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SMK COCHRANE, 55100 KUALA LUMPUR

PROJECT REPORT (960/4) STPM 2013

TITLE: THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL

NAMES

LEE REN TING LEE WEOI JYE CHEAM ZI YANG

FORM SUBJECT SUPERVISOR

: : :

PPU_US1 / 2013 PHYSICS PAPER 4 MADAM CHONG YOKE YIN

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DEDICATION
I wish to express my sincere appreciation to principal of SMK Cochrane, Madam Hajjah Nazifah Binti Abdul Latif, my supervisor Madam Chong Yoke Yin for their keen and endless guidance, encouragement, critics and inspiration until the success and completion of this work.

Special thanks to laboratory assistants for preparing required apparatus and materials to ensure the physics investigation is conducted smoothly. Besides, I would like to thanks to the PIBG for sponsoring the budget into physics fund which allow students to conduct the experiments in a proper environment with proper apparatus and materials.

I wish to express here, my sincere appreciation and thanks to all lecturers, teachers and staffs from physics department, and my fellow friends that had directly and indirectly helped me throughout this research project was carried out.

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ABSTRACT In electronic systems, a heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that cools a device by dissipating heat into the surrounding medium. In this experiment, the parameters used to describe the thermal conductivity of a metal can be used to describe also its electrical conductivity. Metal containers are experimented and gradient of the logarithm of temperature, per unit time, in seconds is

compared to the gradient constant in the derived equation to obtain thermal conductivity value. The higher the thermal conductivity value, the better the choice of metal to be used in heat sink as a heat spreader. This experiments is seem to be a good method in determination the thermal conductivity value for various type of metal and the obtained results is quite close to the actual values. Copper is found out as the highest thermal conductivity value compared to aluminium and steel.

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER DEDICATION ABSTRACT

TITLE

PAGE i ii ii 1 1 12 23 4 4 5 5 56 78 9 9 15 16 17 18 19

TABLE OF CONTENT 1 INTRODUCTION TO TITLE 1.1 BACKGROUND 1.2 LITERATURE STUDY 1.3 THEORY 1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.5 OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 2.2 PROCEDURE 2.3 DATA COLLECTION 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 3.2 INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS 4 CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDIXES

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Heat transfer by conduction involves transfer of energy within a material without any motion of the material as a whole. The rate of heat transfer depends upon the temperature gradient and the thermal conductivity of the material. Thermal conductivity is a reasonably straight forward in the application of heat sink.

Thermal conductivity is the intrinsic property of a material which relates its ability to conduct heat. Heat transfer by conduction involves transfer of energy within a material without any motion of the material as a whole. Conduction takes place when a temperature gradient exists in a solid (or stationary fluid) medium. Conductive heat flow occurs in the direction of decreasing temperature because higher temperature equates to higher molecular energy or more molecular movement. Energy is transferred from the more energetic to the less energetic molecules when neighbouring molecules collide. The greater the thermal conductivity of a solid, the greater is its ability to conduct heat through it and vice-versa.

1.2 LITERATURE STUDY A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink. Heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials also affect the die temperature of the integrated circuit. Thermal adhesive or thermal grease improve the heat sink's performance by filling air gaps between the heat sink and the device.

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A heat sink transfers thermal energy from a higher temperature device to a lower temperature fluid medium. The fluid medium is frequently air, but can also be water, refrigerants or oil. If the fluid medium is water, the heat sink is frequently called a cold plate. In thermodynamics a heat sink is a heat reservoir that can absorb an arbitrary amount of heat without significantly changing temperature. Practical heat sinks for electronic devices must have a temperature higher than the surroundings to transfer heat by convection, radiation, and conduction. The production of heat exchanger plate in order to involved in the heat sink process. Hence, the metal plate must have high thermal conductivity value.

1.3 THEORY Thermal conductivity of metals can be determined through this experiment with the proposed theory. In heat transfer, the rate of heat flow through a conductor is expressed as

Where, the

is the thermal conductivity,

cross-sectional area of the conductor and

the

temperature gradient.

Metal Container

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The rate of heat flow from warm water with temperature given by

in boiling tube to the surrounding is

Where,

is the mass of water,

the specific heat capacity of water and

the rate of cooling.

