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[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

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JULY 19TH, 2013

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This is a guest article by Mr.Dipak Singh. if the math-equations/signs are not clearly visible in your browser, then click me to download the PDF version of this article.

Today well see how to find the maximum value (greatest value ) or the minimum value (least value) of a trigonometric function without using differentiation. Take a pen and note-book, keep doing the steps while reading this article. First Remember following identities:

1. sin2 + cos2 = 1 2. 1+ cot2 = cosec2 3. 1+ tan2 = sec2 how did we get these formulas? Already explained, click me

Min value Max value Can be written as sin , sin 2, sin 9 . sin n cos , cos 4 , cos 7 cos n sin , sin 4 , sin 9 sin n cos2 , cos2 3 , cos2 8 cos2 n Sin Cos -1/2 +1/2
2 2 2 2

-1

+1

-1 Sin n 1 -1 Cos n 1 Can be written as

+1

0 Sin2 n 1 0 Cos2 n 1 -1/2 Sin Cos

observe that in case of sin2 and cos2, the minimum value if 0 and not (-1). Why does this happen? because (-1)2=+1

Sin (- ) = Sin () Cos (-) = Cos ()

1. a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + } 2. a sin b sin = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + } 3. a cos b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + } 4. Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n

Let A ,B are any two numbers then,

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

Arithmetic Mean (AM)= (A + B) / 2 and Geometric Mean (GM) = (A.B) Hence, A.M G.M ( We can check it by putting any values of A and B ) Consider the following statement My age is greater than or equal to 25 years . What could you conclude about my age from this statement ? Answer : My age can be anywhere between 25 to infinity means it can be 25 , , 50 ,99, 786 or 1000 years etc but it can not be 24 or 19 or Sweet 16 . Infact it can not be less than 25, strictly. Means, We can confidently say that my age is not less 25 years. Or in other words my minimum age is 25 years. Showing numerically, if Age 25 years ( minimum age = 25 ) Similarly, If I say x 56 ( minimum value of x = 56 ) If, y 77 ( minimum value of y = 77 ) If, x + y 133 ( minimum value of x + y = 133 ) If, sin 1 ( minimum value of Sin = -1 ) If, tan + cot 2 (minimum value of tan + cot = 2 ) ]] Sometimes, we come across a special case of trigonometric identities like to find min. value of sin + cosec or tan + cot or cos2 + sec2 etc. These identities have one thing in common i.e., the first trigonometric term is opposite of the second term or vice-versa ( tan = 1/ cot , sin = 1/ cosec , cos2 = 1/ sec2 ). These type of problems can be easily tackled by using the concept of A.M G .M Meaning, Arithmetic mean is always greater than or equal to geometric mean. For example:

(theyll not ask maximum value as it is not defined. ) We know that tan2 = 1/ cot2 , hence applying A.M G.M logic, we get A.M of given equation = (4 tan2 + 9 cot2) / 2 . (1) G.M of given equation = (4 tan2 . 9 cot2 ) = 4 * 9 # ( tan2 and cot2 inverse of each other, so tan x cot =1) = 36 = 6 . (2) Now, we know that A.M G. M From equations (1) and (2) above we get, => (4 tan2 + 9 cot2) / 2 6 Multiplying both sides by 2 => 4 tan2 + 9 cot2 12 ( minimum value of tan2 + cot2 is 12 )

Consider equation a cos2 + b sec2 ( find minimum value) As, A.M G.M (a cos2 + b sec2 / 2 ) (a cos2 . b sec2 ) a cos2 + b sec2 2 (ab) ( minimum value 2 ab ) So, we can use 2 ab directly in these kind of problems.

While using A.M G.M logic : Term should be like a T1 + b T2 ; where T1 = 1 / T2 Positive sign in between terms is mandatory. (otherwise how would you calculate mean ? ) Directly apply 2ab . Rearrange/Break terms if necessary -> priority should be given to direct use of identities -> find terms eligible for A.M G.M logic -> if any, apply -> convert remaining identities, if any, to sine and cosines -> finally put known max., min. values.

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

The reciprocal of 0 is + and vice-versa. The reciprocal of 1 is 1 and -1 is -1. If a function has a maximum value its opposite has a minimum value. A function and its reciprocal have same sign. Keeping these tools (not exhaustive) in mind we can easily find Maximum or Minimum values easily.

What is The minimum value of sin2 + cos2 + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2 A. B. C. D. 1 3 5 7

We know that sin2 + cos2 = 1 (identitiy#1) Therefore, (sin2 + cos2 ) + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2 = (1) + sec2 + cosec2 + tan2 + cot2 Using A.M G.M logic for tan2 + cot2 we get , = 1 + 2 + sec2 + cosec2 changing into sin and cos values ( Because we know maximum and minimum values of Sin , Cos :P and by using simple identities we can convert all trigonometric functions into equation with Sine and Cosine.) = 1 + 2 + (1/ cos2 ) + (1/ sin2 ) solving taking L.C.M = 1 + 2 + (sin2 + cos2 )/( sin2 . cos2 )..eq1 but we already know two things sin2 + cos2 =1 (trig identity #1) Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n (Ratta-fication formula #4) Apply them into eq1, and we get = 1 + 2 + (sin2 + cos2 )/( sin2 . cos2 ) = 1 + 2 + (1/1/4) = 1+2+4 = 7 (correct answer D)

