectisdueto (a) Slipmechanism (b) Twiningmechanism (c) Dislocationmechanism (d) ( ) Fracturemechanism

S 1996 996 IES


Considerthefollowingstatements: Whenametaloralloyiscoldworked 1. Itis i worked k dbelow b l roomt temperature. t 2. Itisworkedbelowrecrystallisation temperature. 3. Itshardnessandstrengthincrease. 4. Itshardnessincreasesbutstrengthdoesnot increase. Ofthesecorrectstatementsare (a) 1and4 (b) 1and3 (c) 2and3 (d) 2and4

S 2006 IES
Assertion (A): In case of hot working of metals, the temperature at which the process is finally stopped should not be above the recrystallisation y temperature. p Reason (R): If the process is stopped above the recrystallisation y temperature, p , g grain g growth will take place again and spoil the attained structure. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1992 992 IES


Specify the sequence correctly (a) Grain growth, recrystallisation, stress relief (b) Stress St relief, li f grain i growth, th recrystallisation t lli ti (c) Stress relief, recrystallisation, grain growth (d) Grain growth, stress relief, recrystallisation

S 1996 996 IAS


For mild steel, the hot forging temperature range is (a) 4000C to 6000C (b) 7000C to t 9000C 0 (c) 1000 C to 12000C (d) 13000Cto 15000C

S 2004 200 IAS


Assertion(A):Hotworkingdoesnotproducestrain hardening. Reason(R):Hotworkingisdoneabovethere crystallizationtemperature. ( ) Both (a) B thAand dRareindividually i di id ll true t and dRis i the th correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

S2002 IAS
Assertion (A): There is good grain refinement in hot working. Reason (R): In hot working physical properties are generally improved. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

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Page 26 of 76

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S2008 IES
Which one of the following is correct? Malleability is the property by which a metal or alloy can be plastically deformed by applying (a) Tensile stress (b) Bending stress (c) Shear stress (d) Compressive stress

GATE2013
In process, the of I a rolling lli th state t t of f stress t f the th material undergoing g g deformation is (a) pure compression (b) pure shear (c) compression and shear (d) tension and shear

ISRO2006
Which of the following processes would produce strongest components? (a) Hot rolling ( ) Extrusion (b) (c) Cold rolling (d) Forging

ISRO2009
Ring rolling is used (a) To decrease the thickness and increase diameter (b) To increase the thickness of a ring (c) For producing a seamless tube (d) For producing large cylinder

S 2006 IES
Which one of the following is a continuous bending process in which opposing rolls are used to produce long sections of formed shapes from coil or strip stock? (a) Stretch forming (b) Roll forming (c) Roll bending (d) Spinning

( ) GATE 2009(PI)
Anisotropy in rolled components is caused by (a) changes in dimensions (b) scale formation (c) closure of defects (d) grain i orientation i i

IFS 2010
Calculate the neutral plane to roll 250 mm wide annealed copper strip from 2.5 2 5 mm to 2.0 2 0 mm thickness with 350 mm diameter steel rolls. Take = 0 05 and o =180 MPa. 0.05 MPa [10marks]

G 2008 GATE
In a single pass rolling operation, a 20 mm thick plate with plate width of 100 mm, is reduced to 18 mm. The roller radius is 250 mm and rotational speed is 10 rpm. The average flow stress for the plate material is 300 MPa. The power required for the rolling operation in kW is closest to (a) 15.2 15 2 (b) 18.2 (c) 30.4 (d) 45.6 45

G 2007 200 GATE


The thickness of a metallic sheet is reduced from an initial value of 16 mm to a final value of 10 mm in one single pass rolling with a pair of cylindrical rollers each of diameter of 400 mm. The bite angle in degree will be (a) 5.936 (b) 7.936 6 (c) 8.936 (d) 9.936

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Page 27 of 76

Rev.0

G 2004 200 GATE


In a rolling process, sheet of 25 mm thickness is rolled to 20 mm thickness. Roll is of diameter 600 mm and it rotates at 100 rpm. The roll strip contact length will be (a) 5 mm (b) 39 mm (c) 78 mm (d) 120 mm

G 1998 998 GATE


A strip with a crosssection 150 mm x 4.5 mm is being rolled with 20% reduction of area using 450 mm diameter rolls. The angle subtended by the deformation zone at the roll centre is (in radian) (a) 0.01 0 01 (b) 0.02 0 02 (c) 0.03 (d) 0.06

GATE 2012SameQinGATE 2012(PI)


In a single pass rolling process using 410 mm diameter steel rollers, rollers a strip of width 140 mm and thickness 8 mm undergoes 10% reduction of thickness. The angle of bite in radians is (a) 0.006 (c) 0.062 0 062 (b) 0.031 (d) 0.600 0 600

G 2006 GATE
A 4 mm thick sheet is rolled with 300 mm diameter rolls to reduce thickness without any change in its width. The friction coefficient at the workroll interface is 0.1. The minimum possible thickness of the sheet that can be produced in a single pass is (a) 1.0 mm (b) 1.5 mm ( ) 2.5 mm (c) (d) 3.7 mm

GATE 2011(PI)
The thickness of a plate is reduced from 30 mm to 10 mm by successive cold rolling passes using identical rolls of diameter 600 mm. mm Assume that there is no change in width. If the coefficient of friction between the rolls and the work piece is 0.1, 01 the minimum number of passes required is ( )3 (a) (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 7

( ) GATE1992(PI)
If factor during rolling of f the h elongation l f d ll f an ingot is 1.22. 1 22 The minimum number of passes needed to produce a section 250 mm x 250 mm from an ingot of 750 mm x 750 mm are (a) 8 ( ) 10 (c) (b) 9 (d) 17

S 2003 IES
) While rolling g metal sheet in rolling g Assertion ( (A): mill, the edges are sometimes not straight and flat but are wavy. Reason (R): Nonuniform mechanical properties of the flat material rolled out result in waviness of the edges. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2002 IES
In rolling a strip between two the neutral point in the arc depend on (a) Amount of reduction (b) ( ) Coefficient (c) C ffi i t of f friction f i ti (d) rolls, the position of of contact does not Diameter of the rolls M t i l of Material f the th rolls ll

S 2001 200 IES


g assumptions p Which of the following are correct for cold rolling? 1. The material is plastic. p 2. The arc of contact is circular with a radius greater than the radius of the roll. 3. Coefficient of friction is constant over the arc of g the arc of contact and acts in one direction throughout contact. g the codes g given below: Select the correct answer using Codes: (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 28 of 76

Rev.0

S 2001 200 IES


A strip is to be rolled from a thickness of 30 mm to 15 mm using a twohigh mill having rolls of diameter 300 mm. The coefficient of friction for unaided bite should nearly be (a) 0.35 0 35 (b) 0.5 05 (c) 0.25 (d) 0.07

GATE2008(PI)
In of 4 I a rolling lli process, thickness thi k f a strip t i is i reduced d d from f mm to 3 mm using g3 300 mm diameter rolls rotating g at 100 rpm. The velocity of the strip in (m/s) at the neutral point is ( ) 1.57 (a) (b) 3.14 ( ) 47.10 (c) (d) 94.20

( ) GATE1990(PI)
While rolling a strip the peripheral velocity of the roll is .A..than the entry velocity of the strip and is B ..the exit velocity of the strip. ( ) less (a) l th / than/greater t less l (b) Greater than/less than

S 2000, 2000 G 20 0( ) IES GATE2010(PI)


In the rolling process, roll separating force can be decreased by (a) Reducing the roll diameter (b) Increasing the roll diameter (c) Providing backup rolls (d) ( ) Increasing g the friction between the rolls and the metal

S 1999 999 IES


Assertion(A):Inatwohighrollingmillthereisa limittothepossiblereductioninthicknessinone pass. Reason(R):Thereductionpossibleinthesecond passislessthanthatinthefirstpass. pass (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correct texplanation l ti of fA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

S 1993 993 IES


In order to get uniform thickness of the plate by rolling process, one provides (a) Camber on the rolls (b) Offset on the rolls (c) Hardening of the rolls (d) ( ) Antifriction bearings g

S 1993, 993 G 989( ) IES GATE1989(PI)


The blank diameter used in thread rolling will be (a) Equal to minor diameter of the thread (b) Equal E l to t pitch it h diameter di t of f the th thread th d (c) A little large than the minor diameter of the thread (d) A little larger than the pitch diameter of the thread

S 1992, 992 G 992( ) IES GATE1992(PI)


Threadrollingisrestrictedto (a) Ferrousmaterials (b) Ductile D til materials t i l (c) Hardmaterials (d) Noneoftheabove

S 2004 200 IAS


Assertion (A): Rolling requires high friction which increases forces and power consumption. Reason (R): To prevent damage to the surface of the rolled products, lubricants should be used. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 29 of 76

Rev.0

S 2001 200 IAS


Consider the following characteristics of rolling process: 1 Shows work hardening effect 1. 2. Surface finish is not good 3. Heavy reduction in areas can be obtained Which of these characteristics are associated with hot rolling? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3

S 2000 IAS
Rollingverythinstripsofmildsteelrequires (a) Largediameterrolls (b) Small S lldiameter di t rolls ll (c) Highspeedrolling (d) Rollingwithoutalubricant

S 1998 998 IAS


Match List I (products) with List II (processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List II A M.S. A. M S angles l and d channels h l 1. W ldi Welding B. Carburetors 2. Forging C. Roof trusses 3. Casting D. Gear wheels 4. Rolling Codes:A B C D A B C D ( ) 1 (a) 2 3 4 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 1 2 4 3 (d) 4 3 1 2

S 2007 200 IAS


g Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List I List II ( (Type of Rolling Mill) ) ( (Characteristic) ) A. Two high nonreversing mills 1. Middle roll rotates by friction B B. Th Three hi h mills high ill 2. By B small ll working ki roll, ll power for rolling is reduced C Four high mills C. 3 Rolls of equal size are 3. rotated only in one direction D. Cluster mills 4. Diameter of working g roll is very small Code:A B C D A B C D ( ) 3 (a) 4 2 1 (b) 2 1 3 4 (c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 3 1 2 4

S 2003 IAS
In one setting of rolls in a 3high rolling mill, one gets (a) One reduction in thickness (b) Two reductions in thickness (c) Three reductions in thickness (d) ( ) Two or three reductions in thickness depending p g upon the setting

S 2007 200 IAS


Consider the following statements: Roll forces in rolling can be reduced by 1. Reducing R d i friction f i ti 2. Using large diameter rolls to increase the contact area. 3. Taking 3 g smaller reductions p per p pass to reduce the contact area. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only ( ) 1 and (c) d 3 only l (d) 1, 2 and d3

RollingCh14

GATE2011
The maximum possible draft in cold rolling of sheet increases with the ( ) increase (a) i i coefficient in ffi i t of f friction f i ti (b) decrease in coefficient of friction (c) decrease in roll radius (d) increase in roll velocity

Q.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Option C B D D A A B D C C B C

Forging
BySKMondal
Rev.0

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Page 30 of 76

( ) GATE1989(PI)
Atthelasthammerstroketheexcessmaterialfrom thefinishingcavityofaforgingdieispushed into..

G 20 0( ) GATE 2010 (PI)


Hot solid forging, H t die di steel, t l used d for f large l lid dies di in i drop d f i should necessarily y have (a) high strength and high copper content (b) high hardness and low hardenability (c) high toughness and low thermal conductivity (d) high hardness and high thermal conductivity

IES2013
Statement (I): The dies used in the forging process are p made in pair. Statement (II): The material is pressed between two surfaces and the compression force applied, gives it a shape. (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually t true b t Statement but St t t (II) is i not t the th correct t explanation l ti of f Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) ( ) is true but b Statement (II) ( ) is false f l (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

IFS2011
What advantages does press forging have over drop forging ? Why are pure metals more easily cold worked th alloys than ll ? [5marks]

IAS2011Main
Compare Smith forging, drop forging, press forging and upset forging. Mention three points for each. [ Marks] [10 M k ]

IES 2007
Sometimes the parting plane between two forging dies is not a horizontal plane, give the main reason for this design aspect, why is parting plane provided in closed die forging? provided, [2marks] ]

G 2007 200 GATE


In opendie forging, a disc of diameter 200 mm and height 60 mm is compressed without any barreling effect. The final diameter of the disc is 400 mm. The true strain is (a) 1.986 1 986 (b) 1.686 1 686 (c) 1.386 (d) 0.602

GATE1992,ISRO2012
Thetruestrainforalowcarbonsteelbarwhichis doubledinlengthbyforgingis (a) 0.307 (b) 0.5 (c) 0.693 (d) 1.0

G 2012 20 2SameQGATE2012(PI) GATE


Asolid lidcylinder li d of fdiameter di t 100mmand dheight h i ht50mm isforged g betweentwofrictionlessflatdiestoaheight g of 25mm.Thepercentagechangeindiameteris (a)0 (b)2.07 (c)20.7 (d)41.4

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G 1994 99 GATE
Match 4 correct pairs between List I and List II for the questions List I gives a number of processes and List II gives a number of products List I List II ( ) Investment (a) I t t casting ti 1. T bi rotors Turbine t (b) Die casting 2. Turbine blades (c) Centrifugal casting 3. Connecting rods (d) Drop forging 4. Galvanized iron pipe (e) Extrusion 5. Cast iron pipes (f) Shell Sh ll moulding ldi 6 6. C b tt body Carburettor b d (A) (B) (C) (D)

G 1998 998 GATE


List I List II Aluminium brake shoe (1) Deep drawing Pl ti water Plastic t bottle b ttl ( ) Blow (2) Bl moulding ldi Stainless steel cups (3) Sand casting Soft drink can (aluminium) (4) Centrifugal casting (5) Impact extrusion (6) Upset U t forging f i

S 2006 IES
Assertion (A): Forging dies are provided with taper or draft angles on vertical surfaces. Reason (R): It facilitates complete filling of die cavity and favourable grain flow. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2005 200 IES


Consider the following statements: 1. Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which results in a decrease in strength and toughness. toughness 2. Forged components can be provided with thin sections, ti without ith t reducing d i the th strength. t th Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) Only 1 (b) Only 2 (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

S 1996 996 IES


Which one of the following is an advantage of forging? (a) Good surface finish (b) Low tooling cost (c) Close tolerance (d) ( ) Improved p physical p y property. p p y

IES 2012
Which of the following statements is correct for forging? (a) Forgeability is property of forging tool, by which forging can be done easily. easily (b) Forgeability decreases with temperature upto lower critical iti l temperature. t t (c) Certain mechanical properties of the material are influenced by forging. (d) ( ) Pure metals have g good malleability, y therefore, p poor forging properties.

