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Apparel quality management

QUALITY GURU: Philip B. Crosby


There are multiple quality gurus each giving its own ways to to tackle and control quality. The ways of approaching quality management as suggested by the four major quality gurus that is Crosby, Deming, Feigenbaum and Juran are variations on a theme; the essential difference is the focus of their approach. Broadly speaking, the teachings of the major gurus can be characterized by the main focus of their approach, as follows:

In this document our main focus would be on Philip B. Crosby how he developed his way of managing quality. Philip Bayard Crosby (1926-2001) was a prominent businessman. He is mostly famous as an author and for his contributions to quality management . He was a legend in the discipline of quality. A noted quality professional, consultant, and author, he is widely recognized for promoting the concept of "zero defects" and for defining quality as conformance to requirements. Crosby initiated the Zero Defects program at the Martin Company. As the quality control manager of the Pershing missile program, Crosby was credited with a 25 percent reduction in the overall rejection rate and a 30 percent reduction in scrap costs. Philip B. Crosby was born in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1926. Between 1946 and 1949, Crosby attended West Liberty State College and Case Western Reserve University. Following in 1950, Crosby attended the Ohio College of Podiatry. Continuing in his academic path, he continued his graduate studies in 1964 at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. Finally, in 1979, Crosby established the Quality College under his new firm PCA in Rushmore University.

Not only did Crosby focus on academics, he also served in both WWII and the Korean War. Crosbys career track started in 1952 when he began working for the Crosley Corp. as an Electronic Test Technician where he joined the American Society for Quality Control. In 1955, Crosby investigated defects as a Quality Engineer for the Bendix Corporation. Zero Defects was established in 1957 as Crosby was working as a Quality Engineer for Martin Marietta Co. In 1965, Crosby moved to ITT as Vice President of Corporate Quality, in which he implemented his management philosophy. In 1979, Philip Crosby founded Philip Crosby Associates, which taught management teams how to get things done right the first time. In 1991, Crosby retired, but not without founding Career IV Inc. providing lectures and seminars regarding company growthIn 1979, he founded Philip Crosby Associates, Inc. (PCA), teaching management how to establish a preventive culture to get things done right the first time. Crosby was recognized by corporations around the globe as a "guru" of quality management, and a business philosopher and innovator who changed the way organizations seek to achieve greater efficiency, reliability, and profitability.

Crosby and quality

Philip B Crosby is known for the concepts of Quality is Free and Zero Defects, The foundation of Crosby's approach is prevention. His approach to quality is best described by the following concepts: (1) Do It Right the First Time; (2) Zero Defects and Zero Defects Day; (3) The Four Absolutes of Quality; (4) The Prevention Process; (5) The Quality Vaccine; and (6) The Six C's. Do It Right the First Time Crosby s approach focuses on doing things right the first time and every time. There is no place in his philosophy for differing levels of quality or categories of quality (e.g., high/low, good/poor). He believes there should be no reason for planning and investing in strategies that are designed in case something does not conform to requirements and goes wrong. He stresses that the way to manage quality is by prevention, not detection and testing. To Crosby, any product that falls within its design specifications is a quality. Crosby addresses the need to change management's perception of and attitudes about quality. He has found it is a common attitude among managers to believe that error is inevitable, it is a normal part of business life, and one needs to cope with it. He believes management creates most of its problems through its attitudes and practices in terms of what is rewarded and supported in an organization. For example, if adherence to schedule is reinforced over quality, then schedule will become the focus of the work. Zero Defects and Zero Defects Day The ultimate goal of his quality improvement process is Zero Defects or defect-free products and services. Contrary to what is generally believed Zero Defects is not just a motivational slogan, but an attitude and commitment to prevention. Zero Defects does not mean that the product has to be perfect. It does mean that every individual in the organization is committed to meet the requirement the first time, every time, and that not meeting the requirement is not acceptable. To get everyone involved in the process of quality improvement, Crosby stresses individual conformance to requirements. His approach provides for the establishment of a Zero Defects Day, a day that provides a forum for management to reaffirm its commitment to quality and allows employees to make the same commitment.

His quality improvement process is based on his four absolutes of quality: The First Absolute: the definition of quality is conformance to requirements , not as goodness The second absolute: the system for causing quality is preventive , not appraisal. The third absolute: the performance standard must be zero defect , not "thats close enough" The fourth absolute: the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance, not indexes.

