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The Louisiana Purchase

Treaty Between the United States of America and the French Republic
The President of the United States of America and the First Consul of the French Republic in the name of the French People desiring to remove all Source of misunderstanding relative to objects of discussion mentioned in the Second and fifth articles o f the Convention of the 8th Vend miaire an !"#$ September %8$$ relative to the rights claimed b& the United States in virtue of the Treat& concluded at 'adrid the () of *ctober %)!+, bet-een .is Catholic 'ajest& / the Said United States, / -illing to Strengthen the union and friendship -hich at the time of the Said Convention -as happil& reestablished bet-een the t-o nations have respectivel& named their Plenipotentiaries to -it The President of the United States, b& and -ith the advice and consent o f the Senate of the Said States0 Robert R1 2ivingston 'inister Plenipotentiar& of the United States and 3ames 'onroe 'inister Plenipotentiar& and 4nvo& e5traordinar& of the Said States near the 6overnment of the French Republic0 And the First Consul in th e name of the French people, Citi7en Francis 8arb 'arbois 'inister of the public tr easur& -ho after having respectivel& e5changed their full po-ers have agreed to the follo-ing Articles1

Article I
9hereas b& the Article the third of the Treat& concluded at St :ldefonso the !th Vend miaire an !"%st *ctober %8$$ bet-een the First Consul of the French Republic and his Catholic 'ajest& it -as agreed as follo-s1 ;.is Catholic 'ajest& promises and engages on his part to cede to the French Republic si5 months after the full and entire e5ecution of the conditions and Stipulations herein relative to his Ro&al .ighness the <u=e of Parma, the Colon& or Province of 2ouisiana -ith the Same e5tent that it no- has in the hand of Spain, / that it had -hen France possessed it0 and Such as it Should be after the Treaties subse>uentl& entered into bet-een Spain and other States1; And -hereas in pursuance of the Treat& and particularl& of the third article the French Republic has an incontestible title to the domain and to the possession of the said Territor&??The First Consul of the French Republic desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship doth hereb& cede to the United States in the name of the French Republic for ever and in full Sovereignt& the said territor& -ith all its rights and appurtenances as full& and in the Same manner as the& have been ac>uired b& the French Republic in virtue of the above mentioned Treat& concluded -ith his Catholic 'ajest&1

Article II
:n the cession made b& the preceeding article are included the adjacent :slands belonging to 2ouisiana all public lots and S>uares, vacant lands and all public buildings, fortifications, barrac=s and other edifices -hich are not private propert&1??The Archives, papers / documents relative to the domain and Sovereignt& of 2ouisiana and its dependances -ill be left in the possession of the Commissaries of the United States, and copies -ill be after-ards given in due form to the 'agistrates and 'unicipal officers of such of the said papers and documents as ma& be necessar& to them1

Article III
The inhabitants of the ceded territor& shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible according to the principles of the federal Constitution to the enjo&ment of all these rights, advantages and immunities of citi7ens of the United States, and in the mean time the& shall be maintained and protected in the free enjo&ment of their libert&, propert& and the Religion -hich the& profess1

Article IV
There Shall be Sent b& the 6overnment of France a Commissar& to 2ouisiana to the end that he do ever& act necessar& as -ell to receive from the *fficers of his Catholic 'ajest& the Said countr& and its dependances in the name of the French Republic if it has not been alread& done as to transmit it in the name of the French Republic to the Commissar& or agent of the United States1

Article V
:mmediatel& after the ratification of the present Treat& b& the President of the United States and in case that of the first Consul@s shall have been previousl& obtained, the commissar& of the French Republic shall remit all militar& posts of Ae- *rleans and other parts of the ceded territor& to the Commissar& or Commissaries named b& the President to ta=e possession??the troops -hether of France or Spain -ho ma& be there shall cease to occup& an& militar& post from the time of ta=ing possession and shall be embar=ed as soon as possible in the course of three months after the ratification of this treat&1

Article VI
The United States promise to e5ecute Such treaties and articles as ma& have been agreed bet-een Spain and the tribes and nations of :ndians until b& mutual consent of the United States and the said tribes or nations other Suitable articles Shall have been agreed upon1

