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INTRODUCTION

Floriculture:Origin: Latin fls, flr-, flower; klchar To grow It is the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection or It is a branch of horticulture which deals with commercial growing , marketing and arranging flowers and ornamental plants. Hi-Tech floriculture: The technology which is ultramodern, less environmental dependent and capital intensive having improved productivity with quality produce is hi-tech Floriculture. Commercial Floriculture:The science and art of commercial floriculture has been recognised as an economic activity with the potential for generating employment and earning valuable foreign exchange. IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE OF FLORICULTURE IN INDIA Besides food and nutritional security, the aesthetic value is also equally important for our daily lively hood as well as for environmental purity. Floriculture is important from the following point of view; 1. Economic point of view 2. Aesthetic point of view 3. Social point of view Economic point of view Floriculture is a fast emerging major venture in the world, especially as a potential money-spinner for many countries in world. Many flowers and ornamental plants are being grown for domestic as well as for export market will provide more return/unit area than any other agricultural/horticultural crops. For example in markets such as Delhi and Mumbai and other metros a single spike of gladiolus and gerbera cut flower may sell up to Rs. 3-5 in Kharif and Rs. 5-10/spike in Rabi/Summer. Gestation period of flower crop is very less compared to other crops. Modern-day floriculture refers to the production of high-value cut flowers such as rose, gladiolus, carnation, mums, orchids, tuberose, anthurium, lilium, gerbera etc,. Now days, growing of these cut flower crops, suited for flower arrangements/decorations for bouquets preparation and for floral boskets, have increased substantially and its share of the total trade has also improved. The sale of loose flowers of Jasmine, Crossandra, Marigold, China Aster, Chrysanthemums, Berlaria and Gaillardia etc., are a roaring business in south India. Marketing of Floriculture products for different ventures is emerging as a potential segment of this field. Besides, one can also work as consultant, landscape architect etc with proper training. Plant rental service One can also work as entrepreneur and offer employment to others. In addition to these careers which involve research and actual growing of crops. Floriculture also provides service career opportunities which include such jobs like floral designers, grounds keepers, landscape designers, architects and horticultural therapists. Professional qualification combined with an inclination towards gardening and such other activities produces efficient floriculturists and landscaping professionals all over the globe. Presently more than 145 countries are involved in flower production on commercial scale. Rose is another important commercial flower the cut blooms of which are highly prized in large cities, Rosa damascena and Edouard rose are used for manufacture of attar and rose water. The flowers of Rosa damascena and R. borboniana are used for preparing conserve or gulkand, a product mainly used in sweets, and for chewing in combination with pan(betel leaf). Perfumery industries:- Flowers of Jasmine for extraction of jasmine oil. There is a great demand for good quality of flower seeds, nursery stocks such as bulbs, budded roses and potted plants have a good internal as well as export market. Aesthetic point of view 1

Lot of scope for landscaping and is considered as billion dollar earning industry in states which ultimately adds the monitory value of any building/property. To a Japanese flower arranger each flower expresses one or more meaning (eg. Ikebana). The wealth of any nation is linked with the health of its people. Unless we can ensure the healthy development of our citizens, especially for the younger generation, by providing them for open breathing places through bio-aesthetic planning like in Chandigarh city and landscape gardening, we cannot expect to buildup a healthy society and prosperous nation. Horticultural therapy It is the new dimension of horticultural sciences to heal the psychic debility and the science is to use garden, landscape plants, parts of plants, growing activity as tools to work. The bio-force of plants offer a permanent solution to the problems of bio force of human thus, bio aesthetic horticulture is emerging as a new occupational therapeutic tool to restore the lost rhythm and harmony back to human self or inner environment. It is being utilized in psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals and physical rehabilitation centers, homes for elderly, prisons and schools. The patients can achieve higher level of personal development and satisfaction. Social point of view Flowers symbolize the purity, beauty, peace, love, adoration, innocence and passion etc. Hence, many flowers are used to express the most sensitive, delicate and loving feelings eloquently what our words fail to express. In our society no social function is complete without the use of flowers, floral ornaments, bouquets or flower arrangements they are invariably used in all social functions. Used in social gatherings, birthday parties, welcoming friends or relatives and honoring dignitaries. The concept of Valentines Day is fast catching up in India also. The arrival of new born is rejoiced with flowers, To an Indian, especially for Hindus, flowers have a much greater significance in religions offerings. It has estimated that more than 30-40 % of the total flower productions are being consumed in Kolkata city alone used for worshiping purpose. Floral garlands, gajras and venis are required in marriage ceremonies for adornment of hairs by women of all ages, especially in the south India. In the present modern era sicks are wished for speedy recovery by offering beautiful cut flowers, while the deads are bidden farewell with flowers along with tear of sorrow. Flowers are very closely associated with mankind from the dawn of human civilization. There is increasing habit of saying with flowers. Any Indians born with flowers live with flowers and finally dies with flowers. In India, floriculture industry comprises i.e., Income generating activities in Floriculture are, Cut Flowers Loose Flowers Cut Greens Foliage and Flowering Pot Plants Dry Flowers Production of bulbs and tubers Hybrid seed production Nursery production of plants and potted plants, Flower baskets, pots and containers etc. Extraction of essential oil Plant rental services

Garlands and venis Flower arrangements and floral craft Landscape Designing PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF FLOWERS AND PLANTS: The consumption of floriculture products is linked to the GDP of the countries. Developed countries with high per capita income obviously are the major consuming markets. 2

With rising income, consumption of floricultural products is on the increase both in developed and developing countries. It is estimated that, the Global demand for floricultural products is growing @ 8-10 %. In India the demand for cut flowers and pot plants is growing @ 20-25 %. CATEGORIES OF FLORICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN GLOBAL TRADE: Live plants and buds, Cut flowers Cut foliages Dry flowers Seeds of different seasonals, Pigments (Xanthophylls) and Essential oils etc ROLE OF INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND OTHER AGENCIES FOR EXPORT: In recent times, the Indian government has done a lot for promotion of exports of floriculture products. The Government has identified floriculture industry as thrust focus area for export. The import duty on seeds, bulbs, cuttings etc. has reduced to zero and that to on goods for green house items, seed development machinery has been brought down to 25%. Income tax and other tax concessions have been granted to new floriculture exporting companies. Subsidy of freight charges equal to 25 % of IATA approved rates i.e., Rs. 10 per kg Europe and United States and Rs.6 per kg for South East Asia and Middle East. Reduction in the tariff from 55 to 10 % on import of live plants and other plant bulbs, root, cut flowers and other ornamental foliage. The import of flower seeds and tissue culture material of any plant origin is now allowed without an import permit. The Agricultural and Processed Food Product Export Development Authority (APEDA) and National Horticulture Board (NHB) have also helped for export promotion. INSTITUTIONAL ASSISTANCE TO FLORICULTURE HI-TECH PROJECTS NABARD Soft Loan Assistance: 1. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has evolved a scheme for extending soft loan assistance to prospective entrepreneurs. 2. The entrepreneurs could be individual, proprietary / partnership firm, group of individuals, cooperative societies etc. 3. The assistance will be restricted to the shortfall in promoters contribution stipulated under relevant schemes. NATIONAL HORTICULTURE BOARD (NHB) NHB has evolved a scheme for development of post harvest infrastructure during the eighth five year plan period. Registered farmers organization, Co-operative societies and corporate sector are eligible for financial assistances. Promoters have to contribute 20% of the project cost. 40% will be provided by NHB as soft loan @ 5% p.a. Remaining cost of the project will be financed by commercial banks. APEDA SCHEMES TO ASSIST EXPORT ORIENTED FLORICULTURE For development of Infrastructure and services @ 25% of cost of the project and Rs. 1.5 lakhs for purchase of refer van. For development of post-harvest infrastructure @ 50% of cost/ Rs. 5.0 lakhs for pre cooling and cold storage units. Scheme for packing development 30% of cost; maximum Rs. 1.0 lakh. Scheme for export promotion and market development; maximum Rs. 0.5 lakh. Scheme for survey, feasibility, consultancy and data base, - 40% of cost and maximum Rs. 20.0 lakhs. Scheme for air freight subsidy 25 % of IATA (International Air Transport Association) rates; maximum Rs. 10/- per kg for Europe and USA and USA and Rs, 6/kg for West Asia and South-East Asia. It has already setup cold storage and cargo handling facilities which are operational at Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai and Thiruvananthapuram. 3

Nationalized banks viz., SBI, Canara Agri-Commercialization and Enterprise funded by the United States Agency for International Development (ACE-UASIG) State finance Corporations SCOPE TO ENTER FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY IN INDIA: India is bestowed with diverse agro-climatic and ecological conditions, which are favourable to grow all types of commercially important flowers generally found in different parts of the world. India is geographically well located between two major markets that is Europe and East Asia. Winter being mild in India we can export flowers to temperate countries during the winter season, when the demand is in peak because of festival like Christmas, New Year day and Valentines Day. Labour cost is very low in India. The Govt. of India has identified floriculture as extreme focus thrust area for export during IX plan. The Govt. of India has identified product specific zones for selective development Products specific intensive floriculture zones: Product Zone 1. Area around Delhi, UP and Punjab 2. Area around Bangalore 3. Area around Trivendrum 4. Area around Pune / Nashik 5. North Eastern region including Sikkim 6. Area around Kolkata 7. Area around Srinagar 8. Area around Solan, H.P. 9.Area around Coimbatore including Nilgiris Product Rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, gladiolus Rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, ornamental foliage plants seeds Orchids, Anthurium and foliage plants Rose, carnation, gladiolus, dahlia, chrysanthemum, aster, tuberose Orchids, Gladiolus, Liliums, Gerbera, Salvia, Anthurium and other foliage plants Lotus, tuberose, jasmine, chrysanthemum and Dahlia. Gladiolus, Liliums Carnation, Rose Gladiolus, other bulbous plants and seeds Jasmine, tuberose, chrysanthemum, rose, carnation-orchids

With the implementation of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) agreement European nations would bring down the import duty, which at present is 15 per cent. With international market growing at 8-10% and domestic market at 15-20 % hence the scope to enter floriculture industry is unlimited. Govt. of India is setting up the infrastructure for floriculture industry. APEDA is giving financial assistance to some extent for export of floriculture products. Easy bank finance For 100 % export oriented units (EOUs) government has allowed sale of 50 per cent of production in domestic markets. 100 % tax exemption on implements / raw materials used in greenhouses for 100 % EOUs The rules and regulations related to import and exports have been minimized. Singapore have International standard flower auction centre, which is helpful for Indian exports. Floriculture products posses 25-30 time more foreign exchange earning ability than cereals or other agricultural products. The quality of water available for irrigation is acceptable in most of the cases. Floriculture is capable of attracting and retaining a large number of progressive farmers / entrepreneurs. 4

Ample sunlight and optimum temperature during winter means there is no need for artificial lighting or heating in green house production. APEDA and GOK have established four flower auction centers including one in Bangalore at a cost of Rs. 7 crores. Already a flower auction is working though on a small scale. Since India has the largest middle class population in the world today, demand for flowers for domestic consumption is steadily increasing with the gradual improvement in the standard of living and quality of life. constraints/Problems/bottlenecks/hurdles/disadvantages/drawbacks for floriculture industry 1. Lack of specific information on area and production of different flowers is a handicap in planning production for domestic and export market. 2. Lack of information on new / Ruling varieties continuously keep changing in international markets. 3. Lack of information on modern practices like high density planting, fertilizer and irrigation management plant protection care, proper grading etc. 4. Lack of infrastructure facilities like Green house (Glass house, poly house), Cold chain etc. 5. Lack of basic infrastructure roads, water electricity, inadequate refrigerated transport and storage facilities, Lack of professional backup of delivery and supporting companies. 6. The scale of production in many units is too small to reduce the cost of production, to achieve diversification and to market effectively. 7. High rates of royalty payment to foreign breeders; 8. Poor facilities for post harvest handling of cut flowers; 9. Elaborate procedures and delay in claiming subsidies; 10. No direct flights (Cargo flights) from places like Bangalore and Pune which are main production centers results in double shipment increases cost and more scope for spoilage. 11. The freight rates in India are high which makes products uncompetitive in international markets. 12. There are no organized marketing co-operatives of other bodies which can take care of floriculture trade in India. 13. Lack of Research and development in floriculture. New varieties, post-harvest techniques, modern cultivations method etc. It is a continuous process. 14. No detailed economic feasibility studies with reference to establishment, maintenance and cost of production in glass house conditions / protected cultivation. 15. Plants in soil based container medium is not allowed in most middle-east and European markets so peat moss, perlite and rock wool mediums requires research and cost effectiveness. 16. Lack of streamlined quality control mechanism and poor co-ordination between govt. agencies involved in import and export of floriculture products. 17. Exemption from import duty by importing countries (15%) Some countries like Columbia Mauritius etc are exempted.-Government level talks needed. 18. Phyto-sanitory certificates are given only in selected cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Madras. 19. Lack of appropriate planting material and production technology for export lack of knowledge about importing and exporting countries. 20. No regular cargo flights from India 21. Indian mentality- lack of quality consciousness, Cheating This affects floriculture industry as a whole. 22. Lack of our sale promotion activities in importing countries. 23. Lack of training facilities in high tech production technology. 24. Lack of market intelligence (international) e.g varieties, selling rates

General Information: India ranks 2nd next to China with an area of 191 thousand hectare and produces 1031 thousand metric tons of loose flowers and 69,027 lakh cut flowers annually (2010-11). 1.15 Lakh ha area under floricultural crops in India. GHT emerged as a viable in the agri-business in India. India - 600 ha under green house cultivation. Export value of flowers appro. Rs.350 crores during 2009-10 Major area under greenhouse in India is around Bangalore, Hyderbad, Pune, Nasik, Delhi etc. 5

Guj.-one of the leading state for adoption GHT. Major area under greenhouse in Gujarat is around Surat, Navsari, Valsad Districts. Occupying area -100 ha under GHT in Gujarat Tamilnadu is a leading loose flower producing state in India. West Bengal is a leading cut flower producing state in India. Leading exporter of flowers in the world is The Netherland The leading importing country for floriculture products from India Export Constraints Non availability of adequate cargo space in major airlines, since most of the airline operator prefer heavy consignments High airfreight Freight cost is 3 to 4 times higher than that in Mauritius, Israel and few Asian countries. Direct international cargo flights are only for a few cities which leads to change of flights at two to three places and the flowers being perishable are badly affected. Lack of basic infrastructure roads, water electricity, inadequate refrigerated transport and storage facilities, Lack of professional backup of delivery and supporting companies. The scale of production in many units is too small to reduce the cost of production, to achieve diversification and to market effectively. High rates of royalty payment to foreign breeders; Poor facilities for post harvest handling of cut flowers; Elaborate procedures and delay in claiming subsidies; Tedious phyto- sanitary certification and an unorganized domestic market Frequently asked Questions: National flower of India- Lotus First DDG of Horticulture- K.L.Chadha First Horticulture commissioner and Executive Director of NHM and National Professor- K.L. Chadha The headquarter of National Horticulture Board(NHB)- Gurgaon, Haryana First website for flower auction in India- www.rosebazar.com at Bangalore The first Director General of ICAR and famous rosarian- Dr. B.P. Pal The international flower market is situated at Aalsmeer in The Netherlands The largest producer of perfumery products- Bulgaria Apopka, Florida is regarded as cut greens capital of the world Largest exporter of cut flowers and pot plants- The Netherlands The largest exporter of cut greens- Italy India is the largest producer of the loose flowers in the world Largest rose-growing area is situated in the Aligarh district.

ROSE
INTRODUCTION Roses are symbol of beauty, fragrance and are used to convey the message of love. Without roses gardens are not considered complete. Great diversity in plant growth, colour of flowers, flower shape, fragrance, slow openings of flowers and good keeping quality made roses so popular that it is grown commercially to meet the demand of cut blooms. It is top ranking cut flower, in the flower trade on the basis of average, production and consumption. In India roses are grown for cut flowers, making essential oils, rose water and Gulkand. Some countries have adopted rose as their national flower e.g. England 6

BOTANY Rose is an ornamental shrub with upright or climbing stems, usually prickly. The leaves are alternate, compound, oddly pinnate (R. persica has undivided leaves), with stipules adherent to the leaf stalks. Flowers are solitary or in corymbs. Calyx is 5 lobed, lobes either simple or compound, and inserted at the top of a roundish or pear shaped fleshy tube. The ripe fruit (hip / hep) consist of many one seeded carpals in a fleshy tube & the seeds are hard. ORIGIN & HISTORY Roses are native of The Himalayas region, west Asia, China, Europe & North America. There are about 150 recognized species, but only 8 species have played a major role evolving modern rose cultivars. The rose breeders and Geneticists have not yet exploited 95 percent of the rose species. The species grown wild in India : Rosa brunonii (Himalyan musk rose) R. eglanteria R. foetida syn. (R. eglanteria) R. giantea syn.(R. odorata var. gigantea) R. involucrate syn(R. clinophyla) R. leschenayltina syn(R. sempervirance) R. longicuspis R. macrophyla R. moschata (musk rose) R. rebiginosa (sweet brier, Eglantine rose) R. walpolina R. sericea (Laddak rose) Classification of Roses 1. Hybrid Teas 2. Floribundas 3. Hybrid Perpetuals 4. Teas 5. Grandifloras 6. Polyanthas 7. China roses 8. Miniatures 9. Damask roses 10. Bourbon Roses 11. Cabbage roses 12. Moss Roses 13. French roses 14. Albas 15. Musk roses 16. Noisette roses 17. Rugosas 18. Austrian Briars 19. Ramblers (A) Hybrid Teas It is obtained by crossing hybrid perpetuals & Teas roses. The 1st variety La France of this class was produced by French breeder GUILLOT (1867). Main characteristics of H.T. roses are production of bloom on long canes, elongated buds, slow opening of flowers & good keeping quality. varieties :Yellow Golden Giant, Buccaneer, Aalsmeer gold, Dutch Gold, Fragrant Gold, Orange, Scarlet, Coral & Vermilion Montezuma, Superstar, Fragrant , Cloud, Queen, Fabiola. Pink Confidence, Picture, South Seas, First prize, Mischief, Sonia. Red, Dark Crimson Christian Dior, Avon, Crimson Glory, Baccara, Oklahama Happiness, Black lady Apricot / Bronze Thais, Sunset song, Valencia, Whisky, Mauve / Lavender African star, Blue moon, Paradise, sterling silver 7

White June bride, Pascali, Tushar Bicolour Bajazzo, Flaming sunset Colour blend Kiss of fire, Tahiti, sea shell, Double Delight, Striped & Hand painted Anvil sparks, Careless love, Siddharth, Madhosh Exhibition varieties Anvil spark, Avon, Christian Dior, Eiffel Tower, First Prize, Garden Party, Pusa Sonia, Show Girl, Super Star, The Doctor Scented varieties : Avon, Sughandha, Kana Kangi, La France, Seventh heaven Commercial varieties Superstar, Montezuma, happiness, Ilona, Sonia, Gladiator ( very popular among Nasik and Pune) (B) FLORIBUNDAS These have been produced by crossing Hybrid Tea x Dwarf Polyantha by Danish breeder Poulsen in 1912 & 1st Floribunda was named Rodhatte. Produce flowers in clusters like polyantha of better shape & bigger size than the flowers of polyantha but flowers are smaller than hybrid Teas. They are produced in great profusion appearing like bouquets. Varieties Red- Marlena, Rob Roy, Jantar Mantar; Orange- Scarlet- Shola, Zambra, Zorina, Pink- Queen Elizabeth, Mercedes, Belinda white- Himangini, Iceberg (C) HYBRID PERPETUALS They are the immediate forerunners of Hybrid Teas. These are considered to be the off-springs of Rosa chinensis, R. gallica and R. centifolia. They flower more than once in the season. (D) TEAS Also called Tea scented China roses they derived their name from their distinct aroma, believed to be felt when a chest of tea leaves is opened. They are known to have originating from R. chinensis and R. gigantae. (E) GRANDIFLORAS Mainly obtained from crosses between Hybrid Tea and Floribunda types. They produce Hybrid Tea like blooms in clusters. e.g. Montezuma, Queen Elizabeth. (F) POLYANTHAS The dwarf small flowered Polyanthas were forerunners of the popular large flowered Floribundas of today. e.g. Echo, Anjani, Nartaki, Swati, Priti, Rishi Bankim. (G) CHINA ROSES The China rose (R. chinensis), more than any other, is responsible for nearly all the present day rose and bears red to nearly white flowers in small clusters. (H) MINIATURE ROSE This are also called as baby or fairy roses. They are neat & compact but dwarf plants. These are easily propagated by semi-hard to hard wood cutting. Varieties Gold Star, Cinderella, Peon, Indian Varieties Chandrika, Delhi Starlet, Pushkala, Dazzler (I) DAMASK ROSES Rosa damascena R. Phoenica x R. gallica (J) RAMBLERS Ramblers have climbing habit, these have been produced by crossing Hybrid perpetuals x R. wichuriana & R. multiflora Exotic Varieties American pillar, Excelsa, Dorothy, Perkins, Albertine Indian varieties Delhi white, kanyakumari, Lalkila, Akash Pradip GENETICS AND BREEDING : The present day garden roses are complex hybrids involving interspecific hybridization, polyploidy with high female & male sterility. The basic chromosome number in rose is 7 , colour in roses as in other flowers is governed by the expression of water soluble pigments called anthocyanidins. ROSE BREEDING IN INDIA More than 300 cultivars have been developed in India. Some important cultivars developed at IARI & by Dr. B. P. Pal are 8