These absolutes help management focus on quality improvement and, more importantly, help them make the shift from what Crosby calls conventional wisdom (the idea that if quality goes up, so does the cost) to the idea that quality and costs are not in competition with each other. According to Crosby, as quality increases, cost decreases--thus, quality doesn't cost. This reasoning led to Crosby s famous phrase, Quality is free, but it is not a gift. To implement his quality improvement process, Crosby delineates a 14-step approach consisting of activities that are the responsibility of top management, but also involve workers. The 14 steps represent Crosby s techniques for managing quality improvement and communicating the four absolutes. His fourteen steps to quality improvement are: Management is committed to a formalized quality policy Form a management level quality improvement team (QIT) with responsibility for quality improvement process planning and administration Determine where current and potential quality problems lie Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool to measure waste Raise quality awareness and personal concern for quality amongst all employees Take corrective actions, using established formal systems to remove the root causes of problems Establish a zero defects committee and programme Train all employees in quality improvement Hold a Zero Defects Day to broadcast the change and as a management recommitment and employee commitment Encourage individuals and groups to set improvement goals Encourage employees to communicate to management any obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals Give formal recognition to all participants Establish quality councils for quality management information sharing

Do it all over again form a new quality improvement team

Prevention Process Crosby's approach addresses prevention rather than inspection and correction of errors. He says that prevention involves thinking, planning, and analyzing processes to anticipate where errors could occur, and then taking action to keep them from occurring. To Crosby, problems usually arise because product or service requirements are either lacking or in error. His prevention process begins by establishing the product or service requirement, developing the product or service, gathering data, comparing the data to the requirement, and taking action on the result. Crosby suggests this is a continuing activity.

Quality Vaccine Crosby sees problems as bacteria of non-conformance that must be vaccinated with antibodies to prevent problems. He has formulated a quality vaccine that consists of three distinct management actions--determination, education, and implementation. Crosby has also produced a quality vaccine comprising 21 areas divided into the five categories of integrity, systems, communications, operations and policies, which he treats as preventative medicine for poor quality. Top management is responsible for continually administering the vaccine. Determination surfaces when management sees the need to exchange and recognizes that change requires management action. Education is the process of providing all employees with the common language of quality, helping them to understand what their role is in the quality improvement process, as well as helping them to develop a knowledge base for preventing problems. The third action is implementation, which consists of the development of a plan, the assignment of resources, and the support of an environment consistent with a quality improvement philosophy. In this phase, management must lead by example and provide follow-up education. Six C's To Crosby, education is a multi-stage process that every organization must go through, a process he calls the Six C's. The first stage, or C, is

comprehension, which addresses the importance of understanding what is meant by quality. Comprehension must begin at the top and eventually include all employees. Without comprehension, quality improvement will not occur. The second C is commitment, which also must begin at the top and represents the stage when managers establish a quality policy. The third is competence; developing an education and training plan during this stage is critical to implementing the quality improvement process in a methodical way. The fourth C is communication; all efforts must be documented and success stories published so that complete understanding of quality by all people in the corporate culture is achieved. The fifth is correction, which focuses on prevention and performance. Finally, the sixth is continuance, which emphasizes that the process must become a way of life in the organization. Continuance is based on the fact that it is never cheaper or quicker to do anything right the second time, so quality must be integrated into all day-to-day operations To Crosby, quality means conformance to requirements. Quality must be defined in measurable and clearly stated terms to help the organization take action based on tangible targets, rather than on hunch, experience, or opinions. To Crosby, quality is either present or not present. There is no such thing as differing levels of quality. Management must measure quality by continually tracking the cost of doing things wrong. Crosby refers to this as the price of non-conformance. To aid managers in tracking the cost of doing things wrong, he developed the following formula: Cost of Quality (COQ) = Price of Conformance (POC) + Price of Nonconformance (PONC). The POC refers to the cost of getting things done right the first time. PONC provides management with information regarding the wasted cost and a visible indication of progress as the organization improves. Crosby developed all his quality mantras and quality initiatives taking experiences from his life in different companies and from different situations in his life. His thirteen books are give great insight how to improve quality in different fields. His book quality is free established new grounds for quality initiatives. Crosby developed various quality measures and steps taking inspiration from his life and this can be seen from an extract from his book