A. B. C. D.

1 2 3 5

We can solve this question via two approaches

Break the equation and use identity no. 1 = 2 sin2 + 2 cos2 + cos2

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

=2(sin2 + cos2 ) + cos2 ; (but sin2 + cos2 =1) = 2 + cos2 ;(but as per min-max table, the minimum value of cos2 =0) = 2 + 0 = 2 (correct answer B)

convert equation into one identity ,either sin or cos first convert it into a sin equation : = 2 sin2 + 3 (1- sin2 ) ;(because sin2 + cos2 =1=>cos2 =1- sin2 ) = 2 sin2 + 3 3 sin2 = 3 sin2 = 3 ( 1) = 2 (but Min. value of sin2 is 0 confusing ???? ) As sin2 is preceded by a negative sign therefore we have to take max. value of sin2 in order to get minimum value . Converting into a cos equation : = 2 sin2 + 3 cos2 = 2 (1- cos2 ) + 3 cos2 = 2 2 cos2 + 3 cos2 = 2 + cos2 = 2 + 0 = 2 ( correct answer B )

A. B. C. D.

2 1/ 2 1 2

Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1 a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + } in the given question, weve to find the max value of Sin x + cos x = + (12+ 12 ) = 2 ( correct answer A )

A. B. C. D.

-1 5 7 9

Solution: Applying Ratta-fication formulae No.1 a sin b cos = (a2 + b2 ) { for min. use , for max. use + } in the given question, weve to find the max value of 3 Sin x 4 Cos x

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

= + (32+ 42 ) = 25 = 5 ( correct answer B )

A. B. C. D.

2, 6 4, 5 -4, -5 4, 6

Solution: We know that, -1 Sin nx 1 = -1 Sin 4x 1 Adding 5 throughout, 4 Sin 4x +5 6 Therefore, the minimum value is 4 and maximum value is 6 ( correct answer D )

A. B. C. D.

Do not exist -1, 1 Sin -1 , Sin +1 - Sin 1 , Sin 1

We know that, -1 Sin nx 1 = Sin (-1) Sin x Sin (1) = Sin 1 Sin x Sin 1 ; [Sin(-) is same as Sin ] Therefore, Minimum value is Sin 1 and maximum is Sin 1 ( correct answer D) The key to success is Practice! Practice! Practice! Drop your problems in the comment box. For more articles on trigonometry and aptitude, visit mrunal.org/aptitude

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19 comments to [Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made Easy without differentiation

yo yo
Reply to this comment nice explain thanks sir ji

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

Rajkumar
Reply to this comment It is a great tutorial very nicely explained. Thanks a Lot to both Mr. Mrunal and Mr. Deepak With Regards

raka
Reply to this comment thanks Dipak jee

Bipin Das
Reply to this comment Ratta-Fication formulae 2nd nd 3rd extreme values will be simply +(a+b) and -(a-b)

amarjit
Reply to this comment thanks a lotits very helpful

Pratul
Reply to this comment thanks alot sir

Ayush
Reply to this comment Ratta-fication formulas Min. value of (sin cos )n = ()n (he forgot to put ) for example min value of sin(x)*cos(x)=[2sin(x)*cos(x)]/2 =[sin(2x)]/2 min value of sin2(x)=-1 so min value is -1/2 correction in 2,3 has already been pointed out by Bipin Das .

Bhavna Tanwar
Reply to this comment Thanks Sir :)

bscvpavan
Reply to this comment thanks sir.it helps me alot

bscvpavan
Reply to this comment sir . how to find min & max value of tan x + sec x ? ans : 0 & 2. are these correct answers?

mathematician
Reply to this comment your answers are wrong ,this trigonometric expression will not have either maximum or minimum value,the range will be between minus infinity to +infinity,anyway you can also think in a simple manner range of secx is,>=1 or <= -1 ,so in any case it can not be 0.

HK

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM

[Trigonometry] Finding Minimum Maximum Values for SSC CGL Made...

http://mrunal.org/2013/07/trigonometry-finding-minimum-maximum-val...

Reply to this comment answer = max = infinity min = infinity

mathematician
Reply to this comment improve your knowledge of mathematics,infinity is not a number or value ,u cant plot this number or graph paper so better say it will not has either maximum value or minimum value

TEZA
Reply to this comment When SSC CGLE 2013 prelims result is going to be declared???

TEZA
Reply to this comment Any clue, when SSC CGLE 2013 prelims result will be declared???

vishal kumar
Reply to this comment thanx sir:)

Ravikant
Reply to this comment = 1 + 2 + (sin^2 + cos^2 )/( sin^2 . cos^2 ) To find min value of it we have to put mini value of = (sin^2 + cos^2 )/( sin^2 . cos^2 ) Therefore we have to put 1st min value of (sin^2 + cos^2 ) =I.e. 1 2nd Max value of ( sin^2 . cos^2 )=I.e. ?

mahesh
Reply to this comment can any one please tell from where to prepare GENERAL AWARENESS for IBPS PO?? atleast tell name of books or certain website..lot of data is available on internet but whom to trust..really frustrated..

PrAdEeP
Reply to this comment good one

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20-Jul-13 9:00 AM