Hybrid Tea Anurag, Arjun, Bhim, Chitwan, Dr.B.P.Pal, Dr.Homi Bhabha, Jawahar, Kanakungi, Mechak, Mridula, Mrinalini, Poornima, Raja surendra singh of Nalagadh & Raktagandha. Floribunda Banjaran, Chandrama, Delhi Princess, Loree, Mohini, Nellambari, Prema, Rupali, Sadabahar, Sindoor, Shabnam, Suchitra & Suryakiran. At IARI 3 rose cultivars were developed through induced mutation 1. Abhisarika from Kiss of fire 2. Pusa Christian from Christian Dior 3. Madhosh from Gulzar Importance and Uses 1. Shrub or Bush: - Shrubs or bush roses, prepared by budding the desired cultivars on a rootstock at the height of 5 to 10 cm from the ground level, are planted in small group to create excellent mass effect in a rose or flower garden. They may also be mixed with other plants in a shrubbery. Flowers on such plants can either be retained on the plants or can be cut for indoor decoration. Cultivars like Christian Dior, Double Delight, Paradise, First Prize, Gladiator, Kiss of Fire, Montezuma, and Paradise make good bushes and are also suitable for growing as shrub. 2. Standard Rose: - Standard roses or tree roses as it is popularly known, is a very important feature in the rose garden. They are not distinctive type but prepared by budding any cultivar at a higher point on long rootstock and allowing the crown to form only at the top leaving the entire stem clear of any vegetative growth. According to their height of budding they may be (a) Full Standards Are prepared by budding at a height of 1.0 1.15 m. (b) Half Standards between 45 cm & 60 cm. (c) Weeping standards At 1.5 m or even higher above the ground. Hybrid teas & few grandiflora are suitable for making the full standard roses. . Floribunda & Polyantha roses are excellent for growing as half standards. Rambling roses such as white pearl & prosperity are other cultivars suitable for making beautiful weeping standards. 3. Climbers :- The The climbing & rambling roses can be used to cover the walls of houses or fencing or pergolas, arbours & arches. Ramblers produce flowers only once in a year & flowers are in clusters lasting for several weeks. Unlike ramblers, the flowers of many climbing Hybrid Teas appear singly or in group of two or threes. 4. Hedge and edge:- A rose can also be useful for making hedge or edge. They are also suitable for panting along the garden paths, giving beautiful colours. Vigorous floribundas are suitable for hedge & if necessary, the plants can be planted in 2 rows. Climbing or rambling roses may also be used for making tall hedges. 5. Rockery :- Roses are also grown in rockeries and for this purpose hardy miniatures and pompon cultivars such as Fairy Queen and Magic may be selected 6. Pot plants:- Roses can easily be grown in as a pot plants in suitable containers kept both indoor as well as outdoors. For beautifying the balconies or terraces which receive limited sunlight, Miniatures and dwarf polyanthas should be selected. Bush roses may also be grown in pot for beautifying the compounds around the building & for display in rose shows. 7. Hangers:- miniatures can also be grown in hanging baskets, and cultivars suitable for making rose hangers are the climbing Miniatures. 8. Cut- flowers:- Rose makes one one of the best cut-flowers and as such is in great demand in the internal as well as foreign markets. In the European markets roses cut flowers are regularly imported to supplement the internal production. Germany is the biggest consumer & importer of cut flowers. In general, cultivars with more petallage & opening slowly with long lasting quality are chosen as cut flowers. Rose cut- flowers are arranged in in flower vases look extremely beautiful and they have a rightful place in the scheme of interior decoration. Christian Dior, Happiness, Queen Elizabeth, Super star, Illona, Sonia, Red success, Belinda etc. are suitable for this purpose. Indian cultivars Arjun & Raktagandha producing flowers with long stems are also suitable for cutflowers. 9. Perfume and Allied products:a. Rose oil (Rose perfume) Rose oil is an important commercial product obtained from rose petals. Bulgarian rose otto is largely used in perfuming soaps & cosmetics. The commonly grown rose sp. for rose oil are Rosa 9

damascena, R. barboniana, R. centifolia, R. alba & R. gallica. In India, R.damascena & R.barboniana are cultivated for rose oil. Bulgaria has emerged as a major producer & exporter of the otto of roses & the roses perfumery. Generally, 1 kg oil is obtained from 3000 4000 Kg petals. Among the different sp. of rose R.damascena gives max. oil yield. R.damascena 0.057 0.058% R.barboniana 0.040 0.042% R.teplitz 0.03 0.035% The principle constituent of normal rose oil is 1-citronellol (40 65%) The essential oil content was highest in flowers harvested early in the morning at 8:30 9:00 am. a. Rose water It is obtained from petals & used as perfume & in medicines & confectionary. It is used in eye lotions and eye drops, drinking water in functions b. Gulkand Rose petals are also preserved for direct consumption, by making gulkand. Which is prepared by pounding equal proportion of petals and white sugar. It is considered both a tonic and laxative. Rosa damascena, R.chinensis, R.gallica, R.pomifera & some other scented roses. e. g. Edouard are used for preparing gulkand. c. Source of vitamins Rose hips are a very good source of ascorbic acid the life given Vit.C, that every 100 g of rose hip syrup contain 150 mg of ascorbic acid. d. Other uses In Europe, roses are also used for making pot-pourri, conserves, rose vinegar & rose petal wine. Jams, jellies & syrup have been made for centuries in Bulgaria & exported. Dried rose petals are known as pankhuri which is occasionally used for preparing sweetened cold drinks. PROPAGATION : Means production of new individual Sexual propagation:Seeds To produce new hybrids through breeding. The seeds formed in the fruit known as hips are sown for obtaining hybrid seedling. Temperature below 20-250 C. is required for better germination Root cutting Plants produced by root cuttings are more resistant to frost than stem cutting. Cuttings The most important use of cutting is to raise rootstocks for budding. e.g. Some climbers, ramblers & polyanthus, Miniatures Layering For the multiplication of climbers & ramblers, this method is quite useful. Grafting This is exacting operation, failures are common. cost of grafted plant is higher than budded plant. Budding Roses are commonly propagated by T or Shield budding. The common rootstocks is used in Edouard rose (R. bourbonica) or R. multiflora. Plants are ready for transplanting within two years. Recently, R. indica var.odorata has been found better than the former rootstock. Thorn less rootstock is also getting popular, as easily propagated by hardwood & semi hardwood cutting Cuttage Buddage

cutting are budded immediately and planted in sand or burnt rice husk media under polythene cover in December- January. It takes about 3-4 weeks for cutting to strike roots and bud to grow. 10

High success can be obtained by treating the cutting and buds with 1000 ppm IBA Plants are ready for planting in one year Rose varieties developed by IARI, New Delhi suitable for growing in Green House 1. 'Pusa mohit', 2. 'Pusa Abhishek', 3. ' Pusa manhar' , 4. 'Pusa muskan', 5. 'Pusa Urmil', 6. 'Pusa Ranjana', 7. 'Pusa Mohit', 8. 'Pusa Arjun', 9. 'Pusa Ajay', 10. 'Pusa Komal, 11. 'Pusa Shatabdi' Production Technology for open conditions Soil: Rose plants grow well in fertile soil. They can be grown in all types of soil with proper drainage Well drained medium, loamy soil having adequate organic matter is ideal. pH of 6.0 to 6.5 Climate: Rose can be grown successfully in different climatic zones. Moderate temperature, bright sunshine and high light intensity are good for flower production. Roses grow very well in the tropical regions of India at lower altitude. The effective season of production decreases with rise in temperature beyond 280 C. Soil preparation: The initial preparation of rose beds should preferably done during summer season The land is dug at the depth of 45- 60 cm and all stones and other foreign materials along with weeds are removed. Well decomposed FYM/cow dung manure /compost manure @ 100 kg/ha be incorporated at the lower half of the pit pit or trench so as to keep the manures away from the roots of the plants at planting time. 30 kg/ha P2O5 as SSP mixed and the beds are irrigated thoroughly about ten days before planting Planting:Planting should be done in thoroughly prepared beds. While planting, the position of the bud union should be 5.0 to 7.5 cm above the soil level. It is advisable to plant rose in the afternoon. Planting Distance: Hybrid Tea - 60-75 cm Floribunda - 60 cm Polyantha and Miniature - 30-45 cm High density commercial planting: Hybrid Tea - 30 x 45 cm Time of Planting : Maharshtra and Karnataka- End of May- June and September to December Temperate Zone and Eastern India October- February South India - October to December West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa September to December Manure and Fertilizers: Best time for adding organic manure is before planting and at the time of pruning 4-5 kg of organic manure (cow dung/compost) / plant 25 g of bone meal/plant or 11

60 g N, 20 g P2O5 and 20 g K2O should be applied per sq. m. containing nine plants in two splits i.e., half amount of N, full dose of P and K at the time of pruning and remaining half dose of N is applied one month after the first application. ( PAU) Irrigation Water requirement of roses depend upon soil type & seasons. During summer water requirement is more than winter. During winter - 7 10 days interval Summers- 5 6 days interval Pruning:It is a art and science of cutting away a portion of a plant to improve its shape, to influence growth, flowering and fruitfulness, to improve the quality of product. Training:Means developing a desired shape of the plant with particular objectives by controlling the habit of growth Old, weak and dead wood is removed each year to encourage the regular development of strong and healthy bush and to obtain good flower yield. Most of the varieties taken about 60 65 days for blooming after pruning. Therefore, to secure flowers for particular occasion pruning can be adjusted accordingly. Over crowding of shoots at the centre should be thinned out to keep the centre open.

Prunning technique in Hybrid Tea and Grandiflora roses Pruning technique in Floribunda roses

Prunning technique in Climbing roses Pruning are of three types 1. Hard pruning To obtain larger exhibition blooms, a harder pruning by retaining only 3-4 buds on each stem is followed 2. Moderate pruning For hybrid Tea, it is good in which stem are cut to half of their length leaving about 5 to 7 buds on pruned stem 3. Light pruning It is preferred in Floribunda roses Miniature requires the removal of dead and weak shoots and just clipping of top. In climbing roses, all interlaced stems and old shoots are to be removed. Pruning time Most of the part of India - October In hills - After the dormant winter season In Bangalore, Pune and Nasik- Twice in the year in June and November Weeding:12

Generally, hand weeding is practiced. Monocot weed can be effectively controlled with Glyphosate (1.0 Kg a.i. /ha) & dicot weeds with Oxyfluorfen (0.5 Kg a.i. /ha) as pre emergent treatment. Mulching: Rose beds may be mulched with straw, black polythene film. It helps conserve soil moisture, suppress weeds & produce more flowers of better quality. Pinching:Pinching in rose is generally practiced to adjust flowering for a particular season. Suckers: The shoots or sucker of the root stock emerging from the base of the plant should be removed as soon as they appear. They can be distinguished from those of the scion by the shape & size of their leaves. Harvesting The rose flowers are cut while still in the bud stage after the sepals curl back & the colour is fully showing. Loose flower should be harvested only when they are fully open. Post harvest Management The cut roses are kept in plastic buckets / containers filled with clean water having disinfectant & preservative (silver thio- sulphate) to enhance their shelf life. The graded flowers are bunched with 10 or 20 stems in each bunch. Yield 6 to 7 lacs sticks / ha. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF CUT ROSE Ideal growing media Light, well drained pH 6 - 6.5 EC less than 1.0 Humus 10-12% Imp constituents are sand, coco-peat and rock wool Characteristics of rootstock spp. Fibrous root system Easily propagated Vigorous growth habit and healthy Resistant/tolerant to biotic and abiotic stress Uniform growth Free from suckers Thick bark to hold firmly the bud Support the bud for long time Able to grow varied soil and agro climatic conditions Environment Temp (Day : 18-28C and night:15-18C) Light (Photoperiod over 12 Hrs. and Intensity:6000-8000 f.c.) RH(50-60 %) Aeration (Good in air and soil) CO2 (1000-3000 PPM) varieties Long stem (50-120 cm): Vivaldi, First Red, Grand Gala, Konfetti, Tineke Medium stem (50-70 cm): Jaguar, golden Times, Baronesse, Lambada Small flowered (30-70 cm): Motrea, Coronette, Calypso, Carona Bed size Single, double and four row planting system 13

The double row bed system is better than 3 or 4 row beds because it is very difficult to manage it in India. 45-60 cm raised 100 cm width 60 85 cm path between two raised bed Spacing : 30 x 25 cm, 60,000-70,000 plants/ha Planting Method Six month old budded plants with at least two shoots is ideal The roots are soaked in a diluted solution of Benlate to avoid disease The polyhouse should be kept warm and high humidity is maintained Framework Development The framework of basal shoots is very important for increasing quality flower production To build up a strong root system, maximum leaf area is required Number of new shoots are to be encouraged which can produce marketable flowers The pin sized flower bud is removed without leaves up to one month after planting BENDING The bending is a major operation for polyhouse roses, to reduce apical dominance by which dormant bud below the bend get extraordinary impetus and thereby produce long shoots with flowers The branch arise from the main shoot bent smoothly towards path side by pressing hard followed by bending it with thumb and index finger by leaving two leaves below

14

Maintenance of bent stems Roll these suckers twice a week to avoid energy towards bottom break Only sprouts that come on the bent branches within 5 cm from the bending place can be left AFTER CARE Overhead water spray during strong sunshine hrs to assist establishment and post planting losses Deshooting after 7-8 months of planting Resting of plants is done during off season (June-August) IMPORTANT DISEASE SN Name of pest 1 2 3 Powedery mildew Black spot Die back

Management 1)WP sulfer or sulfer fumigation 2) Spray kerathion,calaxin, contaf 1) Spray contact fungicides 1)Cutting and burning heavily infested parts 2) Proper ventilation and watering 3)Spray dicofol @ 2.5 ml/ltr 1) Use tolerant rootstocks: indica,multiflora, caniana 1) Use of bittertenol, tridimefon and triforine 1) Spray Metalaxyl-MZ,Fosetyl-AL Management 1)Healthy planting material 2)Cutting and burning heavily infested shoots 3)Soil application of carbofuron@1kg/ha 4)Spray confidor @4ml/10ltr OR 5ml neem oil/ltr water 1)Spray Imidacloropid 4ml/10ltr OR 5ml neem oil/ltr water 2)Spray dimethoate @ 2 ml/ltr at iitial stage 3)Drenching 4ml/ltr cloropyriphios reducing resting pupa population 1)Spray trizophos @ 1.5 ml/ltr or karanj oil 5 ml/ltr 1)Spray trizophos MP@ 1 ml/ltr or endosulphan oil 2 ml/ltr

4 Crown gall 5 Rust 6 Downey mildew IMPORTANT INSECT PEST SN Name of disease 1 Red scale

Thrips

3 4

White fly Bud catterpillar

DISORDERS Bull head : malformed flower Bent neck Limp neck Blind shoot Vascular plugging PINCHING Removal of shoot apex to overcome apical dominance and lateral shoot development 2-3 unfolded leaves are removed Reduce plant height Promote lateral branching Regulate flowering Harvesting For local market: When outer one/two petals starts unfurling For distant market: 15

Fully coloured tight bud Loose flower: Fully open flowers White, pink and yellow cvs are harvested earlier to red as red may not open if harvested at tight bud stage Pre cooling Immediately after harvesting To remove field heat, slow down the respiration, flowers water loss and arrest the excessive opening the buds Cold rooms (3-5 degree c) FLORAL PRESERVATIVES Aluminium sulphate OR Citric acid(300 ppm) Storage 2-30 C Grading Long stemmed (50-120 cm): with 10 cm difference Medium stemmed (50-70 cm): with 5 cm difference Small flowered (30-70 cm): with 3-5 cm difference Optimum Yield Open field: 25-50 stems/m2/year Indian Green House: 150-200stems/m2/year Loose flowers: 3-5 tonnes/ha/year

GERBERA
OTHER NAMES TRANSVAAL DAISY BARBERTON DAISY AFRICAN DAISY TYPES OF GERBERA SINGLE DOUBLE Introduction: Genus Gerbera was coined in honour of German naturalist, Traugott Gerber. Native of S.African and Asiatic regions. Gerbera jamesonii belongs to family Compositae / Asteraceae. Cultivation Requirements Soil: Well drained, rich, neutral or slightly alkaline soil is most suitable. Soil pH between 5- 7.2 gives good quality flowers. Water: pH 5.5 to 7.2; EC < 0.5 Light: 32-43k lux for 8-10 hrs per day. Temperature: Day temp. of 22 - 25 C and night of 12 - 15 C is optimum, the ideal temperature for flower bud initiation is 23 C Gerbera cultivation Until a decade ago, Gerbera was grown under shade houses where crop failures were their because of rains. A crop grown under poly house has a life of 2 years with high quality flowers Poly house protects the plants and flowers from direct rains, harm full u.v. rays, pests, diseases and heavy winds. Climatic conditions can be controlled in a poly house up to some extent. Provision for moveable shade net is a must. PROPAGATION SEEDS DIVISION OF PLANTS CUTTINGS MICRO-PROPAGATION Cultivation 16

Soil preparation : Plough the soil thoroughly 3-4 times up to a depth of 40-50 cm. Spread Farm yard manure, basal dose of fertilizers, bone meal, neem cake and paddy husk (if required). Fumigate with metham sodium / basamide or formalin and keep the soil covered with poly film for a week at least. Make beds 60 cm wide with 40-50 cm pathway. Leach the beds with water before planting. Bed layout Beds should be 60 cm wide and 40 cm height with 40-50 cm pathway. In hydroponics, plants are grown in pots filled with coco peat / peat moss etc. One has to very careful regarding fertigation in hydroponic culture. Planting Planting material should be sourced from a good company. Gerbera can be planted throughout the year, however plan in such a way that produce come during the season. Usually 8 10 plants are planted per square meter . Two row planting with plant to plant 30 40 cm and row to row 40 cm distance in triangle system is ideal for good growth. Keep the crown of the plantlet above the ground while planting . Deep planting may lead to seedling rot. VARIETAL WEALTH SUNWAY, DALMA, CABANA, PITON FINOLA, MARMARA, SAWANA,WINTER QUEEN, DAWN, SPYKER, MYTHE, OXFORD, CROSSROAD, EVERGREEN Irrigation It is preferred to have two drip lines running adjacent to the rows in the centre. Drippers ( 2 lph ) should coincide with plants for proper irrigation and fertigation. Irrigate young plants first with mist for about 10 days and then start through drip. Irrigation interval should be many numbers per day , preferably with fertilizers! Too wet soil will invite Phytophthora root rot And too dry will invites mites etc. Fertigation / week / 1000 sq.m Name Quantity ( kg ) Solution A Ammonium Nitrate 2.0 Magnesium Sulphate 1.4 Mono Potassium Phosphate 1.4 Sulphate of Potash 1.4 Solution B Potassium Nitrate 3.2 Calcium Nitrate 2.8 Do not fertigate for first 10 days. Apply 19:19:19: @2.5 kg alternate day for first 30-40 days. Pl. analysis soil/water sample before start fertigation schedule. Cultural practices Keep the shade net ( 50 % ) close when the plants are young or during summer. Irrigate through mist for first few days and then start drip. Regular preventive sprays of pesticides and fungicides should be given. 17

Remove the first floral bud which is seen by 30-40 days. Take flower production only when enough foliage is there ( i.e. by about 3 months ). Scout for any pest and disease symptoms. Remove the dry and infected leaves regularly. Harvesting Stages of Gerbera Before out row of ray florets show pollen When outer row of petals is perpendicular on stalk Harvest the flower when disc florets are half open. Harvest / Post harvest Harvesting is done by bending the flower at base on either side ( boot stage ). Each flower is packed in a plastic cup / cone and bundled in 10s. Pack 50 bundles in a carton box for on ward journey. A pretreatment of STS may be given during storage at the farm. OPTIMUM YIELD GREEN HOUSE:200-250 FLOWERS/M2/YEAR OPEN FIELD:120-150 FLOWERS/M2/YEAR Packaging Box Size- 100X40X20cm No. of Bunches -35 No. of Flowers -350 MICRONUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY IRON DEF.:Young leaves show intervenal cholorosis, leaf and folwer size small Remedy:Foliar Spray of FeSO4 (0.5 per cent) with 0.5 per cent urea Maintain moderately acidic PH Mg Deficiency The leaves turn yellowish, Remedy: Treating the crop with chelates of megnesium combination Health Management Root rot ( Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia sp. Soil sterilization. ) Foot rot ( Phytophthora spp., Fusarium Soil drench with Thiophanate M, benomyl, spp. ) metalaxyl, carbendazim etc. Sclerotium rot ( Sclerotium rolfsii ) Blight ( Botrytis cinerea ) Powdery mildew ( Erysiphe cichoracearum , Oidium sp. ) Downy mildew ( Bremia lactucae ) White flies Leaf minor ( Liriomyza trifolii ) and Aphid Mites (Hemitarsonemus latus ) Root knot nematode ( Meloidogyne sp.) PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS Soil sterilization, drenching / spraying of Carbendazim. Spray Quintal, Dithane M-45. Spray Thiophanate M, balyton, calyxin. Spray Ridomil, Thiophanate M on lower side of the leaves. Spray Triazophos, acephate, Acetamiprid. Spray acephate, chlorfenpyr, monocrotophos, soil application of Phorate or Carbofuran. Spray propagite, abemactin, dicofol . Soil sterilization, application of Carbofuran, Soil application of Paecilomyces formulations.

