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Transfer the information from the text above into the graphic organizer below. Circulatory system

consists of

Open
example

Closed

Insects

Double circulatory system

Single circulatory system


example

Human
consists of

Amphibians

Birds

Fish

Heart

Blood vessel
made up of

Blood

Plasma

Cellular components
consists of

Red blood cell

White blood cell

Platelets

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Write the correct cell due to its function. Cellular component Erythrocytes (red blood cell) Function Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide Neutrophil Eosinophil Phagocytes which engulf and digest bacteria and dead cells Releases enzyme that combat inflammation in allergic reactions. Kills parasitic worms. Basophil Lymphocyte Agranular Monocyte Platelets Phagocytes which engulf and digest bacteria and dead cells Involved in the process of blood clotting. Combats inflammation in allergic reactions. Produces substances. the immune response against foreign

Leucocytes (white blood cell)

Granular

Comparison between arteries, capillaries and veins. Fill in the box with correct answer. Blood vessels Arteries Carry oxygenated blood Allow Function Capillaries rapid gaseous Carry Veins deoxygenated

(except for the pulmonary exchange, nutrients, waste and blood (except for the artery) away from the hormones between the blood pulmonary vein) heart and cells Thinnest (one-cell thick) valves, except No valves Have valves to prevent backflow of blood towards the heart Thinner

The thickness of the wall

Thick No

Valves

semilunar valves in the aorta artery and pulmonary

The size of lumen

Small

Smallest

Large 43

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Complete the label of the structure of the human heart. Aorta Superior vena cava A:Pulmonary artery B:Pulmonary vein Left atrium Right atrium Tricuspid valve Chorda tendinae Aspect Labeling Marking scheme Label the diagram /Name blood vessel A and B (Popular Question) Marks Bicuspid valve Septum Semi-lunar valve

The wall of left ventricle

Name artery X Coronary artery Drawing skill Draw a series of arrow to show the flow of oxygenated blood into the heart and out of the heart Showing correct arrows

44 Diagram shows right side of a huamn heart Complete the hert structure in the diagram Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 1

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Marking scheme State the flow of blood form vena cava to aorta Vena cava lungs aorta right atrium pulmonary vein right ventricle left atrium pulmonary artery left ventricle 2 2 Marks

Aspect Arrangement

Function

What is the funciton of structure X and Y (valve) To prevent the backflow of blood form ventricle to atria //to enure that the blood flows in one direction only 1 1 1 1

Difference

State the difference between the walls of the left ventricle and right ventricle: The walls of left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle Blood vessel A has higher pressure then vessel B Explain why 2 F-Contraction of ventricle/heart E1-Generates a (high) pressure E2-(to) propel/force/pump the blood flow from teh heart /ventricle to vessel A Any 2 Why is the wall of left ventricle thicker and more muscular than right ventricle? Because the left ventricle has to pump the blood to all part of the body while the right ventricle only has to pump the blood to the lungs Explain the importance of the difference in (b)(i) (the wall of left ventricle is thicker and more muscular) P1-To with stand the high pressure P2-to pump blood out of the heart o all part of the body 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

Predict (Effect)

Explain what will hapeen is valve (semi-lunar valve) does not function properly F-blood cannot prevent from flowing backward into left ventricle E-High blood pressure cannot be maintianed in the left ventrricle Explain the effect caused by the blockage in artery X 2 P1-Cut the supply of O2/Nutrient to the heart attack/myocardial problem Reject: Heart 1 1 1 1 2

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Marking scheme 1.2 The circulatory system humans Heart is an effective pump that made up mostly by strong muscle Name the type of muscle that build this organ Cardiac muscle The contraction of cardiac muscle need not to be stimulated by nerve impulses Explain the above statement The cardiac muscle is myogenic /it contract and relaxed by themsleve The muscle tht build the heart s myogenic.What si meaning of myogenic?1 Muscle that contract and relavs without the need to receive impulses form the nervous system 1 1 Marks

