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:

...

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) nonbreeding (

Keulemans .

( 1852 .

.)(

3.1)

: Animalia
: Chordata

:
: Alcidae
: Pinguinus
, 1791
:

. impennis

Pinguinus impennis
(

, 1758)

Alca impennis

Alca

Pinguinus impennis , )

.
"

Garefowl ,

auks

geirfugl

Pinguinus ,

",

19

,
,

14

Floridian middens

18

Naturae

MtDNA

biogeographical
Pinguinus
Razorbill

Razorbill

( Dovekie )
)

.
Alca

Xantus

Razorbill

Dovekie

guillemots

, murres ,

( Pinguinus alfrednewtoni

alcids

(11

.
,

grooves

auks

10

(3.9

,
)

,
Auks
,

( 30-34 )

75-85

12-20

capelin

Auks
.

2000 . .

, 200

12.4cm

Choix ,

. Stac

,
,


, 1840 ,

. Haswell

("

") Geirfuglasker

Sigurdur Islefsson

Kildan

incubated ,

( 4.9in )

Eldey

,
.
Ketil Ketilsson

1830
incubating

,
,


Brandsson
1844 3

.
(

75

24

middens 19

, Tring ,
,

1852

81

CLAYMONT ,

ornithologists

" "

Archmere

( AUCS )

Hickam

Stravinsky

,(

) Summerisle

Auks

Blyton