Quality Management Maturity Grid

Crosby's "Quality Management Maturity Grid" ("QualityIsFree" ISBN 0451625854 ) consists of five stages of management maturity (Uncertainty, Awakening, Enlightenment, Wisdom, and Certainty), measured against six dimensions, to complete the matrix: Management understanding and attitude [towards quality management] Quality organization status Problem handling experience Cost of quality as a percentage of sales Quality improvement actions Summation of company quality posture

Stage 1: Uncertainty. "We don't know why we have problems with information quality." This stage represents the clueless organization. The Data Warehouse will be populated with data without any or with minimal data correction processes. Stage 2: Awakening. "Is it absolutely necessary to always have problems with information quality?" The Awakened organization has become aware of the problems caused by poor quality. They generally attack IQ problems by correcting data in the data warehouse or in the staging area before loading. Here, no efforts are made to solve the real problem of poor quality data at the source. If any are made it is only to correct data there, then propagate the data to the Data Warehouse. But, from a quality management perspective, if an organization only conducts data cleansing, it merely automates "information scrap and rework."To sustain a quality system, you must move from data cleansing only (corrective maintenance) to process improvement (preventive maintenance). Process improvement leads you into Stage 3. Stage 3: Enlightenment. "Through management commitment and information quality improvement we are identifying and resolving our problems." The Enlightened organization recognizes the cause of poor quality information is broken processes and systemic performance measures that reward speed and departmental objective accomplishment even if it sub-optimizes down stream processes. Business executives become involved and drive the IQ initiatives.

In this stage, the organization is implementing a formal quality management system, such as the 14 Points of IQ, Deming's 14 Points of Management Transformation, Kaizen, the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (that now includes Information Quality), or Six Sigma and applying them to information. Enlightened organizations conduct data cleansing as a one time event for a given data source and will improve the processes at the source where the defects are caused, using a sound process improvement technique like the Shewhart Cycle, or PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act): In Stage 3, you have formal IQ training for managers and for information producers so they know who their information customers are and how to improve their processes. The results of Stage 3 include huge reductions in the costs of process failure and information scrap and rework caused by defective information. These benefits become permanent because processes are now in control.

Stage 4: Wisdom. "Information quality problem prevention is a routine part of our operation." Wise organizations are improving their quality management systems, and improving processes is a habit of the majority of employees. Every manager is accountable for the information produced or updated by the processes he or she oversees. All employees are routinely improving processes.

Stage 5: Certainty. "We know why we do not have problems with information quality." The only nonquality information is that produced by processes outside the control of the enterprise, or that are temporarily caused by "information quality decay" caused when characteristics about real world objects change more frequently than is feasibly possible for the enterprise to become aware of immediately. In Stage 5, called "Optimizing" in the CMM, the habit of process improvement is so engrained, that initial designs of process, applications and databases are designed with strong defect prevention mechanisms, and defects rarely occur.

Crosby suggests the model does not require inordinate management sophistication. He recommends the Grid measurement be used in two ways: (1) a comparison tool, i.e., where an organization is, where it was, and where it wants to be; (2) a directional compass, always pointing (and motivating) the organization in the right direction.

Crosby's first book, Quality is Free, has been credited with playing a large part in beginning the quality revolution in the United States and Europe. He published a total of 13 books, including The Absolutes of Leadership in 1996 and Quality and Me, an autobiography filled with lessons from life published in 1999. A timeline of books written by Crosby is given below which have played a major role in changing the way quality is managed.
(1967). Cutting the cost of quality. (1969). The strategy of situation management. (1979). Quality is Free. (1981). The Art of Getting Your Own Sweet Way (1984). Quality Without Tears. (1986). Running things. (1988). The Eternally Successful Organization. (1989). Let's talk quality. (1990). Leading, the art of becoming an executive. (1994). Completeness: Quality for the 21st Century. (1995). Philip Crosby's Reflections on Quality. (1996). Quality is still free: Making Quality Certain in Uncertain Times. (1997). The Absolutes of Leadership (Warren Bennis Executive Briefing). (1999). Quality and Me: Lessons from an Evolving Life.

