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CAPITOLUL 6

TOUR-OPERATORII

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de turism care nu intervin dect n comercializarea produselor turistice. Touroperatorii au deci statutul juridic de agent de
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vinde forfetar produsele turistice integrate.

TOUR-OPERATORII

PLANUL CAPITOLULUI

6.1. Tour-operatorLL SH SLD D SURGXVHORU WXULVWLFH 6.2. Firme tour-operatoare n turismul mondial 6.3. Modele de organizare a firmelor tour-operatoare 6.4. Principalii tour-operatori din Romnia

CONCEPTE

Voiaj forfetar Circuit Fly & drive


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Fly & cruise Strategia de specializare


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Tour-operatorii

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, Unwin Hyman Ltd, 1995, pg. 368.

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9 9 9

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la aeroport.6
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izate de tour-operatori pot fi oricnd


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pachetele de servicii; tour-operatorul organizator va anula

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convine anularea zborului.

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6.2. Firme tour-operatoare n turismul mondial


Primul tour a fost realizat n 1841 de Thomas Cook, care a oferit
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multe ori.

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Europa de Sud propun produse sofisticate unei clientele restrnse.

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WRXU-RSHUDWRULL SULQFLSDOLL SURGXF WRUL VXQW Thompson, ,8 primii doi concentrnd 60% din volumuO YkQ] ULORU QD LRQDOH GH YRLDMH IRUIHWDUH $OWH QXPH SUH]HQWH SH DFHDVW SLD VXQW Yugotours, Iberotravel, Best Travel, Unjit Travel, &RVPRVDLU 3LF $VSURWUDYHO L 7KH $LU 7UDYHO *URXS 'HL vQ - D DYXW ORF R FUL] SXWHUQLF  SLD D voiajelor forfHWDUH vQ DFHDVW DU HVWH IRDUWH ODUJ  FX DSUR[LPDWLY  PLOLRDQH GH YRLDMH IRUIHWDUH YkQGXWH pe an..

Thomson, cel mai important tour-RSHUDWRU


SDFKHWH GH YDFDQ SLD  V  2SHUHD] SH R ODUJ

GLQ 0DUHD %ULWDQLH HVWH L OLGHUXO PRQGLDO vQ PDWHULH GH YRLDMH GH YDFDQ H YkQ]kQG DQXDO SHVWH  PLOLRDQH GH SHQWUX GH SH ILH FHO PDL EXQ SH F O WRULL OD  GH GH VWD LXQL RIHULQG R YDULHWDWH GH WLSXUL GH YDFDQ SRVLELO SHQWUX EDQLL ORU =ERUXULOH FKDUWHU GHFROHD]

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Thomson Holidays Limited este compus din: Thomson Holidays, Just, Portland Direct, Club 7KRPVRQ *ROG 7KRPVRQ 3ODWLQXP L 6N\WRXU-s. Thompson Holidays Limited este divizia RSHUDWLY SHQWUX YRLDMH D JUXSXOXL GH WXULVP Thomson Travel Group. PrincipalD SLD HXURSHDQ SHQWUX YkQ]DUHD YRLDMHORU IRUIHWDUH HVWH Germania 3LD D HVWH GH LQXW GH GRL tour-operatori (TUI KG 7RXULVWLN 8QLRQ ,QWHUQD LRQDO L 185 7285,67,& Neckerman und Reisen) care FRQFHQWUHD]  GLQ YkQ] UL SULPXO   LDU DO GRLOHD  .9 $O WXUL GH DFHWLD PDL H[LVW Lit-*HVDPW L Der. Tour-operatorii germani s-DX GH]YROWDW DYkQG OD ED] UH HOH FRPHUFLDOH GH PDUL PDJD]LQH VDX E QFL L JUXSXUL GH DJHQ LL GH WXULVP /D QLYHOXO DQXOXL  Touristik Union International era cel mai mare tourRSHUDWRU GLQ OXPH &KHLD UHXLWHL VDOH HVWH GLYHUVLWDWHD GHVWLQD LLORU SURGXVH L R H[WUHP GH ERJDW

promovare. n
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, dezvoltarea tour-RSHUDWRULORU
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7 8 9

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Principalii tour-operatori francezi, conform unui clasament realizat n 1994, sunt Club Mditerrane VLQJXUXO LPSODQWDW SXWHUQLF L SH SLH HOH H[WHUQH  Nouvelles Frontires (care a adoptat o
SROLWLF GH FUHDUH GH DJHQ LL H[FOXVLYH vQ )UDQ D L vQ (XURSD  )UDP 6RWDLUH &KRUXV )UDQWRXU L &KDUWHUV