By equating (1) and (2), we get

So, if the surrounding temperature is given by

, the relationship between temperature

and time

is

Where is in second, the boiling tube and

the initial temperature,

is

the average radius of

the thickness of the wall of the boiling tube.

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1.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT The goal of the experiment is to find out the most suitable metal manufactured as heat exchanger which is determined based on its thermal conductivity parameter.

1.5 OBJECTIVE To determine the thermal conductivity of various metal.

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CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY

2.1 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS 1) Metal containers (Steel, Aluminium and Copper) 2) Thermometer 3) Basin 4) Stirrers 5) Cork Stopper 6) Stopwatch 7) Vernier Calipers 8) Retort stand and clamp 9) Ice cubes with dissolved 10) Warm water

2.2 PROCEDURE The internal and external diameter of a metal container is measured and hence the average radius and the thickness of the wall of the metal container are calculated. A basin is filled with and the metal container is clamped onto a retort stand and

water and ice cubes with dissolved

dipped into the basin until whole of the metal container almost submerge in the ice water. Warm water is poured into the metal container until the water level inside the tube reaches about 1cm below the ice-level in the beaker. The temperature of the ice and water mixture inside the beaker is measured to be before

the warm water is poured into the metal container. The thermometer is inserted in the metal container while stirrer is place outside of the metal container in the cold water; its shown in
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diagram 1. The time and the corresponding temperature is recorded. The time container reaches about and temperature

starting at temperature around

is recorded until the temperature in the metal

. The ice-water mixture in the beaker and warm water in the metal against is plotted and

container is stirred constantly throughout the experiment. A graph of thermal conductivity of metal container can be calculated.

The steps are the same and repeated for determination thermal conductivity of steel container, copper container and aluminium container. Calculation is done by first, find out the thickness of the metal container,

. Where

is the external diameter and

is the internal

diameter. Second, find the , radius of metal container which given by:

Third, the gradient of graph . From that equation, gradient container can be determined, which

against is determined to be compared in

is

. At last, , thermal conductivity of metal .

Retort stand

Stirrer

Metal Container Thermometer Warm water

Ice water Basin

Diagram 1 Setup apparatus


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2.3 DATA COLLECTION Several books and online pages is reviewed before perform data collection. The simplest method and fastest way in the calculation is picked to determine the thermal conductivity value. All the data is tabulated and calculated based on the derived formulas.

Measurements:

External diameter, Metal Container 1 Steel Copper Aluminium 2 Average

Internal diameter, 1 2 Average

Table A Internal diameter and external diameter of metal containers The diameter is measured using vernier caliper with sensitivity The zero readings and error is stated. Average reading is calculated by .

Thickness of metal container, Metal Container

Radius of metal container,

Steel Copper Aluminium Table B Thickness and radius of metal containers

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Temperature of warm water in metal container, 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 3.56 3.40 3.22 3.00 2.71 2.30 1.61

Time, 1 2 Average

Table C Recording temperature, time and Time, is measured using stopwatch. Temperature, is measured using thermometer ranged [

Average reading is calculated by

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CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS The measurements of metal containers is done and tabulated in table below. The diameter of metal containers is measured using vernier caliper.

Zero reading of vernier caliper

External diameter, Metal Container 1 Steel Copper Aluminium 5.82 5.90 6.40 2 5.82 5.90 6.40 Average 5.82 5.90 6.40

Internal diameter,

1 5.36 5.44 5.98

2 5.36 5.44 5.98

Average 5.36 5.44 5.98

Table R1 External diameter and internal diameter of metal containers

Thickness of metal container, Metal Container

Radius of metal container,

Steel Copper Aluminium

0.23 0.23 0.21 Table R2 Thickness and radius of metal containers

2.80 2.84 3.10

After measuring job is completed, thickness and radius of metal containers is identified to proceed to experiment.
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Temperature of warm water in metal container, 1 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 3.56 3.40 3.22 3.00 2.71 2.30 1.61 0.00 0.29 0.62 1.12 1.57 2.31 3.56

Time, 2 0.00 0.28 0.62 1.15 1.59 2.32 3.55 for steel container Average 0.00 0.29 0.62 1.14 1.58 2.32 3.56