IES2013
Intheforgingprocess: 1.Themetalstructureisrefined 2.Originalunidirectionalfibers aredistorted. 3.Poorreliability,asflawsarealwaysthereduetointense working 4 Partareshapedbyplasticdeformationofmaterial 4. (a)1,2and3 (b)1,3and4

IES 2012
) It is difficult to maintain close tolerance in Statement ( (I): normal forging operation. (II): ) Forging g g is workable for simple p shapes p Statement ( and has limitation for parts having undercuts. (a) ( ) Both Statement ( (I) ) and Statement ( (II) ) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

S 1993, 993 G 99 ( ) IES GATE1994(PI)


Which one of the following manufacturing processes requires the provision of gutters? (a) Closed die forging (b) Centrifugal casting (c) Investment casting (d) ( ) Impact p extrusion

(c)1,2and4For -2013 (IES, (d) 2,3andPSUs) 4 GATE,

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S 1997 99 IES
) In drop p forging g g besides the p Assertion ( (A): provision for flash, provision is also to be made in the forging die for additional space called gutter. Reason (R): The gutter helps to restrict the outward flow of metal thereby helping to fill thin ribs and bases in the upper die. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2004 200 IES


( y ) with List II Match List I (Different systems) (Associated terminology) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Riveted J Joints 1. Nipping pp g B. Welded joints 2. Angular movement C Leaf springs C. 3 3. Fullering D. Knuckle joints 4. Fusion A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 1 2 3 4 ( ) 1 (c) 4 3 2 (d) 3 4 1 2

S 2003 IES
A forging method for reducing the diameter of a bar and in the process making it longer is termed as (a) Fullering (b) Punching (c) Upsetting (d) Extruding

S 2002 IES
Consider the following steps involved in hammer forging a connecting rod from bar stock: 1 Blocking 2. 1. 2 Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Fullering 5. Edging Which of the following is the correct sequence of operations? (a) 1, 4, 3, 2 and 5 (b) 4, 5, 1, 3 and 2 (c) 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 (d) 5, 1, 4, 2 and d3

S 1999 999 IES


Consider the following operations involved in forging a hexagonal bolt from a round bar stock, whose diameter is equal to the bolt diameter: 1. Flattening 2. Upsetting 3. Swaging S i 4. C b i Cambering The correct sequence of these operations is (a) 1, 2, 3, 4 (b) 2, 3, 4, 1 (c) 2, 1, 3, 4 (d) 3, 2, 1, 4

S 2003 IES
Consider the following steps in forging a connecting rod from the bar stock: 1 Blocking 2. 1. 2 Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Edging Select the correct sequence of these operations using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1234 (b) 2341 (c) 3412 (d) 4132

S 2005 200 IES


The process of removing the burrs or flash from a forged component in drop forging is called: (a) Swaging (b) Perforating (c) Trimming (d) Fettling

IES2011
Which of the following processes belong to forging operation ? 1. Fullering F ll i 2. Swaging 3. Welding (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only ( ) 1 and (c) d 3 only l (b) 1, 2 and 3 only

S 2008 IES
The balls of the ball bearings are manufactured from steel rods. The operations involved are: 1 Ground 1. 2. Hot forged on hammers 3. Heat treated 4. Polished 4 What is the correct sequence of the above operations from start? (a) 3241 (b) 3214 ( ) 2314 (c) (d) 2341

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S 2001 200 IES


Intheforgingoperation,fullering isdoneto (a) Drawoutthematerial (b) Bend B dthe th material t i l (c) Upsetthematerial (d) Extrudingthematerial

IES2011
Consider the following statements : 1. Any metal will require some time to undergo complete plastic l ti deformation d f ti particularly ti l l if deforming d f i metal t l has h to fill cavities and corners of small radii. 2. For larger work piece of metals that can retain toughness at forging temperature it is preferable to use forge press rather than forge hammer. (a) 1 and 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1 (b) 1 and 2 are correct and 1 is the reason for 2 (c) 1 and 2 are correct but unrelated (d) 1 only correct

S 2005 200 IES


yp of Forging) g g) with List II (Operation) ( p ) Match List I ( (Type and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List I List II A. Drop Forging 1. Metal is gripped in the dies and pressure is i applied li d on the h heated h d end d B. Press Forging 2. Squeezing action C Upset C. U F i Forging 3. Metal M l is i placed l d between b rollers ll and d pushed D Roll Forging 4. D. 4 Repeated hammer blows blo s A B C D A B C D ( ) 4 (a) 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

S 2008 IES
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the i b l th lists: li t ListI (Forging Technique) ListII (Process) A. Smith Forging 1. Material is only upset to get the desired shape B. Drop Forging 2. Carried out manually open dies C. Press Forging 3. Done in closed impression dies by hammers in blows D. Machine Forging 4. Done in closed impression dies by continuous squeezing force Code: A B C D (a) 2 3 4 1 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 4 1 2 3

S 1998 998 IES


Which one of the following processes is most commonly used for the forging of bolt heads of hexagonal shape? (a) Closed die drop forging (b) Open O di upset die t forging f i (c) Close die press forging (d) Open die progressive forging

S 1994, 99 ISRO S O2010 20 0 IES


In drop forging, forging is done by dropping (a) The work piece at high velocity (b) The Th hammer h at t high hi h velocity. l it (c) The die with hammer at high velocity (d) a weight on hammer to produce the requisite p impact.

S (I) In I high hi h velocity l i forming f i hi h Statement (I): process, high energy can be transferred to metal with relatively small weight. i ht Statement (II): The kinetic energy is the function of mass and velocity. (a) Both Statement ( (I) ) and Statement ( (II) ) are individually y true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of () Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

IES2013

IES2013
Statement (I): In power forging energy is provided by compressed air or oil pressure or gravity. Statement (II): The capacity of the hammer is given by the total weight, weight which the falling pans weigh. weigh (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually t true and d Statement St t t (II) is i the th correct t explanation l ti of f Statement (I) (b) Both h Statement (I) ( ) and d Statement (II) ( ) are individually d d ll true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) () (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

S 2009 IES
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the the h code d given below b l h Lists: ListI ListII (Article) (Processing Method) A. Disposable coffee cups 1. Rotomoulding B. Large g water tanks 2. Expandable p bead moulding g C. Plastic sheets 3. Thermoforming D. Cushion pads 4. Blow moulding 5. Calendaring C l d i Code: (a) A B C D (b) A B C D 3 5 1 2 4 5 1 2 (c) ( ) A B C D (d) ( ) A B C D 4 3 3 1 3 1 5 2

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S 2003 IAS
( g g Operation) p ) with List II ( Match List I (Forging (View of the Forging Operation) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: ListI ListII (Forging Operation) (View of the Forging Operation) (A) Edging 1. 2. (B) Fullering (C) Drawing 3. 4. g g (D) Swaging Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) ( ) 4 3 2 1 (b) ( ) 2 1 4 3 (c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 2 3 4 1 Click to see file Page 4 5 6

S 2001 200 IAS


Match List I (Forging operations) with List II (Descriptions) and the d select l h correct answer using the h codes d given below b l the Lists: List I List II A. Flattening 1. Thickness is reduced continuously at different sections along length B B. D Drawing i 2. M l is Metal i displaced di l d away from f centre, reducing thickness in middle and increasing length C. Fullering 3. Rod is pulled through a die D. Wire drawing 4. Pressure a workpiece between two flat dies Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) ( ) 3 2 1 4 (b) ( ) 4 1 2 3 (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 4 2 1 3

S 2000 IAS
Drop forging is used to produce (a) Small components (b) Large L components t (c) Identical Components in large numbers (d) Mediumsize components

S 1998 998 IAS


The forging defect due to hindrance to smooth flow of metal in the component called 'Lap' occurs because (a) The corner radius provided is too large (b) The Th corner radius di provided id d is i too t small ll (c) Draft is not provided (d) The shrinkage allowance is inadequate

S 2002 IAS
Considerthefollowingstatementsrelatedto forging: 1 Flashisexcessmaterialaddedtostockwhichflows 1. aroundpartingline. 2. Flash Fl hhelps h l i infilling filli of fthin thi ribs ib and dbosses b in i upper die. 3. Amountofflashdependsuponforgingforce. Whichoftheabovestatementsarecorrect? (a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2 (c) 1and3 (d) 2and3

IES2011
Assertion (A) : Hot tears occur during forging because of inclusions in the blank material Reason (R) : Bonding between the inclusions and the parent material is through physical g and chemical bonding. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the p of A correct explanation (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT p of A the correct explanation (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES2013
Consider the following statements pertaining to the opendie forging of a cylindrical specimen between two flat dies: 1. Lubricated specimens show more surface movement than h unlubricated l bi d ones. 2. Lubricated specimens show less surface movement than unlubricated ones. 3. Lubricated specimens 3 p show more barrelling g than un lubricated ones. 4. Lubricated specimens shows less barrelling than un lubricated ones. Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 Matchthefollowing

( ) GATE2008(PI)
Group2 1.Upsetting 2.Deepdrawing 3.Extrusion 3 4.Closeddieforging (b)P 3,Q 4,R 1,S2 (d)P 2, 2 Q 4, 4 R 3, 3 S1

IES 2012
Assumptions adopted in the analysis of open die forging are 1 Forging force attains maximum value at the middle of 1. the operation. 2. Coefficient C ffi i t of f friction f i ti is i constant t t between b t work k piece i and die 2. Stress in the vertical (Ydirection) is zero. (a) ( ) 1 and 2 (b) ( ) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3

Group1 P. Wrinkling Q.Centreburst R.Barrelling g S.Coldshut (a)P 2,Q 3,R 4,S1 (c)P 2, 2 Q 3, 3 R 1, 1 S4

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S 2005 200 C i l IES Conventional


A strip 24 mm x 24 t i of f lead l d with ith initial i iti l dimensions di i mm x 150 5 mm is forged g between two flat dies to a final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the coefficient of friction is 0.25, determine the maximum i f i force. forging f Th average yield The i ld stress t of f lead in tension is 7 N/mm2 [10]

ti l IES 2007C Conventional


A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is forged at room temperature between two flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height 30 mm, using slab method of analysis. The yield strength of the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and the coefficient of friction is 0.05. Assume that volume is constant after deformation. There is no sticking. Also find mean die pressure. [20Marks]

C ti l IES 2006 Conventional


A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50 mm is reduced to a thickness of 25 mm by open die forging. If the coefficient of friction between the job and die is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The average shear yield stress of lead can be taken as 4 N/mm2. [10 Marks]

GATE1987
Inforgingoperationthestickingfrictioncondition occursnearthe(Centre/ends)

Ch15:Forging
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 Option A A A A B Q. No 6 7 8 9 Option B C C C

P ti Problem P bl 1 Practice
A strip of metal with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm

x 150 mm is forged between two flat dies to a final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm. If the coefficient of friction is 0.05, determine the maximum forging force. Take the average yield strength in tension is 7 N/mm2

[Ans. 178.24 kN]

P ti Problem P bl 2 Practice
A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 100 mm in

P ti Problem P bl 3 Practice
A cylindrical specimen 150 mm in diameter and 100 mm

P ti Problem P bl 4 Practice
A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 70 mm in

height is compressed between two flat dies to a height of 50 mm. Coefficient of friction is 0.1 and average yield strength in compression is 230 MPa. Determine the maximum die pressure. pressure

in height is upsetted by open die forging to a height of 50 mm. Coefficient of friction is 0.2 and flow curve equation is
f = 1030
0.17

height is forged to 40 mm in height. Coefficient of friction is 0.05. The flow curve equation of the material is given by
f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 MPa MP

MPa . Calculate the maximum

. Determine maximum

forging force. [Ans. 46.26 MN]

forging load, mean die pressure and maximum pressure. [ Ans. 9.771 MN, 178 MPa, 221 MPa] [Hint. First calculate true strain and put the value in the equation
f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 = y
0.17

[Ans. 405 MPa]

[Hint. First calculate true strain and put the value in the equation
f = 1030
=y

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PracticeProblem5{GATE2010(PI)}
During open die forging process using two flat and parallel dies, a solid lid circular i l steel t l disc di of f initial i iti l radius di (R IN ) 200 mm and d initial i iti l height (H IN ) 50 mm attains a height (H FN ) of 30 mm and radius of R FN . Along the die-disc interfaces. i. the coefficient of friction ( ) is: = 0.35 1 + e ii i ii. in the h region i R ss r RFN ,sliding lidi friction f i i prevails, il and d
R IN RFN 2

Contd.

PracticeProblem5{GATE2010(PI)}
iii.In the region 0 r R SS ,sticking condition prevails The value of R SS (in mm), where sticking condition changes to sliding friction, is (a) 241.76 (b) 254.55 (c) 265.45 (d) 278.20

Extrusion&Drawing

p = 3Ke K H FN and d = p, where p and are the normal and shear stresses, respectively; K is the shear yield strength of steel and r is the radial distance of any point (contd ........)

( RFN r )

B SKMondal By M d l

IAS2010Main
How are metal toothpaste tubes made commercially ? Draw the tools configuration with the help of a neat sketch. [30Marks]

IES2009Conventional

( ) GATE1994(PI)
A moving mandrel is used in (a) Wire drawing (c) Metal Cutting (b) Tube drawing (d) Forging

IES 2011Conventional
A 12.5 12 5 mm diameter rod is to be reduced to 10 mm diameter by drawing in a single pass at a speed of 100 / Assuming g a semi die angle g of 5o and coefficient m/min. of friction between the die and steel rod as 0.15, calculate: (i) The power required in drawing (ii) ( ) Maximum p possible reduction in diameter of the rod (iii) If the rod is subjected to a back pressure of 50 2 , what would be the draw stress and maximum / N/mm possible reduction ? 2. 400 N/mm / Take stress of the work material as 4 [15Marks]

GATE 2011(PI)CommonDataS1
In a multipass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection by drawing it successively through a series of seven dies of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa. Ignore strain hardening. The total true strain applied and the final length (in ), respectively, p y, are mm), (a) 2.45 and 8 17 (b) 2.45 and 345 (c) 3.02 3 02 and 2043 (d) 3.02 3 02 and 3330

GATE 2011(PI)CommonDataS2
In a multipass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection by drawing it successively through a series of seven dies of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa. Ignore strain hardening. Neglectingfrictionandredundantwork,theforce(in )required q fordrawing gthebarthrough g thefirstdie, ,is kN) (a)15.71 (b)10.21 (c)6.77 6 77 (d)4.39 4 39

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E l Example
Calculate the drawing load required to obtain 30% reduction in area on a 12 mm diameter copper wire. The following data is given C l l t the Calculate th power of f the th electric l t i motor t if the th drawing speed is 2.3 m/s. Take efficiency of motor is 98%. 8%

20 0 JWM2010
) : Extrusion speed p p Assertion ( (A) depends on work material. Reason (R) : High extrusion speed causes cracks in the material. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both B h A and d R are individually i di id ll true but b R is i not the h correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true

G 2006 GATE
In a wire drawing operation, diameter of a steel wire is reduced from 10 mm to 8 mm. The mean flow stress of the material is 400 MPa. The ideal force required for drawing (ignoring friction and redundant work) is (a) 4.48 kN (b) 8.97 kN ( ) 20.11 kN (c) (d) 31.41 kN

G 2001, 200 G 200 ( ) GATE GATE2007 (PI)


For rigid perfectlyplastic work material, negligible interface friction and no redundant work, the theoretically maximum possible reduction in the wire drawing operation is (a) 0.36 0 36 (b) 0.63 0 63 (c) 1.00 (d) 2.72

GATE2008(PI)LinkedS1
A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the diameter by 20%. The yield stress of the material is 800 MPa. N l ti Neglecting f i ti friction and d strain t i hardening, h d i th stress the t required q for drawing g( (in MPa) ) is (a) 178.5 (b) 357.0 (c) 1287.5 (d) 2575.0

GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2
A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the diameter by 20%. The yield stress of the material is 800 MPa. Th power required The i d for f the th drawing d i process (in (i kW) is i (a) 8.97 8 97 (b) 14.0 14 0 (c) 17.95 17 95 (d) 28.0 28 0

G 2003 GATE
A brass billet is to be extruded from its initial diameter of 100 mm to a final diameter of 50 mm. The working temperature of 700 700C C and the extrusion constant is 250 MPa. The force required for extrusion is (a) 5.44 MN (b) 2.72 MN ( ) 1.36 (c) 6 MN (d) 0.36 6 MN

GATE 2009(PI)
Using direct extrusion e trusion process, process a round billet of 100 mm length and 50 mm diameter is extruded. Considering an ideal deformation process (no friction and no redundant work), k) extrusion i ratio i 4, and d average flow fl stress of f material 3 300 MPa, , the p pressure ( (in MPa) ) on the ram will be (a) 416 (b) 624 (c) 700 (d) 832

G 1996 996 GATE


A wire of 0.1 mm diameter is drawn from a rod of 15 mm diameter. Dies giving reductions of 20%, 40% and 80% are available. For minimum error in the final size, the number of stages and reduction at each stage respectively would be (a) 3 stages and 80% reduction for all three stages (b) 4 stages t and d 80% 8 % reduction d ti f first for fi t three th stages t followed by a finishing stage of 20% reduction (c) 5 stages and reduction of 80%, 80%.40%, 40%, 20% in a sequence (d) none of the above

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G 1994 99 GATE
The process of hot extrusion is used to produce (a) Curtain rods made of aluminium (b) Steel St l pipes/or i / domestic d ti water t supply l (c) Stainless steel tubes used in furniture (d) Large she pipes used in city water mains

S 2007 200 IES


g is the correct Which one of the following statement? (a) ( ) Extrusion is used for the manufacture of seamless tubes. (b) ( ) Extrusion is used for reducing g the diameter of round bars and tubes by rotating dies which open and close rapidly on the work? (c) Extrusion is used to improve fatigue resistance of the metal by setting up compressive stresses on its surface (d) Extrusion comprises pressing the metal inside a chamber to force it out by high pressure through an orifice which is shaped to provide the desired from of the finished part.

