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METOD KONANIH ELEMENATA

1. Ravno stanje napona


Oznake:

A povrina ploe; m

dA diferencijalno mali element povrine A; m


t debljina ploe; m
u , u komponente vektora pomeranja u ; m

p , p komponente vektora spoljanjeg optereenja na konturi ploe; kN/m

p , p komponente vektora pA = tpV; kN/m2 pV zapreminske sile

x , y, xy komponente tenzora napona ; kN/m


n , n komponente vektora normale n na konturi

x
x

y
y

v,x

v,y

Kinematika veza izmeu pomeranja i deformacija:

x
( x, y ) = Lu( x, y ) = 0

u x ( x, y )

, gde je L matrica operator.


y u y ( x, y )

Konstitutivne relacije veza izmeu napona i deformacija:

= E
1
0

E
1
0
E=
1 2
1
0 0
2
Napomena: z 0, i odreuje se iz uslova da je napon z = 0 : z =
Princip virtualnog rada:

+y)

2. Ravno stanje deformacije


Oznake:

A povrina ploe; m

dA diferencijalno mali element povrine A; m


u , u komponente vektora pomeranja u ; m

p , p komponente vektora spoljanjeg optereenja na konturi ploe, po jedinici duine u z

pravcu; kN/m
p , p komponente vektora pA, po jedinici duine u z pravcu; kN/m2

x , y, xy, z komponente tenzora napona ; kN/m


n , n komponente vektora normale n na konturi

x
x

y
y

v,x

v,y

Kinematika veza izmeu pomeranja i deformacija:

x
( x, y ) = Lu( x, y ) = 0

u x ( x, y )

, gde je L matrica operator.


y u y ( x, y )

Konstitutivne relacije veza izmeu napona i deformacija:

= E

1
E (1 )

E=
(1 + )(1 2 ) 1
0

1
1
0

1 2
2(1 )

Napomena: z 0, i odreuje se iz uslova da je napon z = 0 : z =

+y)

Princip virtualnog rada:

TROUGAONI KONANI ELEMENT

3
i, 1

u x ( x, y ) = 1 + 1 x + 1 y

u y ( x, y ) = 2 + 2 x + 2 y

u x ( x1 , y1 ) = 1 + 1 x1 + 1 y1 = u x1

u x ( x 2 , y 2 ) = 1 + 1 x 2 + 1 y 2 = u x 2
u x ( x3 , y 3 ) = 1 + 1 x3 + 1 y 3 = u x 3
u y ( x1 , y1 ) = 1 + 1 x1 + 1 y1 = u y1

u y ( x 2 , y 2 ) = 1 + 1 x 2 + 1 y 2 = u y 2

u y ( x3 , y 3 ) = 1 + 1 x3 + 1 y 3 = u y 3

1
1

0
0

x1
x2
x3

y1
y2
y3

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

1
1
1

x1
x2
x3

a1
1
b

1
1
1 1 c1

=
2 2 A 0
0
2


2
0

a2
b2
c2
0
0
0

a3
b3
c3
0
0
0

1 u x1
u
1 x2
1 u x3

=
y1 2 u y 1
y 2 2 u y 2


y 3 2 u y 3
0
0
0

0
0
0
a1
b1
c1

0
0
0
a2
b2
c2

0 u x1

0 u x 2

0 u x 3

y1 u y1
b3 u y 2

c3 u y 3

1 x1
A = 1 x2
1 x3

y1
y2
y3

a1 = x2 y3 x3 y 2

b1 = y 2 y3

c1 = x3 x2

a2 = x3 y1 x1 y3

b2 = y3 y1

c2 = x1 x3

a3 = x1 y 2 x2 y1

b3 = y1 y 2

c3 = x2 x1

u x ( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y )u x1 + N 2 ( x, y )u x 2 + N 3 ( x, y )u x 3

u y ( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y )u y1 + N 2 ( x, y )u y 2 + N 3 ( x, y )u y 3

1
(a1 + b1 x + c1 y )
2A
1
(a2 + b2 x + c2 y )
N 2 ( x, y ) =
2A
1
(a3 + b3 x + c3 y )
N 3 ( x, y ) =
2A

N 1 ( x, y ) =

v1 u x1
v u
2 y1
v u x 2
v = 3 =
v4 u y 2
v5 u x 3

v6 u y 3

u( x, y ) = N( x, y )v
0
N 2 ( x, y )
0
N 3 ( x, y )
0
N ( x, y )
N ( x, y ) = 1
N 1 ( x, y )
0
N 2 ( x, y )
0
N 3 ( x, y )
0
Kinematika:

= Lu = LNv = Bv
b1 0 b2
1
B=
0 c1 0
2A
c1 b1 c2

0
c2
b2

b3
0
c3

0
c3

b3

Princip virtualnog rada:

dA

dA
Vektor vornog optereenja:
pA = const.

p = const.