Article VII
As it is reciprocall& advantageous to the commerce of France and the United States to encourage the communication of both nations for a limited time in the countr& ceded b& the present treat& until general arrangements relative to commerce of both nations ma& be agreed on0 it has been agreed bet-een the contracting parties that the French Ships coming directl& from France or an& of her colonies loaded onl& -ith the produce and manufactures of France or her Said Colonies0 and the Ships of Spain coming directl& from Spain or an& of her colonies loaded onl& -ith the produce or manufactures of Spain or her Colonies shall be admitted during the Space of t-elve &ears in the Port of Ae-?*rleans and in all other legal ports?of?entr& -ithin the ceded territor& in the Same manner as the Ships of the United States coming directl& from France or Spain or an& of their Colonies -ithout being Subject to an& other or greater dut& on merchandi7e or other or greater tonnage than that paid b& the citi7ens of the United1 Stat es1 <uring that Space of time above mentioned no other nation Shall have a right to the Same privileges in the Ports of the ceded territor&??the t-elve &ears Shall commence three months after the e5change of ratifications if it Shall ta=e place in France or three months after it Shall have been notified at Paris to the French 6overnment if it Shall ta=e place in the United States0 :t is ho-ever -ell understood that the

object of the above article is to favour the manufactures, Commerce, freight and navigation of France and of Spain So far as relates to the importations that the French and Spanish Shall ma=e into the Said Ports of the United States -ithout in an& Sort affecting the regulations that the United States ma& ma=e concerning the e5portation of the produce and merchandi7e of the United States, or an& right the& ma& have to ma=e Such regulations1Article : 9hereas b& the Article the third of the Treat& concluded at St :ldefonso the !th Vend miaire an !"%st *ctober %8$$ bet-een the First Consul of the French Republic and his Catholic 'ajest& it -as agreed as follo-s1 ;.is Catholic 'ajest& promises and engages on his part to cede to the French Republic si5 months after the full and entire e5ecution of the conditions and Stipulations herein relative to his Ro&al .ighness the <u=e of Parma, the Colon& or Province of 2ouisiana -ith the Same e5tent that it no- has in the hand of Spain, / that it had -hen France possessed it0 and Such as it Should be after the Treaties subse>uentl& entered into bet-een Spain and other States1; And -hereas in pursuance of the Treat& and particularl& of the third article the French Republic has an incontestible title to the domain and to the possession of the said Territor&??The First Consul of the French Republic desiring to give to the United States a strong proof of his friendship doth hereb& cede to the United States in the name of the French Republic for ever and in full Sovereignt& the said territor& -ith all its rights and appurtenances as full& and in the Same manner as the& have been ac>uired b& the French Republic in virtue of the above mentioned Treat& concluded -ith his Catholic 'ajest&1

Article II
:n the cession made b& the preceeding article are included the adjacent :slands belonging to 2ouisiana all public lots and S>uares, vacant lands and all public buildings, fortifications, barrac=s and other edifices -hich are not private propert&1??The Archives, papers / documents relative to the domain and Sovereignt& of 2ouisiana and its dependances -ill be left in the possession of the Commissaries of the United States, and copies -ill be after-ards given in due form to the 'agistrates and 'unicipal officers of such of the said papers and documents as ma& be necessar& to them1

Article III
The inhabitants of the ceded territor& shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible according to the principles of the federal Constitution to the enjo&ment of all these rights, advantages and immunities of citi7ens of the United States, and in the mean time the& shall be maintained and protected in the free enjo&ment of their libert&, propert& and the Religion -hich the& profess1

Article IV
There Shall be Sent b& the 6overnment of France a Commissar& to 2ouisiana to the end that he do ever& act necessar& as -ell to receive from the *fficers of his Catholic 'ajest& the Said countr& and its dependances in the name of the French Republic if it has not been alread& done as to transmit it in the name of the French Republic to the Commissar& or agent of the United States1

Article V
:mmediatel& after the ratification of the present Treat& b& the President of the United States and in case that of the first Consul@s shall have been previousl& obtained, the commissar& of the French Republic shall remit all militar& posts of Ae- *rleans and other parts of the ceded territor& to the Commissar& or Commissaries named b& the President to ta=e possession??the troops -hether of France or Spain -ho ma& be there shall cease to occup& an& militar& post from the time of ta=ing possession and shall be embar=ed as soon as possible in the course of three months after the ratification of this treat&1

Article VI
The United States promise to e5ecute Such treaties and articles as ma& have been agreed bet-een Spain and the tribes and nations of :ndians until b& mutual consent of the United States and the said tribes or nations other Suitable articles Shall have been agreed upon1