18

Pre harvest stem break: When the flower stem is subjected to stress and wilt specialy in sunny weather and after it sudden application of water leads to extreme tension, is imposed on cells in the stem Corrections : keeping soil moist during sunny days and reducing air temperature Bent Neck Insufficient flower stem hardening or maturation of the stem tissue below the harvested flower can result in stem collapse. Corrections : do not harvest flower stem when they are immature in winter Premature flower wilt: It occurs mostly after a period of cloudy days with low light intensities followed by a clear sunny day. Lack of carbohydrate Corrections: If possible screen the crop and let the plants get used to the radiation gradually

MARIGOLD
Botanical name Tagetes erecta (African marigold) Tagetes patula (French marigold) Tagetes tenuifolia (Syn. T. sygnata) Tagetes lucida (sweet scented marigold) Tagetes lacera Tagetes lemmonii There are 30 species of genus Tegetes Family- Asteraceae Centre of origin- Mexico The name Tegetes was given after a Tages a demigod known for his beauty African marigold is represents vulgar mind and French marigold is a symbol of jealousy Known as friendship flower in USA African Marigold: Hardy, erect and tall annual growing up to 90 cm Flowers are large, Globular and yellow and orange coloured in various shades French Marigold: The hardy annual bushy plant (20-30 cm.) Flowers are small either single or double Flower colours are yellow to Mahogany red Importance and Use Garlands, bedding plants, herbaceous boarders, newly planted shrubberies French marigold- Most Ideal for rockeries, edging, hanging baskets and window boxes Leaf extract is good remedy of ear ache Leaf paste used for boils and carbuncle Flower extract- as blood purifier, cure for piles, eye diseases and ulcers The essential oil from flowers is used in perfumery industry Control of nematode Varieties African marigold- Giant double African orange, Giant double African yellow, Cracker Jack, Climax, Dubloon, Golden Age, Crown of Gold, Chrysanthemum charm, Spun gold French Marigold- Red Brocade, Rusty Red, Butter Scotch, Valencia, Sussana INDIAN VARIETIES:Local types (orange & yellow), Pusa Narangi Gainda, Pusa Basanthi Gainda (IARI varieties) and MDU 1 can be cultivated. SOIL & CLIMATE Marigold can be successfully cultivated on a wide variety of soil. 19

well drained , deep fertile soil having good water holding capacity pH 7.0 to 7.5 Marigold requires mild climate of luxuriant growth & profuse flowering. High temperature (26.20 C - 36.40 C) is adversely affect flowering Mild climate (14.50 C - 28.6 0 C) during growing period greatly improved flowering October month is best for planting. PLANTING Raising the seedling in nursery bed, at the time of transplanting, they should be stocky and bears 34 true leaves. Thin & long seedlings do not make a good plant. Very old seedlings are also not desirable. T.P. in well prepared land and soil is pressed around root zone to avoid air pockets. Light irrigation is given after transplanting Spacing 20x30 cm or 30x30 cm PROPAGATION By seed and apical cutting Seeds are sown in the raised beds PLANTING TIME Flowering season Sowing time Transplanting time Late Rains Winter Summer Mid June Mid September January- February Mid July Mid October February- March

PINCHING In tall cultivars of Tagetes erecta, development of axillary branches and flower production are influence by the presence of apical dominance and grow upward to their final height and produce terminal flower bud and after that the axillary branches develop which also bear flower. The removal of apical shoots enhance well shaped bushy plants with more number of uniform flowers. Pinching is done 40 days after transplanting, late pinching at 50-60 days proved less effective MANURES AND FERTILIZERS 200:100:100 kg NPK/ ha Full dose of P and K and half dose of N is applied at the time of transplanting Remaining 100 kg/ha N is applied one month after transplanting IRRIGATION Marigold takes 55-60 days to complete vegetative growth At all stages of vegetative growth and during flower production, sufficient moisture in the soil is essential Lighter soil required more frequent irrigation than heavy soil Summer irrigation is given at 4-5 days interval HARVESTING Cool hours in the morning or evening Field should be irrigated before plucking so that flower keep well for longer Regular plucking is important for increasing productivity Flowers are collected in polythene bags or bamboo basket for carrying to the market YIELD African Marigold 11 - 18 tonnes/ha (1.5 - 2.5 million flowers/ha) French Marigold - 8 - 12 tonnes/ha (6 - 8 million flowers/ha) PESTS Sr. Name Control No 20

Red Spider Mite - Sometimes appear near flowering time, Plants give dusty appearance Hairy Caterpillar - Eats away foliage

Kelthane

2 3

Leaf Hopper - Rolling of leaves, wilting of shoot tips and leaflets DISEASES Sr. No Name 1 2 Damping off by fungus Rhizoctonia solani

Endosulphan or Quinalphos Melathion

Collar Rot by fungus Phtopthora spp., Pythium spp. And Sclerotium rolfsii

3 4

Flower Bud Rot by fungus Alternaria dianthi Powdery Mildew By fungus Oidium sp. And Leveillula taurica

JASMINE
Introduction Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. More than 40 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine or mogra (double)) J. grandiflorum (Chameli or Janti) J. auriculatum (Jooee) and The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction. Jasmines are native of India and also China, Burma, Australia, and South East Europe Family- Oleaceae Basic chromosome number is n= 13 "Chameli" in Hindi. "Mallika" in Sanskrit and "Malligai" in Tamil Jasminum humile Known as Italian jasmine or Swarn chameli is a shrub native to tropical Asia The yellow, faintly scented flowers Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings are less than 1 acre. Importance and uses Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as both shrub and climber. Flowers and buds are used for making garlands, bouquets, veni, used for decorating hair of women and for religious offering Flowers are also used for the production of perfumed hair oils and attars The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from the flowers of Spanish jasmine (J. grandiflorum) The Grasse region of France supplies the best quality jasmine perfume in the world The jasmine oil is regarded as unique as it blend well with other floral extracts and it is highly valued throughout the world for producing high grade perfumes The natural oil of Jasmine is used in high grade perfumes and almost all the superior perfumes contain at least a small quantity of Jasmine oil The oil is use din soap and cosmetic industries The flowers of Arabian Jasmine (J. sambac) are reported to be used in China for flavouring tea 21

Propagation Cuttings of almost mature wood Layers, commonly ground layers Seeds are hardly used for propagation but are used for raising new hybrids. Growth regulators are also effective. The highest rooting of 90% was recorded in soft wood cutting treated with IAA 1000 ppm and hard wood cuttings treated with NAA 500 ppm Best rooting and survival were obtained with IBA at 4000 ppm Soil and Climate Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam or clayey loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days. Land Preparation and Planting One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 45 - 90 cm3. Each pit should be applied 10-15 kg of well rotten Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November Spacing- 1.5m x 1.5m. Varieties Jasminum sambac 1. Gundumali 2. Madanban 3. Single Mogra 4. Double Mogra J. Auriculatum 1. CO-1 2. CO-2 J. Grandiflorum 1. CO-1 2. CO-2 Irrigation First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type. Manuring It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July Inter Cultural Operations Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent weedings are done once in 2-3 months Pruning Pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers. Season of flowering and harvesting Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise. Plant Protection Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 EC @ 2ml /l is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l is recommended. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot - Drench the soil around plant with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g / l 22

Yield parameters: 1 Particulars/year Flower yield in kg/acre 750 1,500 2,500 3,500 2 3 4....

TUBEROSE
B.N :- Polianthes tuberosa L. Family :- Amaryllidaceae Origin :- Mexico Chromosome No.:- n=30 Vernacular name: Nishigandha/ Rajnigandha/Gul-e-shabu/ gulchhari. INTRODUCTION TUBEROSE (Polianthes tuberosa L.) is widely grown in the plain of India flaunting its fragrance both outdoor and indoor. Tuberose is an ornamental bulbous plant. Tuberose is in great demand for its attractive and fragrant flower spikes. It is one of the most important bulbous ornamentals of tropical and subtropical areas. It is commercially cultivated for cut and loose flower trade. Tuberose flower is a good source of essential oil . Tuberose varieties are named on the basis of the number of rows of petals they bear . There are double semi double and single forms are available . It require as warm humid climate and temperature around 300C for its luxuriant growth. It is generally planted in February March in plains and April May in hills. Distribution Tuberose is cultivated in America Italy France South Africa Formosa Egypt Israel India Mexico Morocco Taiwan In India Tuberose cultivated in West Bengal Assam Maharashtra Rajasthan Gujarat Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Tamilnadu In Gujarat Tuberose cultivated in Navsari
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Uses

Valsad Surat Baroda As cut flowers In the landscape As potted plant For essential oil Making artistic garland Floral ornaments Bouquets and buttonholes

Types of Tuberose 1. Single type tuberose 2. Double type tuberose Types and cultivars of tuberose Types Single Cultivars Local single Suvasini Vaibhav (IIHI) Prajwal Hyderabad single Phule Rajni Calcutta single Singal Mexican Rajat Rekha (NBRI) Double Local double Hyderabad double Calcutta double Swarna rekha (NBRI) Shringar (IIHR) Shringar: single type flowers on strong, medium spikes. The flower buds are attractive with slightly pinkish tinge The spike has more number of flowers and the individual flowers are larger in size compared to the local 'Single' variety. This hybrid yields 36% higher loose flowers when compared to local 'single'. The concrete content(0.13%). tolerant to nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1). The concrete obtained from 'Shringar' has higher iodole content than that of 'Mexican single.
24

this hybrid has been released at Karnataka State Level.

Suvasini: This is a multi-whorled variety with bold, big, pure white flowers borne on long spikes he number of flowers in a spike in also more. Flower opening is bold in this hybrid as compared to shy opening of flowers in the cv Double. Spike yield is 26% higher compared to local 'double'. this hybrid has been released at Karnataka State Level. Prajwal: This new hybrid bears single type flowers on tall stiff spikes. The flower buds are slightly pinkish. It yields more loose flowers than other varieties. Vaibhav: This hybrid bears double flowers on medium spikes. Flower buds are greenish. Spike yield is higher compared to other varieties. Growth and flowering Tuberose is perennial plant (3 years crop). Flowering is maximum in the first two years. The single flowered type, in the first year, will produce 8 to 12 side shoots, with 60 to 80 number of leaves of 50 to 60 cm length from one large size bulb. It take 55 to 65 days for the appearance of the flower spike from planting. The spike take 26 to 29 days for opening of flower. Number of spike per plant varies from 1 to 3. Spike length 90 to 120 cm with 20 to 35 flowers. Flowers gradually develop from the base to apex on the spike. In the case of Double flowered type the plant produce 35 to 45 leaves of 48 to 55 cm length during the first year. Spike length varies from 75 to 95 cm with 40 to 50 flowers per spike. Temperature Tuberose can be grown with success under wide climatic condition ranging from tropical to sub- tropical and temperate climates. Warm and humid climate with average temperature ranges from 200c to 350c. High atmospheric humidity and temperature around 300c is optimum. The spike length and quality of flower is affected if the temperature is above 400c. Very low temperature and frost asso damage the plants and flower. Light Tuberose is sun loving plant. High light intensity is required for bulb and flower production. For bulb production, tuberose must be grown in full sun. Soil Tuberose can be grown in any type of soil from light sandy to clay loam. At least 45 cm deep, well- drained, friable soil and rich in organic matter and nutrients with plenty of moisture are preferable. For pot cultivation, a mixture of garden soil, FYM and leaf mould in proportion of 2:1:1 should be used. pH 6.5 to 7.5. Propagation Tuberose propagated by Seed (for developing hybrids) Bulbs and bulb- lets.
25

(multiplication of tuberose is done commercially by bulbs). Bulb size 2.5 to 3.5cm in diameter Planting time In India Area Plains Hills South India West Bengal Time of planting February-March April May July August
st

1 week of April

Planting distance In India Area Nasik (MH) Nadia (WB) Howrah(WB) Lucknow(UP) South India Gujarat Planting distance 15cm X 20cm 20cm X 20cm 25cm X 20 cm 30cm X 30cm 20cm X 20cm 30cm X 30cm

Nutrition FYM 20t/ha 200-200-150 NPK kg/ha/year In Gujarat 200-200-200 NPK kg/ha/year Irrigation Application of water for the purpose of supplying regular moisture is essential for the growth and development of tuberose plant. The crop is irrigated at 5-7 day intervals. In the summer months, irrigation is recommended twice a week. Inter-culture Hoeing Earthing up Mulching Weeding -> use Atrazine 3Kg/ha -> use Gramaxone 3Li/ha Harvesting Flower Tuberose beings to flower after 110-120 days of planting. Harvesting is done in the early morning or late evening. Harvest when 2-3 flowers are open on the flower stalk and others are showing color. Harvesting is done by cutting the fully-opened spikes from the base or single flowers are harvested as they open by day. Picking of individual flowers should be completed before 8.00am Bulb
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Bulbs reach maturity at the cessation of flowering during winter season. At this stage irrigation is stopped. Before digging out the bulbs, the leaves become dry and the bulbs attain dormancy. The leaves are then cut off at the ground level and the bulbs are dug out. Grading The flower spikes are graded according to the Stalk length Length of rachis Number of flowers per spike Weight of spike Yield Flower Cut flower: 5 lakh flower spikes/ha/3 year Loose flower 10,000 to 14,000 kg/ha/year 30,000 kg/ha/3 years Bulb 22 to 25 t/ha of plantable size Post- Harvest handling Stage of harvest:When first pair of flowers in the spike is fully open Storage:Can be stored wet or dry at 7 to 100 for 3 to 5 days Pulsing:pulsing is a short duration treatment given to cut flower in form of high concentration of sucrose and germicide. 8 percent sucrose + 200ppm 8-HQC for 24 hours reduce floret abscission, promote floret opening and increase vase life. Pests This pest mainly damages flowers. Setting up to light traps Bud Borer Eggs are deposited singly on growing Sprays of Endosulphan 0.07% or Methyl (Helicoverpa spikes. Eggs are deposited singly on Parathion 0.05% armigera): growing spikes. Larvae bore into buds and flowers and feed on them by making holes. Aphids: These are tiny insects, soft bodied, green, deep purple or black in colour. These usually occur in cluster and feed on flower buds and young leaves. Eat the young leaves and floral buds malathion @0.1% at an interval of 15 days is effective.

Grasshoppers:

Dusting the plants with 5% Folidol dust Spraying of Quinalphos@0.05% or Malathion 0.1% or Carbaryl @0.02 kelthane @ 1.2% concentration

Mites:

Mites thrive well under hot and dry conditions, usually on the undersides of the leaves, where these make webs, if allowed to continue. These are usually red or brown in colour and multiply fast.
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Thrips:

Thrips feed on leaves, flower, stalk and flowers. These suck the sap and damage the whole plant sometimes, these are associated with a contagious disease known as bunchy top, where the inflorescence is malformed. The weevils are nocturnal in habit and damaged shoots and leaves. Usually, they feed the edge of the leaves, producing a characteristic notched effect. Larvae feed on roots and tunnel into the bulbs. Streak nematode damage leaves whereas root gall nematode causes stunting of plant growth and yellowing and drying of leaves

Spary malathion (0.1%)

Weevils ( Myllocerus sp):

Applying BHC dust ( 10%) in the soil before planting controls larvae.

Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), Greasy streak nematode (Aphelencoides besseyil )

Application of Thimet or furadan (20 kg/ha) to the soil.

Nematode Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), Greasy streak nematode (Aphelencoides besseyil )

Streak nematode damage leaves whereas root gall nematode causes stunting of plant growth and yellowing and drying of leaves

Application of Thimet or furadan (20 kg/ha) to the soil.

Tuberose hybrid 'Shringar' released from IIHR, was found to be tolerant to nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Diseases Stem Rot The diseases symptoms are preceded by the appearance of prominent spots of loose green colour due to rotting which extend and cover the entire leaf. The infected leaves get detached from the plant. More or less round sclerotic, brown spots are formed on and around the infected leaf. As a result, the infected plant becomes weak and unproductive. The disease appear during the rainy season. Infected flowers show dark brown spots and ultimately the entire inflorescence dries up. The infection also occurs on the leaves and stalks. soil application Brassicol( 20%) @ kg/hectare. of 30

Botrytis Spot and Blight ( Botrytis elliptic)

Carbendazim @2g/litre of water effectively controls the disease. The treatment should be repeated at 15 days interval.

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Sclerotial Wilt ( Sclerotium rolfsii):

The initial symptom of this disease is flaccidity and drooping of leaves. The leaves become yellow and dry up. The fungus mainly affects the roots and the infection gradually spreads upward through the tuber and collar portion of the stem. Both tubers and roots show rotting symptoms. Thick cottony growth of the fungus is visible on the rotten stem and on petioles at the soil level.

Frequently asked questions The tuberose bulbs are reported to contain an alkaloid lycorine, which cause vomitting. The bulbs are diuretic and emitic, rubbed with turmeric and butter and applied as a paste over red pimples of infants. Dried tuberose bulbs in the powdered form are used as a remedy for Gonorrhea The family of tuberose is Amaryllidaceae The native of tuberose is Mexico The common name of tuberose Gulchari and Gulshabbo in hindi and Rajanigandha in Bengali The bulb of tuberose contains alkaloid Lycorine which cause vomiting The haploid chromosome number of tuberose is 30 Two gamma induced mutants cultivars Rajat Rekha (Single) and Swarna Rekha (double) are developed by NBRI, Lucknow Dormancy of tuberose bulb can successfully broken by the treatment with 4% thiourea solution for one hour

CARNATION
Export Market The main importing countries for cut flowers are Germany, France, UK, USA, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium/Luxembourg and Japan (in order of the volume of imports). The main exporting countries are Holland (70%), Columbia (9.2%), Israel (5.8%), Italy (4.9%), Spain (2.3%), Kenya (1.4%) and the Canary Islands (1.1%). The five flowers, namely, rose, chrysanthemum, carnation, tulip and lily account for 70-75 per cent of the world trade. The target markets for cut flowers identified by the floriculture committee of the Commerce Ministry are Europe, Middle East, USA, Japan, Far East (Hong Kong, Singapore). Potential Centers The selection of location for production of carnation or any other flower for export purposes depends mainly on three factors; cost of production quality cost of transportation. Only the production of high quality flowers at low cost can face the international competition. Based on these considerations, the location for the production should be decided.

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Areas around Pune, Nasik, Bangalore and Delhi have been identified by experts as most potential centers for cultivation of carnation. Other locations can also be selected on the basic factors indicated above. Introduction The top ten cut flowers in international trade: roses, chrysanthemum, carnation, tulip, lily, freesia, gerbera, gypsophilla, cymbidium, iris, gladiolus, anthurium and narcissus. Popularity of carnation ranks among the top three cut flowers in the West. It is loved for its exquisite form, beauty and clove like fragrance and good vase life. Carnation Botanical name:- Dianthus caryophyllus Family:- Crayophyllaceae Centre of origin- Mediterranean area/ Southern Europe ( France) Basic chromosome number in 15 and most of the species are diploid There are 250 species of dianthus found in the world of which only few are cultivated D. caryophyllus D. barbatus D. chinensis D. knappii - yellow colored Besides cultivated forms, about 9 species are found in India The common name, carnation (Latin, carnatio, from caro; carnis, flesh), is believed to be derived forma Greek word coronation because these flowers were used in decoration the crowns of Greek athletes The generic word Dianthus is derived from Greek word Dios- divine and anthos- flower while the species name has been given after generic name of the clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus) due to resemblance of fragrance of carnation flower to clove. Why Carnation become popular Excellent vase life Wide range of flower colour and forms Ability to withstand long distance transportation Rehydrate easily Lighter weight Importance and Use Excellent for cut-flowers, bedding, pots, boarders, edging and rock garden Cool climate in Kashmir, Kullu valley, Kalimpong, Bangalore etc. are most suitable for cut flower growing including carnation In certain parts of France and Holland, the carnation flowers are used for extraction of perfume and only light coloured flowers are used for this purpose. Carnation absolute are used in sophisticated perfumes Morphology Half hardy perennial, herbaceous, suffrutescent at the base Medium tall(0.45 to 1.0 m) with thick, narrow and linear succulent leaves which are keeled and five nerved The stems are hardy, woody below, glabrous and possess one to three angles with tumid joints The flowers are solitary, terminally formed; the petals are broad with frilled margins and the calyx is cylindrical with bracts at the base Classification 1. Chabaud or Marguerite: annual with single or double flowers reproducing true from seed. Large flowers with fringed petals, do not last for long time 2. Border or Picotte
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Symmetrical flower, with single coloured or irregular colour markings or blended colours makes it attractive The flowers are frilled with open centre and petals are broad and smooth edged Bordercarnations Self ( single colour) 1. Fancies( Yellow or white background mottled with various colours) 2. Picottes (White or yellow with narrow bands) 3. Bizarres ( 2 to 3 colours) 4. Flakes ( Clear ground flaked with one colour) 3. Malmaison Stiff and massive habit plants with broad leaves Fully double flowers mainly pink with well filled centers 4. Perpetual flowering ( Florists Carnations) Hybrids involving of many Dianthus species, flower all year round Quality flowers which withstand long distance transport Florists carnations 1. Standard type: Ability to produce single large sized blooms on longer flower stalk if timely disbudding and proper nutrition is applied Better adapted in cool climate Suffer from diseases when grown under warm climate 2. Spray type (Miniature ): Ability to produce small to medium sized numerous flowers and bloom size do not increase irrespective of disbudding and best fertilizer application Better adopted to warm climate Varieties Standard type variety : White- White Sim, Roma, Candy, Calypso, Sonsara Pink- Pink Sim, Pamir, Nora, Lena, Sharina Red- Scania, Red William, Granda, Espana, Killer Yellow- Pallas, Yellow Dusty, Murcia, Tahiti Orange- Tangerine Sim, Orange Triumph Spray type variety : White- White Royallete, Tibet, Iceland, Excel, White Lilia Pink- Annelies, Barbara, Silvery Pink, Madea, Karina, Medley Red- Rony, Karma, Enzo, Etna, Peach Delight Yellow- Yellow Odeon, Alicetta, Lior, Goldilocks Soil

Roots of carnation are fibrous and highly susceptible to poor drainage. A rich porous and friable sandy loam or loamy sand soil rich in organic matter is considered to be most ideal. The ideal soil pH is 6.0 t0 7.0 Climate: Require high light intensity during winter and cool temperature during summer The ideal temperature is 100C to 200) Sunlight for 12 hours RH: 50-60%