S 2007 200 IES


Assertion (A): Greater force on the plunger is required in case of direct extrusion than indirect one. Reason (R): In case of direct extrusion, the direction of the force applied on the plunger and the direction of the movement of the extruded metal are the same. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation p of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation p of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES 2012
Which of the following are correct for an indirect hot extrusion process? 1 Billet remains stationary 1. 2. There is no friction force between billet and container walls. ll 3. The force required on the punch is more in comparison to direct extrusion. 4. Extrusion p 4 parts have to be p provided a support. pp (a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3 only (c) 1, 1 2 and 4 only (d) 2, 2 3 and 4 only

S 1993 993 IES


Assertion (A): Direct extrusion requires larger force than indirect extrusion. Reason (R): In indirect extrusion of cold steel, steel zinc phosphate coating is used. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1994 99 IES
Metal extrusion process is generally used for producing (a) Uniform solid sections (b) Uniform hollow sections (c) Uniform solid and hollow sections (d) ( ) Varying y g solid and hollow sections.

S 2009 IES
Which one of the following statements is correct? (a) In extrusion process, thicker walls can be obtained by increasing the forming pressure (b) Extrusion is an ideal process for obtaining rods from metal t l having h i poor density d it (c) As compared to roll forming, extruding speed is high (d) Impact extrusion is quite similar to Hooker's process g the flow of metal being g in the same direction including

S 1999 999 IES


Which one of the following is the correct temperature range for hot extrusion of aluminium? (a) 300340 340C C (b) 350400 400C C (c) 430480C (d) 550650C

S 2000 IES
g statements: Consider the following In forward extrusion process 1. The ram and the extruded p product travel in the same direction. 2. The ram and the extruded p product travel in the opposite pp direction. 3. The speed of travel of the extruded product is same as that of f the h ram. 4. The speed of travel of the extruded product is greater than that of the ram. ram Which of these Statements are correct? ( ) 1 and (a) d3 (b) 2 and d3 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 4

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 39 of 76

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S 2009 IES
What is the major problem in hot extrusion? (a) Design of punch (b) Design of die ( ) Wear (c) W and d tear t of f die di (d) Wear W of f punch h

IES 2012
Extrusion process can effectively reduce the cost of product through (a) Material saving (b) process time saving (c) Saving in tooling cost (d) ( ) saving g in administrative cost

S 2008, 2008 G 989( ) IES GATE1989(PI)


Which Whi h one of f the th following f ll i methods th d is i used d for f the th manufacture of collapsible p toothp paste tubes? (a) Impact extrusion (c) Deep drawing (b) (d) Direct extrusion Piercing

S 2003 IES
The extrusion process (s) used for the production of toothpaste tube is/are 1 Tube extrusion 1. 2. Forward extrusion 3. Impact extrusion Select the correct answer using g the codes g given below: Codes: (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 only

S 2001 200 IES


g statements are the salient Which of the following features of hydrostatic extrusion? 1. It is suitable for soft and ductile material. 2. It is suitable for highstrength superalloys. p 3.The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber and pressure is applied by a ram to extrude the billet through the die. 4. The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber where it is surrounded d d by b a suitable i bl liquid. li id The Th billet bill is i extruded d d through the die by applying pressure to the liquid. Select the correct answer ans er using the codes given gi en below: belo Codes: ( ) 1 and (a) d3 (b) 1 and d4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 2 and 4

S 2006 IES
What does hydrostatic pressure in extrusion process improve? (a) Ductility (b) Compressive strength (c) Brittleness (d) Tensile strength

( ) GATE1990(PI)
Semi brittle materials can be extruded by (a) Impact extrusion (b) Closed cavity extrusion (c) Hydrostatic extrusion (d) Backward B k d extrusion i

IES2010
) Pickling g and washing g of rolled rods Assertion ( (A): is carried out before wire drawing. Reason (R): They lubricate the surface to reduce friction while drawing wires. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both B h A and d R are individually i di id ll true but b R is i NOT the h correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true

S 2009 IES
Which one of the following stress is involved in the wire drawing process? (a) Compressive (b) Tensile (c) Shear (d) Hydrostatic stress

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 40 of 76

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S 1993 993 IES


Tandem drawing of wires and tubes is necessary because (a) It is not possible to reduce at one stage (b) Annealing is needed between stages (c) Accuracy in dimensions is not possible otherwise (d) ( ) Surface finish improves p after every y drawing g stage g

S 2000 IES
p ) with List II Match List I (C (Components of a table fan) (Manufacturing processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Base with stand 1. Stamping p g and pressing g B. Blade 2. Wire drawing C. Armature coil wire 3. Turning D Armature shaft D. 4 4. Casting Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) 2 3 4 1 (d) 4 1 2 3

S 1999 999 IES


Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII A. Drawing 1. Soap solution B Rolling B. 2 2. Camber C. Wire drawing 3. Pilots D Sheet metal operations using 4. D. 4 Crater progressive dies 5. Ironing C d A B Code:A C D A B C D (a) 2 5 1 4 (b) 4 1 5 3 (c) 5 2 3 4 (d) 5 2 1 3

S 1996 996 IES


Match List I with List II and select the correct answer List I (Metal/forming process) List II (Associated force)

S 1996 996 IES


In wire drawing process, the bright shining surface on the wire is obtained if one (a) does not use a lubricant (b) uses solid powdery lubricant. (c) uses thick paste lubricant (d) ( ) uses thin film lubricant

S 1994 99 IES
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI(Metalfarmingprocess)ListII(Asimilarprocess)

A. Wire drawing A B. Extrusion C. Blanking D. Bending g Codes:A B C (a) 4 2 1 (c) 2 3 1

1. 1 2. 3. 4. 4 D 3 4 (b) (d)

Shear force Tensile force Compressive force Spring p g back force A B C D 2 1 3 4 4 3 2 1

A. B B. C. D.

Blanking Coining C i i Extrusion Cupdrawing B 3 2 C 4 1 D 1 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (b) (d)

Codes:A ( ) 2 (a) (c) 3

Wiredrawing Pi i Piercing Embossing Rolling Bending A B C 2 3 1 2 3 1

D 4 5

S 1993, 993 ISRO S O2010 20 0 IES


Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: (Mechanical p property) p y) List II ( (Related to) ) List I ( A. Malleability 1. Wire drawing B Hardness B. 2 2. Impact loads C. Resilience 3. Cold rolling D Isotropy D. 4 4. Indentation 5. Direction C d A B Codes:A C D A B C D (a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 3 4 2 5 (c) 5 4 2 3 (d) 3 2 1 5

S 2007 200 IES


Which metal forming process manufacture of long steel wire? (a) Deep drawing (b) Forging (c) Drawing (d) Extrusion is used for

S 2005 200 IES


Which of the following types of stresses is/are involved in the wiredrawing operation? (a) Tensile only (b) Compressive only (c) A combination of tensile and compressive stresses (d) ( ) A combination of tensile, compressive p and shear stresses

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 41 of 76

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GATE1987
Forwiredrawingoperation,theworkmaterial shouldessentiallybe (a)Ductile ( )Hard (c) (b)Tough ( )Malleable (d)

S 2000 IES
Which one of the following lubricants is most suitable for drawing mild steel wires? (a) Sodium stearate (b) Water (c) Limewater (d) Kerosene

S 1993 993 IES


A moving mandrel is used in (a) Wire drawing (b) Tube T b drawing d i (c) Metal cutting (d) Forging

S 2002 IES
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer:
List I (Parts) List II (Manufacturing processes)

S 2004 200 IAS


Assertion (A): Indirect extrusion operation can be performed either by moving ram or by moving the container. Reason (R): Advantage in indirect extrusion is less quantity of scrap compared to direct extrusion. extrusion (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1995 99 IAS
The following operations are performed while preparing the billets for extrusion process: 1 Alkaline cleaning 1. 2. Phosphate coating 3. Pickling 4. Lubricating 4 g with reactive soap. p The correct sequence of these operations is (a) 3, 3 1, 1 4, 4 2 (b) 1, 1 3, 3 2, 2 4 (c) 1, 3. 4, 2 (d) 3, 1, 2, 4

A. Seamless tubes 1. Roll forming B Accurate B. A and d smooth h tubes b 2. Sh peening Shot i C. Surfaces having higher 3. Forging hardness and fatigue strength4. Cold forming Codes: A B C A B C (a) 1 4 2 (b) 2 3 1 ( ) 1 (c) 3 2 (d) 2 4 1

S 2001 200 IAS


Match List I (Products) with List II (Suitable processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A Connecting A. C ti rods d 1. W ldi Welding B. Pressure vessels 2. Extrusion C. Machine tool beds 3. Forging D. Collapsible tubes 4. Casting Codes:A B C D A B C D ( ) 3 (a) 1 4 2 (b) 4 1 3 2 (c) 3 2 4 1 (d) 4 2 3 1

S 1997 99 IAS
Extrusion force DOES NOT depend upon the (a) Extrusion ratio (b) Type T of f extrusion t i process (c) Material of the die (d) Working temperature

S 2000 IAS
Assertion (A): Brittle materials such as grey cast iron cannot be extruded by hydrostatic extrusion. Reason(R): In hydrostatic extrusion, extrusion billet is uniformly compressed from all sides by the liquid. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 42 of 76

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S 2002 IAS
) In wiredrawing g process, p , the rod Assertion ( (A): crosssection is reduced gradually by drawing it several times in successively reduced diameter dies. Reason (R): Since each drawing reduces ductility of the wire, so after final drawing the wire is normalized. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES2011
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswerusing thecodegivenbelowthelists:

IAS1994
g methods can be used for Which of the following manufacturing 2 metre long seamless metallic tubes? 1. Drawing 2. Extrusion 3 Rolling 3. 4 Spinning 4. Select the correct answer using the codes given below Codes: (a) ( ) 1 and 3 (b) ( ) 2 and 3 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 2, 3 and 4

ListI A.Connectingrods B.Pressurevessels C Machinetoolbeds C. D.Collapsible p tubes


Codes C d A ( ) 2 (a) (c) 2 B 1 4 C 4 1 D 3 3

ListII 1.Welding 2.Extrusion 3 Forming 3. 4.Casting g


(b) (d) A 3 3 B 1 4 C 4 1 D 2 2

( ) GATE1991(PI)
Seamlesslongsteeltubesaremanufacturedby rolling,drawingand

Ch17:Extrusion
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Option D C D D B C B Q. No 8 9 10 11 12 13 Option B B A B B A

Ch16:Drawing
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Option A C C B C D

E l Example
Determine the die and punch sizes for blanking a circular disc of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose thickness is 1.5 mm.

E l Example
Estimate to E ti t the th blanking bl ki force f t cut t a blank bl k 25 mm wide id and 3 30 mm long g from a 1.5 5 mm thick metal strip, p, if the ultimate shear strength of the material is 450 N/mm2. Also determine the work done if the percentage penetration t ti is i 25 percent t of f material t i l thickness. thi k

SheetMetalOperation p

Shear strength of sheet material = 294 MPa Also determine the die and punch sizes for punching a circular hole of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose thickness is 1.5 1 5 mm. mm

BySKMondal
For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 43 of 76 Rev.0

IAS2011Main
For punching a 10 mm circular hole, and cutting a rectangular t l blank bl k of f 50 x 200 mm from f a sheet h t of f1 mm thickness (mild steel, shear stress = 240 2), N/ N/mm ) Calculate, C l l t in i each h case : (i) Size of punch (ii) Size of die (iii) ( ) Force required. q [10Marks] [ ]

S 1999 999 IES


A hole is to be punched in a 15 mm thick plate having ultimate shear strength of 3Nmm2. If the allowable crushing stress in the punch is 6 Nmm2, the diameter of the smallest hole which can be punched is equal to (a) 15 mm (b) 30 mm ( ) 60 (c) 6 mm (d) 120 mm

S O2008, 2008 20 ISRO 2011


With a punch for which the maximum crushing stress is 4 times the maximum shearing stress of th plate, the l t the th biggest bi t hole h l that th t can be b punched h d in i the plate would be of diameter equal to
1 Thickness of p plate 4 1 (b) Thickness of plate 2 (c) Plate thickness (a) ( ) (d) 2 Plate thickness

IES2013
A hole of diameter d is to be punched in a plate of thickness t. For the plate material, the maximum crushing stress is 4 times the maximum allowable shearing stress. For punching the biggest hole, the ratio of diameter of hole to plate thickness should be equal to: (a) 4 (c) 1
1

Example
A hole, 100 mm diameter, is to be punched in steel plate
2 . 5.6 6 mm thick. thi k The Th ultimate lti t shear h stress t i 550 N/mm is N/

E l Example
A washer with a 12.7 mm internal hole and an outside diameter of 25.4 mm is to be made from 1.5 mm thick strip. p The ultimate shearing g strength g of the material of the washer is 280 N/mm2. (a) ( ) Find the total cutting g force if both p punches act at the same time and no shear is applied to either punch or the die. (b) What will be the cutting force if the punches are staggered, so that only one punch acts at a time. (c) Taking 60% penetration and shear on punch of 1 mm, what will be the cutting g force if both p punches act together.

With normal clearance on the tools, , cutting g is complete p at 40 per cent penetration of the punch. Give suitable shear angle for the punch to bring the work within the capacity it of f a 30T T press.

(b)

1 2

(d) 2

G 2010 20 0Statement S i k d1 GATE Linked


Statement for Linked Answer Questions: In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5 mm thickness is cut along a length of 200 mm. The cutting blade is 400 mm long and zeroshear (S = 0) is provided on the edge. The ultimate shear strength g of the sheet is 100 MPa and penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction.
400

G 2010 20 0Statement S i k d2 GATE Linked


Q Statement for Linked Answer Questions: In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5mm thickness is cut along a length of 200 mm. The cutting blade is 400 mm long and zeroshear (S = 0) is provided on the edge. edge The ultimate shear strength of the sheet is 100 MPa and penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction.
400

GATE2011
The shear strength of a sheet metal is 300 MPa. MPa The blanking force required to produce a blank of 100 mm diameter from a 1.5 1 5 mm thick sheet is close to (a) 45 kN (b) 70 kN (c) 141 4 kN (d) 3500 kN

Assuming force vs displacement curve to be rectangular, the work done (in J) is (a) 100 (b) 200 (c) 250 (d) 300

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

A shear of 20 mm (S = 20 mm) is now provided on the blade. Assuming force vs displacement curve to be trapezoidal, the maximum force (in kN) exerted is (a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 20 (d) 40

Page 44 of 76

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( ) GATE 2009(PI)
A disk of 200 mm diameter is blanked from a strip of an aluminum alloy of thickness 3.2 mm. The material shear strength to fracture is 150 MPa. The blanking force (in kN) is (a) ( ) 291 9 (b) ( )3 301 (c) ( ) 3 311 (d) ( )3 321

GATE2013(PI)
Circular blanks of 10 mm diameter are punched from an aluminium sheet of 2 mm thickness. The shear strength of aluminium is 80 Mpa. The minimum i i punching hi force f required i d in i kN is i (a) 2.57 2 57 (b) 3.29 (c) 5.03 (d) 6.33

S O2009 ISRO
The force required to punch a 25 mm hole in a mild ild steel t l plate l t 10 mm thick, thi k when h ultimate lti t shear h stress of the plate is 500 N/mm2 will be nearly (a) 78 kN (b) 393 kN (c) 98 kN (d) 158 kN

G 2007 200 GATE


The force requirement in a blanking operation of low carbon steel sheet is 5.0 kN. The thickness of the sheet is t t and diameter of the blanked part is d. For the same work material, if the diameter of the blanked part is increased to 1.5 d and thickness is reduced to 0.4 t, the new blanking force in kN is (a) 3.0 3 0 (b) 4.5 45 (c) 5.0 (d) 8.0

G 2004 200 GATE


10 mm diameter holes are to be punched in a steel sheet of 3 mm thickness. Shear strength of the material is 400 N / mm2 and penetration is 40%. Shear provided on the punch is 2 mm. The blanking force during the operation will be (a) 22.6 kN (b) 37.7 kN ( ) 61.6 (c) 6 6 kN (d) 94.3 kN

G 2003 GATE
A metal disc of 20 mm diameter is to be punched from a sheet of 2 mm thickness. The punch and the die clearance is 3%. The required punch diameter is (a) 19.88 mm (b) 19.94 mm ( ) 20.06 (c) 6 mm (d) 20.12 mm

GATE 2012
Calculate the punch size in mm, for a circular blanking operation for which details are given below. Size of the blank 25 mm Thickness of the sheet 2 mm Radial clearance between bet een punch and die 0.06 0 06 mm Die allowance 0.05 mm ( ) 24.83 (a) (b) 24.89 (c) 25.01 (d) 25.17