Table R3 Recording temperature, time and

The thermal conductivity can be identified from this equation,

Graph of ln against t (Steel)


4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

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Gradient,

The thermal conductivity of steel is found out to be

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Temperature of warm water in metal container, 1 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 3.56 3.40 3.22 3.00 2.71 2.30 1.61 0.00 0.04 0.12 0.18 0.29 0.38 0.69

Time, 2 0.00 0.07 0.15 0.21 0.33 0.40 0.70 for copper container Average 0.00 0.06 0.14 0.20 0.31 0.40 0.70

Table R4 Recording temperature, time and

The thermal conductivity can be identified from this equation,

Graph of ln against t (Copper)


4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
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Gradient,

The thermal conductivity of copper is found out to be

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Temperature of warm water in metal container, 1 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 3.56 3.40 3.22 3.00 2.71 2.30 1.61 0.00 0.08 0.21 0.38 0.56 0.81 1.25

Time, 2 0.00 0.12 0.23 0.42 0.59 0.82 1.27 for aluminium container Average 0.00 0.10 0.22 0.40 0.58 0.82 1.26

Table R4 Recording temperature, time and

The thermal conductivity can be identified from this equation,

Graph of ln against t (Aluminium)


4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40
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Gradient,

The thermal conductivity of aluminium is found out to be

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3.2 INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS After the experiment had been done, the results shows that the thermal conductivity of metal containers are arranged in increasing order, Steel < Aluminium < Copper. Thus, the deduction will be the copper is high efficiency metal that is able to conduct the most heat per second compared to aluminium and steel. If we obtain the data online it is found out that the thermal conductivity value is not match exactly as shown with a difference of less than compared to actual value. The causes will be the metal containers may not be a pure metal during production and due to the error occurred during the experiments by using non-standard apparatus, improper setup or the surrounding condition influences. Thermal conductivity obtain experimentally for steel and aluminium conductive materials: iron , , copper

which is different from the properties table of copper and aluminium

. From here, we knew that the difference of thermal conductivity compared to actual value is always more than what we obtained, the reason is stated. The thermal conductivity of metal can also be linked with electrical conductivity; the higher the thermal conductivity value indicated that the electrical conductance in the metal is high and efficient. Besides, the efficiency of electrical conductivity can be related with electrical resistivity, the higher value of electric conductivity indicated the electrical resistivity is low compared to lower value of electric conductivity. Errors occurred during investigation such as systematic error which is cant be avoided and random error which is human mistakes. Its is overcome by perform repeating experiments to obtain secondary data in order to take average from 2 readings, this shown to be increase the accuracy of the results and its make sure to be consistency.

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During experiment, fan is switched off and others source of cooling is ensure to be off to ensure the cooling of warm water is purely done by heat transfer not surrounding influence. Stirrer is moving up and down constantly throughout the experiment and thermometer is used to stir the warm water inside the metal container as well as the temperature reading. Data recording job of time is performed by the same person throughout the experiment.

Research questions that proposed had answered below: 1. What is the SI unit of thermal conductivity? The unit of thermal conductivity is (Watt per meter kelvin). Where,

SI unit of thermal conductivity

2. Which metal of the following having highest thermal conductivity value? Copper / Steel / Aluminium From the experiments, copper is found out to have the highest value for thermal conductivity. This happened to be same in real life situation.

3. What is the application of finding thermal conductivity? Thermal conductivity is found to determine the conductivity of heat in metal. Its then related to electrical conductivity and electrical resistivity which help in production of heat sink system.

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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION From the results, copper are having the highest thermal conductivity value. Its the best choice among the three metals to be design as a heat spreader in heat sink system. The thermal conductivity value found from the experiment is arranged in increasing order, Steel < Aluminium < Copper. In electronic devices, its no doubts that copper heat exchanger is used in cooling down the components in smartphones, graphics card even in processors. So, the metal which is high enough in thermal conductivity are able to dissipate heat by transfer from one plate to another plate and cooling is down by air movement. The value of thermal conductivity found in experiments can be revised by using highstandard equipment, proper setup and use digital measuring equipments in measuring which will increase the accuracy of results and the obtained value will me more closer to the actual value. From this experiment, the technique that applied is deriving equations, analyse equations and identified thermal conductivity parameter by comparing the gradient of the graph. Lastly, all objectives had been achieved.