Article VII
As it is reciprocall& advantageous to the commerce of France and the United States to encourage the communication of both nations for a limited time in the countr& ceded b& the present treat& until general arrangements relative to commerce of both nations ma& be agreed on0 it has been agreed bet-een the contracting parties that the French Ships coming directl& from France or an& of her colonies loaded onl& -ith the produce and manufactures of France or her Said Colonies0 and the Ships of Spain coming directl& from Spain or an& of her colonies loaded onl& -ith the produce or manufactures of Spain or her Colonies shall be admitted during the Space of t-elve &ears in the Port of Ae-?*rleans and in all other legal ports?of?entr& -ithin the ceded territor& in the Same manner as the Ships of the United States coming directl& from France or Spain or an& of their Colonies -ithout being Subject to an& other or greater dut& on merchandi7e or other or greater tonnage than that paid b& the citi7ens of the United1 Stat es1 <uring that Space of time above mentioned no other nation Shall have a right to the Same privileges in the Ports of the ceded territor&??the t-elve &ears Shall commence three months after the e5change of ratifications if it Shall ta=e place in France or three months after it Shall have been notified at Paris to the French 6overnment if it Shall ta=e place in the United States0 :t is ho-ever -ell understood that the object of the above article is to favour the manufactures, Commerce, freight and navigation of France and of Spain So far as relates to the importations that the French and Spanish Shall ma=e into the Said Ports of the United States -ithout in an& Sort affecting the regulations that the United States ma& ma=e concerning the e5portation of the produce and merchandi7e of the United States, or an& right the& ma& have to ma=e Such regulations1

Article VIII
:n future and for ever after the e5piration of the t-elve &ears, the Ships of France shall be treated upon the footing of the most favoured nations in the ports above mentioned1

Article I
The particular Convention Signed this da& b& the respective 'inisters, having for its object to provide for the pa&ment of debts due to the Citi7ens of the United States b& the French Republic prior to the

#$th Sept1 %8$$ B8th Vend miaire an !C is approved and to have its e5ecution in the Same manner as if it had been inserted in this present treat&, and it Shall be ratified in the same form and in the Same time So that the one Shall not be ratified distinct from the other1 Another particular Convention Signed at the Same date as the present treat& relative to a definitive rule bet-een the contracting parties is in the li=e manner approved and -ill be ratified in the Same form, and in the Same time and jointl&1

Article
The present treat& Shall be ratified in good and due form and the ratifications Shall be e5changed in the Space of Si5 months after the date of the Signature b& the 'inisters Plenipotentiar& or Sooner if possible1 :n faith -hereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have Signed these articles in the French and 4nglish languages0 declaring nevertheless that the present Treat& -as originall& agreed to in the French language0 and have thereunto affi5ed their Seals1 <one at Paris the tenth da& of Floreal in the eleventh &ear of the French Republic0 and the #$th of April %8$#1 Article V::: :n future and for ever after the e5piration of the t-elve &ears, the Ships of France shall be treated upon the footing of the most favoured nations in the ports above mentioned1

Article I
The particular Convention Signed this da& b& the respective 'inisters, having for its object to provide for the pa&ment of debts due to the Citi7ens of the United States b& the French Republic prior to the #$th Sept1 %8$$ B8th Vend miaire an !C is approved and to have its e5ecution in the Same manner as if it had been inserted in this present treat&, and it Shall be ratified in the same form and in the Same time So that the one Shall not be ratified distinct from the other1 Another particular Convention Signed at the Same date as the present treat& relative to a definitive rule bet-een the contracting parties is in the li=e manner approved and -ill be ratified in the Same form, and in the Same time and jointl&1

Article
The present treat& Shall be ratified in good and due form and the ratifications Shall be e5changed in the Space of Si5 months after the date of the Signature b& the 'inisters Plenipotentiar& or Sooner if possible1 :n faith -hereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have Signed these articles in the French and 4nglish languages0 declaring nevertheless that the present Treat& -as originall& agreed to in the French language0 and have thereunto affi5ed their Seals1 <one at Paris the tenth da& of Floreal in the eleventh &ear of the French Republic0 and the #$th of April %8$#1 8arb 'arbois DsealE Rob1 R1 2ivingston DsealE 3as1 'onroe DsealE