Ideal greenhouse conditions for Carnation cultivation


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Light- Photo period ( Long day over 16 hours) and Intensity (100 watts bulb spaced at 10.5 m. at 1.5 m height) Temperature: Night ( Winter 100 110C , spring 12.70C, Summer 130 15.40C) and day (100 110C) Free circulation of air Relative humidity: 50-60% CO2 - 500-1500 ppm) Propagation 1. Annual carnation- seeds 2. Perennial carnation- Terminal cutting For better rooting cuttings are treated with 500 ppm NAA or IBA for 5 seconds and high humidity IAA at 50-200 ppm for 5 minutes also stimulated rooting High percentage of rooting is observed in cool months than summer month Micro propagation Bed Preparation commercial production of carnation is done in container system of planting Raised bed of 30 cm high with 1.0 m x 10.0 m size with 60 cm. service area prepared above the ground Soil media having 3:1 sandy loam soil and well rotten FYM if thoroughly mixed Container is sterilized with formalin Then rooted cuttings are planted at the same depth as in the nursery Optimum planting Density and distance Ordinary- 25-32 plants/ m2 _High density - 40 plants/ m2 Standard- 20x20 cm Spray- 30x30 cm Disbudding 1. Standard type Removal of lateral buds below the terminal ones. Lateral bubs down to about six nodes from the terminal flower bud are removed to encourage the growth of main flower bud The best time is when the flower bud diameter is about 15 mm Terminal bud is retained and all the lateral buds are removed 2. Spray type The main flower bud is removed to encourage the lateral flower buds to develop The disbudding in all the types of carnation should be done within 7 days from the appearance of there buds When side shoots after flowering are 3-5 cm long then retain 6-10 shoots per plant Terminal bud is removed and lateral buds are retained De-shooting 1. Standard type When side shoots after flowering are 3-5 cm long then retain 3-5 shoots per plant 2. Spray type When side shoots after flowering are 3-5 cm long then retain 6-10 shoots per plant Pinching It is an important cultural practices It depends on time of flowering and cultivar In pinching terminal growing shoot about 2-3 cm long is removed to overcome apical dominance and to promote side branching when the plants are 6-8 leaf pair stage. It is done in four ways to regulate flowering in carnation.
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Pinching techniques 1. Single Pinching- Terminal growing shoot about 2-3 cm long is removed once in all the shoots 2. Pinch and a half- First pinching is done in all the shoots. When the side shoots are 6-8 cm long and this stage occur at 40-50 days after pinching. Then half of the shoots are again pinched. This increase the duration of flowering. 3. Pinch plus pull pinch- First pinching is done in all the shoots. Later on keep removing the shoots by pulling up to 2 months, so as to get single large peak flowering 4. Double pinching- First pinching is done in all the shoots. When the side shoots are 6-8 cm long and this stage occur at 40-50 days after pinching, then again do the pinching in all the shoots. This delays the flowering and flower quality is also poor 5. The marguerite and annual carnation pinching is done at 40 and 60 days after transplanting Harvesting The standard cultivar for local market are harvested when flowers are half opened or painting brush or outer petal is perpendicular to stem, while for distant market cross is developed on buds and colour is visible The spray cultivars for local market are harvested when two flowers have opened and others have shown colour, while for distant market when 50 % flowers have shown colour For loose flower fully opened flowers are harvested Harvesting time: Early morning and/or in the late afternoon, and they should not be wet at harvest. Immediately after harvesting flowers should be placed in a bucket of clean water inside the green house and transported to the grading hall. Flower yield Standard- 4-6 stems/plant Spray 8-12 stems/plant Average yield 200-300 flower stems/m2/year Grading Based on minimum stem length (cm) A: over 45 cm B: 30-45 cm C: Less than 30 cm Diseases : Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi) Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas caryophylli) Foot rot ( Phytopthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiarum) Flower bud rot ( Alternaria dianthii) Rust (Uromyces caryophyllinnus) Flower blight (Botrytis cinerea) Fairy ring spot Viral diseases Important pests: 1. Aphid 2. Mealy bug 3. Red spider mite 4. Thrips 5. White fly 6. Heliothis caterpillars 7. Nematodes Disorders Calyx splitting Grassiness Sleepiness Splitting at nodes and bushiness
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Small narrow leaves and tied tips Causes and control of Calyx splitting Temperature fluctuation Night temperature should not be below 100C. Use of more nitrogenous fertilizes Vary from cultivar to cultivar Do rubber banding before flower opening Causes of Grassiness and control No flower production Genetically related disorder Vary from cultivar to cultivar Remove and destroy all plants Causes of Sleepiness and control There is temporary or permanent wilting of flowers Exposure to ethylene or water stress or higher temperature Spary STS 0.4 mM before harvesting Causes of splitting of nodes and control Poor shoots developed through gaps Poor flower quality Boron deficiency Apply boron 2 g/m2 How tinting is done in Carnation A concentrated liquid or powder colour is mixed in small amount of warm pure water (370C) and stems are placed in it. The colour develops in different patterns on the petals after 10-24 hours Name Symptoms Control 1. Fusarium wilt Associated with Hot Spot application of 0.2 % (Fusarium oxysporum weather and high Bavistin dianthii) humidity Yellowing of leaves and wilting of entire plant Soil borne disease 2. Alternaria leaf spot

Gladiolus
Introduction Botanical Name :- Gladiolus grandiflorus Family :- Iridaceae Centre of Origin :-Tropical and south africa Pollination System :-Cross/Self pollinated Chromosome No. :-2n=30 to 120 Plant Discription : It is a herbaceous plant bearing underground storage stems known as corms from which arise sword shaped foliage so known as sword lily bearing terminal inflorescences of flowers known as spikes Area Under Cultivation
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Gladiolus is mainly cultivates in Maharashtra, Karnataka, West Bengal, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Peculiarities of gladiolus Grown for cut flowers, borders, bedding, pots, bouquets and floral arrangements. Florets open acropetally forming a natural progression of different stages of floret opening. Corms are very rich in vitamin C, carbohydrates and proteins. Important species of Gladiolus G. atroviolaceus G. communis G. cardinalis G. floribundus G. gandavensis G. grandiflorus (All modern day cultivars are designated in it) G. hybridus G. primilinum G. psittacinus NBRI, Lucknow Archana, Basant Bhar, Gazel, Jwala, Manhar, Manisha, Mohini, Mukta, Pitambar, Smita, Triloki, Aldebaran, IIHR, Bangalore Aarti, Apsara, Meera, Poonam, Sapna, Shobha Exotic Grock, Jacksonville Gold, White Goddess, Friendship, American beauty, Psittacinus hybrid, Cartago, Eurovision, Priscilla, Spic & span, Nova, peter pears, mayor, and Topaz. Propagation For multiplying the planting stock it is advisable and cheaper to use cormels. They are produced in clusters on stolons between mother and daughter corms. Cormels are selected carefully to prevent spreading of disease. Hot water treatment or water soaking for four to seven days facilitates early and uniform sprouting. Swelling of root at the base indicates that cormels are ready for planting. Corms:The corm is a fleshy, underground storage stem with a central axis. The gladiolus corm is formed by swelling of 5 to 8 shortened basal internodes of the flower stalk. Soil Gladiolus produces the best spikes when grown in deep, well-drained sandy loam soil. A heavy clay soil, with poor drainage, is unfit as the gladiolus root system is easily damaged by excessive soil moisture. However, mixing of 5-8 cm thick layer of river sand along with the manure will make the clay soil cultivable or Planting of gladiolus on raised bed pH 6 to 7 Climate Gladiolus prefers mild climate and sunny situation for their proper growth and flowering. Temperature is considered as a major factor influencing the number of days taken for flowering. Optimum growth of gladioli occurs at temperatures between 10O and 25OC where the night temperature is not above 16OC. However, it can tolerate temperature up to 40OC only if the relative humidity is high and soil moisture levels are optimum.
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Light levels affect initiation of flower. The period of flower initiation commences when the third leaf becomes visible and ends when the sixth and seventh leaf appears. Quality of flower spikes and yield is better in a long day condition than short days. Minimum illumination of 8 hours/day is essential for most of the gladiolus varieties.

Land Preparation The soil should be thoroughly ploughed 30-40 cm deep and exposed to sun for at least 25 days. After removing the weeds, the field should be reploughed and levelled. If green manuring crop is taken it should be turned down into the soil at least two months before planting of corms. Animal manure is not recommended, as it is a source of pathogens. Ridges and furrows are prepared as per the spacing recommended. Size of Corms The size of the corms has a positive correlation with the height of the spike and number of florets per spike. Medium-sized corms of 4-5 cm diameter each are selected for planting to obtain quality blooms and uniform flowering. The bigger corms called 'Jumbo', 6-8 cm diameter, are good for getting top quality spikes for exhibition purposes. Smaller corms, of 2-5 cm diameter each can also be planted as flowering stock corms and cormels having diameter less than 2.5 cm are mainly used as a planting stock in the nursery for development of bigger corms for next year planting. Time of Planting The best time for planting flower size corms is mid-September to mid-October. Method of Planting Normally, corms are planted 8-15 cm deep 15-30 cm x 30-40 cm, depending upon the size of corms. A plant population of 15/sq.m or 1,50,000/ha is ideal for quality production of flower spikes and corms. Corms are treated with thiourea (1000ppm) or GA3 (100- 250 ppm) before planting to break dormancy Intercultural Operations Weeding and Hoeing The field is kept clean by regular weeding and hoeing. When the area is small, weeding and hoeing is done manually. First weeding is completed within three weeks after sowing while the second weeding is done before application of fertilizer as top dressing. Earthing Up Earthing up is practiced when the soil is heavy and deep planting is not possible. It is done when the plants are 20-30 cm in height. The tall plants are staked. Staking is done after the emergence of spikes but before opening of florets. Plants are loosely fastened at three places with the help of jute cord. Mulching Mulching with dry grass helps to conserve the moisture and suppress the weed growth.
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However, this practice should be discouraged in fields infested with termites.

Manuring & Fertilizer Application of fertilizer leads to the formation of healthy and large sized corms, which give large-sized flowers on long spikes during the succeeding year. FYM should only be applied for a preceding crop and never before planting gladioli. Application of fertilizer use should be based on soil analysis. 120 kg N, 150kg P2O5 and 150 Kg K2O per hectare 60 kg N and entire dose of P2O5 and K2O is applied as basal dose. The balance N is given in two split doses, one as foliar spray at four leaf stage while the second as soil application at the bud stage. Irrigation Sufficient water is required for good growth of gladiolus. Number of irrigation depends upon the climate and type of soil. Usually, 1-2 irrigation a week are sufficient. Irrigation is provided immediately after the application of fertilizers and during the emergence of buds. Watering should be stopped at the time of ripening of corms. Harvesting Gladiolus spikes are ready for harvesting when the first bud shows the colour of the variety. Normally, early varieties start producing spikes from 75 day while the late season varieties from 85-90 day after planting Spikes should be cut in the tight bud stage, with one or two pairs of leaves and 1-3 floral buds showing colour. The plant should be left with 3-5 leaves on the stem for the development of new corms and cormels. If the spikes are to be used as fresh flowers, then they should be cut with 3-4 open florets, but without any sign of withering. The spikes are cut with a sharp knife either early in the morning or in the evening. Slant cut should be given at the base of the harvested spikes and immediately placed in a bucket with cold water. Yield The yield of flower spikes and corms in gladiolus depends on variety, corm size, planting density and management practices. Gladiolus planted at a spacing of 30 x 20 cm yields approximately 1,50,000 marketable spikes per hectare. Additional income can be obtained from the sale of about 3.5 lakh corms. Lifting of Corms and Cormels Corms planted during September-October are ready for lifting during March-April in the North-Indian plains and upto August in hills. Corms are matured when 25% cormels have become brown which generally take 30 to 45 days from flowering when the leaves also start yellowing. Plenty of moisture, followed by a dry period, After flowering, when the leaves start turning yellow, plants are twisted down to ground level for allowing the corms to mature. No irrigation should be given thereafter. Corms and cormels should be dug out with the help of a spade. Soil should be dug deep in order to take out all the cormels. The corms are checked for any disease infection and the affected corms are discarded.
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Curing Curing is one of the essential post harvest operations for successful storage of corms. After lifting and removing the adhering soil, the corms and cormels of each cultivar are kept in trays in a shady but well ventilated place for about a fortnight. For curing, the layers of corms should not exceed three cured for five weeks at 21C. Cleaning, Grading and Storage After the corms are fully cured, these are cleaned and diseased ones discarded. The old withered corms are taken out and cleaned. Treating the corms with 0.2% Captan 15 days before storage or dusting with 5% Cythione dust and Dithane M-45 protects them from insects, pests and diseases during storage. After cleaning, the corms and cormels are graded in different grade-sizes. The corms are stored in perforated trays in a well-ventilated cool and dark room with temperature not exceeding 270 C. Being smaller in size, the cormels are stored in plastic trays having fine perforations. It is advisable to keep on turning corms and cormels periodically, for preventing their rotting due to poor aeration. The small sized cormels (<0.5cm dia) are fairly hardy and may be stored at room temperature, without decay. However, the large ones (>0.5cm dia.) of exotic cultivar require low temperature during storage and should be kept in cold storage. Grading Spikes are graded into three lots, based on overall quality, variety, colour spike length and number of florets per spike. After grading, they should be bunched in units of 12 and held together by rubber bands. Packaging Bundles of 12-spikes each are first wrapped in corrugated paper for protection from sudden temperature fluctuations, bruising and moisture loss. Then they are fasted with rubber bands, packed in ribbed cardboard boxes and transported to their destinations. They remain fresh during transit for 1- 3 days, depending upon the weather conditions. Storage Graded spikes should not be stored for more than 24 hours before they are packed and transported. These should be kept at a minimum temperature of 4-80C in upright position until packed for transportation. To prevent desiccation before and after grading, the spikes can also be kept in floral preservatives. Spikes are stored in refrigerated van for transporting them to long distance. Refrigerated storage increases the shelf life of the flowers without any addition to the spike weight. Factors determine the level of dormancy in corms of gladiolus Cultivar Season (more in crop grown during summer than winter crop) Temperature (more when high temperature during corm development) Photoperiod (more in long days than short days) Light (more in crop grown under high light intensity
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Methods to break dormancy of gladiolus corms Low temperature storage for 2-3 months at 4-7 C Ethylene chlorohydrin (4-5 drops/litre container for a week) Dip corms in thiourea 500 ppm solution for 30 min. Dip corms in GA3 50 ppm solution for 30 min. Dip corms in BA 25-50 ppm solution or 10% H2S for 30 min. Dip corms in Garlic paste for 30 min. Different grades of corms and cormels suggested by NAGC ( North American Gladiolus Council) Grade Size/diameter (cm) Jumbo >5.1 No.1 > 3.8 to =5.1 No.2 > 3.2 to =3.8 No.3 > 2.5 to =3.2 No.4 (Flowering stock) No.5 1.9 to =2.5 No.6 1.3 to =1.9 (Planting stock) 1.0 to =1.3

Vase-life Upon arrival at destination, the spikes should be immediately taken out of the cardboard boxes. About 2.5 cm long basal ends of the spikes should be cut off and the spikes placed in acid solution having pH between 3-3.5 to increase the shelf life. Spikes can also be kept in floral preservatives containing sucrose (3000-5000ppm) and Streptocycline. Spikes should be opened at a moderate temperature of 21-230C, in diffused light but not in the open sun. It is advisable to store the spikes in air-conditioned chambers for sale. Vase-life of gladiolus spikes varies from 5-10 days, depending upon the cultivar and room temperature. Pests Thrips (Taeniothrips simplex) Spraying of Methyl O Demeton 25EC or Dimethoate 30EC @2ml/litre of water at 10 days interval Carbaryl or Malathion @ 0.1%, wheat bran and molasses scattered in the field effectively controls the larvae. Sprays of Methyl Parathion 0.05% or Quinalphos @0.05% Spraying of Quinalphos @0.05% or Carbaryl @0.1% or Chlorpyriphos 0.05% Methyl Parathion 0.05, Fluvalinate 0.012% and Diazinon at 0.4% Methyl Parathion 0.04% or Dimethoate 0.04% or Acephate 0.1 % at 15 days interval Application of Carbofuran/Phorate @ 1g a.i./m2 is found effective. dusting the corms with 5% Cythion

Cut Worms (Agrotis segetum)

Leaf Eating Caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) Mites (Tetranychus equatorius) Mealy Bug (Ferrisia virgata) Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne sp) Rodents
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and storing them in perforated trays.

Diseases Wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. gladioli) Bavistin 0.2% Core or corm rot ( Botrytis gladiorum) Maneb (0.2%) Curvularia blight (Curvularia trifolii f. Dithane Z-78 (0.2%) gladioli) Storage rot (Penicillium gladioli) Copper oxychloride(0.3%), Bavistin (0.1%) Stemphyllum leaf blight (Stemphyllum spp.) Copper oxychloride(0.3%), Dithane M- 45 (0.2%)

Advances in the Production Technology of Orchids


Orchids Family : Orchidaceae (largest family) Genera : 600-800 species : 25,000-30,000 Cultivars : 50,000-60,000 species in India :1600 Max species in NE part :800 North west : 200 Central and western India: 200 South and coastal regions: 200

Origin: South and Central America, Mexico, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, New Guinea, Australia Introduction Perennial Terrestrial- When growing on ground Epiphytic- When grow on trees or shrubs Lithophytes- When grow on rocks Saprophytic- Which derive their nourishment from dead or decayed organic matter herbs with rhizomes or pseudo bulbs, or tuberous roots or assimilating roots or aerial epiphytic They are not parasites, prepare their own food by photosynthesis and do not easily die even if left uncared for several month Common factors Perennial Partial shade High humidity Good for tropical weather Good for tropical weather Morphology Spike- as in Oncidium and Phalaenopsis Raceme as in Dendrobium Panicle as in Cleisostoma Single as in Paphiopedilum
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Important commercial genera Arandas Cymbidium Dendrobium Mokaras Oncidium IMPORTANCE AND USES Excellent for growing in pots, baskets, beds, split hollows, bamboo pieces and trees Highest value as Cut flower Adornment for hair Indoor (miniature orchids) Few species are used for making glues for manufacturing of musical instruments and enamel products Making baskets- Stems of Dendrobium split fresh pseudo bulbs used as blackboard dusters in Sumatra Attractive Bracelets prepared from the yellow pseudo stem of Dendrobium in New Guinea Food (dried leaves of Dendrobium salaccense cooked with rice gives exotic flavour and milk- castard drink with tuber, Leaves as vegetables), Vanilla as essence Medicinal Important generas of Orchids native to India Aerides Arachnis Ascocentrum Cymbidium Dendrobium Phalaenopsis Paphiopedilum Renanthera Rhynchostilis Vanda Classification on the basis of habitat Epiphytic Terrestrial Epiphytic Live on the bark of tree or on moss covered rocks, fixing themselves with their strong fasciculate roots Nourishment from fine particles of rain water or from the detritus that collects around the roots not from the host plant Can be grown successfully in hanging baskets Imp Ex.-Aerides, Cattleya, Epidendrum, Rhynchostilis, Vanda, Phalaenopsis, etc. Terrestrial Live or grow on the ground and can be cultivated in pots Imp Ex.- Calanthe, Cymbidium, Habenaia, Phaius, Spathoglottis, Thunia, etc. Classification on the basis of growing pattern Sympodial Monopodial
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Pseudo monopodial Orchids Sympodial Orchids Have stems of determinate growth The stems sooner or later ceases, usually at the end of the seasons growth Produce pseudo bulbs which are swollen stems used for storage of water and food More common among orchids e.g. Cattleya, Epidendrum Monopodial Orchids Have indeterminate terminal growth They have no rhizomes and form no pseudo bulb. Food material is stored in leaves The plants produce aerial roots, which help them to anchor as they extent upward e.g. Vanda, Angaecum, Aerides, Arachnis, Angraecum, Rhynchostylis Pseudo monopodial Orchids Intermediate between sympodial and monopodial Stems elongate through season and also extend in lateral season Flowers are borne mostly laterally, often near the apices of the stem e.g. Dichaeinae, Pachyphyllinae, Pterostemmatinae Propagation Seeds Cutting e.g. Vanda, Arachnis, Phalaenopsis Pseudo bulbs Offshoots or Keiks Aerial shoots Tissue culture Air layering e.g. Vanda Keikis :Rooted shoots at nodal region on the stem IMP. FACTORS AFFECT GROWTH & YIELD LIGHT : (Intensity:200-300 foot candles) TEMPERATURE : ( Day : 15-25C and Night : 10-15.5C) HUMIDITY : (Day : 75-80% and Night : 30-40% ) PERFECT VENTILATION PARTIAL SHADY OCATION CO2: (2000-3000 PPM) Media Containers Planting systems MEDIA Aeration Well drained Rich in humus Retain adequate moisture Supply sufficient moisture pH slightly acidic to neutral MEDIA FOR EPIPHYTIC ORCHIDS Tree bark
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Dried fern foliage Coconut husk Brick pieces Charcoal Vermiculite Peat moss Perlite Leaf mould Gravel Tile pieces

MEDIA FOR TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS Leaf mould Soil Sand All in equal parts CONTAINERS Wooden boxes Baskets Earthen or plastic pots Small trays Containers should have many holes or sits to ensure good drainage and aeration shallow pots with more diameter are better

Management Shade regulation Shade level Cladding MaterialShade nets Covering the sides

Height Colour Longevity Cost

Nutrition Liquid fertilizer is good in orchid Ideal nutrition ratio 20:20:20 NPK with trace elements along with coconut water(20-25%) Management Irrigation Nutrition Shade regulation Plant protection Irrigation Time Quantity Method Pests Diseases Fungal
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Bacterial Viral IMPORTANT INSECT PEST SN 1 Name of disease Snail and slugs Management 1)Hand picking of snails and putting them in 5% salt solution is effective method 2) Spray 10 ml neem oil/ltr water 3)Spread poison bait 4)Placing bowls with beer betn the beds attract the snail 1)Healthy planting material 2)Cutting and burning heavily infested shoots 3)Soil appn of carbofuron@5-7g/pot 4)Spray confidor @4ml/10ltr OR 10 ml neem oil/ltr water 1)Spray Imidacloropid 4ml/10ltr OR 5ml neem oil/ltr water 2)Spray dimethoate @ 2 ml/ltr at iitial stage 3)Drenching 4ml/ltr cloropyriphios reducing resting pupa population 1)Spray trizphos MP@ 1 ml/ltr or endosulphoan 2 ml/ltr 1)Spray Aciphate 1.5ml/ltr water 2)Spray 10ml neem/karanj oil/ltr water

Scale

Thrips

4 5

Orchid beetle Mealy bug

IMPORTANT FUNGAL & BACTERIAL DISEASES SN Name of disease Management 1 Leaf spot 1) Spray suitable fungicide 2 Pythium rot 1) Spray Mancozeb or any of the anti-Oomycete fungicide like Fosetyl-Al and Metaxyl 3 Heart rot 1)Spray any systematic fungicide like Fosetyl-Al and Metaxyl 4 Flower blight 1) Infected flowers destroyed and the plants shifted where the humidity is less 5 Rotting of pseudo 1) Spray Agrimycin or 8-quinolinol benzoate bulbs 6 Leaf and crown rot 1) Treated infected plants in 8-quinolinol benzoate solution for 1-2.5 Hrs. DISORDERS Dry sepal injury : Due to high humidity and smog Deformed flower : Due to low temp. and chilling injury Browning of throat :same above HARVESTING Dendrobium like genus : When 70% flowers open, retaining 2-3 unopened buds Smaller spike orchid : Fully opened flowers YIELD 8-10 spikes/year in good mgmt condition STORAGE
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At 5-8C Problems High and prolonged rainfall Diseases Low light High temperature Humidity fluctuation Shedding of leaves