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REFERENCES

1. Terry M. Tritt. Thermal Conductivity: Theory, Properties, and Applications (Physics of Solids and Liquids). Clemson University, South Carolina.

2. Jack Ekin (2006). Experimental Techniques: Cryostat Design, Material Properties and Superconductor Critical-Current Testing. Great Britain. 3. Waleed Hussain (2012). Thermal Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of composites. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. 4. Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; & Walker, Jearl(1997). Fundamentals of Physics (5th edition). New York. 5. Table with the Thermal Conductivity of the Elements http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/thermal.html

6. Conversion of thermal conductivity values for many unit systems http://www.efunda.com/units/show_units.cfm?search_string=thermal%20conductivity

7. Thermal conductivity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_conductivity

8. Heat sink http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_sink

9. Electronics Modules - Heat Sink Attach www.dowcorning.com/content/etronics/etronicswet/etronics_appl_htsk.asp

10. Which material offers the best thermal conductivity for heat sinks and thermal management applications? www.qats.com/cms/2010/10/18/which-material-offers-the-best-thermal-conductivity-for-heatsinks-and-thermal-management-applications-part-1-of-2/

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Activities Photos 1. Setup apparatus

2. Metal Containers

Copper

Steel

Aluminum

3. Images

Ice water bath

Warn water inside 1cm below the ice water

Stirer placed outside of the metal container

Periodic Table of Elements: Sorted by Thermal Conductivity (Environm...

http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/thermal.html

Environmental, Chemistry & Hazardous Materials News, Careers & Resources

Periodic Table of Elements


Sorted by Thermal Conductivity
Name 0.0000364 W/cmK 0.0000569 W/cmK 0.000089 W/cmK 0.0000949 W/cmK 0.0001772 W/cmK 0.0002598 W/cmK 0.0002674 W/cmK 0.000279 W/cmK 0.000493 W/cmK 0.00122 W/cmK 0.00152 W/cmK 0.001815 W/cmK 0.00235 W/cmK 0.00269 W/cmK 0.00449 W/cmK 0.017 W/cmK 0.0204 W/cmK 0.0235 W/cmK 0.063 W/cmK 0.0674 W/cmK 0.0782 W/cmK 0.0787 W/cmK 0.0834 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.1 W/cmK 0.106 W/cmK 0.107 W/cmK 0.111 W/cmK 0.114 W/cmK 0.12 W/cmK 0.125 W/cmK Radon Xenon Chlorine Krypton Argon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Bromine Helium Hydrogen Phosphorus Sulfur Iodine Astatine Selenium Tellurium Neptunium Plutonium Manganese Bismuth Mercury Lawrencium Einsteinium Berkelium Californium Fermium Curium Nobelium Americium Mendelevium Gadolinium Dysprosium Terbium Cerium Actinium Praseodymium Sym Rn Xe Cl Kr Ar N O F Ne Br He H P S I At Se Te Np Pu Mn Bi Hg Lr Es Bk Cf Fm Cm No Am Md Gd Dy Tb Ce Ac Pr 86 54 17 36 18 7 8 9 10 35 2 1 15 16 53 85 34 52 93 94 25 83 80 103 99 97 98 100 96 102 95 101 64 66 65 58 89 59

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0.133 W/cmK 0.135 W/cmK 0.139 W/cmK 0.143 W/cmK 0.15 W/cmK 0.158 W/cmK 0.162 W/cmK 0.164 W/cmK 0.165 W/cmK 0.168 W/cmK 0.172 W/cmK 0.179 W/cmK 0.184 W/cmK 0.186 W/cmK 0.2 W/cmK 0.219 W/cmK 0.227 W/cmK 0.23 W/cmK 0.23 W/cmK 0.243 W/cmK 0.274 W/cmK 0.276 W/cmK 0.307 W/cmK 0.349 W/cmK 0.353 W/cmK 0.353 W/cmK 0.359 W/cmK 0.406 W/cmK 0.461 W/cmK 0.47 W/cmK 0.479 W/cmK 0.502 W/cmK 0.506 W/cmK 0.537 W/cmK 0.54 W/cmK 0.575 W/cmK 0.58 W/cmK 0.582 W/cmK 0.599 W/cmK 0.666 W/cmK 0.716 W/cmK 0.718 W/cmK 0.802 W/cmK 0.816 W/cmK 0.847 W/cmK 0.876 W/cmK 0.907 W/cmK