( ) GATE2008(PI)
A blank of 50 mm diameter is to be sheared from a sheet of 2.5 mm thickness. The required radial clearance between the die and the punch is 6% of sheet thickness. The punch and die diameters (in mm) for this blanking operation, respectively, are (a) 50.00 50 00 and 50.30 50 30 (c) 49.70 and 50.00 (b) 50.00 50 00 and 50.15 50 15 (d) 49.85 and 50.00

G 2002 GATE
In a blanking operation, the clearance is provided on (a) The die (b) Both the die and the punch equally (c) The punch (d) ( ) Brittle the p punch nor the die

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 45 of 76

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G 2001 200 GATE


The cutting force in punching and blanking operations mainly depends on (a) The modulus of elasticity of metal (b) The shear strength of metal (c) The bulk modulus of metal (d) ( ) The y yield strength g of metal

G 1996 996 GATE


A 50 mm diameter disc is to be punched out from a carbon steel sheet 1.0 mm thick. The diameter of the punch should be (a) 49.925 mm (b) 50.00 mm ( ) 50.075 mm (d) none of (c) f the th above b

S 1994 99 IES
In sheet metal blanking, shear is provided on punches and dies so that (a) Press load is reduced (b) Good cut edge is obtained. (c) Warping of sheet is minimized (d) ( ) Cut blanks are straight. g

S 2002 IES
Consider the following statements related to piercing and blanking: 1 Shear on the punch reduces the maximum cutting 1. force 2. Shear Sh i increases th capacity the it of f the th press needed d d 3. Shear increases the life of the punch 4. The total energy needed to make the cut remains provision of shear unaltered due to p Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 and 4

S 1995 99 IAS
In blanking operation the clearance provided is (a) 50% on punch and 50% on die (b) On O die di (c) On punch (d) On die or punch depending upon designers choice

S 2006 IES
In which one of the following is a flywheel generally employed? (a) Lathe (b) Electric motor (c) Punching machine (d) Gearbox

S 2004 200 IES


Which one of the following statements is correct? If the size of a flywheel in a punching machine is increased (a) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of energy will ill both b th decrease d (b) Then the fluctuation of speed will decrease and the fluctuation of energy will increase (c) ( ) Then the fluctuation of speed p will increase and the fluctuation of energy will decrease (d) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of energy both will increase

S 1997 99 IES
For 50% penetration of work material, a punch with single shear equal to thickness will (a) Reduce the punch load to half the value (b) Increase the punch load by half the value (c) Maintain the same punch load (d) ( ) Reduce the p punch load to q quarter load

S 2000 IAS
A blank of 30 mm diameter is to be produced out of 10 mm thick sheet on a simple die. If 6% clearance is recommended, then the nominal diameters of die and punch are respectively (a) 30.6 30 6 mm and 29.4 29 4 mm (b) 30.6 mm and 30 mm (c) 30 mm and 29.4 mm (d) ( ) 3 30 mm and 28.8 mm

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 46 of 76

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GATE 2007(PI)
Circular blanks of 35 mm diameter are punched from a steel sheet of 2 mm thickness. If the clearance per side between the punch and die is to be kept as 40 microns, the sizes of punch and di should die h ld respectively i l be b

S 1994 99 IAS
In a blanking operation to produce steel washer, the maximum punch load used in 2 x 105 N. The plate thickness is 4 mm and percentage penetration is 25. The work done during this shearing operation is (a) 200J (b) 400J (c) 600 J (d) 800 J

S 2002 IAS
In deciding the clearance between punch and die in press work in shearing, the following rule is helpful: (a) Punch size controls hole size die size controls blank size (b) Punch P h size i controls t l both b th hole h l size i and d blank bl k size i (c) Die size controls both hole size and blank size (d) Die size controls hole size, punch size controls blank size

(a) 35+0.00 and 35+0.040 (b) 350.040 and 350.080 (c) 350.080 and 35+0.00 (d) 35+0.040 and 350.080

S 2007 200 IAS


For punching operation the clearance is provided on which one of the following? (a) The punch (b) The die (c) 50% on the punch and 50% on the die (d) ( ) 1/3rd 3 on the p punch and 2/3rd 3 on the die

S 1995 99 IAS
Assertion (A): A flywheel is attached to a punching press so as to reduce its speed fluctuations. Reason(R): The flywheel stores energy when its speed increase. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t b t R is but i not t the th correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2002 IES
Which one is not a method of reducing cutting forces to prevent the overloading of press? (a) Providing shear on die (b) Providing shear on punch (c) Increasing die clearance (d) ( ) Stepping pp g p punches

S 2003 IAS
Match List I (Presspart) with List II (Function) and select the correct answer using below the i the h codes d given i b l h lists: li ListI ListII (Pressp ( part) ) (Function) ( ) (A) Punch plate 1. Assisting withdrawal of the punch (B) Stripper 2. Advancing the workpiece through correct di t distance (C) Stopper 3. Ejection of the workpiece from die cavity (D) ( ) Knockout 4. 4 Holding g the small p punch in the p proper p position Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 2 3 4 1

S 2000 IES
Best position of crank for blanking operation in a mechanical press is (a) Top dead centre (b) 20 degrees below top dead centre (c) 20 degrees before bottom dead centre (d) ( ) Bottom dead centre

S 1999 999 IES


Assertion (A): In sheet metal blanking operation, clearance must be given to the die. Reason (R): The blank should be of required dimensions. ( ) Both (a) B th A and d R are individually i di id ll true t and d R is i the th correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 47 of 76

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S 2003 IAS
The 'spring spring back back' effect in press working is (a) Elastic recovery of the sheet metal after removal of the load (b) Regaining the original shape of the sheet metal (c) Release of stored energy in the sheet metal (d) ( ) Partial recovery y of the sheet metal

S 1997 99 IES
A cup of 10 cm height and 5 cm diameter is to be made from a sheet metal of 2 mm thickness. The number of deductions necessary will be (a) One (b) Two T (c) Three (d) Four

E l Example
A symmetrical cup of 80 mm diameter and 250 mm

height is to be fabricated on a deep drawing die. How many drawing operations will be necessary if no intervening annealing is done. Also find the drawing force

IFS 2009
What is deep drawing process for sheet metal

G 2008 GATE
In the deep drawing of cups, blanks show a tendency to wrinkle up around the periphery (flange). The most likely cause and remedy of the phenomenon are, respectively, (A) Buckling due to circumferential compression; Increase blank holder pressure (B) High blank holder pressure and high friction; Reduce blank holder pressure and apply lubricant (C) High temperature causing increase in circumferential length: Apply coolant to blank (D) Buckling due to circumferential compression; decrease blank holder pressure

G 1999 999 GATE


Identify the stress state in the FLANCE portion of a PARTIALLYDRAWN CYLINDRICAL CUP when deep drawing without a blank holder (a) Tensile in all three directions (b) No N stress t i the in th flange fl at t all, ll because b th there i no is blankholder (c) Tensile stress in one direction and compressive in the one other direction (d) Compressive in two directions and tensile in the third direction

forming? Explain the function of a blank holder. What is drawing ratio and how is the drawing ratio increased ? [10 marks] [ ]

G 2003 GATE
A shell of 100 mm diameter and 100 mm height with the corner radius of 0.4 mm is to be produced by cup drawing. The required blank diameter is (a) 118 mm (b) 161 mm ( ) 224 mm (c) (d) 312 mm

ISRO2011
The initial blank diameter required to form a cylindrical li d i l cup of f outside id diameter di 'd and d total height g 'h' having g a corner radius 'r' is obtained using the formula

G 2006 GATE
Match the items in columns I and II. Column I Column II P Wrinkling P. 1 1. Yield point elongation Q. Orange peel 2. Anisotropy R Stretcher R. S h strains i 3. L Large grain i size i S. Earing 4. Insufficient blank holding force 5. Fine grain size 6. Excessive blank holding force (a) P 6, Q 3 3, R 1, S 2 (b) P 4, Q 5 5, R 6, S 1 (c) P 2, Q 5, R 3, S 4 (d) P 4, Q 3, R 1, S 2

(a ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5 0 5r (b) Do = d + 2h + 2r (c) Do = d 2 + 2h 2 + 2r


For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

(d ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5r

Page 48 of 76

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S 2008 IES
A cylindrical vessel with flat bottom can be deep drawn by (a) Shallow drawing (b) Single action deep drawing (c) Double action deep drawing (d) ( ) Triple p action deep p drawing g

S 1999 999 IES


Consider the following statements: Earring in a drawn cup can be due to nonuniform 1 Speed of the press 1. 2. Clearance between tools 3. Material properties 4. Blank holding 4 g Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1, 1 2 and 3 (b) 2, 2 3 and 4 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4

S 1994 99 IES
For obtaining a cup of diameter 25 mm and height 15 mm by drawing, the size of the round blank should be approximately (a) 42 mm (b) 44 mm ( ) 46 (c) 6 mm (d) 48 8 mm

S 2007 200 IAS


In drawing operation, proper lubrication essential for which of the following reasons? 1 To improve die life 1. 2. To reduce drawing forces 3. To reduce temperature 4. To improve 4 p surface finish Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1, 1 3 and 4 only (c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 is

S 1997 99 IAS
Which one of the following factor promotes the tendency for wrinking in the process of drawing? (a) Increase in the ratio of thickness to blank diameter of work material (b) Decrease D i the in th ratio ti thickness thi k t blank to bl k diameter di t of f work material (c) Decrease in the holding force on the blank (d) ( ) Use of solid lubricants

S 1994 99 IAS
Consider the following factors 1. Clearance between the punch and the die is too small. small 2. The finish at the corners of the punch is poor. 3. The finish at the corners of the die is poor. 4. The p 4 punch and die alignment g is not p proper. p The factors responsible for the vertical lines parallel to the axis noticed on the outside of a drawn cylindrical cup would include. (a) 2, 2 3 and 4 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 2 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4

S 1998 998 IES


Assertion (A): The first draw in deep drawing operation can have up to 60% reduction, the second draw up to 40% reduction and, 4 , the third draw of about 3 30% only. y Reason (R): Due to strain hardening, the subsequent draws in a deep p drawing g operation p have reduced percentages. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

G 1992 992 GATE


Thethicknessoftheblankneededtoproduce,by powerspinningamissileconeofthickness1.5mm andhalfconeangle30 30, ,is (a) 3.0mm (b) 2.5mm ( ) 2.0mm (c) (d) 1.5mm

S 1994 99 IES
The mode of deformation of the metal during spinning is (a) Bending (b) Stretching (c) Rolling and stretching (d) ( ) Bending g and stretching. g

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IFS2011
Comparemetalspinningwithpresswork. [ marks] [2 k ]

IES2011
High energy rate forming process used for forming components from thin metal sheets or deform thin tubes is: (a) Petroforming (b) Magnetic pulse forming (c) Explosive p forming g (d) electrohydraulic forming

20 0 JWM2010
( ) : In magnetic g p g method, , Assertion (A) pulse forming magnetic field produced by eddy currents is used to p create force between coil and workpiece. Reason (R) : It is necessary for the workpiece material to have magnetic properties. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct t explanation l ti of fA (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

IES2010
) : In the high g energy gy rate forming g Assertion ( (A) method, the explosive forming has proved to be an g energy g at high g rate and excellent method of utilizing utilizes both the high explosives and low explosives. Reason ( (R): ) The g gas p pressure and rate of detonation can be controlled for both types of explosives. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2007 200 IES


Which one of the following metal forming processes is not a high energy rate forming process? (a) Electromechanical forming (b) Rollforming (c) Explosive forming (d) ( ) Electrohydraulic y forming g

S 2009 IES
Which one of the following is a high energy rate forming process? (a) Roll forming (b) Electrohydraulic forming (c) Rotary forging (d) ( ) Forward extrusion

S 2005 200 IES


Magnetic forming is an example of: (a) Cold forming (b) Hot forming ( ) High (c) Hi h energy rate t forming f i (d) Roll R ll f forming i

IFS2011
Writefouradvantagesofhighvelocityformingprocess. [ marks] [2 k ]

G 2000 GATE
A 1.5 mm thick sheet is subject to unequal biaxial stretching and the true strains in the directions of stretching are 0.05 and 0.09. The final thickness of the sheet in mm is (a) 1.414 1 414 (b) 1.304 1 304 (c) 1.362 (d) 289

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IES1998
g force required q g, U The bending for Vbending, bending and Edge bending will be in the ratio of (a) 1 : 2 : 0.5 05 (b) 2: 1 : 0.5 05 (c) 1: 2 : 1 (d) 1: 1 : 1

E l Example
g force for a 45o bend in aluminium Calculate the bending blank. Blank thickness, 1.6 mm, bend length = 1200 mm, p g = 8t, , UTS = 455 MPa, , Die opening p g factor = Die opening 1.33

G 2005 200 GATE


A 2 mm thick metal sheet is to be bent at an angle of one radian with a bend radius of 100 mm. If the stretch factor is 0.5, the bend allowance is (a) 99 mm (b) 100 mm ( ) 101 mm (c) (d) 102 mm
2mm

1 radian

G 2007 200 GATE


g metal Match the correct combination for following working processes. Associated state of stress Processes P. Blanking 1. Tension Q Stretch Forming 2. Q. 2 Compression R. Coining 3. Shear S Deep Drawing S. 4 4. Tension and Compression 5. Tension and Shear C d P Q Codes:P R S P Q R S (a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 3 4 1 5 (c) 5 4 3 1 (d) 3 1 2 4

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
Match the following metal forming processes with their associated stresses in the workpiece. Metal lforming f i process 1.Coining 2.WireDrawing 3 Blanking 3. 4.Deep D Drawing D i (a) 1S, 2P, 3Q, 4R (c) 1P, 2Q, 3S, 4R Typeof fstress P.Tensile Q.Shear R Tensileand R. compressive S C S. Compressive i (b) 1S, 2P, 3R, 4Q (d) 1P, 2R, 3Q, 4S

G 2004 200 GATE


Match the following Product Process P Moulded P. M ld d luggage l 1. I j ti moulding Injection ldi Q. Packaging containers for liquid 2. Hot rolling R. Long structural shapes 3. Impact extrusion S. Collapsible tubes 4. Transfer moulding 5. Blow moulding 6 6. C i i Coining (a) P1 Q4 R6 S3 (b) P4 Q5 R2 S3 (c) P1 Q5 R3 S2 (d) P5 Q1 R2 S2

S 1999 999 IAS


( ) with List II ( ) Match List I (Process) (Production of p parts) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: ListI ListII A. Rolling 1. Discrete parts B. Forging 2. Rod and Wire C. Extrusion 3. Wide variety of shapes with thin walls ll D. Drawing 4. Flat plates and sheets 5. Solid l d and d hollow h ll parts Codes:A B C D A B C D ( ) 2 (a) 5 3 4 ( ) 1 (b) 2 5 4 (c) 4 1 3 2 (d) 4 1 5 2

S 1997 99 IAS
Match ListI (metal forming process) with ListII (Associated feature) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: Listl List II A Blanking A. Bl ki 1. Sh Shear angle l B. Flow forming 2. Coiled stock C. Roll forming 3. Mandrel D. Embossing 4. Closed matching dies Codes:A B C D A B C D ( ) 1 (a) 3 4 2 (b) 3 1 4 2 (c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 3 1 2 4

IES2010
g statements: Consider the following The material properties which principally determine how well a metal may be drawn are 1. Ratio of yield stress to ultimate stress. 2.Rate of increase of yield stress relative to progressive p g amounts of cold work. 3. Rate of work hardening. Whi h of Which f the th above b statements t t t is/are i / correct? t? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 only (d) 1, 2 and 3

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Ch18:SheetMetalForming
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Option C B A A D A A A A Q. No 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Option C C C C D A B D

( ) GATE2011(PI)

PowderMetallurgy gy

Which of the following powder production methods th d produces d spongy and d porous particles? ti l ? (a) Atomization (b) Reduction of metal oxides (c) ( ) Electrolytic y deposition p (d) Pulverization

BySKMondal

IES 2012
In electrolysis (a) For making copper powder, copper plate is made cathode in electrolyte tank (b) For making aluminum powder, aluminum plate is made d anode d (c) High amperage produces powdery deposit of cathode metal on anode (d) ( ) Atomization p process is more suitable for low melting g point metals

IES 2007Conventional
Metal powders are compacted by many methods, but

( ) GATE2010(PI)
In powder metallurgy, sintering of a component (a) Improves strength and reduces hardness (b) Reduces brittleness and improves strength

sintering is required to achieve which property? What i hot is h t iso i static t ti pressing? i ?
[2Marks] ]

(c) Improves hardness and reduces toughness (d) Reduces R d porosity i and d increases i bi l brittleness

IES 2011Conventional
Whatisisostatic pressingofmetalpowders? What h areitsadvantage d ?