VDODULD L

10

et C (Look). Primii trei tour-RSHUDWRUL FRQFHQWUHD] GRDU  GLQ YkQ] ULOH QD LRQDOH Q DFHVW FD] dezvoltarea s-a realizat pe bD]D YkQ] ULL PDULORU IRUPXOH GH YRLDMH WUDQVSRUW DHULDQ L vQWkPSLQDUHD OD
DHURSRUW VDX FLUFXLWH GH WLS WUDFNLQJ  *UXSXULOH LPSRUWDQWH DX IRVW UHDOL]DWH VXE YDULDWH IRUPH MXULGLFH L ILQDQFLDUH GH OD DFRUGXUL GH FRRSHUDUH OD LQWHJU UL

Nouvelles Frontires, cel mai mare tour-RSHUDWRU IUDQFH] D OXDW QDWHUH vQ DQXO  $UH   GH DQJDMD L
vQ  ILOLDOH U VSkQGLWH vQ WRDW OXPHD L  GH GHVWLQD LL GLVSRQLELOH &X  FOLHQ L DQXDO vQUHJLVWUHD] YkQ] UL GH  )) SH DQ

n ULOH QRrdice, SLD D HVWH FDUDFWHUL]DW SULQWU-XQ SURFHQW IRDUWH ULGLFDW GH S WUXQGHUH D WRXU-operatorilor. n cazul Suediei acest procent este de 40%. n 6XHGLD 6XQ ,QWHUQDWLRQDO $LUWRXUV L ,PKROJ FRQFHQWUHD] 
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at de calitatea

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n Olanda, primii trei tour-operatori (+,7 +RODQG ,QWHUQDWLRQDO $UNH 5HLVHQ L 1HFNHUPDQ +ROODQGH GH LQ
 GLQ SLD   YkQ] UL SURGXF LD VSUH GHVWLQD LLOH DPHULFDQH

n (OYH LD .XRQL +RWHOSlan, Airtours L Imholg FRQFHQWUHD] n cazul continentului nord-american tour-RSHUDWRULL
/DWLQ  $FHWL WRXU RSHUDWRUL

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erica

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-americane populare. -Est. Cel mai

mare tour-operator american este American Express Travel, care este o parte a PDULL VRFLHW L GH VHUYLFLL financiare, American Express, urmat de Cartan SDUWH D VRFLHW LL AVCO Financial Services  $O L WRXURSHUDWRUL LPSRUWDQ L SH DFHDVW SLD VXQW Gateway Holidays vQILLQ DW GH OLQLD DHULDQ 7:$  ETC Travel Club vQILLQ DW GH Eastern Airlines). n Canada FHL PDL LPSRUWDQ L WRXU-operatori sunt: Canadian Pacific, Tour- 0RQWUHDO L 9HQWXUH[.12 n Japonia
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-.

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ntreprLQGHULL

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unele domenii ale industriei de loisir. Ei

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Japan Creative Tours, Jet Tours, Japan Travel


R PDUH LPSRUWDQ  PDL DOHV

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SHQWUX ODQ XULOH KRWHOLHUH L OLQLLOH DHULHQH

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-operatori este AVE Travel Ltd. Are aproximativ

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10

T. Gherasim, D. Gherasim op. cit., pg. 159 T. Gherasim, D. Gherasim op. cit., pg. 162 12 T. Gherasim, D. Gherasim op. cit., pg. 162-163
11

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Travco Travel Company of Egipt, cu o activitate de 17 ani n domeniu, peste 123 de milioane lire steriline $ HVWH XQXO GLQWUH FHL PDL LPSRUWDQ L WRXU-operatori egipteni. Are  GH DQJDMD L YRUELWRUL GH PDL PXOWH OLPEL VWU LQH L FRODERUHD] FX R VHULH GH WRXU-operatori cu

6.3. Modele de organizare a firmelor tour-operatoare


Firmele tour-RSHUDWRDUH PRQGLDOH QX VH LPSOLF
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european: TUI-Germania L Nouvelles Frontires-)UDQ D. TUI a OXDW ILLQ vQ  SULQ IX]LRQDUHD XQRU WRXU-operatori de nivel mediu: Touropa. Scharnow-Reise, Humel Reise L Dr. Tigges-Fahrten L XOWHULRU V-a transformat ntr-un FRQFHUQ GH WXULVP LQWHUQD LRQDO /XkQG vQ FRQVLGHUDUH FLIUD GH DIDFHUL 78, HVWH DSUHFiat ca fiind cel mai important tour-operator din Europa.