Samarium Lanthanum Europium Erbium Francium Scandium Holmium Lutetium Neodymium Thulium Yttrium Promethium Barium Radium Polonium Titanium Zirconium Hafnium Rutherfordium Antimony Boron Uranium Vanadium Ytterbium Lead Strontium Cesium Gallium Thallium Protactinium Rhenium Arsenic Technetium Niobium Thorium Tantalum Dubnium Rubidium Germanium Tin Platinum Palladium Iron Indium Lithium Osmium Nickel

Sm La Eu Er Fr Sc Ho Lu Nd Tm Y Pm Ba Ra Po Ti Zr Hf Rf Sb B U V Yb Pb Sr Cs Ga Tl Pa Re As Tc Nb Th Ta Db Rb Ge Sn Pt Pd Fe In Li Os Ni

62 57 63 68 87 21 67 71 60 69 39 61 56 88 84 22 40 72 104 51 5 92 23 70 82 38 55 31 81 91 75 33 43 41 90 73 105 37 32 50 78 46 26 49 3 76 28

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0.937 W/cmK 0.968 W/cmK 1 W/cmK 1.024 W/cmK 1.16 W/cmK 1.17 W/cmK 1.29 W/cmK 1.38 W/cmK 1.41 W/cmK 1.47 W/cmK 1.48 W/cmK 1.5 W/cmK 1.56 W/cmK 1.74 W/cmK 2.01 W/cmK 2.01 W/cmK 2.37 W/cmK 3.17 W/cmK 4.01 W/cmK 4.29 W/cmK [Last Updated: 2/22/2007]

Chromium Cadmium Cobalt Potassium Zinc Ruthenium Carbon Molybdenum Sodium Iridium Silicon Rhodium Magnesium Tungsten Calcium Beryllium Aluminum Gold Copper Silver

Cr Cd Co K Zn Ru C Mo Na Ir Si Rh Mg W Ca Be Al Au Cu Ag

24 48 27 19 30 44 6 42 11 77 14 45 12 74 20 4 13 79 29 47

Citing this page If you need to cite this page, you can copy this text:
Kenneth Barbalace. Periodic Table of Elements - Sorted by Thermal Conductivity. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 2013. Accessed on-line: 9/7/2013 http://EnvironmentalChemistry.com/yogi/periodic/thermal.html .

Copyright 1995 - 2013 Kenneth L Barbalace (J.K. Barbalace, inc., website development) NO REPUBLISHING IN ANY FORM (including on other websites), in whole or in part, for any reason, without written permission. Printed from http://EnvironmentalChemistry.com

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Heat Sinks

Thermal Facts and Fairy Tales: Heat Sinks, Heat Exchangers and History
November 22nd, 2011 By Jim Wilson Categories: Heat Sinks Issue: November 2011

As far as history goes, the field of electronics cooling does not have a very long past. A rather quick look through my personal reference material that is strictly geared towards cooling electronics had at the earliest some US Navy documents from the 1950s [1]. Comparing the solution techniques available today to those available then shows that we have both much better tools and harder problems (although I still like to refer to the suggested heat transfer coefficient value of ~10 W/m2-K for natural convection when not much else is known). Perhaps because of the shorter history and the tendency of engineers working in this field always being exposed to the latest and greatest electronics, the electronics cooling community sometimes doesnt venture out and learn from related fields. When we start solving problems without doing significant research, we can live in a fairy tale world where we think that our problems are strictly unique to us. There can be a benefit of taking some time to examine the past and finding out that other smart engineers have often looked at similar problems and may have relevant information that would help us with understanding.