( ) GATE 2009(PI)
Which of the following process is used to manufacture products with controlled porosity? (a) Casting ( ) welding (b) (c) formation (d) Powder metallurgy

( ) GATE 2011(PI)
The binding material used in cemented carbide cutting tti tools t l is i (a) graphite (b) tungsten (c) ( ) nickel (d) cobalt

[2Marks]

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IES2010
Consider the following parts: 1. Grinding wheel 2. Brake lining 3 Selflubricating bearings 3. Which of these parts are made by powder metallurgy ll technique? h i ? (a) ( ) 1, , 2 and 3 (b) ( ) 2 only y (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 2 only

IES2010
Metallic powders can be produced by (a) Atomization (b) Pulverization (c) Electrodeposition process (d) All of the above

S 2002 IES
The rate of production of a powder metallurgy part depends on (a) Flow rate of powder (b) Green strength of compact (c) Apparent density of compact (d) ( ) Compressibility p y of p powder

S 2001 200 IES


Match ListI (Components) with ListII (Manufacturing Processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List II A Car A. C body b d (metal) ( t l) 1. M hi i Machining B. Clutch lining 2. Casting C. Gears 3. Sheet metal pressing D. Engine block 4. Powder metallurgy Codes:A B C D A B C D ( ) 3 (a) 4 2 1 (b) 4 3 1 2 (c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2

GATE2011
The operation in which oil is permeated into the pores of a powder metallurgy product is known as ( ) mixing (a) i i (b) sintering (c) impregnation (d) Infiltration

S 1998 998 IES


In powder metallurgy, the operation carried out to improve the bearing property of a bush is called (a) infiltration (b) impregnation (c) plating (d) heat treatment

S 1997 99 IES
Which of the following components can be manufactured by powder metallurgy methods? 1 Carbide tool tips 1. 2 2. Bearings 3. Filters 4. Brake linings Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) ( ) 1, 3 and 4 ( (b) ) 2 and 3 (c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

S 1999 999 IES


The correct sequence of the given processes in manufacturing by powder metallurgy is (a) Blending, Blending compacting, compacting sintering and sizing (b) Blending, compacting, sizing and sintering (c) Compacting, sizing, blending and sintering (d) ( ) Compacting, p g blending, g sizing g and sintering g

S 1997 99 IES
p ) with ListII ( Match ListI ( (Gear component) (Preferred method of manufacturing) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII A. Gear for clocks 1. Hobbing B. Bakelite gears 2. Stamping C. Aluminium gears 3. Powder compacting D. Automobile transmission gears 4. Sand casting 5. Extrusion Code:A B C D A B C D (a) 2 3 5 1 (b) 5 3 4 2 (c) 5 1 2 3 (d) 2 4 5 3

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S 2001 200 IES


Carbidetipped cutting tools are manufactured by powder metal technology process and have a composition of (a) ZirconiumTungsten (35% 65%) (b) Tungsten T t carbide bid Cobalt C b lt (90% ( % 10%) %) (c) Aluminium oxide Silica (70% 30%) (d) NickelChromium Tungsten (30% 15% 55%)

S 1999 999 IES


Assertion (A): In atomization process of manufacture of metal powder, the molten metal is forced through a small orifice and broken up p by y a stream of compressed p air. Reason ( (R): ) The metallic p powder obtained by y atomization process is quite resistant to oxidation. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) ( ) Both A and R are individually y true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1997 99 IES
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII (Bearing materials) (Properties) A. Babbits 1. Porous B. Bronze 2. Good Embeddability 3. 3 Suitable for high g loads and low C. C.I. speeds D. Sintered powdered metal 4. Runs well with C.I. journals l Code:A B C D A B C D ( ) 2 (a) 3 4 1 ( ) 3 (b) 2 1 4 (c) 2 3 1 4 (d) 3 2 4 1

S 2007 200 IES


What are the advantages of powder metallurgy? 1. Extreme purity product 2. Low L labour l b cost t 3. Low equipment cost. Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only

S 2006 IES
Which of the following are the limitations of powder metallurgy? 1 High tooling and equipment costs. 1. costs 2. Wastage of material. 3. It cannot be automated. 4. Expensive 4 p metallic p powders. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) Only 1 and 2 (b) Only 3 and 4 (c) Only 1 and 4 (d) Only 1, 2 and 4

S 2004 200 IES


Consider the following factors: 1. Size and shape that can be produced economically 2. Porosity P it of f the th parts t produced d d 3. Available press capacity 4. High density Which of the above are limitations of powder metallurgy? (a) 1, 1 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2

IES 2012
) Parts made by y powder p gy do not Statement ( (I): metallurgy have as good physical properties as parts casted. (II): ) Particle shape p in p powder metallurgy gy Statement ( influences the flow characteristic of the powder. (a) ( ) Both Statement ( (I) ) and Statement ( (II) ) are individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

S 2009 IES
Which of the following cutting tool bits are made by powder metallurgy process? (a) Carbon steel tool bits (b) Stellite tool bits (c) Ceramic tool bits (d) HSS tool bits

S 2003 IAS
Which of the following are produced by powder metallurgy process? 1 Cemented carbide dies 1. 2. Porous bearings 3. Small magnets 4. Parts with intricate shapes 4 p Select the correct answer using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4

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S 2003 IAS
In parts produced by powder metallurgy process, presintering is done to (a) Increase the toughness of the component (b) Increase the density of the component (c) Facilitate bonding of nonmetallic particles (d) ( ) Facilitate machining g of the p part

S 2000 IAS
Consider the following processes: 1. Mechanical pulverization 2. Atomization At i ti 3. Chemical reduction 4. Sintering Which of these processes are used for powder preparation in powder metallurgy? (a) 2, 2 3 and 4 (b) 1, 1 2 and 3 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4

S 1997 99 IAS
) C Assertion ( (A): Close dimensional tolerances are NOT possible with isostatic pressing of metal powder in powder metallurgy technique. Reason (R): In the process of isostatic pressing, the pressure is equal in all directions which permits uniform density of the metal powder. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 1998 998 IAS


Throwaway tungsten manufactured by (a) Forging (c) Powder metallurgy carbide (b) (d) tip tools are Brazing Extrusion

S 1996 996 IAS


Which one of the following processes is performed in powder metallurgy to promote selflubricating properties in sintered parts? (a) Infiltration (b) Impregnation ( ) Plating (c) Pl ti (d) Graphitization G hiti ti

GATE2008(PI)
Matchthefollowing Group 1 P Mulling P. Q.Impregnation R.Flash l htrimming S.Curing g Group2 1 Powdermetallurgy 1. 2.Injection moulding 3.Processingof fFRPcomposites 4.Sandcasting g ( )P 2, (b) ,Q 4,R 3,S 1 (d)P 4,Q 1,R 2,S 3

( )P 4,Q 3,R 2, (a) ,S 1 (c)P 2,Q 1,R 4,S 3

S 2007 200 IAS


) Mechanical disintegration g Assertion ( (A): of a molten metal stream into fine particles by means of a jet of compressed air is known as atomization. Reason (R): In atomization process inertgas or water cannot be used as a substitute for compressed air. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S 2004 200 IAS


The following are the constituent steps in the process of powder metallurgy: 1 Powder conditioning 1. 2. Sintering 3. Production of metallic powder 4. Pressing 4 g or compacting p g into the desired shape p Indentify the correct order in which they have to be performed and select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) 1234 (b) 3142 (c) 2413 (d) 4321

S 2003 IAS
Assertion (A): Atomization method for production of metal powders consists of mechanical disintegration of molten stream into fine particles. p Reason (R): Atomization method is an excellent means of making gp powders from high g temperature p metals. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation p of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation p of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

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S 2007 200 IAS


Consider the following basic steps involved in the production of porous bearings: 1 Sintering 1. 2. Mixing 3. Repressing 4. Impregnation 4 p g 5. Colddiecompaction Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the above steps?
Q. No 1 2 3 4

Ch12:PowderMetallurgy gy
Option D B C A Q. No 5 6 7 8 Option C B D C

Limit Tolerance&Fits Limit,

BySKMondal

ForPSU
Tolerancesarespecified ( ) Toobtain (a) b desired d dfits f (b) becauseitisnotpossibletomanufactureasize exactly (c) ( ) toobtainhigher g accuracy y (d) tohaveproperallowances

ISRO2010
Expressing a dimension as 25.30.05 mm is the case of (a) Unilateral tolerance (b) Bilateral tolerance (c) Limiting dimensions (d) All of f the h above b

2010 ISRO2012 GATE 2010,


A shaft has a dimension,350.025 Th respective The ti values l of f fundamental f d t l deviation d i ti and d tolerance are
0.009

(a) 0.025, 0.008 (c) 0.009, 0.008

(b) 0.025,0.016 (d) 0.009,0.016

GATE 1992
TwoshaftsAandBhavetheirdiametersspecifiedas 100 0.1mmand0.1 0.0001mmrespectively. Whichofthefollowingstatementsis/aretrue? (a) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftA (b) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionisgreaterinshaft A (c) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftB (d) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionissameforshaft AandshaftB
+0.040 0.0100

GATE 2004
In an interchangeable assembly, shafts of size +0.020 25.000 mm mate with holes of size 25.0000.000 mm. The maximum possible clearance in the assembly will be ( ) 10 microns (a) i (b) 20 microns (c) 30 microns (d) 60 microns

S O2010 20 0 ISRO
0.02 +0.02 Dimension of the hole is 50+ mm 0.00 mm and shaft is 50 +0.00 mm.

The minimum clearance is (a) 0.02 mm (c) -0.02 0 02 mm (b) 0.00 mm (d) 0.01 0 01 mm

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IES 2005
p y the designer g The tolerance specified by for the diameter of a shaft is 20.00 0.025 mm. The shafts produced by three different machines A, B and C have mean diameters of 1999 mm, 2000 mm and 20.01 mm respectively, with same standard d i ti deviation. Wh t will What ill be b the th percentage t rejection j ti f for the shafts produced by machines A, B and C? ( ) Same (a) S f the for th machines hi A Band A, B d C since i th standard the t d d deviation is same for the three machines (b) Least L t for f machine hi A (c) Least for machine B (d) Least for machine C

GATE 2000
A slot is to be milled centrally on a block with a dimension of 40 0.05 mm. A milling cutter of 20 mm width is located with reference to the side of the block within 0.02 mm. The maximum offset in mm between the centre lines of the slot and the block is (a) 0.070 0 070 (b) 0.070 0 070 (c) 0.020 (d) 0.045

GATE 2007
0 .0 5 0

A hole is specified as 4 0 0 . 0 0 0 mm. The mating shaft has a clearance fit with minimum clearance of 0.01 mm. The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04 mm. The maximum clearance in mm between the hole and the shaft is (a) 0.04 (b) 0.05 (c) 0.10 (d) 0.11

IES2011
Interference fit joints are provided for: (a) Assembling bush bearing in housing (b) Mounting heavy duty gears on shafts (c) ( ) Mounting gp pulley y on shafts (d) Assembly of flywheels on shafts interference fits?

IES2013
Which of the following is a joint formed by

GATE 2005
In order to have interference fit, it is essential that the lower limit of the shaft should be (a) Greater than the upper limit of the hole (b) Lesser than the upper limit of the hole (c) Greater than the lower limit of the hole (d) ( ) Lesser than the lower limit of the hole

(a) Joint of cycle axle and its bearing (b) Joint between I.C. Engine piston and cylinder (c) Joint between a pulley and shaft transmitting power (d) Joint J i of f lathe l h spindle i dl and d its i bearing b i

GATE2011
A hole is of dimension 9
+0.015 0 015 +0

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
In an interchangeable assembly, shafts of size
+0.010

mm. The

25

+0.04 0.01

IAS2011Main
An interference assembly, of nominal diameter 20 mm, is of a unilateral holes and a shafts. The manufacturing f t i t l tolerances f the for th holes h l are twice t i that for the shaft. Permitted interference values are 0.03 to 0.09 mm. Determine the sizes, with limits, for the two mating parts. [10Marks]

corresponding p g shaft is of dimension The resulting assembly has (a) loose running fit (b) close running fit ( ) transition (c) t iti fit (d) interference fit

9 +0.001

mm.

mm mate with holes of size

0.03 25+ +0.02 0 02

mm.

The maximum interference (in microns) in the assembly is ( ) 40 (a) (b) 30 ( ) 20 (c) (d) 10

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IES 2007

ISRO2011
Ashaftandholepairisdesignatedas50H7d8.This assemblyconstitutes (a)Interferencefit (b)Transitionfit (c)Clearancefit (d)Noneoftheabove

IES 2006
Which of the following is an interference fit? (a) Push fit (b) Running R i fit (c) Sliding fit (d) Shrink fit

IES 2009
Consider the following joints: 1. Railway carriage wheel and axle 2. IC engine i cylinder li d and d liner li Which of the above joints is/are the result(s) of interference fit? (a) ( ) 1 only y (b) 2 only (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 and 2

IES 2008
Consider the following statements: 1. The amount of interference needed to create a tight joint varies with diameter of the shaft. shaft 2. An interference fit creates no stress state in the shaft. h ft 3. The stress state in the hub is similar to a thick walled cylinder with internal pressure. Which of the statements g given above are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only

IES 2004
Consider the following fits: 1. I.C. engine cylinder and piston 2. Ball B ll bearing b i outer t race and d housing h i 3. Ball bearing inner race and shaft Which of the above fits are based on the interference y system? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3

IES 2003
) with ListII (Significant ( g Match ListI ( (Phenomenon) Parameters/Phenomenon) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII (Phenomenon) (Significant Parameters/Phenomenon) / ) A. Interference fit 1. Viscosity index B. Cyclic loading 2. Interference C. Gear meshing 3. Notch sensitivity D. Lubricating of bearings 4. Induced compressive stress t Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 4 1 2 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 4 3 1 2

GATE 2001
Allowance in limits and fits refers to (a) Maximum clearance between shaft and hole (b) Minimum Mi i clearance l b t between shaft h ft and d hole h l (c) Difference between maximum and minimum size of hole (d) ( ) Difference between maximum and minimum size of shaft

GATE 1998
In the specification of dimensions and fits, (a) Allowance is equal to bilateral tolerance (b) Allowance All i equal is l to t unilateral il t l tolerance t l (c) Allowance is independent of tolerance (d) Allowance is equal to the difference between p by y the maximum and minimum dimension specified tolerance.