Other problems Air circulation Water stagnation Low humidity Moss Senility Improved varieties Harvesting and Post harvest handling Stage of harvest Time of harvest Method of harvest Pulsing Grading Packing Transporting

Production Technology of Bird of Paradise


Botanical Name:- Strelitzia spp. Centre of origin:- South africa Family:- Musaceae Common Name:- Bird of Paradise The name comes from remarkably shaped and coloured flower clusters, like the crested head of a bird. The plants are 90 to 180 cm. high, rhizomatous, sometimes with erect woody stems. Leaves are large, long petioled. The genus strelitzia includes about 5 species Strelitzia augusta Strelitzia reginae Strelitzia kewensis Strelitzia nicolai Strelitzia juncea Propagation 1. Seeds 2. Division of clumps and separation of offshoots Vegetatively propagated plants establish and flower in shorter period than those raised from seed Climate
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Strelitzia grows and flowers well under tropical and subtropical conditions under both in full sun or in slightly shady situation. In cool climate, however they can be grown in warm greenhouse either in borders or in pots Temperature 10-130C (minimum) and 20-220C (maximum) Soil They prefer well drained loamy soil rich in organic matter and the ideal media should contain 1 part organic soil 1 part peat 1 part sand

Planting: Time of planting:- February, August and September Pits of 90 cm are dug and filled with soil and FYM Plant spacing:- 90 x 90 cm and planting density of 10000-15000 plants/ha is recommended Manures and Fertilizers: 6 gm SSP and 3 gm/l Potassium Nitrate should be sprayed for three months with an interval of 10 days. At the time of flowering 5 gm/l or 3 gm/l Potassium sulphate and 2 gm/l can be recommended Irrigation: Strelitzia is a moisture loving plant Watering is done immediately after planting and following once in a week depending on season and growing conditions Harvesting: Harvesting stage for local market :- Split of bracts at the top, emergence of first flower and exposure of orange sepals For distant market:- At tight bud stage and kept in the solution of 10% sucrose, 250 mg/l 8-HQC and 150 ml citric acid at 220 C for enhancing blooming Diseases:1. Root Rot (Fusarium monoliforme) 2. Bud Rot (Botrytis cinerea) Pests:Mealy bug

ORNAMENTAL BULBOUS PLANTS


Horticulturally plants of all these groups are known as bulbous plants. Plants propagated by underground modified stems are grouped into four groups. Tubers- Dahlia Corms- Gladiolus, Freesia Bulbs- Amaryllis, Tuberose, Zephyranthus, Crinum Rhizomes- Canna, Irish Climate:They are grouped in two groups according to climatic requirements
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1. Warm climate- Canna, Dahlia, tuberose, Crinum, Zaphyranthus 2. Cool climate:- Gladiolus, Narcissus, freesia Soil:Sandy loam or loamy sand soil pH- 7.0 to 8.0 Propagation:1. Off-sets, cormlets or bulblets 2. Division:- e.g. tubers, rhizomes and corms 3. Terminal cuttings:- e.g. Dahlia Seed:- e.g. Dahlia, Freesia Manuring At the time of planting 5 kg/sq.m well rotten FYM 20 gm P2O5 and 20 gm K2O Splits (Top dressing) 40 g/sq.m N2O into two or three splits Planting Dahlia, Narcissus, Daffodils, Irish, Dahlia- September to October Amaryllis- November Tuberose and Zaphyranthus- February- March Canna- July The planting depth is depending upon size of bulb. Generally planted at 7-10 cm depth Planting Distance- 30x20 cm Interculturing Weeding and Hoeing: Weeds should not be allowed to grow and should be removed as soon as they appear otherwise they compete for nutrients and water with the main crop Hoeing helps in aeration of soil and better development off bulbs Irrigation: 7 to 10 days in winter 5 to 7 days in summer Staking: Gladiolus, Dahlia, Lilies etc. produce flowers on long stem and thus needs support Bamboo stakes can be provided Harvesting: Before harvesting of flowers, the plants should be irrigated Narcissus and Daffodils:- at goose neck stage Gladiolus and Tuberose: for local market- When lower 2-3 florets have opened For distant market:- When basal florets show colour Staking: Gladiolus, Dahlia, Lilies etc. produce flowers on long stem and thus needs support Bamboo stakes can be provided Lifting of bulbs and their storage: The bulbs are dug after 10-12 weeks after flowering has been finished
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After digging bulbs are dried in shade for few days Bulbs are treated with 0.2% Bavistin solution for 30 minutes and stored

Important bulbous crops Tulipa spp. Common name:- Tulip Family:- Liliaceae Centre of origin:- North-East Asia, Japan and China The tulips ranks first among the all ornamental bulbous plants, Excellent for cut flower, growing in beds, borders and pots and also for indoor gardening. The name Tulipa is derived from the persian word Toliban meaning turban which the flower resembles. Propagation:- Bulbs, Seeds Begonia spp. Common name:- Begonia Family:- Begoniaceae Centre of origin:- Mexico, Central and South America Uses:- They are best grown in pots, tubs, troughs, window boxes, hanging baskets, as bedding plants also Propagation:- Tubers, Stem cuttings, seeds Lilium spp. Common Name:- Lilium Family:- Liliaceae Centre of origin:- Northern Hemisphere Uses:- As cut flower, pot plant, gardening and medicinal uses Lilium tigrinum (Tiger Lily) are very tasty and consumed in China, The mucilaginous sunstance coming out from the bulbs while cooking is used as an ointment for tumours, ulcers, inflammations, healing scalds and burns. Propagation:- Bulbs, seeds Dahlia spp. Common Name:- Dahlia Family:- Asteraceae Centre of origin:- Mexico Uses:- As pot plant, Garden display and decoration, borders and flower bed and flower arrangements Propagation:- Seeds, cuttings, grafting, tubers Amaryllis belladonna Common name:- Amaryllis Belladonna lily, August lily, Cape belladonna Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- South Africa Uses:- Cut flower, Pots, Window gardens, beds, rockeries, shrubbery etc Canna indica Common name:- Indian shot Family:- Cannaceae Centre of origin:- India Uses:- As bedding purpose, as mixed plantation in shrubbery border
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Crinum asiaticum Common name :- Sudarshan or Sukhdarshan or St. John or Cape lily Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- South Africa Gloriosa superba Common name:- Glory lily Family:- Liliaceae Centre of origin:- Tropical Asia (India and Ceylon) Freesia reflecta Common name:- Freesia Family:- Iridaceae Centre of origin:- South Africa Iris spp. Common name:- Flag flower Family:- iridaceae Centre of origin:- South East Asia and Southern Europe Narcissus spp. (Narcissus and daffodils) Common name:- Nargis Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- Asia, North Africa and Europe Haemanthes multiflorus Common name:- Blood flower or Red cape lily or foot ball lily Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- Tropical Africa Hemerocallis flava Common name:- Day lily Family:- Liliaceae Centre of origin:- Siberia- Japan Zephyranthes sp. Common name:- Zephyr lily or rain lily Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- South America Hymenocallis litterollis Common name:- spider lily Family:- Amaryllidaceae Centre of origin:- South America Alpinia spinosa Common name:- Shell ginger or Hedychium Family:- Zingiberaceae Centre of origin:- Sikkim and Bhutan Alstroemeria aurantica Common name:- Astroemeria, Family:- Alstroemeriaceae Centre of origin:- South America
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China Aster
B.N Callistephus chinensis Family Composite (Asteraceae) Origin China & Japan Chromosome No.:- 2n=18 INTRODUCTION China aster is a herbaceous annual & some perennial species are also available which known as Daisy. It is grown in many parts of world for cut flowers. The plant is tall ,leaf hardy, winter annual. The colour range of asters, predominantly pink, blue, & white & their long vase life have made the aster a popular cut flower. The flowers are different shape like single, double, anemone flowered, peony flowered, incurved, quilled or shaggy flowers types. The flowers size may vary from small, button size to large dahlia size. USES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Excellent as a cut flower Garland preparation Table decoration & bouquet making Dwarf cv. As bedding plant Flowering pot, Window boxes plant.

Varieties developed in India No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Name of variety Kamini Poornima Shashank Violet cushion Phule Ganesh White Phule Ganesh Pink Phule Ganesh Violet Phule Ganesh Purple Color Deep pink White Creamy white Violet White Pink Violet Purple Plant height 60 cm 50 cm 55 cm 55 cm Medium tall Medium tall Medium tall Medium tall Production 50 flowers/plant 25 flowers/plant 45 flowers/plant 70 flowers/plant 47.07 lakh flowers/ha 43.03 lakh flowers/ha 60.47 lakh flowers/ha 46.83 lakh flowers/ha

PROPAGATION Mainly done by seeds, seeds are sown in Aug- October ,even in June- July, (Banglore, throughout the year) The optimum temperature for germination of aster seeds is 21oc & seeds germinate in approximately 8 days. The presence or absence of light has no effect on germination of aster seed.
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At 3 to 4 leaf stage, it is transplanted to field. If sowing is delayed, the flowers are affected by high temperature, prevailing in summer. SOIL Rich, porous & well drained soils They will not tolerate water logged conditions as this aggravates the serious soil borne disease problems. The most suitable soil pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 or medium acid.

CLIMATE Flowers & plant can be damaged by frost. Flowers are also damaged by high night temperature or severe wind. High night temperatures in summer, that is above 23oc, reduce stem length & flower size. LAND PREPARATION Ploughing is usually 20-25 cm deep. The land is then left in rough state until 2-3 weeks before planting. It is then ploughed again & worked into a fine tilth with discs cultivators or harrows. PLANTING 30x20 or 30x15 Seedling should be planted by pressing the soil around them , then following with an application of water. To obtain continuous flowering over a longer period, the sowing should be done at 7-10 days interval, especially for cut flowers. The seedling should not be planted too deep as this encourages collar rot diseases. First week of October is a appropriate time of transplanting TRELLISING/STAKING Tall cultivars may need staking but this is not necessary for the dwarf types. Many methods of trellising can be used for asters. Plants are trellised with one or two layers of 15 cm2 fencing wire mesh supported by posts spaced at 3-5 m in the bed. FERTILIZER / MANURE N:P:K :- 120:80:120 Kg/ha Application of Zn, Cu, Bo, Mn improve flower quality. IRRIGATION Aster requires a continuous soil moisture throughout the entire period of growth USE OF GROWTH REGULATORS Foliar spray of GA3 100 300 ppm induce early flowering increases branching, stem length, flower size etc. HARVESTING & GRADING Asters are usually cut when the outside petals are fully unfolded but some petals in the centre are still tightly curled or showing a slight greenish tinge. It is desirable to cut stem lengths of at least 30 cm & up to 45 cm. Asters are usually harvested & bunched in the field during the picking operation. The leaves are usually striped off the lower 1/3 to 1 of the stem. Bunch contain 10 15 stems. After harvesting, flowers should be placed in water, preferably in a cold room at 5 8oC to remove the field heat. Harvested asters are being placed over night in a solution containing silver nitrate 25 ppm, 75 ppm citric acid & 2 5% sugar. If flowers are to be sent to market immediately, a 10 minute dip in 1000 ppm silver nitrate alone or with 2 -5% sugar increases the vase life very significantly. Packing
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Bunch of asters are wrapped individually or sleeved in cellophane or paper before packing. They are packed in shallow cartons with only 2 layers of bunches. Vase life :- 3 - 4 days Pests Heliothis Leaf miner Spider mites Aphids Brown jassids Diseases Fusarium wilt Rust disease Grey mould Botrytis blight

Chrysanthemum
Introduction Botanical Name:- Chrysanthemum spp. Centre of origin:- China or Europe and Asia Family:- Asteraceae/ compositae (Chrysos- golden, anthos- flower) Known as queen of east National Chrysanthemum Society established in America having thousands of active members which classifies cultivars, conduct shows and publishes journals Chrysanthemum has also figured prominently in philately in China and Japan Earlier chrysanthemum was proclaimed as the national flower of Japan by emperor Uda in year 910 AD Presently Cherry blossom is a national flower and chrysanthemum is a symbol of Royalty in Japan and having largest numbers of cultivars Importance and Uses 1. Erect and tall growing cultivars are suitable for background planting in boarders or as cut flowers 2. The dwarf and compact growing ones are suitable for front row plantation or pot culture 3. The decorative and fluffy bloomed small flowered cultivars are ideal for garland making and hair decoration. 4. Certain species like C. cinerariifolium and C. coccineum are also cultivated as a source of pyrethrum, an important insecticide. 5. Ryori Giku is a yellow flowering culinary type which is eaten as delicacy in Japan after frying 6. Hanging baskets Classification of chrysanthemum by National Chrysanthemum Society (NCS) America, 1954 Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Type Single Irregular Incurve Reflex Regular Incurve Decorative Intermediate Incurve
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6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Pompon Single and Semi-Double Anemone Spoon Quill Spider Brush or thistle like Unclassified

Single Irregular Incurve :- These are the giant blooms of the chrysanthemum genus. The florets (petals) loosely incurve and make fully closed centers. The lower florets present an irregular appearance and may give a skirted effect. REFLEXED:- The florets in this class curve downward and overlap, similar to bird plumage. The tops of these blooms are full, but somewhat flattened . Important verities are cresta-white, Dorothan -white Regular Incurve :- A true globular bloom equal in breadth and depth. The florets smoothly incurve and form a ball. Decorative :- A flattened bloom with short petals. As in classes 1-3 the center disk should not be visible. The upper florets tend to incurve, but the lower petals generally reflex. Intermediate Incurve :- This bloom class is smaller than the irregular incurve, with shorter florets, only partially incurving with full centers, but giving a more open appearance. Many of the popular commercial incurving types are in this intermediate class. POMPON:- They are getting popular and produced large crops of small bloom. Pinching once or twice is very helpful, ray florets are short, broad, regularly, arranged to give bloom of compact hemispherical shape & florets are incurved or reflexed. Disc florets are covered or inconspicuolus open. Ex. Cameo-white. Single and Semi-Double :- A daisy-like flower with a center disk and one or more rows of ray florets. ANEMONE:- Ray florets are flat or may be twisted or quilled but disc florets are well developed and prodominant. Ex. Grace land white with yellow cushion. SPOON :- Essentially the same as the semi-double, except the ray florets are like spoons at the tips. The center disk is round and visible. QUILL :- The florets in this Class are straight and tubular with open tips. The bloom is fully double with no open center. SPIDER:- Ray florets are large & tabular & are usually curved. Tips of these florets may be open. Rupasi bangle- white.

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Brush or Thistle :- Fine tubular florets which grow parallel to the stem and resemble an artist's paint brushes or in the thistle form the florets are flattened, twisted and dropping. Unclassified :- Those blooms which fit in none of the other classes. They are often exotic, with twisted florets. They may also exhibit characteristics of more than one bloom class. JAPANESE OR IRREGULAR:- Twisted ligulate petioles are its distinguishing character which give the bloom and open airy appearance with irregular overlapping petals Ex. Mountainers. Varieties Varieties Niharika, Rekha, Anupam, Surya, Shola Vandana, Rosa Apsara, Birbal Sahni, Maghi, Nanako, Jayanti, Kundan Bravo, Pink cloud, Green Goddess Pitamber, Purnima, princess Anne, Peacock Evening Star, Peter May, Alfred Wilson, Dragon Party Time, Pink Casket Miss Universe, Hindustan, Nightingale, Icicle, Bidhans Best Classes of chrysanthemum on the basis of temperature 1. Thermo positive: low temperature between 10-27 \C inhibit or delay bud initiation which occur more consistently at 16 c. High temperature over 27 \C accelerates bud initiation but delay flowering. 2. Thermo negative: Bud initiation occurs at low at high temperature (10-27 \C) but high temperature delays development of buds. 3. Thermo zero: Flowering occurs at any temperature between 10-27 \C, more consistently at 17 \C night temperature. 4. Important cultivars of chrysanthemum for export 5. Snow ball, Snow Don White, Mountaineer, Sonar Bangla, Bright golden, Anne, Chandrama, Ajay, Birbal sahni, Lehmans, Nanako, Sonali Tara Important factors affecting growth and flowering of chrysanthemum Genotype Soil: Sandy loam, pH: 6.2-6.7 Light ( intensity: 1.2-1.6 MJ/m2 /day, Quality: 600-800nm, photoperiod: less than 9.5 hours.) Temperature ( night:10-160 C,day:18-201C) CO2:500-1000ppm Nutrients Pinching (Twice after 4 and 8 weeks of transplanting) De-Shooting (Retain 4-5 shoots in standard and 8-12 shoots in spray cultivars) Disbudding (remove lateral buds in standard and terminal bud in spray cultivars) Propagation Terminal stem cuttings (4-5cm) during June-July.
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Suckers during February to April Micro propagation Seeds

Optimum planting density and spacing for growing chrysanthemum Greenhouse cut flowers: 40-54 plants/m2. Loose flowers: 30 x 20 cm or 20-25 plants/m2 Standards: 20 x 20 cm Spray: 20 x 30 cm Pot : 3-5 cuttimgs/pot(15 cm) Manures and Fertilizers FYM: 3-5 Kg/m2 N:P:K: 30:10:15 g/m2 at monthly interval Loose flowers: FYM: 10-15 ton, N:150kg, P:100kg, K:120 kg/ha Spray of light solution of CAN + SSP at bud developing stage is very beneficial. Apply nitrogen through CAN source as urea causes phyto -toxicity. Irrigation Chrysanthemum requires frequent and thorough irrigation irrigation is given twice a week in the first month and subsequently at weekly intervals Plant Growth Regulators Crop growth regulation and flowering can be modified or controlled by use of growth regulators. Flower quality and yield can be improved by the use of regulators. Spraying GA (50ppm) at 30, 45 and 60 days after planting increases the flower yield.

Important disease of chrysanthemum 1. Wilt (Fusarium oxyporum f. sp.chrysanthemi) 2. Stem and foot rot (Rhizoctonia solani) 3. Root rot( Pythium, Phytophtora spp.) 4. Bacterial rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) 5. Powdery mildew (Oidium chrysanthemi ) 6. Leaf spot and flower blight (Alternaria, Septoria spp.) 7. Gray mould ( Botrytis cinerea) 8. Viral diseases (chrysanthemum stunt, tomato spotted chrysanthemum mosaic and chrysanthemum rosette) Important insects of chrysanthemum 1. Aphids 2. Red spider mites 3. Hairy caterpillars 4. Thrips 5. Grubs 6. Leaf miners 7. Nematodes Important disorders in chrysanthemum 1. Premature budding 2. Quilling of florets 3. Crown bud formation
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wilt,

flower

distortion,

4. Heat delay 5. Petal burn Stages of harvesting chrysanthemum Standards: When outer row of florets start unfurling for distant market and for local market half opened flowers. Sprays: Harvested for local market when two flowers have opened and others have shown colour, while for distant market when 50% flowers have shown colour Loose flowers: Fully open flowers Pot mums: 50% buds have developed colour. Different grades of chrysanthemum Commodity Grade Blue Stem length (cm) Flower diameter cm) Stem strength 75 15 Strong Red 75 12.5 Green 60 10.0 Yellow 60 ---

Packaging In bunches of 10,20,or 25 In corrugated card board boxes of 91 x 43 x 15 cm (L x W x H) accommodates about 80100 cut flowers of chrysanthemum Wrap flower bunches in cellophane sleeves Optimum yield of chrysanthemum Standard: 2.5 to 4.5 lakh/ha Spray: 1.5-1.75 lakh/ha Loose flowers : 8-15 ton/ha Greenhouse: 150-250 flower stems/m2/year.