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Figure 1. Simple heat sink. The use of heat exchanger theory provides a good example where there is a possible benefit from thinking about the problems we are solving from more than one viewpoint. Consider the simple illustration of a heat sink shown in Figure 1. Heat sink suppliers and designers, especially in air cooled electronics, like to use a thermal resistance type description such as Rth = 1/hA = (Tsurf -Tcool-in)/q Since the resistance can vary with the coolant velocity, information about how Rth varies with velocity may be provided. The coolant temperature of reference is the inlet temperature. While this approach is convenient, there isnt much need to think about using a minimum amount of coolant and other constraints such as noise and prime power to move the coolant may dictate the flow rate. Engineers that come from an avionics background typically consider that the coolant will change temperature as the waste heat is added. Often, the coolant flow rate is specified in terms of flow rate per KW of heat such that the temperature rise of the coolant from inlet to exit is constant for different electronic assemblies. The mindset is to use the coolant as efficiently as possible because additional coolant is either not possible or very expensive. One of the potential benefits of applying heat exchanger theory to electronics cooling is that it can provide one way of looking at efficiency.

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Figure 2. Plot of equation 4. Moffat [2] provides a good discussion on heat exchanger theory applied to air cooled heat sinks and general heat exchanger theory can be found in most heat transfer textbooks [3]. While the theory was mostly developed to deal with two fluids, a bounding case where one of the fluid temperatures did not change (such as with condensation or evaporation) simplifies the equations and can be representative of heat sinks used to cool electronics. A uniform temperature for Tsurf is only an approximation but useful for illustration. Heat exchanger analysis frequently uses what is known as the effectiveness-NTU method where the effectiveness represents the actual heat transfer divided by the maximum possible heat transfer. The NTU, or Number of Transfer Units, is a dimensionless parameter that relates the heat transfer convective resistances to the coolant flow heat capacity. While the details are beyond the scope of this short column, a typical heat sink (or cold plate) can be described with the following equations (assuming that the simplifying assumption of one surface temperature is reasonable). 1 Actual heat transfer = Ccool*(Tcool-out Tcool-in); (Ccool is the mass flow times the heat capacity for the coolant) 2 Maximum possible heat transfer = Ccool*(Tsurf Tcool-in) 3 Effectiveness = E = (Tcool-out Tcool-in)/ (Tsurf Tcool-in) 4 Effectiveness = 1 exp(-NTU), where NTU = hA/Ccool At this point, someone used to using resistance based concepts for heat sinks might ask why go to all this trouble. The reason for thinking about the problem in these terms is the form of equation 4 which is shown graphically in Figure 2. Note that if we want to increase the effectiveness of our heat sink we need to increase NTU. One way to increase the NTU term is to decrease the coolant heat capacity but while our effectiveness increased, the resulting temperature for the surface may not be acceptable. The other way is to increase the hA term which means either larger area or a higher effective heat transfer coefficient. The engineering challenge is to minimize the decrease in effectiveness as coolant flow rates increase. Note that the limit is when the surface temperature and the coolant exit are at the same temperature, or the system has an effectiveness of 1. This limit is formally only for a constant temperature boundary condition (as opposed to uniform flux or mixed boundary condition) and is only a theoretical maximum, but it does provide a basis for comparison. More complex systems such as cold plates with multiple heat sources or significant coolant temperature variation may require more detail to assess but the general trends are similar. Historical electrical analogy treatment of cold plates (typical in avionics) sub-divides the problem into zones and accounts for
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Thermal Facts and Fairy Tales: Heat Sinks, Heat Exchangers and Histor...

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the coolant rise but make the assumption that a heat transfer coefficient relative to a local coolant temperature is known. Some heat sink resistance calculations add in a fluid resistance but the reader is cautioned that this terminology can be problematic [2]. We are often asked to help design more efficient systems but sometimes the definition of efficient is vague. From the perspective of coolant in and out temperatures, the heat transfer process is 100% efficient and the heat ended up in the coolant. However, the real question may be, can the cooling job be accomplished with a lower flow rate and still have acceptable temperatures? Thermal engineers can participate and even lead discussions on developing even more efficient systems but we benefit when we look at problems from multiple viewpoints and even venture out into the research from related fields. References Bureau of Ships NavShips 900,190, Guide Manual of Cooling Methods for Electronic Equipment, 1 November, 1956. Moffat, R, Modelling Air-Cooled Heat Sinks at Heat Exchangers, ElectronicsCooling, February 2008. F. P. Incropera & D. P. DeWitt 1990 Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd edition, Wiley, New York. l

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