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IES 2012
Clearance in a fit is the difference between (a) Maximum hole size and minimum shaft size (b) Minimum Mi i h l size hole i and d maximum i shaft h ft size i (c) Maximum hole size and maximum shaft size (d) Minimum hole size and minimum shaft size

ISRO2008
Basic shaft and basic hole are those whose upper deviations and lower deviations respectively are (a) +ve, ve ( ) Zero, Zero (c) (b) ve, +ve ( ) None of the above (d)

IES 2005
Assertion (A): Hole basis system is generally preferred to shaft basis system in tolerance design for getting the required fits. Reason (R): Hole has to be given a larger tolerance band than the mating shaft. shaft (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

S2006Conventional C i l IES
Find the limit sizes, tolerances and allowances for a 100 mm diameter shaft and hole pair designated by F8h10. Also specify the type of fit that the above pair belongs to. Given: 100 mm diameter lies in the diameter step range of 80120 mm. The fundamental deviation for shaft designation f f is 5.5 5 5 D0.41 The values of standard tolerances for grades of IT 8 and d IT 10 are 25i i and d 64i 6 i respectively. ti l Also, indicate the limits and tolerance on a diagram. [15Marks]

IES 2008
Consider the following statements: A nomenclature 50 H8/p8 denotes that 1. Hole H l diameter di t is i 50 mm. 2. It is a shaft base system. 3. 8 indicates fundamental deviation. Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and d 2 only l (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 3 only

IES 2002
In the tolerance specification 25 D 6, the letter D represents (a) Grade of tolerance (b) Upper deviation (c) Lower deviation (d) ( ) Type yp of fit

GATE 2009
pp What are the upper and lower limits of the shaft represented by 60 f8? Use the following data: Diameter 60 lies in the diameter step of 5080 mm. Fundamental tolerance unit, i, in m= 0.45 D1/3 + 0.001D, where D is the representative size in mm; T l Tolerance value l for f lT8 = 25i. i Fundamental deviation for 'f shaft = 5.5D0.41 ( ) Lower limit (a) l = 59.924 mm, Upper Limit = 59.970 mm (b) Lower limit = 59.954 mm, Upper Limit = 60.000 mm ( ) Lower limit = 59.970 mm, Upper Limit = 60.016 mm (c) (d) Lower limit = 60.000 mm, Upper Limit = 60.046 mm

GATE 2008(PI)
Following data are given for calculating limits of dimensions and tolerances for a hole: Tolerance unit i (in m) = 0.45 D + 0.001D. The unit of D is mm. Diameter step is 1830 mm. If the fundamental deviation for H hole is zero and IT8 = 25 i, i the maximum and minimum limits of dimension for a 25 mm H8 hole (in mm) are (a) 24.984, 24.967 (c) 25.033, 25.000 (b) 25.017, 24.984

GATE 2000
A fit is specified as 25H8/e8. The tolerance value for a nominal diameter of 25 mm in IT8 is 33 microns and fundamental deviation for the shaft is 40 microns. The maximum clearance of the fit in microns is (a) 7 (b) 7 (c) 73 (d) 106

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(d) 25.000, 24.967

Rev.0

GATE 2003
The dimensional limits on a shaft of 25h7 are (a) 25.000, 25.021 mm (b) 25.000, 24.979 mm (c) 25.000, 25.007 mm (d) 25.000, 24.993 mm

GATE2010(PI)
A small bore is designated as 25H7. The lower (minimum) and upper (maximum) limits of the bore are 25.000 mm and 25.021 mm, respectively. When the bore is designated as 25H8, then the upper (maximum) limit is 25.033 25 033 mm. mm When the bore is designated as 25H6, then the upper (maximum) limit of the bore (in mm) is (a) 25.001 (b) 25.005 (c) 25.009 (d) 25.013

1996 IES2012 GATE 1996,


The fit on a holeshaft system is specified as H7 s6.The type of fit is (a) Clearance fit (b) Running fit (sliding fit) (c) Push fit (transition fit) (d) ( ) Force fit ( (interference fit) )

IES 2000
Which one of the following tolerances set on inner diameter and outer diameter respectively of headed jig bush for press fit is correct? (a) G7 h 6 (b) F7 n6 ( ) H 7h (c) h6 (d) F7j6 F j6

ISRO2008
Interchangeability can be achieved by (a) Standardization (b) Better process planning (c) Simplification (d) Better B product d planning l i

IAS2010main
What is the difference between hole basis system and shaft basis system ? Why is hole basis system the more extensive t i in i use ? What are the differences between interchangeability and selective assembly ? [12Marks]

GATE 2003

GATE 1997
Three blocks B1 , B2 and B3 are to be inserted in a channel of width S maintaining a minimum i i gap of f width idth T = 0.125 mm, as shown in Figure. For P = 18. 18 75 0.08; 0 08; Q = 25.00 0.12; R = 28.125 28 125 0.1 0 1 and S = 72.35 + X, (where all dimensions are in mm), mm) the tolerance X is
(a)+0.38 0 38 (b) 0.38 0 38 (c)+0.05 0 05 (d) 0.05 0 05

A threecomponent welded cylindrical assembly is shown below. The mean length of the three components and their respective tolerances (both in mm) are given in the table below.

GATE 2008(PI)

Assuming g a normal distribution for the individual component dimensions, the natural tolerance limits for the length (Y) of the assembly (mm) is ( ) 65 (a) 6 2.16 6 (b) 65 6 1.56 6 (c) ( ) 65 6 0.96 6 (d) 65 6 0.36 6

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GATE 2007(PI)
Tolerance on the dimension x in the two component assembly shown below is (All dimensions in mm) ( ) (a) ( ) 0.025 (a) ( ) 0.030 3 (a) 0.040 ( ) 0.045 (a)

GATE2007(PI)
The g geometric tolerance that does NOT need a datum for its specification is (a) Concentricity (c) Perpendicularity (b) Runout (d) Flatness

GATE 2007(PI)
Diameter of a hole after plating needs to be controlled
0 050 0.050 b t between 30+ the plating l ti thickness thi k varies i +0.010 mm. If th

between 10 - 15 microns, diameter of the hole before plating should be


0.070 (a) 30+ +0.030 mm 0 080 0.080 ( ) 30+ (c) +0.030 mm 0.065 (b) 30+ +0.020 mm 0 0.070 070 (d) 30+ +0.040 mm

GATE2013
0.020 Cylindrical pins of 25+ +0.010 mm diameter are

ISRO2008
Plug gauges are used to ( ) Measure the (a) h diameter d of f the h workpieces k (b) Measure the diameter of the holes in the workpieces (c) ( ) Check the diameter of the holes in the workpieces (d) Check the length of holes in the workpieces

GATE 2004
GO and NOGO plug gages are to be designed for a 0.05 hole 200.01 mm. Gage tolerances can be taken as 10% of the hole tolerance. tolerance Following ISO system of gage design, sizes of GO and NOGO gage will be respectively (a) 20.010 mm and 20.050 mm (b) 20.014 mm and 20.046 mm (c) ( ) 20.006 mm and 20.054 54 mm (d) 20.014 mm and 20.054 mm

electroplated l t l t d in i a shop. h Thickness Thi k of f the th plating is 30 2.0 micron micron. Neglecting gage tolerances, the size of the GO gage in mm to inspect the plated components is (a) 25.042 (b) 25.052 (c) 25.074 (d) 25.084

GATE 1995
Checking the diameter of a hole using GONOGO gauges is an, example of inspection by ..(variables/attributes) The above statement is ( ) Variables (a) V i bl (b) Attributes (c) Cant say (d) Insufficient data

2006 VS2012 GATE 2006,


A ring gauge is used to measure (a) Outside diameter but not roundness (b) Roundness R d b t not but t outside t id diameter di t (c) Both outside diameter and roundness (d) Only external threads

MeasurementofLines&Surfaces

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By SKMondal Rev.0

ISRO2010
The vernier reading should not be taken at i face its f value l b f before an actual l check h k has h been taken for (a) Zero error (b) Its It calibration lib ti (c) ( ) Flatness of measuring gj jaws (d) Temperature equalization

ISRO2008
The least count of a metric vernier caliper having 25 divisions on vernier scale, matching with 24 divisions of main scale (1 main scale divisions = 0.5 mm) is (a) ( ) 0.005 5 mm (c) 0.02 mm (b) ( ) 0.01 mm (d) 0.005mm and

,2011 ISRO2009,
In a simple micrometer with screw pitch 0.5 mm divisions on thimble 50, the reading

corresponding to 5 divisions on barrel and 12 divisions on thimble is (a) ( ) 2.620 mm (c) 2.120 mm (b) ( ) 2.512 5 mm (d) 5.012 mm

GATE 2008

S1

td from f GATE 2008contd S1


If Rp= RQ>0, which one of the following would be consistent with the observation? (A) The drill spindle rotational axis is coincident with the drill spindle taper hole axis (B) The drill spindle rotational axis intersects the drill spindle taper hole axis at point P (C) The drill spindle rotational axis is parallel to the drill spindle taper hole axis (D) The drill spindle rotational axis intersects the drill spindle taper hole axis at point Q

ISRO2010
A master gauge is (a) A new gauge (b) An international reference standard ( ) A standard (c) t d d gauge for f checking h ki accuracy of f gauges used on shop floors (d) A gauge used by experienced technicians

A displacement sensor (a dial indicator) measures the lateral displacement of a mandrel mounted on the taper hole inside a drill spindle. The mandrel axis is an extension of the drill spindle taper hole axis and the protruding portion of the mandrel surface is perfectly cylindrical. Measurements are taken with the sensor placed at two positions P and Q as shown in the figure. The readings are recorded as Rx = maximum deflection minus minimum deflection, corresponding to sensor position at X, over one rotation.

ISRO2008
Standards to be used for reference purposes in laboratories and workshops are termed as (a) Primary standards ( ) Secondary standards (b) (c) Tertiary standards (d) Working standards

GATE 2007(PI)
Which one of the following instruments is a comparator ? ( ) Tool (a) T l Makers M k Microscope Mi (b) ( ) GO/NO GO g gauge g (c) Optical Interferometer (d) Dial Di l Gauge G

PSU
Afeelergaugeisusedtocheckthe (a)Pitchofthescrew (b)Surfaceroughness (c)Thicknessofclearance (d)Flatness Fl of fasurface f

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IAS2011Main
DrawaselfexplanatorysketchofSigma mechanicalcomparator.Explainhow (i)shockloadisavoided, ( )oscillationsofthepointeraredamped. (ii) [10 marks]

ISRO2011
A sine bar is specified by (a) Its total length (b) The size of the rollers ( ) The (c) Th centre t distance di t b t between th two the t rollers ll (d) ( ) The distance between rollers and upper pp surface

GATE2012(PI)
A sine bar has a length of 250 mm. Each roller has a diameter di t of f 20 mm. During D i t taper angle l measurement of a component, p , the height g from the surface plate to the centre of a roller is 100 mm. The calculated taper angle (in degrees) is (a) 21.1 (b) 22.8 (c) 23.6 (d) 68.9

( ) GATE 2011(PI)
The best wire size (in mm) for measuring effective di diameter t of f a metric t i thread th d (included (i l d d angle l is i 60 6 o) of 20 mm diameter and 2.5 mm pitch using two wire i method th d is i (a) 1.443 (b) 0.723 (c) ( ) 2.886 (d) 2.086

GATE2013
A metric t i thread th d of f pitch it h 2 mm and d thread th d angle l 60 6 inspected p for its p pitch diameter using g 3wire method. The diameter of the best size wire in mm is (a) 0.866 (b) 1.000 (c) 1.154 (d) 2.000

( ) GATE 2011(PI)
To measure the effective diameter of an external metric thread (included angle is 60o) of 3.5 3 5 mm pitch, a cylindrical standard of 30.5 mm diameter and a d t two o wires es o of 2 mm d diameter a ete eac each a are e used. The micrometer readings over the standard and over the wires are 16.532 mm and 15.398 mm, respectively. The effective diameter (in mm) of the thread is (a) 33.366 (b) 30.397 (c) 29.366 (d) 26.397

IES 1992
Which grade symbol represents surface rough of broaching? (a) N12 (b) N8 (c) N4 (d) N1

IFS2011
What Wh t is i meant t by b interchangeable i t h bl manufacture? f t ? Laser light has unique advantages for inspection. inspection y ? Define the terms 'roughness g What are they height', 'waviness width' and 'lay' in connection with surface irregularities. [ marks] [10 k ]
of

ISRO2011
CLAvalueandRMSvaluesareusedformeasurement

(a)Metalhardness (b)Sharpnessoftooledge (c)Surfacedimensions (d)Surfaceroughness

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IES 2006
The M and Esystem in metrology are related to measurement of: (a) Screw threads (b) Flatness (c) Angularity (d) Surface finish

IES 2007
What is the dominant direction of the tool marks or scratches in a surface texture having a directional quality, called? (a) Primary texture (b) Secondary texture ( ) Lay (c) L (d) Flaw Fl

IES 2008
What term is used to designate the direction of the predominant surface pattern produced by machining operation? (a) Roughness (b) Lay ( ) Waviness (c) W i (d) Cut C t off ff

IES2010
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: List I List II (Symbols for direction of lay) (Surface texture)

IES 2008

ISRO2010
Surface roughness represented d by b (a) Triangles (b) Circles (c) Squares (d) Rectangles on a drawing is

(a) (c)

A 4 4

B 2 1

C 1 2

D 3 3

(b) (d)

A 3 3

B 2 1

C 1 2

D 4 4

GATE 1997
List I List II (A) Surface profilometer 1. Calibration (B) Light Section Microscope 2. 2 Form tester (C) Microkater 3. Film thickness measurement (D) Interferometer 4. Centre line average 5 5. Comparator 6. Surface lay measurement C d A B Codes:A C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 4 3 5 1 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

ISRO2007
Gratings are used in connection with (a) Flatness measurement (b) Roundness measurement (c) Surface texture measurement (d) Linear Li di l displacement measurements

GATE 2003
Two slip gauges of 10 mm width measuring 1.000 1 000 mm and 1.002 mm are kept side by side in contact with each other lengthwise. An optical flat is kept resting on the slip gauges as shown in the figure. Monochromatic light of wavelength 0.0058928 mm is used in the inspection. The total number of straight fringes that can be observed on both slip gauges is (a)2 (c)8 (b)6 (d)13

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GATE 2011(PI)
Observation of Ob ti f a slip li gauge on a flatness fl t interferometer produced fringe counts numbering 10 and d 14 for f two t readings. di Th second The d reading di is i taken by rotating the setup by 180o. Assume that b th faces both f of f the th slip li gauge are flat fl t and d the th wavelength of the radiation is 0.5086 m. The parallelism ll li error (in (i m) ) between b t th two the t f faces of f the slip gauge is ( ) 0.2543 (a) (b) 1.172 (c) 0.5086 (d) 0.1272

GATE 1998
Auto collimator is used to check (a) Roughness (b) Flatness Fl t (c) Angle (d) Automobile balance.

MiscellaneousofMetrology

BySKMondal

( ) GATE 2009(PI)
An autocollimator is used to (a) measure small angular displacements on flat surface ( ) compare known and unknown dimensions (b) (c) measure the flatness error (d) measure roundness error between centers

S O2010 20 0 ISRO
Optical square is (a) Engineer's square having stock and blade set at 90o (b) A constant t t deviation d i ti prism i h i having th angle the l of f deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray, equal l to t 90o (c) A constant deviation prism having the angle of deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray, equal to 45o (d) Used to produce interference fringes

IES 1998
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the codes below the d given i b l h lists: li ListI ListII (Measuring ( g Device) ) (Parameter Measured) ( ) A. Diffraction grating 1. Small angular deviations on long flat surfaces B B. Optical flat 2 2. Online measurement of moving parts C. Auto collimators 3. Measurement of gear pitch D D. L Laser scan micrometer4. i t S f Surface t t texture using i interferometer i t f t 5. Measurement of very small displacements Code: A B C D A B C D (a) 5 4 2 1 (b) 3 5 1 2 (c) 3 5 4 1 (d) 5 4 1 2

GATE 1992
y q y Match the instruments with the p physical quantities they measure: Instrument Measurement (A) Pilottube (1) R.P.M. of a shaft g (2) Displacement p (B) McLeod Gauge (C) Planimeter (3) Flow velocity (4) 4 Vacuum (D) LVDT (5) Surface finish (6) ( ) Area Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) ( ) 4 1 2 3 (b) ( ) 3 4 6 2 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

GATE 2004
Match the following Feature to be inspected Instrument P Pitch and Angle errors of screw thread 1. 1 Auto Collimator Q Flatness error of a surface plate 2. Optical Interferometer R Alignment Ali error of f a machine hi slide lid way 3. Dividing Di idi Head H d and Dial Gauge S Profile P fil of f a cam 4. Spirit S i i Level L l 5. Sine bar 6. Tool maker's Microscope (a) P6 Q2 R4 S6 (b) P5 Q2 R1 S6 (c) P6 Q4 R1 S3 (d) P1 Q4 R4 S2

GATE 1995
List I (Measuring instruments) (A) Talysurf T l f 1. (B) Telescopic gauge 2. (C) Transfer callipers 3. (D) Autocollimator 4. Codes:A B C D ( ) 4 (a) 1 2 3 (b) (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) List II (Application) Tslots l t Flatness Internal diameter Roughness A B C D 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 4

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GATE 2010
A taper hole is inspected using a CMM, with a probe of 2 mm diameter. At a height, Z = 10 mm from the bottom, 5 points are touched and a diameter of circle (not compensated for probe size) is obtained as 20 mm. Similarly, a 40 mm diameter is obtained at a height Z = 40 mm. the smaller diameter (in mm) of hole at Z = 0 is (a) 13.334 (b) 15.334 (c) 15.442 (d) 15.542

GATE2008(PI)
An experimental setup is planned to determine the taper of workpiece as shown in the figure. If the two precision rollers have radii 8 mm and 5 mm and the total thickness of slip gauges inserted i d between b the h rollers ll i 15.54 mm, the is h taper angle is ( ) 6 degree (a) d (b) 10 degree (c) 11 degree (d) 12 degree g

ISRO2007
Which Whi h of f the h following f ll i errors are inevitable i i bl in i the h measuring g system y and it would be vain full exercise to avoid them (a) Systematic errors (b) Random R d errors (c) Calibration errors (d) Environmental errors

Ch13:Metrology gy
Q.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Option C C A C C B C B B Q.No 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Option D A B B D B C B

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Introduction
Success in metal cutting depends on selection of the

Cementedcarbides, Castcarbides, carbides Coatedcarbides, Coated dhigh h hspeed dsteels, l Ceramics, Cermets, Whiskerreinforcedceramics, ceramics Sialons, Sintered dpolycrystalline l ll cubic b boron b nitride d (CBN), ( ) Sinteredpolycrystallinediamond,andsinglecrystal

CuttingToolMaterials

BySKMondal

proper cutting tool (material and geometry) for a given work material. A wide range g of cutting g tool materials is available with a variety of properties, performance capabilities, and cost. These include: High carbon Steels and low/medium alloy steels, steels Highspeed steels, Cast cobalt b l alloys, ll
Contd

naturaldiamond.

