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The Properties of Matter

Chapter 1

Matter and Changes in Matter

Section 1

Physical and Chemical
Properties of Matter
• Physical and chemical properties of matter
are used to classify and describe a
particular substance
• Physical properties- a characteristic of a
substance that can be observed without
changing the substance into something else
– Includes things like color, density hardness,
melting point, and boiling point
• Chemical properties- a characteristic of a
substance observed when a substance
changes into a different substance
– Includes things like burning, rusting
When are a substance’s
chemical properties
Tungsten (
Sodium (Na) Iron (Fe) W)

Elements, Compounds, and
• Element- substance that
cannot be broken down into • Element
any other substances by Gold(Au)
chemical or physical means
• Examples- Oxygen, Helium,
Gold, Silver


• Compound- a substance
made of two or more
elements that are
chemically bound
together in a set ratio
– Water (H20); Rust (FeO);
Salt (NaCl)
• Formula- shows the ratio
of elements in a
• Properties of a compound
Mixture • Mixture- consists of
s two or more
substances in the
same place that are
not chemically
– May be mixed so well it
is hard to tell them
• Each substance of the
mixture has its own
properties 6
Changes in Matter
Physical Changes Chemical Changes

•alters the form or • a change in matter

appearance of a that forms one or more
material but does not new substances
convert the material •production of new
into new substances materials are chemically
different from the

Reading Chemical Equations
• Chemical Equation- a short, simple way
to describe a chemical reaction, using
symbols and formulas instead of words.
C + O2 CO2
• Carbon reacts with Oxygen gas to form
carbon dioxide
• Reactants- substances you start with in
a chemical reaction ( C & O)
• Products- substances you end with in a
reaction (CO2)

Chemical Reactions on a Small
• Atom- smallest particle of an element
• All atoms of an element have the same
chemical properties
• Atoms of different elements have different
• Atoms are unbelievably small
• Molecule- particle made of two or more
• Some molecules are made of like atoms