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DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS

Designing Assessments Dianne J.E. Kraus Wilkes University

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS The lesson is designed to meet the Illinois State Standard 12.11.05 to demonstrate and to describe how the semi-permeable membranes regulate the flow of substances in and out of the cell body by using the concept of osmosis. Based on this standard the target learning goal is that students will be able to describe the relationship between the

tonicity of the solution to the concentration of the cytosol and how this affects the flow of substances through the semi-permeable membrane. During the lesson students will also learn the applicable scientific vocabulary and develop an understanding of the relationship between the concentrations of the solution that a cell is bathed in, the concentration of solutes in the cytosol, and how the flow of water moves from high to low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane. In order to assess the learning goals, I developed two rubrics and two obtrusive assessments. The first rubric/assessment addresses knowledge at level one to level three of the New Taxonomy (Marzano, 2009). Both tests are designed to test a progression of increasing difficulty. The Part A questions are matching items at the retrieval level, and the students are asked to recognize the definitions of the vocabulary words from a list of words that are provided. For Part B, I have designed short constructed response questions and these go up one level on the taxonomy. These comprehension level questions require the students to integrate the knowledge by describing the relationship between key parts of the concept and then to symbolize the concept by depicting the relationship between the key parts in an illustration. Part C of the assessment is an analysis question and the students are asked to make a prediction from a rule. The students must demonstrate what they know about the concentration gradient and how this

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS

applies to the tonicity of a specific solution that changes on one side of a semi-permeable membrane. This requires higher mental processing on the score rubric. The second assessment is a much higher level than assessment one and requires students to demonstrate their understanding of osmosis through knowledge utilization at the top of the rubric. The students must generate and test their hypothesis about osmosis in potato cells, collect their own data in order to draw conclusions, and explain their demonstration/experiment to the class. The score rubric is broken down into progressively more difficult steps on the New Taxonomy for execution skills. For a score of two the students need to describe the key parts of the experiment which is a level 2 comprehension on the rubric. At score three the student must make a generalization by analyzing their data and drawing a conclusion. At score four the students are able to utilize their knowledge by demonstrating and explaining their experiment that they have designed to test their hypothesis for the turgidity of potato cells in solutions of varying tonicity. The rubrics for the assessments are designed so that the students can earn partial scores and I am prepared to check the assessment results for aberrant response patterns. Aberrant response patterns occur when students answer the higher order questions but are unsuccessful on the lower order questions. If this occurred I would analyze my test to see if questions are scored at the wrong level, I would speak to students about their motivation to answer the questions, and I would possibly discard questions that were not properly aligned to the learning goals. In order to assign a formative score I would give students a 2.0 if they can answer Assessment 1 Part A completely. In order to receive a score of 3.0 students must answer

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS all off the Part A questions completely and also Part B completely. In order to receive a score of 4.0 they must answer all of the assessment completely without any omissions. I have provided the opportunity for students to receive partial scores and this will better reflect their ability to answer some of the questions at the next level. For example, if students can answer all of the questions at score 2.0 and score 3.0 and only high partial credit at the level 4.0 questions then they could earn a score of 3.67.

The second assessment provides another opportunity to get feedback for level 1 to level 3 mental processing skills and the score of 4.0 is a new opportunity to demonstrate level 4 knowledge. The assessment can be scored at several levels of the rubric in a progression of increasing difficulty based on the hierarchy. A score of 2.0 is a comprehension level, level 3.0 is analysis and level 4.0 is knowledge utilization. The students also have the opportunity to receive partial scores if they demonstrate partial success at the next level. The assessments could be used as a formative score by students to track their own progress, to re-learn their areas of weaknesses, and to motivate students when celebrating success. I could use the formative scores to inform my instruction and to give feedback to students on their learning. Formative scores can be improved over the semester as students track their progress and improve their learning. Students can also use this information to suggest student-generated assessments that they can propose to demonstrate their learning on goals as they move through their learning experiences in the course. In order to use the assessments as a summative assessment, I would look for a pattern of responses over the grading period to determine a final grade. The summative

