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Projectile loom

Integrated term project

Looms
A loom is a device used to weave cloth. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.

Classification of looms (Based on weft insertion system)

Classification (Based on number of phases)

Projectile loom
The projectile weaving machine made its appearance in the market at the beginning of the 50s and is today still used in the whole world. Thanks to its steady renovation and to the use of advanced electronic systems as well as of microprocessors for the supervision and the control of the various devices this machine is characterized by a good productivity level (450 rpm and 1050 m/min of inserted weft) and by high operational reliability. It is established especially in the field of machines with high reed width.

Projectile weaving
Projectile weaving machines fulfill all of the textile industrys requirements in regard to quality and performance. With projectile weft insertion virtually any yarn can be woven. Cotton, wool, silk, mono- and multifilaments and tapes As well as hard fibers like jute and linen, and even metal

Projectile weaving
The robust, technologically mature engineering design gives the textile industry the following advantages: low power consumption No material loss, by tucked-in selvedges Top reliability, functionality, and ease of operation Low servicing and maintainence costs Long term retention of value through upgradation

General Operation
The weft insertion is carried out by small clamp projectiles The projectiles works in a sequence, that is they are launched in succession They run therefore one after the other, describing in the space a continuous, endless route, as if they would be stuck on a conveyor belt.

General operation Cont


The first projectile takes and holds in its back the weft in form of a tail then, pushed by the release of the projectile thrower, it passes through the shed and deposits the weft inside the warp subsequently the projectile falls and is collected by a device which, by passing under the array of the warp threads, takes it at reduced speed back to the starting point. Here the projectile goes up to take up a new weft meanwhile the other projectiles have run after each other making the same operation.

Weaving process

weft insertion mechanism


The projectile is put in launching position; the weft is hold at its end by the weft carrier and is controlled by the weft tensioner , The weft carrier gets open after the projectile clamp has got hold of the end of the weft thread; The projectile is launched and crosses the shed dragging with itself the weft, while the weft tensioner and the weft brake operate in a way as to minimize the stress on the yarn .

Contd..
The thread is cut by the scissors on the launching side, while the projectile 1 is placed in the transport chain The weft is beaten by the reed, while the weft carrier moves back to its initial position and the weft tensioner opens further to recover the thread piece and to keep it under tension. The projectile is brought back to the launching zone

Passage of Projectile
Through the channel of guide teeth

Main parts of Projectile loom


Torsion bar(A) Picking Shaft(B) Picking lever(C) Picking Shoe(D) Picking shaft lever(E) Toggle plates(F) Picking cam(I) Oil break(L)

1. Torsion bar A: As shown in fig it has splinted ends as seen in the fig one end is secured firmly at the clamping flange with provision for adjusting twisting angle. 2. Picking shaft B: The free end of the torsion bar is linked with the picking shaft through spines. 3. Picking lever C: The picking lever is clamped on the picking shaft. 4. Picking shoe D: The picking lever carries the picking shoe at its top end. 5. Picking shaft lever E: It is a rigid part of the picking shaft

6. Toggle plates F: The toggle plates center at o carry a roller G and connected to the picking shaft lever E through a link H .They are covered at the bottom. 7. Picking cam I: It is mounted on a shaft J and rotated by bevel wheels K once every pick. It rotates in the direction of the arrow shown in fig. It carries a roller R after the nose part. 8. Oil break L: The shock of the picking is taken by the oil break.

Electronically controlled projectile brake


The present machines have the projectile brake adjusted by a microprocessor, and this permitted to increase the efficiency rate and to reduce the maintenance costs. The electronically controlled brake has the function of stopping the projectiles in the correct position .

The braking mechanism works as follows


the sensors detect the position of projectile inside the collector mechanism and communicates it to a microprocessor which, on the basis of the received information, transmits a corresponding order to the stepping magnet. This last operates on a wedge-shaped guide element which by shifting the upper bracket lining , modifies the braking intensity. The sensor controls instead the timely arrival of the projectiles in the collector mechanism.

Three braking cases are possible


A) Position I (normal projectile position): the control co-ordinates S of sensors are covered by the projectile B) Position II (projectile too far penetrated / insufficient braking): the control co-ordinate S of sensor 1 is not covered; C) Position III (projectile insufficiently penetrated / excessive braking): the control coordinate S of sensor 2 is not covered. In the first case the microprocessor does not answer; in the second and third case, it causes respectively the closing and opening of the brake, thus controlling the number of steps necessary to bring the projectile again to normal position.

Productivity table
Out of these single phase looms,the projectile loom is giving an efficiency of about 90 to 95 %

Energy consumption
the projectile weaving machine features a low energy requirement compared with the other filling insertion systems. The reason is the inherent advantage of the projectile insertion system compared to the insertion systems of rapier and air jet weaving machines, filling insertion by means of projectiles features the least energy requirement.

The masses to be moved for insertion by projectiles and substantially smaller than those requires for rapier insertion, and they are far more efficient than filling insertion with the aid of compressed air.

Advantages of Projectile loom


High labour and machine productivity due to high speed and wider width of looms. Reduced labour cost due to higher allocation of looms and productivity. Defect free cloth for longer length. Better environment due to low noise level. Less space requirement per metre of cloth. More colours in weft direction (upto 12) by Pick and Pick method. Wider width fabrics and multi width fabrics can be woven, High degree of flexibiligy to suit a wide range of fibres and counts. Easily adaptable for market trends. Less dependency on labour skill. Higher design capabilities dut to microprocessor and electronic controls. Easy maintenance and less work load for Jobbers. Lesser accidents.

conclusion
After understanding the need for modernization and the technical merits of new weaving technologies, the economics of different types of looms has to be considered. Many people feel that fastest running machines will give better profitability. But in many cases the fastest running machine is not the most economic and cheapest one. Hence projectile looms are more efficient in terms of productivity and economically.

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