Naponi:

x
E

y = 1 2
xy

1
0
b1 0 b2

1
1
0
0 c1 0

1 2 A
c1 b1 c2
0 0
2

0
c2
b2

b3
0
c3

u x1
u
y1
0
u x 2
c3
u y2
b3
u x 3

u y 3

MATRICA KRUTOSTI TROUGAONOG KONANOG ELEMENTA


[b1^2+c1^2*n1, b1*n*c1+c1*n1*b1, b1*b2+c1*n1*c2, b1*n*c2+c1*n1*b2, b1*b3+c1*n1*c3,
b1*n*c3+c1*n1*b3]
[ b1*n*c1+c1*n1*b1, c1^2+b1^2*n1, c1*n*b2+b1*n1*c2, c1*c2+b1*n1*b2,
c1*n*b3+b1*n1*c3, c1*c3+b1*n1*b3]
[ b1*b2+c1*n1*c2, c1*n*b2+b1*n1*c2,
b2*b3+c2*n1*c3, b2*n*c3+c2*n1*b3]

b2^2+c2^2*n1, b2*n*c2+c2*n1*b2,

[ b1*n*c2+c1*n1*b2, c1*c2+b1*n1*b2, b2*n*c2+c2*n1*b2,


c2*n*b3+b2*n1*c3, c2*c3+b2*n1*b3]

c2^2+b2^2*n1,

[ b1*b3+c1*n1*c3, c1*n*b3+b1*n1*c3, b2*b3+c2*n1*c3, c2*n*b3+b2*n1*c3,


b3^2+c3^2*n1, b3*n*c3+c3*n1*b3]
[ b1*n*c3+c1*n1*b3, c1*c3+b1*n1*b3, b2*n*c3+c2*n1*b3, c2*c3+b2*n1*b3,
b3*n*c3+c3*n1*b3, c3^2+b3^2*n1]
n1 = (1-n)/2

n = Poisson-ov koeficijent

Sve elemente matrice krutosti treba pomnoiti sa f = 1/(4A)*t*E/(1-n2)

BILINEARNI PRAVOUGAONI KONANI ELEMENT


8

5
4

i
a

j
1

sumiranje po ponovljenom indeksu

dA

Za horizontalnu granicu:

Za vertikalnu granicu:

10

Vektor vornih sila:

Ljk duina optereene konture


Za pA i p = const. :

11

Naponi u elementu:

x ( , )
E

y ( , ) = 1 2
xy ( , )

1
0

1
0 x

1
0 0
2

1
1
1
1
( 1)
( + 1)
( + 1)

0
0
0
2a ( 1)
2a
2a
2a

1
1
1
( 1)
( + 1)
( + 1)
x
0
0
0
0
2b
2b
2b

1 ( 1) 1 ( 1) 1 ( + 1) 1 ( 1) 1 ( + 1) 1 ( + 1) 1 ( 1)
2b
2a
2b
2a
2b
2a
2b

u xi
u
yi

0

u
xj
u yj
1
( 1)
2b
u xk

1
( + 1) u yk

2a
u
xm
u ym

Matrica krutosti:
K=
1.
-1/6*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(4*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/12*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1)]
2.
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+4*a^2)]
3.
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(4*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/6*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
12

1/12*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(n+1)]
4.
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+4*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2)]
5.
1/12*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/6*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(4*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1)]
6.
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+4*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+a^2)]
7.
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/12*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(4*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/6*t/a/b*e*(-2*b^2-a^2+a^2*n),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1)]
8.
-1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+4*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(n+1),
-1/12*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2),
1/8*t*e*(3*n-1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(-b^2+b^2*n+a^2),
-1/8*t*e*(n+1),
1/6*t/a/b*e*(b^2-b^2*n+2*a^2)]
13