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS assessments at the end of the unit should have more weight as this should be a better

reflection of student learning, however, it is the responsibility of the teacher to look at all of the formative and summative scores to see a pattern of learning. The summative assessment should not be heavily weighted and invalidate the successes of previous formative assessments in the event the student performs poorly. It is important to combine the scores of the learning goal and come up with a final score that accurately reflects the students performance based on all of the formative and summative scores. I have found this process to be very rewarding and I feel that I have grown as a professional as a result of this learning experience. This is timely information for my school and district and I am motivated to share what I have learned within my own learning community. There are many teachers at our school that know that their grading system is failing the students but they do not know how to change. We have frustrated teachers and parents who need to see a new system and the administrators are struggling to provide professional development opportunities that are meaningful but are not quite sure if they have found a solution. I am excited to have the solution and plan to begin to assist with our school improvement. It is not enough to change one classroom when you can influence an entire community!

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS References Marzano, R.J. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives. Bloomington, IN: MRL. Marzano, R.J. (2010). Formative assessment & standards-based grading. Bloomington, IN:MRL

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS APPENDIX

Lesson

Learning Goal

Assessment #1

Assessment Items Used Part A Selected response items: matching.

Osmosis State Standard: Demonstrate and describe how the semipermeable membranes regulate the flow of substances in and out of the cell body by using the concept of osmosis. (ISBE 12.11.05) Students will understand the concept of hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic osmotic balance in living organisms.

Part A Students will be able to select the correct definitions for scientific vocabulary for the unit on osmosis from a list Part B

Part B

Students will be Short constructed able to describe the response. relationship between the tonicity of the solution to the concentration of the cytosol and how this affects the flow of substances through the semipermeable membrane. Part C Students will be able to predict the diffusion (flow) of substances through the semipermeable membrane across the concentration gradient, by using the concept of osmosis Part C Short constructed response

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS

Lesson Osmosis State Standard: Demonstrate and describe how the semipermeable membranes regulate the flow of substances in and out of the cell body by using the concept of osmosis. (ISBE 12.11.05)

Learning Goal

Assessment #2

Assessment Items Used

Students will understand the concept of hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic osmotic balance in living organisms.

Students will be able to generate and test their hypothesis that demonstrates an understanding of osmosis in cells

Demonstration: Experimentation

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment #1 Rubric (adjusted) Students will be able to predict the diffusion (flow) of substances through the semi-permeable membrane across the concentration gradient, by using the concept of osmosis No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 4.0 content No major errors or omissions at 3.0 content and low partial success at 4.0 content Students will be able to describe the relationship between the tonicity of the solution to the concentration of the cytosol and how this affects the flow of substances through the semi-permeable membrane. No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 3.0 content No major errors or omissions at 2.0 content and low partial success at 3.0 content Students will be able to select the correct definitions for scientific vocabulary for the unit on osmosis from a list High partial success at score 2.0 content, but major errors regarding scores 3.0 content Low partial success at score 2.0 content but major omissions regarding score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content Even with help no success

Score 4.0 Score 3.67 Score 3.33 Score 3.0

Score 2.67 Score 2.33 Score 2.0 Score 1.67 Score 1.33 Score 1.0 Score 0.5 Score 0.0

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment #1 Rubric Student Friendly We should be able to predict the movement of substances across the semi-permeable membrane and how this will affect the cell. For example if we put a cell in salt water what would happen or if solute is added on one side of the membrane what will happen? No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 4.0 content No major errors or omissions at 3.0 content and low partial success at 4.0 content We should be able to describe what the tonicity means and describe the relationship between osmosis and the hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic. For example we should be able to draw a picture of osmosis to show what we understand in a picture. We need to understand how diffusion occurs in a concentration gradient when a semi-permeable membrane separates two solutions. No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 3.0 content No major errors or omissions at 2.0 content and low partial success at 3.0 content We need to define hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic, diffusion, concentration, concentration gradient, and osmosis and be able to identify the definitions of the words from a list. High partial success at score 2.0 content, but major errors regarding scores 3.0 content Low partial success at score 2.0 content but major omissions regarding score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content Even with help no success