Dehydration techniques for drying of flowers


Why dried ornamentals The charm of dried ornamentals can be maintained from few months to years with lesser cost if protected from the damage of high humidity, as in dried ornamentals the microbial activities in the aging process come to stand still. Five important characteristics of dried ornamentals Novelty Longevity Aesthetics Flexibility Year-round availability The important facts about Dried ornamentals The largest market situated for dried ornamentals United Kingdom Leading dried flower exporting countries 1. Australia 2. India 3. South Africa 4. China and
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5. Thailand Leading dried flower importing countries 1. U.K. 2. USA 3. Japan 4. Germany 5. Italy 6. Holland, and 7. Spain Top ten genera of dried ornamentals in the global flower market 1. Helichrysum 2. Helipterum 3. Limonium 4. Nigella 5. Gypsophila 6. Delphinium 7. Amaranthus 8. Papaver 9. Carthamus, and 10. Rosa Export Performance of Floriculture Produce Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Products Flowering plants Bulbs and tubers Dry flowers and plant parts Fresh cut flowers Fresh foliage Live plants (Tissue culture) Total Year (02-03) 0.29 1.39 116.839 43.2 51.5 2.29 165.86 Year (03-04) 0.91 1.46 177.10 45.71 2.33 22.01 249.55

Different uses of dried ornamentals These dried items may be used with fresh flower or alone as: 1. Floral arrangements 2. Bouquets 3. Gift boxes/packs 4. Festive decorations 5. Collages (a form of art in which various materials (e.g. photographs, pieces of paper, matchsticks) are arranged and glued to a backing. 6. Flower pitchers 7. Floral balls 8. Pomanders (a ball of mixed aromatic substances)
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9. Wall sceneries 10. Greeting cards 11. Wedding cards And 12. Sweet smelling pot-pourries Top ten genera of dried ornamentals in the global flower market 1. Helichrysum (Straw flower) 2. Helipterum 3. Limonium 4. Nigella 5. Gypsophila 6. Delphinium 7. Amaranthus 8. Papaver 9. Carthamus, and 10. Rosa The contribution of dried ornamentals of the total flower export from India during 1991 to 2001 is 60-70 per cent. Major export destinations from India for dried ornamentals 1. UK 2. USA 3. Japan 4. Israel 5. Hong Kong 6. Singapore and 7. Other European countries Export from India is over 10 thousand ton of dried ornamentals Consideration for better result in dried ornamentals Collect material after the dew and surface moisture has evaporated. Material should be collected after irrigation fields a day or two. Fresh material to be collected. Collection should be made in dry season and on a sunny day. All stages of flower development in an inflorescence should be collected, which have sufficiently harden, as immature shrivel very fast. Embed material immediately after plucking Cut all undesirable portions before embedding. Spread uniformly all plant parts/petals in herbarium press. The plant parts should be harvested when it will yield the highest possible quality product. Different methods of drying (A) Natural drying (B) Open drying in: 1. Air/ Room 2. Hot Air Oven 3. Micro Wave Oven 4. Solar dryer 5. Vacuum chamber 6. Freeze dryer (C) Embedded drying in room temperature ( Time period in days) 7. Embedded in boric acid 8. Embedded in silica gel 9. Embedded in River sand 10. Embedded in Saw dust
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11. Embedded in Alum powder 12. Embedded in Corn granules (D) Embedded drying in Air Oven 13. Embedded in Boric acid 14. Embedded in Silica dust 15. Embedded in River sand 16. Embedded in Saw dust 17. Embedded Alum powder 18. Embedded in Corn granules (E) Embedded drying in Micro Wave Oven 19. Embedded in Boric acid 20. Embedded in Silica dust 21. Embedded in River sand 22. Embedded in Saw dust 23. Embedded Alum powder 24. Embedded in Corn granules (F) Embedded drying in Solar drier (Time period in light hours and days) 25. Embedded in Boric acid 26. Embedded in Silica gel 27. Embedded in River sand 28. Embedded in Saw dust 29. Embedded Alum powder 30. Embedded in Corn granules (G) Press drying 31. In room 32. In Hot Air Oven (45 C) (H) Cryo- drying ( kept at -800C.) Air Drying Steps for air drying 1. Cut flowers of good quality at prime conditions or slightly immature. 2. Remove foliage from stems. If stems are weak or become brittle after drying, remove them and wire the flowers. 3. Group the stems into small bunches and tie with a rubber band. It will pull tighter as the stems shrink during drying. 4. Hang upside down in a warm, dry, dark area such as an attic, closet 5. or furnace room. Avoid damp rooms or direct sun on the flowers. Good air circulation is important. 6. Allow to remain until thoroughly dried. This normally takes two to three weeks. Sun Drying Plant material is embedded in drying medium (sand) in a container and exposed to the sun daily to facilitate rapid dehydration. In India, open sun drying is followed for drying many flowers. Flowers like small zinnias, marigolds, pansies, and pompon chrysanthemum embedded in sand in an upside down fashion and kept in the sun would dry in a day or two. Oven Drying Electrically operated hot air oven at a controlled temperature of 40-500 c is used for drying flowers in an embedded condition.

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Standardization of drying time and temperature were done at NBRI Flower French marigold African marigold China aster, Delphinium, Rose buds, small flowers, and Zinnia Medium and large roses very large flowers Helipterum, Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, and limonium Drying Temperature
0

Time 72 hours 96 hours 48 hours 72 hours 96 hours 48 hours

45-49 C
0

45-49 C 40 44 C
0 0

40-44 C
0

40-44 C
0

45-49 C

Embedding Method Embedding the flowers in a granular, desiccating material is probably the most commonly used method and many consider it the best all around method. Several materials may be used, and they vary in cost and the results that they produce. To cover a flower, put about an inch of desiccating material at the bottom of the container; cut the flower stem to about a half an inch and stick this into the center of the material at the bottom to hold the flower. Next, pour the desiccating material along the perimeter of the container, away from the flower, building up a continuous mound of about an inch. Then tap lightly on the container and the material will move to the flower, not altering the form of the petals (in other words, the material will not weigh down the petals as it would if it were just poured on top of the flower). Continue adding the material, tapping on the container, etc. until the flower is completely covered. Lastly, add an inch of the material above the top of the flower. Sand, Borax, Silica gel, saw dust, perlite and combination of these materials are used in this method. Microwave Oven Drying Electronically produced microwaves liberate moisture from organic substances by agitating the water molecule. It is fast and the results are good. The flower has to be embedded in silica gel medium in a microwave safe open container along with a small cup with water nearby. Standing time of 10 minutes to few hours is needed after the drying for best results. When the temperature of the silica gel reaches about 160 F, it is done. Freeze Drying Originally introduced in 1813 by William Hyde Wallaston to the Royal Society in London, it wasn't until the late 80's the freeze-drying industry discovered the allurement and longevity of freeze-dried flowers. Freeze dried flowers are fresh flowers that have been specially dried to preserve their natural shape, colour and beauty. Freeze drying is accomplished by a process called sublimation. It requires a special freeze-drying machine. It involves first freezing the flowers at (-)100C for at least 12 hours. A vacuum pump slowly pulls the water out of the flowers as a vapor in one chamber, and then the vapor condenses as ice in another chamber. Because of this process, the shape and natural color of the flower is maintained.
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For Roses it takes 15 17 days and for other flowers normally 10 12 days. Major flowers dried by this method are roses, carnation, etc Press Drying Flowers and Foliage are placed in-between two folds of newspaper sheets or blotting paper and these sheets are kept one over other and corrugated boards of the same size are placed inbetween the folded sheets so as to allow the water vapour to escape. The whole bundle is then placed in the plant press, its screws tightened. After 24 hours the bundle is removed to an electric hot air oven for 24 hours at 40- 450C. Placing the foliage between two pieces of waxed paper and pressing the wax paper with a medium hot iron easily preserves the flexibility and the fall colors of foliage. New pieces of waxed paper must be used for each pressing. Potpourri Potpourri is usually a mixture of dried, sweet-scented plant parts including flowers, leaves, seeds, stems and roots. The basis of a potpourri is the aromatic oils found within the plant. Two kinds of potpourri can be made - dry and moist. The most common, the dry method, is quicker and easier, but the potpourri does not last as long. Both methods require a "fixative", which is responsible for absorbing the aromatic oils and slowly releasing them. Herbs such as Artemesia, Thyme, Sage, Rosemary, Basil, Achillea (Yarrow), Lavender, Scented Geranium, Mint, Marjoram, Verbena, Anise and Fennel can be used for scent. The herbs and fruits should be thoroughly dried to prevent mildew. Skeletonizing As the name implies, this treatment eliminates all tissues but the "skeleton" or veins of leaves. Skeletonized leaves lend an interesting, lacy appearance to dried arrangements. Heavytextured leaves are the best choices for this method of preservation. Boil leaves 40 minutes in 1-quart water and 2 tablespoons of lye. Rinse in cold water and scrape or brush the green pulp from the leaves; however, be careful not to destroy the network of veins. To lighten the color of the leaf skeletons, immerse in a 1-quart water and 2 tablespoon household bleach solution for 2 hours. Rinse and dry. Important desiccants used for drying of ornamentals 1. Silica gel (White and self indicating blue) 2. Borax 3. Boric acid 4. River sand 5. Alum powder 6. Aluminium sulfate 7. Saw dust 8. Corn granules Post Harvest Handling of Dried Flowers Since Dry flowers are made up of cellulose materials of plant origin, it invites lot of pests. They are hygroscopic in nature, if allowed to absorb moisture, problem of mould infection will occur. The dried flowers should be treated with a suitable biocide (insecticide and fungicide) and packed in waterproof containers Packing of dried Flowers Dried flowers are fragile and require careful handling. Card board boxes, thermo cool packing, poly lined or wax paper lined cartons are normally used for packing dried flowers. Metallic tins and thermo cool boxes are also used for packing dried flowers. The dry flower
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arrangements are to be kept in transparent polypropylene boxes (100-200 gauges) for display. Moth balls and silica gel pouches should be kept inside the packing to avoid insect and moisture damage.

FLOWER ARRANGEMENT: ART AND TECHNIQUE


Flower-Arrangement? The art and science of arranging cut flowers and foliage in a container to make it more artistic and beautiful as per the theme. Integrated feelings of flowers Offering/Prayer/Welcome Types: Western type Eastern type (Ikebana) Modern type (free style) Western Concept: Based on Geometry in Formal Artistic way Eastern Concept: Based on Spirituality and informal Artistic way Principles of flower-arrangement Harmony Focalization Scale and proportion Balance Depth and rhythm Repetition and Continuity Type of flower arrangements: Type on the basis of Shape: Line : Thin, vertical, tapering Mass : Round used at center of arrangement Form : Uncommon, unusual shape Fillers : To fill in between lines, and flower mass Type of Containers Vase Bowl Pedestal Basket Novelty TOOLS Secateur Scissor Blade Knife Tape Thread Important considerations: Design-outline: line flowers Mass effect: for the focalization Complete look: filler flowers Arrangement should be flowing and radiating Color combination: pleasant to the eyes Occasion and Theme
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Standard patterns: Triangular: symmetrical and asymmetrical Round or spherical Oval S curve L shape Crescent Eastern Type: Ikebana: Living flower Ike (To set in) + bana (flower) Ikebana: An expression Signifies life and freshness Ikebana Japanese culture holds nature in high regard. Seasonal variations are much appreciated and many flowers and trees are imbued with specific meanings. There are around 3,000 schools of Ikebana in Japan and the art is practiced by approximately 15 million people. History of Ikebana In the 6th century, Chinese monks who used flowers in religious offerings, brought the concepts of flower arranging to Japan. The principles of this art form were taught by monks to royalty and Samurai families only. Thus it was not available to common people for many centuries. Principles: Asymmetry Few flowers Closeness to Nature Continuity Schools There are many schools of Ikebana. The oldest, Ikenobo, has records dating back to the 15th century. The Ohara school was started in the late 19th century by a would-be sculptor, Unshin Ohara, who found the Ikebono school rather formal and who also wanted to use the Western flowers that were being introduced to Japan. He developed his own containers and started the Moribana type of arrangements. The Sogetsu school was started in 1927 by Sofu Teshigahara, who saw Ikebana, not merely as decoration, but rather as a form of art. His school was available to all levels of society and his work was influenced by contemporary artists, such as Picasso, Dali and Miro. As a consequence of the second World War and the interest of the wives of US servicemen, Ikebana was introduced world-wide. Layering This is an important aspect of Ikebana, but there are no thick layers as in Western flower arrangements. The aim is to minimally use flowers and stems to accentuate the beauty of each. There must be balance between all the elements in the arrangement, including the container. The arrangement should point towards heaven, reflecting Buddhist spirituality. Heaven is represented by the uppermost layer; man by the middle layer and earth by the lowest layer. Adherence to the principles of nature are depicted by rules which, for example, state that a plant found in mountains, would never be placed lower than one found in a meadow.

Styles
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Heads of different schools create new styles of Ikebana and it can take up to 5 years to learn the techniques for fastening and positioning the stems and flowers that are used. The most common arrangements are Rikka (standing Nageire (flung flowers) Moribana (piled-up flowers) Rikka Also known as Shoka or Seika, this form of arrangement uses tall vases and positions the flowers to highlight vertical lines. Rules guide the length, proportions and angles of stems. Nageire This is an old form of Ikebana arrangement, which is used in the Japanese Tea Ceremony. The style of arrangement may be slanting, upright, cascading Moribana This style uses shallow containers and a holder called a kenzan. This has sharp points to hold the flowers in place. Moribana arrangements reflect natural shapes. This more modern style permits the use of Western flowers. The arrangement should take the form of a triangle. Symmetry Unlike Western flower arrangements, Ikebana is not symmetrical. This is based on Buddhists beliefs that the mind should be left to further imagine form. For this reason, an odd number of branches will be used and the kenzan (holding pin) is placed asymmetrically. Stems are therefore varied in length. Basic considerations: Not mass but few flowers Face upside and natural curves Originating from one point Flowers should look evolving and rising Standard types: Moribana: Shallow container Nagiere: Tall vase Morimono: fruits and vegetables Zenebana: statue or sculpture Position In the 15th century, the ruling Muromachi shogun built simple homes, which contained a spiritual centre, such as an alcove, to house objects of art. This area was known as the toko-no-ma and was to be found in rooms used to receive guests. A shelf might be used if the home had no toko-no-ma and traditionally the floral arrangements were viewed only from the front. Nowadays, this form of media, which so beautifully depicts the splendour of nature, is to be found decorating many different areas, for example, living rooms and tables, as well as public places, such as entrances to large buildings and shop windows. Arrangements are now designed to complement their surroundings and to be viewed from all perspectives.

PRODUCTION TECNOLOGY OF HELICONIA


Contents Introduction Botany World Scenerio Uses Market value
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Types Plant protection measures Harvesting Yield

INTRODUCTION Heliconia (Heliconia spp.) belongs to the family Heliconiaceae are tropical plants of princely dimensions grown for their attractive foliage and brilliant flower spikes. Heliconia also known as Lobsters claw, parrots flower, parrot plantain and false plantain. They are some o f the most unusual flora of the tropics. Major heliconia producing Nations are Barbados, Hawaii, Brazil and Venezuela. India has an annual production of about one lakh stems which accounts for less than one per cent of the total floral production of the country. 50% of the production of heliconia comes from West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. This is gaining importance as a commercial flower crop in states like Kerala, Karnataka, Assam and other North-East states. The climate of the heavy rainfall areas of South Gujarat is also favourable for growing this crop. This is a newly introduced crop in South Gujarat performing well since two years. BOTANY Heliconia is the only genus in the plant family Heliconiaceae, which is a member of the order Zingiberales. It is rhizomatus, perennial herb with an erect, aerial and stem like tube composed of overlapping leaf sheaths called psuedostem. It has banana like foliage. Spread by means of a fleshly underground rhizome. Have erect or pendulas terminal inflorescence composed of two or more boat shaped bracts arising from a central axis. Strikingly elegant flower heads rise fron banana like clump of oval leaves, which are sometimes rather slender and with some varieties extremely large. Depending on varieties,heliconia will range in height from 2 to 20 feet. OTHER NAMES Lobsters claw Parrots flower Parrot plantain and False plantain WORLD SCENARIO AND HISTORICAL FACTS In many countries, Heliconia is promoted as a Special Occasional flower. A few collectors in tropical countries, such as Iris Bannochie in Barbados, Roberto Burle in Brazil, and Jose abalo in Venezuela, have pioneered the appreciation of heliconias The most popular cultivar is Tay, which was collected from the Singapore Botanical Garden. Production of heliconia in containers for interior use is considered a good prospect by Danish growers. In South America, interest is growing and the large flower producers of Columbia have planted heliconia for export to the United States and Europe. USES As cut flowers In the landscape As potted plants
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Interior landscape Other uses leaves are used for roof thatching as well as food wrappers. Roots and seeds of certain varieties are used for medicinal purposes.

MARKET VALUE In the market, the tropical flowers are perceived as more expensive flowers compared with traditional flowers as roses, carnations or pompons. This statement is not exact or accurate. It is true that the unitary price of a tropical flower overcomes the price of a traditional flower but remember that when making a traditional arrangement, you use more than one flower. Usually, you will need at least a dozen of roses to make a showy arrangement. On the other hand, with only one heliconia you obtain an arrangement similar as attractive and as elegant. Additionally, the tropical flowers can last up to two weeks in vase! Try it and compare prices... you will realize that the tropical flowers are not so expensive... TYPES OF HELICONIA (1) Erect heliconia, with standing straight bracts pointing up. (2) Pendent heliconia, with hanging bracts pointing down. TYPES, SPECIES & CULTIVERS OF HELICONIA TYPE SPECIES CULTIVERS Erect H.psittacorum H.angusta H.bihai Andromeda Black cherry Lady di Parakeet Petra St.vincent Red Sassy Small red Christmas Holiday Orange Yellow Green Chocolate Flash Cream Yellow Green Rainbow Turbo Red Orange Yellow Red Pink stripe Sexy pink Maroon pink Hanging orange Frosty Parrots peak Sexy orange
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Erect Pendent

H.caribaea. H.wagneriana H.latispatha H.hirsuta H.indica H.chartacea H.nutans H.pendula H.rostrata H.Platystachys

Flow chart of Heliconia cultivation Selection of soil (Soil rich in organic material, slightly acidic and well drained medium with high fertility) Selection of Rhizome (Generally 10-40 g weight is recommended Spacing Fertilizer application Irrigation (water requirement for most of the species is 25 mm / plant / week) Plant protection measures Weeding (oxydiazon & glyphosate are used as a direct spray) Harvesting Table 18: Effect of growing situations on flower yield of heliconia Treatment Open condition 35 per cent condition 50 per cent condition C.D.(0.05) Flowers per hectare 22222 shade 633333 shade 526983 18227

PLANT PROTECTION MEASURES a) Insect Insects Aphids- often infest flowers, feeding on the nectar, Mealy bug and Thrips

Control measures

Spraying of Monocrotophos 0.05% and Dimethoate at 0.05% Spraying of Methyl parathion 0.05% and Dimethoate 0.05%. Snail will chew the young leaves of Hand picking by dropping in 5% salt solution will heliconia by scraping, making big reduce population and killing snails. Spray of irregular holes. Adult and young ones neem oil @ 10 ml/l and soap nut extract @ 60 g/l devour plants during nights protects foliage from damage Plant parasitic nematode viz. root Chemical fumigation of soil prior to planting, knot nematode, reniform, burrowing planting only hot-water-treated or nematode free nematode and lesion often infest rhizomes. heliconia.
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b) Diseases Diseases The most common fungal diseases are Root rot (Phytophthora) and Stem rot (Phythium). Leaf spot

Control measures Fungicides like Captaf, Mencozeb, Metalaxyl. Soil Solarization is useful. Excess moisture should be avoided. Removed infected leaves. Foliar application of Mancozeb or Chlorothanil is effective.

HARVESTING The flowers can be harvested with peduncles of 70 cm or more. Flower stalks should be cut near the ground early in the day. H. psittacorum is harvested at the stage with none, one or two open bracts . Larger heliconia can be cut when one- half to two-third of the inflorescences are blooming. YIELD Species/Cultiver H.psittacorum Cv. Golden Torch Cv. Andromeda H.rostrata H.wagneriana H.bihai H.stricta

Inflorescence yield/plant/year 20 15 10 9 8 12

JASMINE Introduction Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. More than 40 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine or mogra (double)) J. grandiflorum (Chameli or Janti) J. auriculatum (Jooee) and The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction. Jasmines are native of India and also China, Burma, Australia, and South East Europe Family- Oleaceae Basic chromosome number is n= 13 "Chameli" in Hindi. "Mallika" in Sanskrit and "Malligai" in Tamil Jasminum humile Known as Italian jasmine or Swarn chameli is a shrub native to tropical Asia The yellow, faintly scented flowers Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings are less than 1 acre. Importance and uses
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Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as both shrub and climber. Flowers and buds are used for making garlands, bouquets, veni, used for decorating hair of women and for religious offering Flowers are also used for the production of perfumed hair oils and attars The world famous jasmine oil is extracted from the flowers of Spanish jasmine (J. grandiflorum) The Grasse region of France supplies the best quality jasmine perfume in the world The jasmine oil is regarded as unique as it blend well with other floral extracts and it is highly valued throughout the world for producing high grade perfumes The natural oil of Jasmine is used in high grade perfumes and almost all the superior perfumes contain at least a small quantity of Jasmine oil The oil is use din soap and cosmetic industries The flowers of Arabian Jasmine (J. sambac) are reported to be used in China for flavouring tea Propagation Cuttings of almost mature wood Layers, commonly ground layers Seeds are hardly used for propagation but are used for raising new hybrids. Growth regulators are also effective. The highest rooting of 90% was recorded in soft wood cutting treated with IAA 1000 ppm and hard wood cuttings treated with NAA 500 ppm Best rooting and survival were obtained with IBA at 4000 ppm Soil and Climate Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam or clayey loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days.. Land Preparation and Planting One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 45 - 90 cm3. Each pit should be applied 10-15 kg of well rotten Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November Spacing- 1.5m x 1.5m. Varieties Jasminum sambac 1. Gundumali 2. Madanban 3. Single Mogra 4. Double Mogra J. Auriculatum 1. CO-1 2. CO-2 J. Grandiflorum 1. CO-1 2. CO-2 Irrigation First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type.
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Manuring It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July. Inter Cultural Operations Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent weedings are done once in 2-3 months. Pruning Training is basically done to give the desired shape to the plant whereas, pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers. Season of flowering and harvesting Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise. Plant Protection 1. Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l is recommended. 2. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot Drench the soil around plant with Copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g / l . Yield parameters: Particulars/year 1 2 3 4....

