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DEVICE DESIGN REPORT This report analyzes the design of a Samsung Monochrome ML-2165 printer.

This compact printer weighs in at 4kg and provides laser printing in only black and white. It cannot scan or copy, but comes to a total retail price of $89.99 (see ML-2165 tech specs). Although the printer is both portable and relatively cheap, it clearly has made decisions in design that improve ease of manufacturing at a detriment to overall usability. This report will discuss the qualities and characteristics of the printer itself, its design in relation to manufacturing, reliability (and maintainability) and usability as well as any additional improvements that can be made on the design. Quality design should provide a functional device with the following characteristics: safe, simplified production/assembly, portable, easy to use, reliable and cost effective (Modern Design Principles, K. Jakobsen). The device in question has most likely been designed to be first, and foremost, functional in that it prints and does nothing else. Its other main design decision is based in the manufacturing aspect as seen in its snap-fit plastic casing and its choice of riveted metal plating to protect plastic gears. While not necessarily cost effective, it is light and compact. Its reliability is questionable as it frequently jams (have the same printer in working version at home), but is easy to unjam. The printer features a plastic casing alternating between white and gray as well as a button panel holding tow lights and two buttons (See Figure 26). The ink cartridge is easy to replace, can be removed with a pull and is locked in place by a spring mechanism. The design for manufacturing maximizes the simplicity of design, use of economical materials, ease of assembly, and the maintainability of the design (Design-to-Manufacture, Benjamin W. Niebel). This creates both time effective and cost effective ways to produce profitable products. The manufacturing of this printer was clearly taken into account as seen in the assembly of the outer casing. The casing is fastened through snap-fit components which are ideal for high speed assembly and have a typical attachment time of 100-500 milliseconds (Successful Assembly Automation, Dean A. Shafer). These snap-fit fastenings are cheaper than the use of screws (there are a couple in the printer, fastening the circuit board as well), which are quite expensive (Design-to-Manufacture, Benjamin W. Niebel). The casing is still sturdy and quite difficult to pry off as I discovered during tear-down. When trying to pull the casing off I actually broke the outer edge off instead and the snap-fit part stayed intact. Although this lends to the strength of the snap-fit, it is actually difficult to disassemble. However, the plastic casing, fastened as well as hinged by snap-fit components (See Figure 7) provides for quick and cheap assembly, as well as overall maintainability, being relatively resilient and lightweight (Miscellaneous Fasteners, Franklin Keeley). Additionally, the flat, smoothness of the casing provides a good surface for vacuum grippers to handle during assembly (Design-to-Manufacture, Benjamin W. Niebel). All of these factors contribute to manufacturing design and increase overall cost effectiveness of the device (for the company). Design for reliability and maintenance relates to personal factors, conditional factors, and environmental factors (Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability, Jezdimir Knezevic). Personal factors represent skill and experience of the user, conditional factors represent physical condition of the device, and environmental factors represents things such as temperature and humidity. Reliability is also measured through restoration time for object after it breaks. This is relatively short for the printer as it only ever jams and the paper can immediately be pulled out afterwards. However, frequency of needed restoration comes into play where the printer needs

to unjammed every 30 pages. This design is clearly not built around reliability and maintenance, as although restoration time is short, the need for restoration is much too common given the relatively standard environmental conditions of my dorm room, and the completely new printer. Usability and design for usability is the most important of the design fors I have mentioned thus far, at least from user-perspective. Although reliability is also extremely important, it does not need to be reliable if I cannot figure out how to use it! Design for manufacturing may contribute to overall cost effectiveness but I will pay more for a product that is easy and convenient to use. This is the basic premise of usability, where all users count as design errors (Humanware practical usability engineering, Anderson J.). Although the printer is compact and light, providing convenience and usability, the simplicity of the design (which is meant for easy manufacturing) can be difficult to understand for inexperienced users. For example, there are two buttons on the control panel, one of which is the power button, and one of which I have no idea even after having used the printer. Usability is most important to me, but has been neglected in the case of the current device. Reparability, which is related to both reliability and maintenance is also important to the design of the device. This printer contains small metal teeth at the back which cause tearing if the printer becomes jammed and paper is twisted (See Figure 12). This helps overall maintainability, but in order to figure out that the printer is hammed you must look inside yourself. The printer only offers two warning lights, one of which I have never seen light up and the other warns that something is wrong. Although the printer can indicate to the user that something has gone wrong, it does not provide any more information. The printer should instead possess a standard set of lights with clear symbolic meaning instead of only one caution light that lights up whenever there is a paper jam, no paper, and presumably no ink (See Figure 26). Putting the task of figuring out what needs to be repaired on the user can increase restoration time, decreasing maintainability and giving additional errors for inexperienced users. This improvement will cost more in the design for manufacturing aspects as it complicates the overall design. However, it improves the design for usability as it takes away thinking done by the user and therefore the possibility of human error causing machine error. Although improvements can be made to usability especially, most possible improvements can be made to usability especially, most possible improvements decrease overall design for manufacturing and will cause an increase in price.