Aspect Cardiac muscle

Pumping of heart

Diagram 10.5 shows a human heart. Location of Pacemaker Name the structure Z Sinoatrial node State the function of Z Initiates and coordinates the contraction of the heart Explain how the sequence of events that takes place after Z is initiated maintain the heartbeat P1. The SA node as the pacemaker generates electrical impulses. P2. The electrical impulses spread rapidly over the walls of both atria, causing the atria to contract simultaneously. The contraction of the atria helps push blood into the ventricles. P3. The electrical impulses spread to the ventricles causing them to contact and push blood out to the lungs and body P4. The electrical impulses reach the AV node. Bundle of His fibres, bundle branches and Purkinje fibres conduct the impulses to the apex of the heart The pacemaker of a patients heart fails to function. An electronic pacemaker is used to Replace the original pacemaker. Explain how the electronic pacemaker works. P1 - Electronic pacemaker work as sino-atrial node (SAN) P2 - It generates a wave of excitatory impulses P3 - spread to atria, causing the heart to contract simultaneously. Explain what will happen to a person if the pacemaker (sinoatrial node)is impaired4 F1-Less nerve impulse are generated form SA node to the walls of atria E1-Contraction of atria are weaken causing less blood to enter the ventricles F2-Less nerve impulse are sent to the AV node E2-Thus contraction of ventricles is weaker causing less blood to b pump out of the heart Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 1 1 1 4 46 1 1 1 3 Pulmonary vein Left atrium 1 1

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The regulatory mechanism o blood pressure Aspect Knowledge Marking scheme Diagram shows a part of circulatory system in human Marks

What happen to the blood pressure as the blood flow from P to Q Blood pressure increase Adaptation Explain why is important for P to have thick wall F-withstand high pressure of blood E1-(thick wall)have muscle that can contract and relax E2-Control blood flo(to cell accorsing to the bodys need) Explain how nearby muscle at Q prevent the back flow of blood F-Nearby muscle contract and relax//nearby muscle squeeze the vein E-Push blood back toward eth heart Explain how the structure of capillaries allow substances to pas form them to the surrounding efficiently F1-the walls of capillaries are only one cell thick E1-Substances do not have very far to diffuse through them E2-Increase TS for diffusion to occur Other Our normal blood pressure is 120/80, Hg. Explain what is the measurement represent? 4 F1-120:refers systolic pressure E1-(peak of pressure)that contracting ventricles F2-80 refers to diastolic pressure E2-( the lowest arteriole blood pressure )when ventricle care relaxing Cardiovascular sisease is a disesea that related to heart and blood vessel .More people die form this disease then cancer over the past 30 years Based on your biological knowledge, how this disease can be prevented? P1-Do regular exercise P2-Eat food that lack of lipids/cholesterols any 2P 1 1 2 47 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

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The regulatory mechanism o blood pressure Aspect Criteria Marking Scheme When blood flows through a vessel, it exerts pressure against the walls of the blood vessel. This pressure is called blood pressure. Explain how blood pressure is maintained at normal level. 10 C1: Definition of blood pressure C2: Name of the mechanism C3: Cardiovascular centre C4 : The responses - if increases / decreases F1: Blood pressure is the force that drives blood through arteries and capillaries F2: Regulated by negative feedback mechanism P1.1: higher pressure in the systole / contraction stage P1.2: lower pressure in diastole / relaxation stage

P2.1: Baroreceptors or pressure receptors located in the arch of aorta and arteries P2.2: carotid arteries, detect blood pressure flowing through them P2.3: to the cardiovascular centre in the medulla oblongata P3.1: baroreceptors send impulses to the cardiovascular centre at a faster rate P3.2 sends nerve impulses to the heart P3.3 results in a weaker cardiac muscle contraction P3.4 the smooth muscles of the arteries will relax P3.5 this decreases the resistance of blood flow in the blood vessels P3.6 by widening of blood vessels / vasodilation P3.7 lower the blood pressure / back to the normal value.