CarbonSteels
Limited not suited Li i d tool l life. lif Therefore, Th f i d to mass

FIGURE:Improvementsincuttingtoolmaterialshavereduced machiningtime.

production Can C b formed be f d into i complex l shapes h f for small ll production runs Low L cost Suited to hand tools, and wood working Carbon content about 0.9 to 1.35% with a hardness ABOUT 62 C Rockwell Maximum cutting speeds about 26 ft/min. dry The hot hardness value is low. This is the major factor in tool life.

Fig.Productivityraisedbycuttingtoolmaterials

S 1997 99 IAS
Assertion (A): Cutting tools made of high carbon steel have shorter tool life. Reason(R): During machining, machining the tip of the cutting tool is heated to 600/700C which cause the teal tip to lose its hardness. hardness (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)

Highspeedsteel
These steels metals Th t l are used d for f cutting tti t l at t a much h

higher cutting speed than ordinary carbon tool steels. The high speed steels have the valuable property of retaining their hardness even when heated to red heat. Most of the high speed steels contain tungsten as the y g element, but other elements like cobalt, chief alloying chromium, vanadium, etc. may be present in some p p proportion.

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Contd

WithtimetheeffectivenessandefficiencyofHSS

IES2013
Vanadium in high speed steels: (a) Has a tendency y to p promote decarburization (b) Form very hard carbides and thereby increases the wear resistance of the tool (c) Helps in achieving high hot hardness (d) Has H a tendency d to promote retention i of f Austenite A i Ans (b) Ans.

IAS1997
Whichofthefollowingprocessescanbeusedfor productionthin,hard,heatresistantcoatingatTiN, onHSS? 1. Physicalvapour deposition. . S Sintering te gu under de reducing educ gat atmosphere. osp e e. 2. 3. Chemicalvapour depositionwithposttreatment 4. Plasmaspraying. Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow: Codes: (a) 1and3 (b) 2and3 (c) 2and4 (d) 1and4 Ans.(a)

(too s)a dt e app cat o range a gewere e egradually g adua y (tools) and their application enhancedbyimprovingitspropertiesandsurface conditionthrough Refinementofmicrostructure Additionoflarge g amountofcobaltandVanadiumto increasehothardnessandwearresistance respectively Manufacturebypowdermetallurgicalprocess Surfacecoating gwithheatandwearresistive materialslikeTiC ,TiN ,etcbyChemicalVapour Deposition(CVD)orPhysicalVapourDeposition (PVD)

1841Highspeedsteel
This 4 per cent Thi steel t l contains t i 18 8 per cent t tungsten, t t t

IES2003
The Th correct tsequenceof felements l t of f18 841HSS toolis ( ) W,Cr,V (a) (b) Mo,Cr,V (c) Cr,Ni,C (d) Cu, Cu Zn Zn,Sn Ans.(a)

IES2007
Cutting C tti tool t lmaterial t i l18 841HSShas h which hi honeof f thefollowingcompositions? ( ) 18%W,4%Cr,1%V (a) ( ) 18%Cr,4%W,1%V (b) (c) 18%W,4%Ni,1%V (d) 18%Cr,4%Ni,1%V Ans (a) Ans.

chromium and 1 per cent vanadium. It is considered to be one of the best of all purpose tool steels. It is widely used for drills, lathe, planer and shaper g cutters, reamers, broaches, threading g tools, milling dies, punches, etc.

IES1993
The Th blade bl d of fapowersawis i made d of f (a) Boronsteel (b) Highspeedsteel (c) Stainlesssteel (d) Malleablecastiron A (b) Ans.

Molybdenumhighspeedsteel
This 6 per cent Thi steel t l contains t i 6 per cent t tungsten, t t t

Superhighspeedsteel
This called Thi steel t l is i also l ll d cobalt b lt high hi h speed d steel t l

molybdenum, 4 per cent chromium and 2 per cent vanadium. di It has excellent toughness and cutting ability. The molybdenum high speed steels are better and p than other types yp of steels. cheaper It is particularly used for drilling and tapping operations.

because cobalt is added from 2 to 15 per cent, in order t increase to i th cutting the tti efficiency ffi i especially i ll at t high hi h temperatures. This steel contains 20 per cent tungsten, 4 per cent chromium, 2 per cent vanadium and 12 per cent cobalt.

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IES1995
The of Th compositions iti fsomeof fthe th alloy ll steels t l areas under: 1. 18 8W4Cr C 1V 2. 12Mo1W4Cr1V 3. 6Mo6W4Cr1V 4. 18W8Cr1V Thecompositionsofcommonlyusedhighspeedsteels wouldinclude (a) 1and2 (b) 2and3 (c) 1and4 (d) 1and3 Ans.(d)

IES2000
Percentage P t of fvarious i alloying ll i elements l t present t indifferentsteelmaterialsaregivenbelow: 1. 18%W;4%Cr;1%V;5%Co;0.7%C 2. 8%Mo;4%Cr;2%V;6%W;0.7%C 3. 27%Cr;3%Ni;5%Mo;0.25%C 4 18%Cr;8%Ni;0.15% 4. 0 15%C Whichoftheserelatetothatofhighspeedsteel? ( ) 1and (a) d3 (b) 1and d2 (c) 2and3 (d) 2and4 Ans.(b)

IES1992
The inhi high Steel Th main i alloying ll i elements l t i hspeed dSt lin i orderofincreasingproportionare ( ) Vanadium,chromium,tungsten (a) (b) Tungsten, g titanium,vanadium (c) Chromium,titanium,vanadium (d) Tungsten, Tungsten chromium, chromium titanium Ans.(a)

IAS2001
Assertion(A):Forhighspeedturningofmagnesium alloys,thecoolantorcuttingfluidpreferrediswater misciblemineralfattyoil. Reason(R):Asarule,waterbasedoilsarerecommended forhighspeedoperationsinwhichhightemperaturesare generatedduetohighfrictionalheat. heat Waterbeingagood coolant,theheatdissipationisefficient. (a) ( ) BothAandRareindividually ytrueandRisthecorrect explanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot thecorrect explanation l i of fA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans (a) Ans.

IAS1994
Assertion(A):ThecharacteristicfeatureofHigh speedSteelisitsredhardness. Reason(R):ChromiumandcobaltinHighSpeed promotemartensite formationwhenthetooliscold worked. (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthecorrect explanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA ( ) Ais (c) i trueb butRi isf false l (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(b)

Castcobaltalloys/Stellite
Cast cobalt are cobalt C b l alloys ll b l rich, i h chromium h i tungsten carbon b

cast alloys having properties and applications in the intermediate range g between high g speed p steel and cemented carbides. Although comparable in roomtemperature hardness to high speed d steel l tools, l cast cobalt b l alloy ll tools l retain i their h i hardness h d to a much higher temperature. Consequently, they can be used at higher g cutting g speeds p (25% ( 5 higher) g ) than HSS tools. Cutting speed of up to 80100 fpm can be used on mild steels. Cast cobalt alloys y are hard as cast and cannot be softened or heat treated. Cast cobalt alloys contain a primary phase of Corich solid solution strengthened by b Cr and W and dispersion hardened by b complex hard, refractory carbides of W and Cr.
Contd

Other elements added include V, B, Ni, and Ta. Tools of cast cobalt alloys are generally cast to shape and

IES2011
Stellite is a nonferrous cast alloy composed of: (a) Cobalt, chromium and tungsten (b) Tungsten, vanadium and chromium (c) ( ) Molybdenum, y tungsten g and chromium (d)Tungsten, molybdenum, chromium and vanadium Ans (a) Ans.

CementedCarbide
Carbides, which alloys, are also called, C bid hi h are nonferrous f ll l ll d

finished f h d to size by b grinding. d


They are available only in simple shapes, such as single

point i t tools t l and d saw blades, bl d b because of f limitations li it ti i the in th casting process and expense involved in the final shaping (grinding). The high cost of fabrication is due primarily to the high hardness of the material in the ascast condition. Materials machinable with this tool material include p plain carbon steels, alloy steels, nonferrous alloys, and cast iron. Cast cobalt alloys are currently being phased out for cuttingtool applications because of increasing costs, shortages of strategic raw materials (Co, W, and Cr), and the development of other, other superior tool materials at lower cost.

sintered (or cemented) carbides because they are manufactured by powder metallurgy techniques. techniques Most carbide tools in use today are either straight g carbide ( (WC) ) or multicarbides of WTi or W tungsten TiTa, depending on the work material to be machined. Cobalt is the binder. These tool materials are much harder, are chemically more stable, have better hot hardness, high stiffness, and lower fi i friction, and d operate at higher hi h cutting i speeds d than h do d HSS. HSS They are more brittle and more expensive and use strategic metals t l (W, (W Ta, T Co) C ) more extensively. t i l

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Contd

Cemented carbide tool materials based on TiC have

bee e oped, p a y for o auto industry dust y been de developed, primarily applications using predominantly Ni and Mo as a binder. These are used for higherspeed (> 1000 ft/min) finish machining of steels and some malleable cast irons. Cemented carbide tools are available in insert form in many different shapes; squares, triangles, diamonds, and d rounds. d Compressive strength is high compared to tensile strength, t th therefore th f th bits the bit are often ft brazed b d to t steel t l shanks, or used as inserts in holders. These Th i inserts t may often ft have h negative ti rake k angles. l
Contd

Speeds up to 300 fpm are common on mild steels Hot hardness properties are very good Coolants C l t and d lubricants l bi t can be b used d to t increase i t l tool

life, but are not required.


Special alloys are needed to cut steel

Contd

IES1995
Thestraightgradesofcementedcarbidecutting toolmaterialscontain (a) Tungstencarbideonly (b) Tungstencarbideandtitaniumcarbide (c) Tungstencarbideandcobalt (d) Tungsten T t carbide bid and dcobalt b ltcarbide bid Ans.(c)

S 1994 99 IAS
Assertion (A): Cemented carbide tool tips are produced by powder metallurgy. Reason (R): Carbides cannot be melted and cast. cast (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct t explanation l ti of fA (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) ( ) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)

ThestandardsdevelopedbyISOforgroupingofcarbidetools andtheirapplicationrangesaregiveninTablebelow. ISO Code P Colour Code Application For machining long chip forming common materials like plain carbon and low alloy steels For machining long or short chip forming ferrous materials like Stainless steel For machining short chipping, ferrous and non- ferrous material and d non metals t l like lik Cast C tI Iron, Brass etc.

Tablebelowshowsdetailgroupingofcementedcarbidetools
ISO Application group P01 P10 P20 P30 P40 P50 Material Process

K01 K10

Steel Steel castings Steel, Steel, Steel castings Steel, steel castings, malleable cast iron Steel, steel castings, malleable cast iron Steel and steel casting with sand inclusions

Precision and finish machining, machining high speed Turning, threading, and milling high speed, small chips Turning, milling, medium speed with small chip section Turning, milling, medium speed with small chip section Turning planning Turning, planning, low cutting speed speed, large chip section

K20 K30 K40 M10 M20

M30

Steel and steel castings Operations requiring high toughness turning, of medium or low tensile planning, shaping at low cutting speeds strength

M40

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Hard grey C.l., chilled casting, Turning, precision turning and boring, milling, Al. alloys with high silicon scraping Grey C.l. hardness > 220 HB HB. Turning, milling, boring, reaming, broaching, G C l h d T i illi b i i b hi Malleable C.l., Al. alloys scraping containing Si Grey C.l. C l hardness up to 220 Turning milling Turning, milling, broaching, broaching requiring high HB toughness Soft grey C.l. Low tensile Turning, reaming under favourable conditions strength steel Soft non-ferrous metals Turning milling etc. Steel, steel castings, Turning, milling, medium cutting speed and medium manganese steel, grey C.l. chip section Steel casting, casting austentic steel, steel Turning, Turning milling milling, medium cutting speed and medium manganese steel, chip section spherodized C.l., Malleable C.l. Steel, austenitic steel, Turning, milling, planning, medium cutting speed, spherodized C.l. heat medium or large chip section resisting alloys f turning, specially in automatic Free cutting steel, low tensile Turning, profile strength steel, brass and light machines. alloy

IES1999
Match List M hList Li I(ISOclassification l ifi i of fcarbide bid tools) l )with i hLi II(Applications)andselectthecorrectanswerusingthe codesg givenbelowtheLists: ListI ListII A. P10 1. Nonferrous,roughing g gcut B. P50 2. Nonferrous,finishingcut C. K10 3. Ferrousmaterial,roughingcut D. K50 4. Ferrousmaterial,finishingcut Code: A B C D A B C D ( ) 4 (a) 3 1 2 ( ) (b) 3 4 2 1 (c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 3 4 1 2 A ( Ans. (c) )

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Ceramics
Ceramics C i are essentially i ll alumina l i ( Al2O3 ) based b d high hi h

It is possible to get mirror finish on cast iron using

ceramic i turning. i
The main problems of ceramic tools are their low

refractory materials introduced specifically for high speed machining of difficult to machine materials and cast iron. These can withstand very high temperatures, temperatures are chemically more stable, and have higher wear resistance than the other cutting tool materials. materials In view of their ability to withstand high temperatures, they can be used for machining at very high speeds of the order of 10 m/s. Theycanbeoperatedatfromtwotothreetimesthe cuttingspeedsoftungstencarbide.
Contd

strength, poor thermal characteristics, and the tendency to chipping. They are not suitable for intermittent cutting or for low g speeds. p cutting Very high hot hardness properties Often used as inserts in special holders. holders

Comparisonofimportantpropertiesofceramicandtungstencarbidetools

Contd

Through last few years remarkable improvements in

Introducing nitride ceramic (Si3N4) with proper sintering

strength and toughness and hence overall performance of ceramic tools could have been possible by several means which include; Sinterability, microstructure, strength and toughness of Al2O3 ceramics were improved to some extent by adding TiO2 and MgO, Transformation T f i toughening h i b adding by ddi appropriate i amount of partially or fully stabilised zirconia in Al O powder, Al2O3 d Isostatic and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) these are very effective but expensive route.
Contd

technique this material is very tough but prone to builtup edge formation in machining steels Developing SIALON deriving beneficial effects of Al2O3 and d Si3N4 S Adding carbide like TiC (5 ~ 15%) in Al2O3 powder to i impart t toughness t h and d thermal th l conductivity d ti it Reinforcing oxide or nitride ceramics by SiC whiskers, which enhanced strength, strength toughness and life of the tool and thus productivity spectacularly. Toughening Al2O3 ceramic by adding suitable metal like silver which also impart thermal conductivity and self lubricating gp property; p y this novel and inexpensive p tool is still in experimental stage.
Contd

Cutting fluid, if applied should in flooding with

copious quantity of fluid, fluid to thoroughly wet the entire machining zone, since ceramics have very poor thermal shock resistance. resistance Else, Else it can be machined with no coolant. Ceramic C i tools l are used d for f machining hi i work k pieces, i which have high hardness, such as hard castings, case h d hardened d and d hardened h d d steel. l Typical products can be machined are brake discs, brake drums, cylinder liners and flywheels.

HighPerformanceceramics(HPC)

IES2013
Sialon ceramicisusedas: (a)Cutting g tool material (b)Creep resistant (c)Furnacelinens

IES2010
Constituents of ceramics are oxides of different materials, which are ( ) Cold (a) C ld mixed i d to t make k ceramic i pallets ll t (b) ( ) Ground, , sintered and p palleted to make ready y ceramics (c) Ground, Ground washed with acid, acid heated and cooled (d) Ground, sintered, palleted and after calcining cooled in oxygen Ans (b) Ans.
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SiliconNitride (i)Plain (ii)SIALON (iii)Whiskertoughened

Aluminatoughned by (i)Zirconia (ii)SiC whiskers (iii)Metal(Silver (Sil eretc)

(d)Highstrength Ans.(a)

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IAS1996
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer usingthecodesgivenbelowthelists: ListI( (Cutting gtools) ) ListII( (Major j constituent) ) A. Stellite l. Tungsten B. H.S.S. 2. Cobalt C. Ceramic 3. Alumina D. DCON 4. Columbium 5. Ti i Titanium Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 5 1 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 2 5 3 4 Ans (c) Ans.