Modelul anglo-saxon: Touristik Union International

n anul 1970, cel mai mare tour-RSHUDWRU vQ WXULVPXO GH YDFDQ  Airtours International, SDUWH GLQ 78, L vQ DFHODL WLPS LD QDWHUH TUI Service, responsabil cu aranjamentele pentru primirea FOLHQ LORU OD GHVWLQD LH Q  D IX]LRQDW FX 78, L societatea TransEuropa LDU vQ FRORDERUDUH FX 6WHLJHQEHUJHU 78, D vQILLQ DW Robinson Tour L D GHVFKLV SULPXO FOXE -DQGLD 3OD\D SH LQVXOD VSDQLRO )XHUWHYHQWXUD Q  ODQ XO KRWHOLHU Iberotel a fu]LRQDW FX 78, Q  78, LQYHVWHWH vQ VRFLHWDWHD KRWHOLHU
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TUI n UrlaubCenter, DVW ]L ReiseCenter Q  VH vQILLQ HD] TUI Olanda L TUI Austria L GLQ QRX 78, LQYHVWHWH vQ WRXU-operatorul belgian JetAir. n  LD ILLQ 78, (OYH LD, iar grupul TUI devine membru al comitetului de organizare DO ([SR]L LHL 0RQGLDOH GH OD +DQRYUD. n anul 1998, n urma fuziunii cu Hapag Loyd, 78, D GHYHQLW SDUWH LQWHJUDQW D JUXSXOXL Hapag Touristik Union (HTU).
0DUFD GH ED] SH SLD D WXULVWLF D FRQFHUQXOXL HVWH GH 

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-operatorilor din Europa


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GH 

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pentru ca n acest fel tour-RSHUDWRULL mondial.


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Rezumat

Tour-RSHUDWRULL
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-operatorilor depind de gradul de integrare al

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e fac parte, ei pot


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n turismul mondial, tour-RSHUDWRULL

unei clientele restrnse. n cazul continentului nord-american, tour-RSHUDWRULL vL RULHQWHD] prodXF LD vQ VSHFLDO SH GHVWLQD LL DPHULFDQH VDX FDQDGLHQH LDU FHL MDSRQH]L RUJDQL]HD] YRLDMH GH tip Inclusive-Tour (IT). nainte de 1990, tour-RSHUDWRU GLQ 5RPkQLD D IRVW FRQVLGHUDW 2ILFLXO 1D LRQDO SHQWUX 7XULVP (ONT). Aceasta s-D vQILLQ DW vQ  L VXFFHVLY D IRVW vQFRUSRUDW vQ GLIHULWH PLQLVWHUH $WULEX LLOH
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materiale a turismului.

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Cuvinte cheie


produs turistic DQVDPEOX GH SURGXVH L VHUYLFLL SXVH OD GLVSR]L LD WXULWLORU IRUP GH FRPHUFLDOL]DUH a ofertei turistice. aranjament forfetar pachet de produVH WXULVWLFH FH LQFOXGH VHUYLFLXO GH WUDQVSRUW FD]DUH GDU L DOWH
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serviciu turistic VHUYLFLX RIHULW VSUH YkQ]DUH GH R ILUP WXULVWLF  rezervare UH LQHUHD SUHDODELO D XQXL VHUYLFLu. circuit turistic F O WRULH GH OXQJLPH L GXUDW YDULDELOH DYkQG DFHODL ORF GH SOHFDUH L VRVLUH sejur GXUDWD GH WLPS SHWUHFXW vQ VFRS WXULVWLF vQWU-R DQXPLW GHVWLQD LH WXULVWLF  grup minim JUXSXO PLQLP GH WXULWL SHQWUX FDUH R ILUP GH WXULVP DFRUG UHGXFHUH GH JUXS turism individual IRUP GH WXULVP SUDFWLFDW GH WXULWL SH FRQW SURSULX FURD]LHU F O WRULH WXULVWLF SH PDUH RFHDQ  GHVWLQD LH GH YDFDQ SXQFW WHUPLQXV DO XQHL F O WRULL
%LEOLRJUDILH VXSOLPHQWDU

CRISTUREANU C. VELLAS F. VELLAS F. .DAVIDSON R.


67 1&,8/(6&8 *

(FRQRPLD L SROLWLFD WXULVPXOXL LQWHUQD LRQDO

, Editura Abeona, 1992.

International tourism: An economic perspective , Pittman, 1999


Turismul WHQGLQ H L SUHYL]LXQL, Walforth, 1995.

Tourism in Europe, Pittman Techniplus, Paris, 1992.


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, Editura All, 1998.

SYRATT G.

Manual of travel agency practice, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1992.

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Veniturile totale din turism, nreJLVWUDWH


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FLIU

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DUD % D

aloare de 10 milioane de u.m. n anul

1999. A. 'DF B.
'DF 

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5%, veniturile din excursiile organizate de


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0,9% (total venituri).


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ism?
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-operatoare?

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-operatoare au ca obiect de activitate organizarea aranjamentelor turistice, care sunt vndute WRXU-RSHUDWRULL VXQW DQJURVLWLL
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iterii:

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urism sunt:

biroul turism; biroul transporturi.


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orarul de zbor al tuturor companiilor aeriene;


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decalajul orar;
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9. Elementele de cheltuieli ce intr


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toate serviciile.
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