F3: If blood pressure increases

F4: If blood pressure falls /decreases

P4.1 baroreceptors are less stimulated P4.2 send nerve impulses at a slower rate to the cardiovascular centre P4.3 cardiovascular centre sends nerve impulses to the heart P4.4 that results in a stronger cardiac muscle contraction. P4.5 The smooth muscles of the arteries contract P4.6 increases the resistance of blood flow in the blood vessels P4.7 narrowing of blood vessels / vasoconstriction P4.8 increase the blood pressure / back to the normal value Any ten points 48

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The circulatory system in insects, fish amphibians and human The closed Circulatory system Fish State the type of blood circulatory system shown by organism Organism Q:Single closed circulatory Name one example of organism Organism Q :Fish

Human

State the type of blood circulatory system shown by organism P Organism P: Doubled closed circulatory system Name one example of organism P Organism P :human /any suitable mammal /bird Name /State two circulations. Describe each circulation. P1 : Pulmonary circulation Description : Blood is pumped from the heart into the lungs and back to the heart. P2 : Systemic circulation Description : Blood is carried between the heart and other parts of the body except the lungs. Explain the importance of having the blood circulatory system in organism P F-(doubled circulated system) is more efficient P1-The heart pumps the blood twice/ the blood flow into the heart twice in a complete circulation P2-Highre pressure of blood can be maintained P3-The blood travels faster to organs P4-The organs get sufficient amount of glucose /oxygen nutrient//the waste product/carbon dioxide /urea can be eliminated any 3 Explain the pathway of the systemic circulatory system (human) P1 - Oxygenated blood is carried from left ventricle (heart) to the body cells(body), P2 - deoxygenated blood is carried from body cells (body) to the right atrium & right ventricle (heart). 49

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The differences between the circulatory system of insects fish, amphibians and humans Aspect Human & Fish Marking scheme Explain one difference in the structure of the heart between Organism P (human)and Organism Q (fish) 2 F-Heart of organism P has four chambers but organism Q has two chambers P1-Organism P has right atrium .left atrium, right ventricle and left ventricle but organism Q has ventricle and an atrium //QQ has one ventricle and one atrium P2-In organism P, the heart receives both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood while in organism Q , the heart only receive deoxygenated blood Diagram 10.4.2 shows the blood circulatory system in organism A and organism 1 1 2 Marks

Organism A

Organism B

Based on Diagram 10.4.2, Describe the similarities and differences between the blood circulatory system in organism A and organism B Organism A Organism B Single circulation// Blood flow only once/ Double circulation// Blood flow twice/ two one time through the heart time through the heart Heart have 2 chambers/ heart consists of 1 Heart have 4 chambers/ heart consists of 2 atrium and 1 ventricle atriums and 2 ventricles Absence of septum Presence of septum Oxygenated blood flow from gill to body Oxygenated blood flow from lungs to the cell/ tissues body heart Deoxygenated blood flow from the heart Deoxygenated blood flow from the heart to to the gill the lungs

2 2 2 2 2

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The differences between the circulatory systems of insects, fish, amphibians and humans. Organisms Type system Separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (A of circulatory Insects Open single Two Three Four Fish Closed Single Amphibians Closed Double Incomplete Humans Closed Double Complete

Number of chambers in blood vessel the heart forms heart) 1.3 The mechanism of blood clotting No Knowledge the

Marking scheme Diagram shows the mechanism of blood clotting

Marks

R Name vitamin s and Ion T vitamin S: Vitamin K Ion T : Ion Ca2+ : Prothrombin : Thrombin : Fibrinogen Name substances Substances P Substances Q Substances R 1 1 1 3 51 1 1 2

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Marking scheme Diagram show the red blood cells are trapped by structure W W Marks

Aspect Knowledge

Name structure W Fibrin Blood clotting mechanism From the diagram ,Explain the role of platelets P1-Platelets break down and release chemical released chemicals P2-To cause platelets to stick to each other P3-Palatlet clump together to form a plug to prevent blood loss

