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Chapter 13

Controls for Differentiated Strategies

Formal Control Process

Goals and strategies (Chp 2 & 13) Rules (Chp 3) Other information Reward (feedback) Strategic Planning (Chp 8) Responsibility center Performance (Chp 10 & 11) Was performance satisfactory? (Chp 11 & 12) Yes No

Budgeting (Chp 9)

Report actual vs plan



Corrective action

Feedback Communication



3. 4.

Different strategies influence the management control process. Corporate strategy Business level The form & structure of control system. Management Style

Corporate Strategy

Different strategy different task priorities, key success factors, skill, perspectives & behaviors.


Control Systems


Implication for Organization Structure

Single Industry Organizational Structure Industry familiarity of corporate management Functional background of corporate management Functional High Relevant operating experience Related Diversified Business units Unrelated Diversified Holding company Low Mainly finance

Decision-making authority
Size of corporate staff Reliance on internal promotions Use of lateral transfer Corporate Culture

More centralized
High High High Strong

More decentralized
Low Low Low Weak

Implications for Management Control

Single Industry Strategic planning Vertical-cumhorizontal Related Diversified Unrelated Diversified Vertical only High

Budgeting: Low Relative control of business unit manager over budget formulation Importance attached to meeting the budget Transfer pricing: Importance of transfer pricing Sourcing flexibility Low High

High Low


Arms-length market pricing

Single Industry Incentive compensation: Bonus criteria Bonus determination approach Bonus basis Financial & nonfinancial criteria Primarily subjective Related Diversified Unrelated Diversified Primarily financial criteria Primarily formulabased Based primarily on business unit performance

Based both on business unit & corporate performance

Business Unit Strategy

Strategy of business unit depends on two interrelated aspects:



Its mission: build, hold, harvest Its competitive advantage: low cost & differentiation

Pure Build Pure Harvest

Builds unit tend to face greater environmental uncertainty than harvest. The choice of build & harvest strategies has implication for short-term vs longterm profit trade-offs.

Implications for Strategic Planning Process

Build Importance of strategic planning Formalization of capital expenditure decisions Capital expenditure evaluation criteria Discount rate Relatively high Less formal More emphasis on nonfinancial data Relatively low Hold Harvest Relatively low More formal More emphasis on financial data Relatively high

Capital investment analysis

Project approval limits at the business-unit level

More subjective & qualitative

Relatively high

More objective & quantitative

Relatively low

Different Strategic Missions: Implications for Budgeting

Build Hold Harvest

Role of the budget

Business unit managers influence in preparing the budget

More a short-term planning tool

Relatively high

More a control tool

Relatively low

Revisions to the budget during Relatively easy the year Frequency of informal reporting & contacts with superiors Frequency of feedback from superiors on actual performance versus the budget More frequent on policy issues; less frequent on operating issues Less often

Relatively difficult Less frequent on policy issues; more frequent on operating issues More often

Control limit used on periodic Relatively high evaluation against the budget Importance attached to meeting the budget Output versus behavior control Relatively low Behavior control


Relatively low

Relatively high Output control

Different Strategic Missions: Implications for Incentive Compensation

Build Hold Harvest

Percent compensation as bonus

Bonus criteria

Relatively high
More emphasis on nonfinancial criteria More subjective

Relatively low
More emphasis on financial criteria More formula-based

Bonus determination approach

Frequency of bonus payment

Less frequent

More frequent

Competitive Advantage
Choosing differentiation approach, rather than a low-cost approach, increases uncertainty in a business units task environment.

Product innovation Broad set of products Produce competing products

Product offering stable Narrow product lines Produce no-frill commodity products

Top Management Style

Influenced by managers background & personality. Style affect management control process how the control system actually operates.