Flower kg/acre

yield

in

750

1,500

2,500

3,500

POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF CUT FLOWERS


Importance 1. Post harvest handling is Important for cut flowers 2. Flowers are Perishable in nature 3. After harvest: Physiological and Biochemical Processes 4. Advancement of petal senescence 5. Bottle neck in marketing 6. Market fluctuations Factors affecting post harvest life of flowers 1. QUALITY /STAGE OF HARVESTING 2. WATER RELATIONS
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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

RESPIRATION RELATIVE HUMIDITY GROWTH REGULATORS PRESERVATIVE SOLUTION PRECOOLING & STORAGE PACKING & TRANSPORTING

STAGE OF HARVESTING If flowers are harvested at early stage, then it may not open. If matured at over mature stage then it will deteriorate soon. The proper stage of harvest is BUD which is at stage of opening. The time of harvest should be early hours of morning or evening hours. Flowers harvested around noon normally have poor keeping quality. WATER RELATIONS The keeping quality of flowers depends on 1. The rate of water absorption 2. Transpiration These depends on (a) The relative area of absorption (b) the total water holding capacity of the tissue. Water with high pH & high salt content is not suitable for cut flowers The flowers after harvest should be placed in the water immediately otherwise delay in keeping in water allow air entry in the stem & causes blockage of vascular vessel. Citric acid @ 0.2 or 0.3 g/lit. should be added in the water as it will bring down the pH below 3.0 3.5 which improve water uptake & useful for rehydration after harvest. RESPIRATION The rate of respiration depends on quality of carbohydrates available in the harvested flowers, temp. & use of certain chemical to regulate it. Higher temperature causes faster rate of respiration & burning of tissue. The carbohydrate supplied in the form of sugar ( sucrose) will increase longevity of cut flowers & also improve colour of flowers. RELATIVE HUMIDITY Higher the humidity in the air, less is the transpiration rate & vice-versa. GROWTH REGULATORS Ethylene : This gas hormone is harmful for cut flower longevity. Cytokinin : Delay senescence of some cut flowers. Use of foliar sprays to reduce leaf yellowing during transport of cut flowers. ABA : Accelerates petal senescence GA3 : Promotes longevity of flowers & used in bud opening solution. IAA : Promotes ethylene production of isolated carnation petals. PRESERVATIVE SOLUTION 8 Hydroxy Quinoline Sulphate (8-HQS) or 8 Hydroxy Quinoline Citrate (8-HQC) @ 0.2 g/lit. are commonly used germicides in vase solution. Silver nitrate @ 2.5 g/100 lit. continuously is very effective but expensive germicide. STS (Silver Thio-Sulphate) extend vase life of carnation, sweet pea, lillium, orchids, gypsophila, gladiolus, gerbera, snapdragon, alstroemaria etc. & reduces flower drop in wax flowers , sweet pea, stock, alstroemaria, delphinium & snapdragon. PRECOOLING
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Cut flowers after harvest should be immediately placed in distilled water after rehydration and then should be moved to cold storage without packaging for pre- cooling a desired temperature is reached. Pre cooling is fast removal of field heat and is important to slow down the metabolic activities of cut flower. PULSING pulsing is a short duration treatment given to cut flower in form of high concentration of sucrose and germicide. 8 percent sucrose + 200ppm 8-HQC for 24 hours reduce floret abscission, promote floret opening and increase vase life. STORAGE Wet Storage : Short term storage, cut stem is dipped in water. Three types of storage methods 1. Controlled atmospheric storage ( CA storage) 2. Modified atmospheric storage (MA storage) 3. Hypobaric storage CA Storage External Gas Generator: For replacing of O2 with CO2 Liquid Nitrogen Atmosphere generators: Flushing with sprayed liquid nitrogen Gas separator systems: CO2 and O2 are selectively removed from the storage and N2 continues into the storage space. Carbon dioxide Control systems: Based on scrubbing system for controlling level of CO2 in the storage. Ethylene Control Systems MA Storage A modified atmosphere: Created by altering the normal composition of air via a sealed package system to provide an optimum atmosphere for increasing the storage length and quality of the produce. Two types: Passive MA and Active MA Storage Development of beneficial equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA) of high CO2, low O2 and high relative humidity Various gases like O2, CO2, N2 mainly and other gases like Nitrous and Nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide, Chlorine can be used and modified with MA storage system

Low pressure storage (LPS) or Hypobaric storage Storing plant material under condition of reduced pressure along with continuous moist air flow This system is base don principal of removal of CO2 and ethylene under reduced pressure conditions. Best results are obtained at reduced pressure to 40-60 mmHg. Grading: Grouping of flowers based on quality prior to marketing is called grading. Flowers should look fresh, turgid and spot-less along with proper bud size and stalk length as per the requirement. Advance techniques like machine vision system, image processing techniques, neutral network analysis, Bayers decision theory etc are being developed for flower grading. Grading of cut flowers:Definition:- Grading means grouping of flowers based on quality prior to marketing. Criteria for grading:72

Appearance Stage of maturity Blemishes or injuries due to diseases Insect infestation Colour Size of the bud Straightness and stem length

Packaging It protects flowers from bruising and physical injury during transportation. It brings down rate of metabolism Maintains turgidity in cut flowers and avoids dehydration effect of cold storage Minimizes low temperature chilling injury during cold storage Improves opening ability in cut flowers Retains petal pigments Maintains overall freshness and quality Types of Packaging Internal packaging: Cellophane, PP, LDPE, HDPE, Butter paper, parchment paper and Newspaper Corrugated paper (wrapping in rose) External Packaging: CFB boxes Strength Test: At 0C and 100 per cent RH for drop test, compression test and vibration test. Total vent: 4.5 % of the area Packaging films: Butter paper Polypropylene Tissue paper Coated paper LDPE HDPE Storage Temperature: 2-10C temperature

Box dimension: Flower Carnation Chrysanthemum Gladiolus Rose

Length (cm) 100 80 120 100

Width (cm) 40 50 50 40

Height (cm) 20 23 15 30

Protected Cultivation Technology in Floriculture


Greenhouse A greenhouse generally is a structure which protects plants from wind, precipitations, excessive radiation, temperature extremes, insects and diseases. It is also of vital importance to create an ideal micro-climate around the plants. Introduction
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1.15 Lakh ha area under floricultural crops in India. GHT emerged as a viable in the agri-business in India. India - 600 ha under green house cultivation. Export value of flowers appro. Rs.350 crores during 2009-10 Major area under greenhouse in India is around Bangalore, Hyderbad, Pune, Nasik, Delhi etc. Guj.-one of the leading state for adoption GHT. Major area under greenhouse in Gujarat is around Surat, Navsari, Valsad Dists. Occupying area -100 ha under GHT in Gujarat Economically viable floricultural braches 1. Production of commericial floricultural crops in open field. (Ex. Rose, Marigold, Tuberose, Jasmine, Spiderlily, etc.) 2. Bedding plants and nursery industries. (Ex. Rose, Bonsai, Cacti, Annuals nursery) 3. Oil extraction industries. (Ex. Rose, Jasmine, Marigold, Carnation, etc.) 4. Production of flower bulbs and seeds. (Ex. Gladiolus, Tuberose, Amryllis, ect. and all annuals) 5. Flower dehydration industries. (Ex. Rose petals, Lotus, etc.) 6. Extraction of colour dyes. (Ex. Marigold petals, Annatto seeds, etc. ) 7. Floricultural plants production through tissue culture. (Ex. Gerbera, Carnation, Dieffenbachia, etc.) 8. Landscape gardening industries. 9. Greenhouse industries. (Ex. Rose, Gerbera, Carnation, etc.) Site selection for greenhouse 1) The selected site should be pollution free. 2) Source of good quality water with PH 5.5 to 7.0 and EC between 0.1 to 0.3 ms/cm. 3) The site of construction should be higher than the surrounding land. 4) The soil should have a pH of 5.5 to 6.5 and EC of 0.5 to 0.7 Ms/cm 5) Facilities of good roads for transport of greenhouse produce to nearby markets. 6) Sufficient land should be available considering future expansion. 7) Easy and cheap availability of labours. 8) Communication facilities should be availability at the site. 9) Sufficient space for post-harvest treatments, including packaging and storage facilities. Orientation of a greenhouse 1) Top vent opening should be towards the east side. 2) Gutter should be placed in the North-South direction. 3) Slop along the gutter should not be more than 2%. 4) Slop along the gable side should not be more than 1.25%. Selection of structure of greenhouse It serve to modify microclimate congenial for selected crop growth Simplicity and operation-friendly Strength to withstand extreme climate conditions (wind, snow, hail) Strength to support the load of internal services systems Flexibility in shading and humidity control systems Good mechanical strength with long lasting property Economically feasible
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Classification of greenhouse Type of Greenhouse According To Structure/Shape 1) Ground to ground greenhouse 2) Gable type greenhouse 3) Quonset type of greenhouse According to the environmental control system 1) Naturally ventilated 2) Evaporative cooled or fan and pad 3) Heated green house Type of greenhouse according to the material of structure: 1) GI structure [some parts with Aluminum 2) MS structure 3) Wooden polyhouse Type of greenhouse according to cost of structure: 1) Low cost greenhouse(150-300 Rs/m2) 2) Medium cost greenhouse(500-1000 Rs/m2) 3) High cost greenhouse(1500-5000 Rs/m2) Type of covering material 1) Glass 2) Polycarbonate sheet 3) Fiberglass reinforced plastic a) Plain sheet b) Corrugated sheet 4) Plastic film a) UV stabilized Low density polythene (LDP) b) Silpaulin

Characteristics of covering film 1. UV Stabilization: stabilizer like Hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) are added to arrest natural degradation from UV rays 2. Diffused film: To diffuse light equally inside the greenhouse 3. UV Blocker / Antivirus film: Blocking of UV rays prevents the activities of some insects like whitefly and thrips by hampering their sight 4. Anti Sulfur film/Sulfur stabilized film: Resist detrimental effect of sulfur in greenhouse (Nickel Quencher is used) 5. Thermic Film: To raise the cool night temperature 6. Anti Drip Film: Reduce surface tension of condensing water vapor and avoid droplet formation 7. Anti mist film: Constantly allows mist to continue to condense on the area of film surface, so moisture is on the film and not in the air 8. Anti dust film: Less dust accumulation on the outer surface results in more light transmission and better photosynthesis ShadeNet Green, Red, Black, Blue, White Perforation: 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEM IN GREENHOUSE
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1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Cooling Heating Shading Watering Photoperiodic control

Ideal climate requirement for various crops: Name of crop 1. Rose 2. Gerbera 3. Carnation 4. Chrysanthemum a) Cut flower b) Pot 5. Foliage plants 6. Orchid 7. Anthurium 8. Tomato 9. Cucumber 10. Capsicum Day ( C) 24-28 20-24 16-20 22-24 23-26 24-30 22-24 22-25 22-27 24-27 21-24 Night ( C ) 18.5-20 18-21 10-12 15-16 16.5-18 18-21 18-20 18-20 15.5-19 18-19 18-20 Humidity (%) 65-70 60-65 60-65 60-65 60-65 75-80 70-80 70-80 60-65 60-65 60-65 Light Intensity (LUX) 60000-70000 40000-50000 40000-50000 35000-40000 35000-40000 25000-30000 25000-30000 25000-30000 50000-60000 50000-60000 50000-60000

Technical options for greenhouse Capacity Equipment Influences

1. Heating 2. Cooling 3. Ventilation

Heater, Hot water heating, steam heating etc Venting, fogging, shading Vents, Exhaust fans

Temperature, RH, Air Movement Temperature, Movement, RH, Air Air

Temperature, RH, movement, CO conc.


2

4. Shading 5. Artificial lighting 6. Humidity and wetness 7. CO

Shade nets, screen. White washing Incandescent lamps, Fluorescent tubes, High Intensity discharge lamps (HID) Humidifiers foggers-to increase RH, Heater, venting, dehumidifiers-to decrease RH CO burner, Pure CO , Fuel gases
2 2

Light, Temperature, RH, Air Movement Light Temperature, RH, Air Movement

CO concentration
2

76

Enrichment Factors affecting in greenhouse production High quality greenhouse production depends on several external factors. temperature relative humidity light intensity light duration soil moisture soil aeration nutrition CONSIDERATIONS IN PROTECTED CULTIVATION Feasibility Study: Before constructing a greenhouse one must take into consideration the location, climate, crops to be grown, cost of production and economics returns to determine whether the project is economically feasible or not. Greenhouse Structure: Once feasibility report is ready, second consideration is decision on the appropriate type of greenhouse for protected cultivation. This involves detailed studies on structures, glazing materials and control systems that are necessary for a given location and crop. Planting Material: For producing high quality ornamental plants for export, the grower needs good quality planting material of varieties that are in demand in importing countries. Uniformity in planting materials and freedom from diseases and pests are very important for a commercial greenhouse production project. Growing System: Ornamental plants are grown in containers, the cut flower crops and vegetables are generally produced in ground, raised beds soil based or in artificial growing media. Soil and soilbased growing medium if used in protected cultivation must be sterilized with steam (or chemicals). Disease and Pest Management Intensive cultivation and favourable growing conditions in a greenhouse also provide ideal conditions for disease causing organisms and pests. Therefore, prophylactic measures become very important in greenhouse production. Post-harvest Care and Handling: Development of post harvest handling techniques and efficient marketing or distribution channel is also important for a flourishing greenhouse operation. Marketing: Day to day information about local and international market is very important. Fresh flowers should be reach to the destination with proper cool channel. Packaging and transportation are very important to decide the price of the cut flowers. Supporting Activities: Every greenhouse operations need the supporting activities like water and soil analysis lab and research and development programme to develop new and better ways of doing the operations. Management:
77

The success of greenhouse production depends on the ability of the grower to use the infrastructure and production inputs optimally. This will come with experience. If one decides to invest on greenhouse production of flowers it will have to be a long-term commitment. One has to build up knowledge on flower cultivation and continue learning. Proper Co-ordination Above all a successful greenhouse operation demands proper co- ordination between all the persons and activities involved in the actual growing. Crop wise project cost and subsidy available for green house Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Crop grown Project cost (Lack Rs/ac) 48 40 52 24 Subsidy (20 %- Lack Rs) 9.6 8.0 10.4 5.0

Gerbera Rose Carnation Capsicum

Economics of gerbera crop cultivation in green house Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Prod. Cost Rs./fl 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.75 0.9 0.8 0.85 0.4 Fl. Yield/pl/y 36 42 33 33 40 43 25 40 27 40 40 40 *Total cost
2

(Rs)/y/ m 230 276 278 278 291 306 200 280 246 292 304 228
78

Price Rs./ fl. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2 2 2 2.5

Total income
2

Net profit
2

(Rs)/ m 432 504 396 396 480 516 300 600 324 480 480 800

Rs./m 202 228 118 118 189 210 100 320 78 188 176 572

Rs. Lac/acre 8.08 9.12 4.72 4.72 7.56 8.40 4.00 1.28 3.12 7.52 7.04 22.88

13

0.4

35

186
2

1.5

315
2

129

5.16

*Total cost /plant = No of flower/plant x Cost/flower + Cost of GH/yr/plant (Rs.16.66) Plant density = 6 plant/m -except no 12 (8 pl/ m ); No of variety = 4-14 var. Economic of carnation crop cultivation in green house Sr. Prod. Fl. *Total Price No. Cost Yield cost (Rs./ 2 (Rs./fl) /pl/y fl.) (Rs/y/m ) 1 2 3 4 0.60 0.60 0.85 0.85 13.0 10.0 8.5 10.0 287 184 274 304
2

Total Income
2

Net profit
2

(Rs/m ) 780 350 612 720


2

Rs. /m 493 166 338 416

Rs. Lac/ acre

2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0

19.72 6.64 13.52 16.64

*Total cost /plant = No of flower/plant x Cost/flower + Cost of GH/yr/plant (Rs.4.16) Plant density = 24 plant/m -accept no. 2 (14 pl/ m ) No of variety = 2-10 var. Economics of rose crop cultivation in green house Sr. Prod. Fl.Yield *Total cost Price 2 No Cost /pl/y Rs./ fl. (Rs)/y/m Rs./fl 1 2 1.25 1.00 14 25 258 300 3.0 2.5

Total income
2

Net profit
2

(Rs)/ m 378 500

Rs./m 120.5 200.0

Rs. Lac/acre 4.82 8.00

*Total cost /plant = No of flower/plant x Cost/flower + Cost of GH/yr/plant (Rs.11.11)


2

Plant density = 8-10 plant/m No of variety = 2-5 var. Economics of capsicum crop cultivation in green house Sr. Fr. Total cost Price Rs./kg Total 2 No. Yield/pl/y income (Rs)/y/ m 2 (Kg) (Rs)/m 1 2 3 4 1 3.5 200 66 170
2

Net profit (Rs)


2

Per m 200 8.4 115

Lac/acre 8.00 0.336 4.60

40 30 32.5

400 75 285

Note- Plant density = 2.5 plant/m No of variety = 1-3 var. Comparison of different crops cultivation in green house
79

Crops Prod. Cost Rs./fl Fl. Yield/pl/y


2

Gerbera 0.4-0.90 25-43 186-306 1.5-2.5


2

Rose 1.0-1.25 14-36 258-300 2.5-3.0 378-500 120.5-200

Carnation 0.5-0.85 8.5-13 184-304 2.5-3.0 350-780 166-493

Capsicum 1-4 kg 66-200 30-40/kg 75-400 8.4-200

Total cost (Rs)/y/m ) Price (Rs./ fl.) Total income (Rs/ m )


2

300-800 78-572

Net profit (Rs/ m )

Note: The economic aspects were calculated from the information given by 17 respondents. Problems faced by growers Sr. No. Problem A. Initial problems in set up of GH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 No any erection co. in Gujarat No information available from Govt No training centre in Gujarat Erection delayed by the Co. Co. demand for advance payment Inter state sales tax No subsidy Low quality of material and work Lack of guidance on loan and subsidy 100 100 100 50 50 15 20 30 50 I I I II II V IV III II

Problem (%)

Rank

Shade house Local low cost nursery structure Shade net used on top and sides. No polythene used in the structures. Flat roof with 50% shed net Glass House Area 560 sqm. Grid 6.4m x 4m. Gutter height 4 m. Center height 6 m. Thickness of glass 4 mm. Automation Top vents, screen and side curtains 2. The major problems encountered by the farmers are: Lack of erection of greenhouse Companies in Gujarat Lack of hitech horticulture training centres in Gujarat
80

Lack of information available from Govt. Lack of planting material available locally High summer temperature High power charge High cost of soluble fertilizers High cost of plants material Pest and diseases problems

A cut flower should have the following characteristics: a. Straight and study long stems. b. Stem should be strong enough to hold the weight of flowers. c. Uniform stem, flower size, stage of development with appropriate colour. d. Free from pests, diseases, physiological disorder, bruises and blemishes or petal discoloration. e. Bright, clean, healthy and normal foliages representative of variety. f. No split or mended calyx in case of carnation. g. Flower should open acropetally in case of gladiolus, antirrhinum, etc. Most of the cut flowers complete their life cycle in two distinct phases, for example, 1 bud swelling to full opening and 2 maturation senescence and wilting Senescence of cut flowers Ultra structural changes Physical changes Physical change Biochemical changes Metabolic changes

Factors related to the post harvest life and quality of cut flowers and foliages A. Pre harvest factors a. Variability b. Environmental factors i. Light ii. Temperature iii. Humidity iv. Season v. Carbon dioxide c. Cultural factors i. Growing media ii. irrigation iii. use of agricultural chemicals iv. diseases and pests B. Harvest factors a Stage of flower bud at harvest b Time of harvest

Table 1 Optimal Harvesting Stage of flowers for local Market Name of Flower Stage of Harvest Althea rosea Half floret open Anthurium sp. Spadix almost fully developed Callistephhus chinesis Fully open flowers 81

Cattleya sp. Chrysenthemum morifolium Standard cultivars Anemones Pompon and decorative Cymbidium sp. Dahila varriabilis Dendrobium sp. Dianthus caryyophyllus Standard cultivars Spray cultivars Gerbera jamesonii Gladiolus cultivars Hippeastrum hybrids Lilium sp. Paphiopedilum sp. Phalaenopsis sp. Polianthes tuberose Rosa hybrids Solidago sp. Sterelitzia reginae Tagetes erecta Tulipa gesneriana Zinnia elegans Table 2 Harvest Stage of Foliage Plants Name of Foliage Plant Adiantum sp. Asparagus sp. Codiaeum variegatum Dieffenbachia sp. Eucalyptus sp.

Half florest open Outer petals fully elongated Disc florets start to elongate Center of oldest flower fully open 3-4 days after opening Fully open flower Fully open flower Half open flowers Two fully open flowers Outer row of flowers all fully mature 2-5 buds showing colour Coloured buds Goose neck stage 3-4 days after opening 3-4 days after opening Two basal florets creamy white or one floret opened Oute two petals unfurled from the tip Half floret open First floret open Fully open flower Half coloured buds Fully open flowers

Stage of Harvest Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves

C. Post Harvest factors a. Temperature b. Light c. Humidity d. Water Quality e. Preservatives f. Ethylene Production The production of ethylene which affects flower quality can be reduced by : 1. Preventing flower pollination. 2. Controlling pests and diseases of plants. 3. Avoiding injuries to flowers. 4. Harvesting of the buds at immature stage. 5. Conditioning of flowers after cut. 6. Avoiding storage of flowers with other commodities which produce ethylene. 7. Cultivating of flower crops at elevated CO2 8. Cleaning and removal of affected plants in greenhouse 9. Proper aeration of green houses and during packing of cut flowers. g. Ventilation Spacing and Packaging 82

h. Diseases and pests Techniques for Improving Vase Life of Cut Flowers a. Conditioning of Cut flowers b. Pulsing Table 3 Chemicals for Conditioning Flowers Cut Flower Floral Preservative Antirrhinum Silver thiosulphate (STS) 0.3 milimolar Chrysanthemum AgNO3 (25 ppm) + Sucrose (50 g /1) for 16 hours at 21 C Cyclamen 15% Sucrose + 30 ppm AgNO3 for 5 hours at 20 C then 15 hours at 4 C Carnation STS 0.5 milimolar + Sucrose 70-100 g/1 for 20-24 hours Gladiolus Sucrose (100 g/1) + STS (0.4 milimolar) at 20 C for 24 hours Gypsophila 400 mg/I Quarternary ammonium compound + 100 g/1 Sucrose at 2428 C for 24 hours Lily 0.2 milimolar STS + 70 g/1 Sucrose + 1 g/1 GA at 20 C for 24 hours Rose 500 ppm Critic acid in cold storage at 0-1 C overnight Bird of paradise 8 - HQC (250 ppm) + Sucrose (100 g /1) + Critic acid (150 ppm) at 22 C for 40-50 hours

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

Impregnation c. Bud Opening Table 4 Chemical for pulsing of Different Cut Flower Flower Chemical Solution Rose Sucrose 4 -6% for 12 hours or Sucrose (3%) for 18-24 hours, Silver thiosulphate (0.5 mM) for 45 minutes ; SADH (500 ppm) for 8 hours ; CaCl2 (1%) for 250 hours ; Maleic hydrazide (0.5%) for 8 hours ; AgO3 (1 mM) for 15 minutes ; AOA (10 mM) for 45 minutes ; Na2S2O3, 5H2O (1000 ppm) for 8 hours Gladiolus Sucrose (20%) for 16 hours Carnation Sucrose (10-15%) or Physan (200 ppm) for 16 hous Chrysanthemum Sucrose (5%) for 16-20 hours Bird of Paradise Sucrose (10%) or physan (200 ppm) for 16-20 hours Tuberose Sucrose (8-10%) for 28-36 hours; NiSO4 (5 mM) for 12 hours Table 5 Chemical Used for impregnation of Different Cut Flower Gladiolus AgNO3 (1000 ppm) for 10 -15 minutes 83