IES1997
Assertion Ceramic A i (A): (A) C i tools l areused donly l for f light, li h smoothandcontinuouscutsathighspeeds. Reason(R):Ceramicshaveahighwearresistanceand hightemperatureresistance. (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) ( ) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(b) ( )

IES1996
Amachinistdesirestoturnaroundsteelstockof outsidediameter100mmat1000rpm.The materialhastensilestrengthof75kg/mm2.The depthofcutchosenis3mmatafeedrateof0.3 mm/rev.Which h honeof fthe h f following ll tool l materialswillbesuitableformachiningthe componentunder d the h specified f dcutting conditions? (a) Sinteredcarbides (b) Ceramic (c) ( ) HSS (d) ( ) Diamond Ans.(b)

IES2007
Whichoneofthefollowingisnotaceramic? (a) Alumina (b) Porcelain (c) Whisker (d) Pyrosil Ans.(d)

IAS2000
Consider C id the h following f ll i cutting i tool lmaterials i l used dfor f metalcuttingoperationat highspeed: 1. Tungstencarbide 2 Cementedtitaniumcarbide 2. 3. Highspeedsteel 4. Ceramic C i Thecorrectsequenceinincreasingorderoftherangeof cuttingspeedsforoptimumuseofthesematerialsis (a) 3,1,4,2 (b) 1,3,2,4 (c) 3,1,2,4 3124 (d) 1,3,4,2 1342 Ans (c) Ans.

IAS2003
Atroomtemperature,whichoneofthefollowing isthecorrectsequenceofincreasinghardnessof thetoolmaterials? (a) Castalloy yHSSCeramicCarbide (b) HHCastalloyCeramicCarbide (c) HSSCastalloyCarbideCeramic (d) CastalloyHSSCarbideCeramic Ans.(c) ( )

CoatedCarbideTools
Coated the d tools l are becoming b h norm in the h metalworking l k

The coatings must be fine grained, & free of binders

industry because coating , can consistently improve, tool lif 200 or 300% life % or more. In cutting tools, material requirements at the surface of the tool l need d to be b abrasion b i resistant, i h d and hard, d chemically h i ll inert to prevent the tool and the work material from interacting chemically with each other during cutting. cutting A thin, chemically stable, hard refractory coating of TiC, TiN or Al2O3 accomplishes this objective. TiN, objective The bulk of the tool is a tough, shockresistant carbide that can withstand ith t d high hi htemperature t t plastic l ti deformation d f ti and d resist breakage.

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Contd

and porosity. porosity Naturally, the coatings must be metallurgically bonded to the h substrate. b Interface coatings are graded to match the properties of the coating and the substrate. The coatings g must be thick enough g to p prolong g tool life but thin enough to prevent brittleness. Coatings should have a low coefficient of friction so that the chips do not adhere to the rake face. Multiple coatings are used, used with each layer imparting its own characteristic to the tool. Contd

The

most successful combinations are TiN/TiC/TiCN/TiN and TiN/TiC/ Al2O3 . Chemical vapour p deposition p (CVD) ( ) is the technique q used to coat carbides.

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IAS1999
Thecoatingmaterialsforcoatedcarbidetools, includes (a) TiC,TiN andNaCN (b) TiC andTiN (c) TiN andNaCN (d) TiC andNaCN A (b) Ans.

TiNCoatedHighSpeedSteel
Coated highspeed steel (HSS) ( ) does not routinely

provide as dramatic improvements in cutting speeds as do coated carbides, with increases of 10 to 20% being typical. In addition to hobs, gearshaper cutters, and drills, g coated by TiN now includes reamers, taps, HSS tooling chasers, spadedrill blades, broaches, bandsaw and circular saw blades, insert tooling, form tools, end mills, and an assortment of other milling cutters.

Contd

Physical vapour deposition (PVD) has proved to be the

Cermets
These sintered hard inserts are made by combining cer from

IES2010
The cutting tool material required to sustain high temperature is (a) High carbon steel alloys (b) Composite of lead and steel (c) Cermet (d) Alloy of steel, zinc and tungsten Ans. (c)

best process for coating HSS, HSS primarily because it is a relatively low temperature process that does not exceed the tempering point of HSS. HSS Therefore, no subsequent heat treatment of the cutting i tool l is i required. i d The advantage of TiNcoated HSS tooling is reduced tool wear. Less tool wear results in less stock removal during g tool regrinding, thus allowing individual tools to be g more times. reground

ceramics metal i like lik TiC, TiC TiN or TiCN and d met from f l (binder) (bi d ) like Ni, NiCo, Fe etc. H d more chemically Harder, h i ll stable t bl and d hence h more wear resistant i t t More brittle and less thermal shock resistant Wt% of f binder bi d metal t l varies i from f 10 to t 20%. % Cutting edge sharpness is retained unlike in coated carbide inserts Can machine steels at higher cutting velocity than that used for tungsten carbide, carbide even coated carbides in case of light cuts. cuts Modern cermets with rounded cutting edges are suitable for finishing and semifinishing of steels at higher speeds, stainless steels but are not suitable for jerky interrupted machining and machining of aluminium and similar materials.

IES2000
Cermetsare (a) Metalsforhigh g temperature p usewithceramiclike properties (b) Ceramicswithmetallicstrengthandluster (c) Coatedtoolmaterials (d) Metal M t lceramic i composites it Ans.(d)

S 2003 IES
The correct sequence of cutting tools in the ascending order of their wear resistance is (a) HSSCast nonferrous alloy (Stellite)Carbide Nitride (b) Cast C t nonferrous f alloy ll (St llit )HSSCarbide (Stellite) C bid Nitride (c) HSSCast nonferrous alloy (Stellite)Nitride Carbide (d) Cast nonferrous alloy (Stellite)CarbideNitride Ans. (a) HSS

Diamond is the hardest of all the cutting tool materials. Diamond Di d has h the h following f ll i properties: i
extreme hardness, low l thermal h l expansion, high heat conductivity, and a very low coefficient of friction.

Diamonds

This is used when good surface finish and dimensional accuracy

are desired. d i d
The workmaterials on which diamonds are successfully employed

For -2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 73 of 76

are the nonferrous one, one such as copper, copper brass, brass zinc, zinc aluminium and magnesium alloys. On ferrous materials, materials diamonds are not suitable because of the diffusion of carbon atoms from diamond to the workpiece Contd material. Rev.0

( ) GATE 2009(PI)
Diamond cutting tools are not recommended for machining of ferrous metals due to (a) high tool hardness ( ) high thermal conductivity of work material (b) (c) poor tool toughness (d) chemical affinity of tool material with iron

Diamond tools have the applications in single point turning and

Diamondtoolsofferdramaticperformance

g tools, , milling g cutters, , reamers, ,g g wheels, , honing g boring grinding tools, lapping powder and for grinding wheel dressing. Due to their brittle nature, the diamond tools have poor resistance to shock and so, should be loaded lightly. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools consist of a thin layer (0.5 to 1.5 mm) of'fine grain size diamond particles sintered together and metallurgically bonded to a cemented carbide substrate. substrate The main advantages of sintered polycrystalline tools over natural singlecrystal tools are better quality, quality greater toughness, toughness and improved wear resistance, resulting from the random orientation of the diamond g grains and the lack of large g cleavage g planes.
Contd

improvementsovercarbides. carbides Toollifeisoftengreatly improved,asiscontroloverpartsize,finish,and surfaceintegrity. integrity Positiveraketoolingisrecommendedforthevast majorityofdiamondtoolingapplications. applications IfBUEisaproblem,increasingcuttingspeedandthe useof fmorepositive i i rake k angles l mayeliminate li i it. i Oxidationofdiamondstartsatabout450oCand thereafteritcanevencrack.Forthisreasonthe diamondtooliskeptfloodedbythecoolantduring cutting,andlightfeedsareused.

IES1995
Assertion Nonferrous materials best A i (A): (A) N f i l areb machinedwithdiamondtools. Reason(R):Diamondtoolsaresuitableforhighspeed machining. (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) ( ) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(b) ( )

IES2001
Assertion Diamond high A i (A): (A) Di dtools l canbe b used dathi h speeds. Reason(R):Diamondtoolshaveverylowcoefficient offriction. (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) ( ) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(b) ( )

S 1999 999 IES


Considerthefollowingstatements: Forprecisionmachiningofnonferrousalloys,diamond ispreferredbecauseithas 1. Lowcoefficientofthermalexpansion 2. Highwearresistance 3. High 3 g compression p strength g 4. Lowfracturetoughness Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect? (a) 1and2 (b) 1and4 (c) 2and3 (d) 3and4 Ans.(a)

IES1992
Whichofthefollowinggiventhecorrectorderof increasinghothardnessofcuttingtoolmaterial? (a) Diamond,Carbide,HSS (b) Carbide,Diamond,HSS (c) HSS,carbide,Diamond (d) HSS, HSS Di Diamond, d Carbide C bid Ans.(d)

S 1999 999 IAS


Assertion(A):Duringcutting,thediamondtoolis keptfloodedwithcoolant. Reason(R):Theoxidationofdiamondstartsat about4500C ( ) Both (a) B thAand dRareindividually i di id ll true t and dRis i the th correctexplanationofA (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(a)

Cubicboronnitride/Borazon
Next to diamond, cubic boron nitride is the hardest

material presently available.


It is made by bonding a 0.5 1 mm layer of

p y y polycrystalline cubic boron nitride to cobalt based carbide substrate at very high temperature and pressure. It remains inert and retains high hardness and fracture oug ess a at e elevated e a ed machining ac g speeds. toughness It shows excellent performance in grinding any material of high hardness and strength. strength

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Contd

The operative speed range for cBN when machining

grey cast iron is 300 ~400 400 m/min Speed ranges for other materials are as follows: Hard H d cast t iron i ( 400 BHN) : 80 (> 8 300 m/min / i Superalloys (> 35 RC) : 80 140 m/min Hardened steels (> 45 RC) : 100 300 m/min It t is s best to use c cBN too tools s with t a honed o ed o or c chamfered a e ed edge preparation, especially for interrupted cuts. Like , cBN tools are also available only y in the form ceramics, of indexable inserts. The only limitation of it is its high cost. cost
Contd

IES1994
CBNislessreactivewithsuchmaterialsashardened

steels,hardchillcastiron,andnickel andcobalt basedsuperalloys. CBNcanbeusedefficiently yandeconomically yto machinethesedifficulttomachinematerialsathigher g removalrate speeds(fivefold)andwithahigher (fivefold)thancementedcarbide,andwithsuperior accuracy,finish,andsurfaceintegrity.

Considerthefollowingtoolmaterials: 1. Carbide 2. Cermet 3. Ceramic 4. Borazon. Correctsequenceofthesetoolmaterialsinincreasing orderoftheirabilitytoretaintheirhothardnessis ( ) 1,2,3,4 (a) (b) 1,2,4,3 (c) 2,1,3,4 (d) 2,1,4,3 Ans.(a)

IES2002
Whichoneofthefollowingisthehardestcutting toolmaterialnextonlytodiamond? (a) Cementedcarbides (b) Ceramics (c) Silicon (d) Cubic C bi boron b nitride it id Ans.(d)

IES1996
Cubicboronnitride (a) Hasavery yhigh g hardnesswhichiscomparable p to thatofdiamond. (b) Hasahardnesswhichisslightlymorethanthatof HSS (c) Isusedformakingcylinderblocksofaircraft engines (d) Is I used df formaking ki optical ti lglasses. l Ans.(a)

IES1994
Cubicboronnitrideisused (a) Aslining gmaterialininductionfurnace (b) Formakingopticalqualityglass. (c) Forheattreatment (d) Fornoneoftheabove. Ans.(d)

IAS1998
Whichofthefollowingtoolmaterialshavecobalt asaconstituentelement? 1. Cementedcarbide 2. CBN 3. Stellite 4. UCON Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodesgivenbelow: C d Codes: (a) 1and2 (b) 1and3 (c) 1and4 (d) 2and3 Ans.(b) ( )

Coronite
Coronite is made basically by combining HSS for strength and

IES1993
Match List thecorrect the M t hLi tIwith ithList Li tITand dselect l tth tanswerusing i th codesgivenbelowthelists: List I(CuttingtoolMaterial) List II(Major characteristic h t i ti constituent) tit t) A. Highspeedsteel 1. Carbon y B. Stellite 2. Molybdenum C. Diamond 3. Nitride D. Coatedcarbidetool 4. Columbium 5 5. Cobalt Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 2 1 3 5 (b) 2 5 1 3 (c) 5 2 4 3 (d) 5 4 2 3 Ans.(b)

toughness and and h d tungsten carbides bid for f heat h d wear resistance. i
Microfine TiCN particles are uniformly dispersed into the matrix. Unlike l k asolid l dcarbide, b d the h coronite based b dtool lismade d of fthree h

layers; the th central t lHSSorspring i steel t lcore alayerofcoronite ofthicknessaround15%ofthetool diameter athin(2to5m)PVDcoatingofTiCN The coronite tools made by b hot extrusion e trusion followed follo ed by b PVD coating of TiN or TiCN outperformed HSS tools in respect of cutting forces, forces tool life and surface finish.

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IES2003
Whichoneofthefollowingisnotasynthetic abrasivematerial? (a) SiliconCarbide (b) Aluminium Oxide (c) TitaniumNitride (d) CubicBoronNitride Ans.(b)

IES2000
Considerthefollowingtoolmaterials: 1. HSS 2. Cementedcarbide 3. Ceramics 4. Diamond Thecorrectsequenceofthesematerialsindecreasing orderoftheircuttingspeedis ( ) 4,3,1,2 (a) (b) 4,3,2,1 (c) 3,4,2,1 (d) 3,4,1,2 Ans.(b)

IES1999
Match List thecorrect M t hList Li tIwith ithLi tIIand dselect l tth tanswer usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: ListI ListII (Materials) (Applications) A. Tungstencarbide 1. Abrasivewheels B B. Sili Silicon nitride i id 2. H i elements Heating l C. Aluminium oxide 3. Pipesforconveying liquid q metals D. Siliconcarbide 4. Drawingdies Code: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 4 1 2 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 4 3 1 2 Ans (d) Ans.

IAS2001
Match. List (Cutting List M t h Li tI(C tti tool t lmaterials) t i l )with ithLi tII (Manufacturingmethods)andselectthecorrectanswer usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: ListI ListII A. HSS 1. Casting B B. Stellite 2 2. Forging C. Cementedcarbide 3. Rolling D. UCO UCON 4. 4 Extrusion 5. Powdermetallurgy Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 5 2 (b) 2 5 4 3 (c) 3 5 4 2 (d) 2 1 5 3 Ans (d) Ans.

Attritionwear
The bonding the Th strong t b di between b t th chip hi and d tool t l material t i l at t

IES1996
The toth themaximum hardness of Th limit li itt i h d fawork k materialwhichcanbemachinedwithHSStools evenat tlow l speeds d is i set tby b which hi honeof fthe th followingtoolfailuremechanisms? ( ) Attrition (a) (b) Abrasion (c) Diffusion (d) Plasticdeformationundercompression. compression Ans.(a)

high temperature is conducive for adhesive wear. The adhesive wear in the rough region is called attrition wear . In the rough region, some parts of the worn surface are still covered d by b molten l chip hi and d the h irregular i l attrition ii wear occurs in this region . The irregular attrition wear is due to the intermittent adhesion during interrupted cutting which makes a periodic attachment and detachment of the work material on the tool surface. surface Therefore, when the seizure between workpiece to tool is broken, the small fragments of tool material are plucked and brought away by the chip.

IES2005
Consider Anincrease inthe C id the th following f ll i statements: t t t A i i th cobaltcontentinthestraightcarbidegradesof carbidetools 1. Increasesthehardness. 2. Decreases D the h hardness. h d 3. Increasesthetransverserupturestrength 4. Lowersthetransverserupturestrength. Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect? (a) 1and3 (b) 2and4 (c) 1and4 (d) 2and3 Ans.(d)

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