Zero defects success stories: case studies

1.) Nelson Nameplate Co. of Los Angeles manufactures membrane switches, nameplates, graphic overlays and lenses. Its been in business since 1946 and has earned a well-deserved reputation for quality processes and products. We believe that all work is a process, says Tom Cassutt, co -president of Nelson. By eliminating the possibilities of error in a process, we achieve continuous improvement and move closer to our goal of obtaining zero defects. Nelson was introduced to the concept of zero defects in the late 1980s, when copresident David Lazier first read Quality Is Free. Soon thereafter, the company made zero defects the goal for its manufacturing and delivery processes. Before implementing what Nelson calls its quality improvement process, the company measured delivery performance by analyzing the percentage of backlog that was past due. Now, with zero defects in mind, management has established the goal of shipping each of 12,000 annual jobs on time. We still havent achieved zero defects in this area, but every Nelson employee knows the goal of shipping on the exact date

planned and is working toward meeting this goal as part of our commitment to continuous improvement, says Cassutt. Adopting the zero defects philosophy has had some impressive results for Nelson. The company has tracked its cost of quality on a monthly basis since February 1990. During that time, its cost of quality has decreased from 27 percent of sales to 16 percent of sales. The cost savings led to more competitive pricing and helped pay for the brand-new 117,000 square foot, state-of-the-art facility that Nelson moved into in October 1999. Clearly, the emphasis on zero defects is working for Nelson Nameplate. Others have demonstrated similar successes by bringing zero defects into their companies. 2.) CarboMedics Inc. of Austin, Texas, is a medical device manufacturer that specializes in heart valves. If ever there was a manufacturing process that demanded zero defects, this would be it. In its publication, the In-Plant Newsletter, Terry Marlatt, president of the companys Cardio Prosthesis Division, relates the companys journey to excellence using zero defects. Since December 1997 over 300,000 CarboMedics prosthetic heart valves have been implanted, with no reports of any post-implant mechanical failures. This is a record every manufacturer of mechanical valves is envious of, writes Marlatt, in the article 300,000 Heart Valves With Zero Defects. CarboMedics senior managers made zero defects their priority after a lengthy debate over whether perfection was a realistic, achievable goal. But the objective was not perfection as an abstract principle but complete fulfillment of customer requirements every single time. What is abstract about clearly understood customer requirements? asks Marlatt. Its reasonable to expect us to meet customer requirements perfectly. 300,000 implants with zero mechanical defects is fact, not fantasy. This performance is in line with our quality policy and embodied in our quality statement: CarboMedics Inc. will provide products and services that conform to customer requirements the first time, every time. The number of heart valves that CarboMedics has implanted without mechanical defects now exceeds 500,000--and counting.

Crosby's main point is that quality is achieved by preventing defects and conforming to requirements. Requirements must be agreed one of Crosby s strengths is his emphasis on transforming the culture of the organization. He provides a structured roadmap for attaining management commitment. He advocates individual commitment to quality at each level of the organization. Crosby provides education on the concepts of quality management, but realizes that each organization must create its own quality improvement process plan. His approach is effective in transmitting the need to change attitudes and behaviours and has been successful in getting organizations started--one reason why Crosby appeals to many managers. Second, Crosby has a structured training program for managers who are taught at the Quality College. Many managers generally find this approach easy to subscribe to and therefore choose to begin quality improvement using Crosby's approach. His approach emphasizes measuring the cost of doing things wrong versus the cost of doing things right the first time and does not emphasize a statistical basis for reduction of variation. As a result, organizations that do not focus on statistical methods may not be able to achieve improvements beyond initial cost reductions. Crosby founded Integrity Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of PCA, to provide clients with training packages in statistical process control. Crosby advocates programs such as Zero Defects Day. Again, "Zero Defects Day" is intended to be a time when management reaffirms its commitment to quality and employees must know how to achieve them. The monetary cost of quality is the focus of measurement, and he developed a formula to help managers track this cost. This formula provides for continuously measuring the cost of waste versus the lower cost of doing things right the first time, which is his performance standard. He urges activities (e.g., Zero Defects Day) where management and employees reaffirm their commitment to quality. His training program focuses on helping managers develop an organizational culture that focuses on quality. The ultimate goal of his approach is to provide defectfree products and services to the customers. In summary, Crosby is acknowledged as a great motivator of senior management in helping them to understand how to get the improvement process started. His approach is generally regarded as simple and easy to follow.