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Score 4.0

Score 3.67 Score 3.33 Score 3.0

Score 2.67 Score 2.33 Score 2.0

Score 1.67 Score 1.33 Score 1.0 Score 0.5 Score 0.0

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment #2 Rubric (adjusted) Students will be able to generate and test their hypothesis that demonstrates an understanding of osmosis in potato cells No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 4.0 content No major errors or omissions at 3.0 content and low partial success at 4.0 content Students will be able to develop and be able to explain their conclusions about how osmosis maintains turgidity in potato cells No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 3.0 content No major errors or omissions at 2.0 content and low partial success at 3.0 content Students will write a hypothesis and be able to describe the key parts of the experimental/demonstration set-up for testing their hypothesis for osmosis in potato cells High partial success at score 2.0 content, but major errors regarding scores 3.0 content Low partial success at score 2.0 content but major omissions regarding score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content Even with help no success

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Score 4.0 Score 3.67 Score 3.33 Score 3.0 Score 2.67 Score 2.33 Score 2.0

Score 1.67 Score 1.33 Score 1.0 Score 0.5 Score 0.0

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment #2 Rubric - Student Friendly We will be able to make a hypothesis about the turgor pressure in potato cells based on osmosis, design an experiment or demonstration, set-up our experiment including making the solutions, collect data, explain our demonstration verbally to our class, and write a lab report complete with a conclusion that demonstrates an understanding of osmosis in potato cells. We can do this without help from our teacher. There are no errors or omissions. No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 4.0 content No major errors or omissions at 3.0 content and low partial success at 4.0 content We need to take our data and develop a conclusion to explain how potatoes stay firm because of osmosis. We need to use our data to support our claims. We must write the conclusion and turn in the data that we collected. No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and high partial success at 3.0 content No major errors or omissions at 2.0 content and low partial success at 3.0 content We need to write a hypothesis for potato osmosis in the If then.. because format. We need to identify the independent variable, dependent variable, constants, control group, experimental groups for an experiment or demonstration. We need to prepare a hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solution and be able to explain how the molecules move into and out of the cell. High partial success at score 2.0 content, but major errors regarding scores 3.0 content Low partial success at score 2.0 content but major omissions regarding score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content With help partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content Even with help no success

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Score 4.0

Score 3.67 Score 3.33 Score 3.0

Score 2.67 Score 2.33 Score 2.0

Score 1.67 Score 1.33 Score 1.0 Score 0.5 Score 0.0

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment #1: Osmosis Part A Match each item listed on the left with the numbered item on the right that describes it. A. Osmosis B. Hypotonic C. Hypertonic D. Isotonic E. Diffusion 1. [ ] of solute outside the cell is < inside cytosol

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2. [ ] of solute inside the cytosol is = to [ ] outside the cell 3. [ ] of solute outside the cell is > inside cytosol 4. H2O flows across semi-permeable membrane 5. Molecules move from to [ ] 6. Difference in [ ] across a distance 7. Movement of molecules assisted by proteins 8. Molecules move from to [ ]

F. Concentration gradient

Part B 1. Briefly discuss what would happen to an animal cell immersed in each of three types of solution: a) hypotonic b) hypertonic and c) isotonic. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS 2. Draw a picture to illustrate the relationship between the tonicity of a solution to the concentration of the cytosol, use arrows (,,) to depict the direction of the movement of molecules, and explain how this gradient affects the flow of substances across a semi-permeable membrane.

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Part C 1. Imagine a container of glucose solution, divided into two compartments (A and B) by a membrane that is permeable to water and glucose but not to sucrose. If some sucrose is added to compartment A predict how will the contents of compartment B change? Justify your answer. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

DESIGNING ASSESSMENTS Assessment # 2 Osmosis

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Osmosis is a process that helps plant cells remain firm. Develop a hypothesis about how varying salt solutions will affect the turgor pressure of potato cells. On the basis of your hypothesis design a demonstration or experiment to test your hypothesis. Provide an explanation of your experimental variables and demonstration set-up to test your hypothesis. In writing, develop and explain your conclusions based on the results of your experiment/demonstration.