No. 1

2 3 4 5 6

2 3 4 5

Phalaenopsis Rose Tuberose Chrysanthemum and Carnation

NiCL2 (1000 ppm) for 15 minutes NiSO4 (10 mM) for 20 minutes AgNO3 (1000 ppm) for 15 minutes or CoCL2 (1000 ppm) for 30 minutes AgNO3 (1000-1200) for 19 minutes

No. 1

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

Table 6 Chemical Used for Bud Opening of Cut Flowers Cut Flower Chemical for Bud Opening Rose a. 8 - HQC (300 ppm) + S ose (2%) b. STS (0.2 mM) pulsing for 15 minutes + 8- HQC (300 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) c. AgNO3 (50 ppm) + 8-HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (50ppm) d. N:P:K (200:200:200) ppm + Aspirin (200 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) e. 8 - HQC (200 ppm) + Acetyl Salicylic acid (100 ppm) + D- fructose(1%) f. D- fructose (1%) + Boric acid (500 ppm) + Cobalt chloride (250 ppm) Gladiolus a. 8 - HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (30 g/1) + Critic acid (30 g/1) b. Sucrose (5%) + AgNO3 (50 ppm) + 9 - HQC (300 ppm) + Acidifier c. Sucrose (4%) + A12 (SO4) 3 (200 ppm) Chrysanthemum a. 8 - HQC (100 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) b. Sucrose ( 5%) + AgNO3 (25 mg/1) + Critic acid (75 mg/1) c. 8 HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (20 g/I) Carnation a. STS conditioning (0.2 mM) + Sucrose (70 - 100 g/1) b. AgNO3 (50 mg/1) + 8 HQC (200 mg/1) + Sucrose (70-100 g/1) Gerbera a. AgNO3 (30ppm) + Sucrose (6%) Bird of Paradise a. Pulsing with Sucrose (10%) + AgNO3 (50 ppm) b. Sucrose (10%)+ 8-HQC (250 ppm) + Citric acid (150 ppm) d. Vase Solutions : Table 7 Agrochemicals used in vase Solution of Cut Flowers No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Name of Compound 8 - Hydroxy quinoline sulphate 8 - Hydroxy quinoline citrate Thiobendazole Chlorhexidine 6 - Benzylamino purine Indole - 3 acetic acid Gibberellin Abscissic acid Daminozide Chloermequat Maleic hydrazide Calcium nitrate Aluminium sulphate Boric Acid Silver nitrate Silver thiosulphate Zinc sulphate Potassium chloride Symbol 8 - HQS 8 - HQC TBZ BA IAA GA3 ABA SADH CCC MH Ca(NO3)2 Al2(SO4)3 AgNO3 STS ZnSO4 KCL 84 Category Germicide Germicide Germicide Germicide Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth retardant Growth retardant Growth inhihitor Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Concentration 200-0600 ppm 150-600 ppm 5-300 ppm 10-250 ppm 10-100 ppm 1-100 ppm 1-400 ppm 1-10 ppm 10-500 ppm 10-50 ppm 5-500 ppm 0.1% 50-100 ppm 100-1000 ppm 10-200 ppm 0.2-4 mM 0.01-1% 250-500 ppm

19

Cobalt chloride

CoCL2

Mineral salt

25-200 ppm

e. Gamma Irradiation Storage 1. Cold Storage 2. Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CA) 3. Low Pressure Storage (LPS) PACKING Packing is done to protect flowers from physical damage, water loss and external conditions during transport. In India, cut flowers are packed in rectangular bamboo baskets. Table 8 Dry storage periods of some Cut Flowers and Herbaceous Cuttings Flowers Storage Temperature Storage period (week) (C) Cut Flowers Anthurium 13 3-4 Aster 4 1 Carnation 0-1 16-24 Chrysanthemum 0-1 3-4 Cyclamen 0-1 3-5 Dahlia 4 3-5 Gladiolus 2-10 2 Lily 0-3 6 Marigold 8-10 2 Narcissus 1 2 Orchid 8-10 2 Rose 0-5.3 2 Strelitzia 8 4 Snapdragon -0.5-0 3-4 Statice 3 6 Tulip 0-1 8 Herbaceous Cutting Carnation (unrooted) -05.-0 5-6 Chrysanthemum( unrooted) -0.05-0.5 5-6 Poinsettia 12-13 4 Table 9 Storage period of cut Flowers Kept in wet Conditions Flower Storage Temperature Storage period (week) (C) Carnation 4 4 Gerbera 4 3-4 Gladiolus 4 2 Lily 1 4 Rose 0.5-3 4-5 days Snapdragon 1 8 Tulip -0.5-0 2-3

Essential Features of Packaging 85

a. b. c.

The channel should be kept for air circulation inside the truck during transport. Boxes used for air cooling should have sufficient vents on either end. Cut flowers like orchid and anthurium are susceptible to damage by chilling. They should be packed individually in a plastic vial or rubber balloon filled with water tied to the cut ends of flowers. Cut ends of cut flowers can also be placed in absorbent cotton saturated with water and enclosed in waxed paper or polyethylene foil. Polythene foil can be used in case of light packing for maintaining humidity and to keep the respiration rate low. Delicate buds and flower heads are packed by wrapping with soft paper or plastic mesh or by placing them in specially moulded forms made of plastic or card board. Flowers prone to physical damage may be transported in flat boxes equipped with paper insert with holes for individual flower stems. Foil sacks filled with air or nitrogen are also used for packing delicate exotic flowers. Cut flowers of gladiolus, larkspur, lupin and snapdragon are sensitive to geotropic bending. These flowers spikes must be transported in upright position. Cut flowers like carnation, orchid, Alstroemeria, narcissus, lily, antirrhinum and delphinium are highly sensitive to ethylene. Ethylene scrubbers containing KMnO4 may be added to packages having such flowers.

d. e.

f. g.

Transportation and Marketing a. Transportation : Normally, cut flowers are transported by cargo planes, merchant ships and trucks for long distances. Increase in the period of transport generally increases the infection caused by fungi and reduce the keeping quality. For long distance transportation, modern post harvest technologies like conditioning, pulsing, bud opening, pre-cooling and packing are a must. Cut flowers may be transported in insulated trucks without refrigeration for short distances (less than 20 hours), whereas for long distances, taking time more than 20-24 hours, refrigerated trucks should be used. Air shipment is the quickest method of transportation. The cut flowers should be pre-cooled and pulsed with STS solutions prior to air shipment to reduce ethylene production. All vent holes of boxes which contain cooled flowers should be closed. Recently, sea shipment has come into the light for transporting of flowers because of high cost involvement in case of air shipment. One disadvantages in case of sea shipment is the longer period of transportation than air shipment. In, general, flowers are conditioned shortly after harvest with chemicals and pre- cooled rapidly before packing in boxes and loading in vacuum type of containers. Potted foliage plants are sprayed with STS Solution or fungicide before shipment. b. Marketing : Cut flowers are unpacked in the retail shop immediately after receiving to prevent squeezing and crushing. Flowers transported at ambient temperature are simply unpacked and kept in water or preservation solution. Flowers loaded with low temperature are placed in a cold room at 5-10 C for 12-24 hours after checking for chilling injuries and then transferred to a higher temperature and unpacked. After unpacking flowers, lower most leaves and injured outer petals are removed ,the basal ends of stems are cut in a slanting manner and kept in water. They can be cut inside the water to prevent air blockage. Otherwise, the flowers are reconditioned with chemical solutions or physical methods for obtaining proper turgidity. Unpacked flowers are grouped according to grade species and varieties and should be kept separately in vases or containers either in water or preservative solution. The individual units of sale like bouquet, bunch, box, etc. should contain same species or cultivars at the same stage of bud development. The flowers are maintained intact, fresh and free of pests. 86

PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES a. Flower Bud and Petal Abscission 1. Formation of an abscission layer. 2. A rising activity for cell wall hydrolytic enzymes in petals. 3. Shaking, wounding and high temperature. 4. Pollination and fertilization causing ethylene production. 1. Use of ethylene inhibitors. 2. Spray with NAA ( 30-50 ppm) 3. Application of MH (200 400 ppm) and citric acid (500 ppm) through cut stem.

Reasons :

Control :

e.

Storage Problems of cut flowers 1. Failure of bud opening after storage. 2. Petal discoloration. 3. Foliage yellowing. 4. Spread of fungal diseases. 5. Opening of Flowers not in a proper stage. 1. Pulsing 2. Application of growth retardants. 3. Appropriate packing. 4. Treatment with fungicides.

Reasons :

Control :

A cut flower should have the following characteristics: h. Straight and study long stems. i. Stem should be strong enough to hold the weight of flowers. j. Uniform stem, flower size, stage of development with appropriate colour. k. Free from pests, diseases, physiological disorder, bruises and blemishes or petal discoloration. l. Bright, clean, healthy and normal foliages representative of variety. m. No split or mended calyx in case of carnation. n. Flower should open acropetally in case of gladiolus, antirrhinum, etc. Most of the cut flowers complete their life cycle in two distinct phases, for example, 3 bud swelling to full opening and 4 maturation senescence and wilting Senescence of cut flowers Ultra structural changes Physical changes Physical change Biochemical changes Metabolic changes

Factors related to the post harvest life and quality of cut flowers and foliages A. Pre harvest factors d. Variability e. Environmental factors i. Light 87

ii. Temperature iii. Humidity iv. Season v. Carbon dioxide f. Cultural factors i. Growing media ii. irrigation iii. use of agricultural chemicals iv. diseases and pests B. Harvest factors a Stage of flower bud at harvest b Time of harvest Table 1 Optimal Harvesting Stage of flowers for local Market Name of Flower Stage of Harvest Althea rosea Half floret open Anthurium sp. Spadix almost fully developed Callistephhus chinesis Fully open flowers Cattleya sp. Half florest open Chrysenthemum morifolium Standard cultivars Outer petals fully elongated Anemones Disc florets start to elongate Pompon and decorative Center of oldest flower fully open Cymbidium sp. 3-4 days after opening Dahila varriabilis Fully open flower Dendrobium sp. Fully open flower Dianthus caryyophyllus Standard cultivars Half open flowers Spray cultivars Two fully open flowers Gerbera jamesonii Outer row of flowers all fully mature Gladiolus cultivars 2-5 buds showing colour Hippeastrum hybrids Coloured buds Lilium sp. Goose neck stage Paphiopedilum sp. 3-4 days after opening Phalaenopsis sp. 3-4 days after opening Polianthes tuberose Two basal florets creamy white or one floret opened Rosa hybrids Oute two petals unfurled from the tip Solidago sp. Half floret open Sterelitzia reginae First floret open Tagetes erecta Fully open flower Tulipa gesneriana Half coloured buds Zinnia elegans Fully open flowers Table 2 Harvest Stage of Foliage Plants Name of Foliage Plant Adiantum sp. Asparagus sp. Codiaeum variegatum Dieffenbachia sp. Eucalyptus sp.

Stage of Harvest Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves Mature leaves 88

C. Post Harvest factors a. Temperature b. Light c. Humidity d. Water Quality e. Preservatives f. Ethylene Production The production of ethylene which affects flower quality can be reduced by : 1. Preventing flower pollination. 2. Controlling pests and diseases of plants. 3. Avoiding injuries to flowers. 4. Harvesting of the buds at immature stage. 5. Conditioning of flowers after cut. 6. Avoiding storage of flowers with other commodities which produce ethylene. 7. Cultivating of flower crops at elevated CO2 8. Cleaning and removal of affected plants in greenhouse 9. Proper aeration of green houses and during packing of cut flowers. g. Ventilation Spacing and Packaging h. Diseases and pests Techniques for Improving Vase Life of Cut Flowers a. Conditioning of Cut flowers b. Pulsing Table 3 Chemicals for Conditioning Flowers Cut Flower Floral Preservative Antirrhinum Silver thiosulphate (STS) 0.3 milimolar Chrysanthemum AgNO3 (25 ppm) + Sucrose (50 g /1) for 16 hours at 21 C Cyclamen 15% Sucrose + 30 ppm AgNO3 for 5 hours at 20 C then 15 hours at 4 C Carnation STS 0.5 milimolar + Sucrose 70-100 g/1 for 20-24 hours Gladiolus Sucrose (100 g/1) + STS (0.4 milimolar) at 20 C for 24 hours Gypsophila 400 mg/I Quarternary ammonium compound + 100 g/1 Sucrose at 2428 C for 24 hours Lily 0.2 milimolar STS + 70 g/1 Sucrose + 1 g/1 GA at 20 C for 24 hours Rose 500 ppm Critic acid in cold storage at 0-1 C overnight Bird of paradise 8 - HQC (250 ppm) + Sucrose (100 g /1) + Critic acid (150 ppm) at 22 C for 40-50 hours

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

Impregnation c. Bud Opening Table 4 Chemical for pulsing of Different Cut Flower Flower Chemical Solution 89

No.

Rose

2 3 4 5 6

Gladiolus Carnation Chrysanthemum Bird of Paradise Tuberose

Sucrose 4 -6% for 12 hours or Sucrose (3%) for 18-24 hours, Silver thiosulphate (0.5 mM) for 45 minutes ; SADH (500 ppm) for 8 hours ; CaCl2 (1%) for 250 hours ; Maleic hydrazide (0.5%) for 8 hours ; AgO3 (1 mM) for 15 minutes ; AOA (10 mM) for 45 minutes ; Na2S2O3, 5H2O (1000 ppm) for 8 hours Sucrose (20%) for 16 hours Sucrose (10-15%) or Physan (200 ppm) for 16 hous Sucrose (5%) for 16-20 hours Sucrose (10%) or physan (200 ppm) for 16-20 hours Sucrose (8-10%) for 28-36 hours; NiSO4 (5 mM) for 12 hours

1 2 3 4 5

Table 5 Chemical Used for impregnation of Different Cut Flower Gladiolus AgNO3 (1000 ppm) for 10 -15 minutes Phalaenopsis NiCL2 (1000 ppm) for 15 minutes Rose NiSO4 (10 mM) for 20 minutes Tuberose AgNO3 (1000 ppm) for 15 minutes or CoCL2 (1000 ppm) for 30 minutes Chrysanthemum and Carnation AgNO3 (1000-1200) for 19 minutes

No. 1

2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

Table 6 Chemical Used for Bud Opening of Cut Flowers Cut Flower Chemical for Bud Opening Rose a. 8 - HQC (300 ppm) + S ose (2%) b. STS (0.2 mM) pulsing for 15 minutes + 8- HQC (300 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) c. AgNO3 (50 ppm) + 8-HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (50ppm) d. N:P:K (200:200:200) ppm + Aspirin (200 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) e. 8 - HQC (200 ppm) + Acetyl Salicylic acid (100 ppm) + D- fructose(1%) f. D- fructose (1%) + Boric acid (500 ppm) + Cobalt chloride (250 ppm) Gladiolus a. 8 - HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (30 g/1) + Critic acid (30 g/1) b. Sucrose (5%) + AgNO3 (50 ppm) + 9 - HQC (300 ppm) + Acidifier c. Sucrose (4%) + A12 (SO4) 3 (200 ppm) Chrysanthemum a. 8 - HQC (100 ppm) + Sucrose (2%) b. Sucrose ( 5%) + AgNO3 (25 mg/1) + Critic acid (75 mg/1) c. 8 HQC (200 ppm) + Sucrose (20 g/I) Carnation a. STS conditioning (0.2 mM) + Sucrose (70 - 100 g/1) b. AgNO3 (50 mg/1) + 8 HQC (200 mg/1) + Sucrose (70-100 g/1) Gerbera a. AgNO3 (30ppm) + Sucrose (6%) Bird of Paradise a. Pulsing with Sucrose (10%) + AgNO3 (50 ppm) b. Sucrose (10%)+ 8-HQC (250 ppm) + Citric acid (150 ppm) d. Vase Solutions : Table 7 Agrochemicals used in vase Solution of Cut Flowers No. 1 Name of Compound 8 - Hydroxy quinoline sulphate Symbol 8 - HQS 90 Category Germicide Concentration 200-0600 ppm

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

8 - Hydroxy quinoline citrate Thiobendazole Chlorhexidine 6 - Benzylamino purine Indole - 3 acetic acid Gibberellin Abscissic acid Daminozide Chloermequat Maleic hydrazide Calcium nitrate Aluminium sulphate Boric Acid Silver nitrate Silver thiosulphate Zinc sulphate Potassium chloride Cobalt chloride

8 - HQC TBZ BA IAA GA3 ABA SADH CCC MH Ca(NO3)2 Al2(SO4)3 AgNO3 STS ZnSO4 KCL CoCL2

Germicide Germicide Germicide Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth regulator Growth retardant Growth retardant Growth inhihitor Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt Mineral salt

150-600 ppm 5-300 ppm 10-250 ppm 10-100 ppm 1-100 ppm 1-400 ppm 1-10 ppm 10-500 ppm 10-50 ppm 5-500 ppm 0.1% 50-100 ppm 100-1000 ppm 10-200 ppm 0.2-4 mM 0.01-1% 250-500 ppm 25-200 ppm

e. Gamma Irradiation Storage 1. Cold Storage 2. Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CA) 3. Low Pressure Storage (LPS)

PACKING Packing is done to protect flowers from physical damage, water loss and external conditions during transport. In India, cut flowers are packed in rectangular bamboo baskets. Table 8 Dry storage periods of some Cut Flowers and Herbaceous Cuttings Flowers Storage Temperature Storage period (week) (C) Cut Flowers Anthurium 13 3-4 Aster 4 1 Carnation 0-1 16-24 Chrysanthemum 0-1 3-4 Cyclamen 0-1 3-5 Dahlia 4 3-5 Gladiolus 2-10 2 Lily 0-3 6 Marigold 8-10 2 Narcissus 1 2 Orchid 8-10 2 Rose 0-5.3 2 Strelitzia 8 4 91

Snapdragon Statice Tulip Herbaceous Cutting Carnation (unrooted) Chrysanthemum( unrooted) Poinsettia

-0.5-0 3 0-1 -05.-0 -0.05-0.5 12-13

3-4 6 8 5-6 5-6 4

Table 9 Storage period of cut Flowers Kept in wet Conditions Flower Storage Temperature Storage period (week) (C) Carnation 4 4 Gerbera 4 3-4 Gladiolus 4 2 Lily 1 4 Rose 0.5-3 4-5 days Snapdragon 1 8 Tulip -0.5-0 2-3 Essential Features of Packaging a. b. c. The channel should be kept for air circulation inside the truck during transport. Boxes used for air cooling should have sufficient vents on either end. Cut flowers like orchid and anthurium are susceptible to damage by chilling. They should be packed individually in a plastic vial or rubber balloon filled with water tied to the cut ends of flowers. Cut ends of cut flowers can also be placed in absorbent cotton saturated with water and enclosed in waxed paper or polyethylene foil. Polythene foil can be used in case of light packing for maintaining humidity and to keep the respiration rate low. Delicate buds and flower heads are packed by wrapping with soft paper or plastic mesh or by placing them in specially moulded forms made of plastic or card board. Flowers prone to physical damage may be transported in flat boxes equipped with paper insert with holes for individual flower stems. Foil sacks filled with air or nitrogen are also used for packing delicate exotic flowers. Cut flowers of gladiolus, larkspur, lupin and snapdragon are sensitive to geotropic bending. These flowers spikes must be transported in upright position. Cut flowers like carnation, orchid, Alstroemeria, narcissus, lily, antirrhinum and delphinium are highly sensitive to ethylene. Ethylene scrubbers containing KMnO4 may be added to packages having such flowers.

d. e.

f. g.

Transportation and Marketing c. Transportation : Normally, cut flowers are transported by cargo planes, merchant ships and trucks for long distances. Increase in the period of transport generally increases the infection caused by fungi and reduce the keeping quality. For long distance transportation, modern post harvest technologies like conditioning, pulsing, bud opening, pre-cooling and packing are a must. Cut flowers may be transported in insulated trucks without refrigeration for short distances (less than 20 hours), whereas for long distances, taking time more than 20-24 hours, refrigerated trucks should be used.

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Air shipment is the quickest method of transportation. The cut flowers should be pre-cooled and pulsed with STS solutions prior to air shipment to reduce ethylene production. All vent holes of boxes which contain cooled flowers should be closed. Recently, sea shipment has come into the light for transporting of flowers because of high cost involvement in case of air shipment. One disadvantages in case of sea shipment is the longer period of transportation than air shipment. In, general, flowers are conditioned shortly after harvest with chemicals and pre- cooled rapidly before packing in boxes and loading in vacuum type of containers. Potted foliage plants are sprayed with STS Solution or fungicide before shipment. d. Marketing : Cut flowers are unpacked in the retail shop immediately after receiving to prevent squeezing and crushing. Flowers transported at ambient temperature are simply unpacked and kept in water or preservation solution. Flowers loaded with low temperature are placed in a cold room at 5-10 C for 12-24 hours after checking for chilling injuries and then transferred to a higher temperature and unpacked. After unpacking flowers, lower most leaves and injured outer petals are removed ,the basal ends of stems are cut in a slanting manner and kept in water. They can be cut inside the water to prevent air blockage. Otherwise, the flowers are reconditioned with chemical solutions or physical methods for obtaining proper turgidity. Unpacked flowers are grouped according to grade species and varieties and should be kept separately in vases or containers either in water or preservative solution. The individual units of sale like bouquet, bunch, box, etc. should contain same species or cultivars at the same stage of bud development. The flowers are maintained intact, fresh and free of pests. PROBLEMS AND REMEDIES b. Flower Bud and Petal Abscission 1. Formation of an abscission layer. 2. A rising activity for cell wall hydrolytic enzymes in petals. 3. Shaking, wounding and high temperature. 4. Pollination and fertilization causing ethylene production. 1. Use of ethylene inhibitors. 2. Spray with NAA ( 30-50 ppm) 3. Application of MH (200 400 ppm) and citric acid (500 ppm) through cut stem.

Reasons :

Control :

f.

Storage Problems of cut flowers 1. Failure of bud opening after storage. 2. Petal discoloration. 3. Foliage yellowing. 4. Spread of fungal diseases. 5. Opening of Flowers not in a proper stage. 1. Pulsing 2. Application of growth retardants. 3. Appropriate packing. 4. Treatment with fungicides.

Reasons :

Control :

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