1 1 1 1 2

P4-Released thrombokinase and other clotting factors


Explain how is form F-when there is cut in the blood vessels E1-(A group )platlets clump/stick together E2-to released trombokinase/thromboplastin E3-(trombokinase/thromboplastin) converts prothrombin to thrombin E4-(thrombin ) convert fibrinogen to fibrin/structure W(fibrin /W traps erythrocytes/red blood cells) E5-then form scab(scab dried)wound/wound is healed any 4 Explain how structure W is formed STRUCTURE P1-When the blood vessel damage the platelets released a protein called thromboplastin P2- thromboplastin with the help of calcium and vitamin K ,convert prothrombin to thrombin P3-Trombin acts as an enzyme to convert fibrinogen into structure W /fibrin Diagram 10.3 shows a human blood component. Erythrocyte Leucocyte ESSAY

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4

Platelet Diagram 10.3 Explain how platelets help to stop bleeding when a wound occurs. P1 - Platelets clump together/ expose to air and produce thrombokinase// thromboplastine P2 - Thrombokinase/ thromboplastine converts prothrombin to thrombin (calcium ions must be present) Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 52 1 1

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P3 - Thrombin converts fibrinogen (a soluble protein plasma) to fibrin (Vitamin K is needed in the formation of prothrombin) P4 - Fibrin forms a network to trap the erythrocytes P5 - to form a clot// scab State a difference between fibrinogen and structure W Fibrinogen is soluble plasma protein whereas structure W is fibrin which is insoluble protein. Explain one difference between fibrinogen and fibrin P1-Fibronogen is soluble. fibrin is insoluble/not soluble P2-Fibrin able to form fibres/meshwork/thread to trap blood cell, fibrinogen is not able to do so State two importance of blood clotting P1-to prevent serious blood loss when a person is injured P2- to prevent the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles into the blood/ body through the damage blood vessels P3- to maintain normal blood pressure P4- to maintain circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system State the necessity for the formation of structure W around the wound 2 P1-To prevent serious blood loss P2-to prevent the entry of microorganism and foreign particles into the blood 3.to maintain normal blood pressure P4-To maintain circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system The structure W does not normally formed in intact blood vessels Explain why? F-Heparin in plasma/action of anticoagulants P-Prevent clot formation by suppressing activation of the platelet 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1

Difference

Importance

1 1 1 1 3

Problem related to blood clotting

53 Name the part labelled P P : Thrombus/ Cholesterol / Plaque / deposit Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 1

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Aspect Problem related to blood clotting Explain how P is formed

Marking scheme P1- Excessive cholesterol, saturated fats and calcium are deposited on the inner lining of the arteries. P2- Detached deposited cholesterol on the arteries wall can stimulate the agglutination of platelets which lead to the formation of blood clot / thrombus in the arteries to obstruct the blood flow What is the consequence in blood clot form within the unbroken blood vessel? Trombosis A man suffers form heart attack.This caused by blood clots in one of the coronary arteries What type of thrombosis occurs Coronary thrombosis How does the thrombosis in (b) form P1-induced by artheriolerosis P1-Deposited cholesterol and calcium on the coronary artery wall can stimulate the agglutination of platelets which can lead to the formation of blood clot in he artery Adam is suffered form a genetic disease.He has a problem of blood clotting, his blood takes an abnormally long time to clot Name the genetic disease suffered by Adam Haemophilia State one difference in the blood content Adam and a normal person Lack of certain blood clotting/factor VIII in Adam s blood Haemophilia is a genetic in which the individual cannot produce clotting factor. suggest one method to save the afflicted person form dying due to excessive bleeding Injection with blood factor How does the thrombosis in (b) form P1-induced by artheriolerosis P1-Deposited cholesterol and calcium on the coronary artery wall can stimulate the agglutination of platelets which can lead to the formation of blood clot in he artery

Marks 1 1 1 3

1 1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1

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1.4 lymphatic system The formation and composition of interstitial fluid Aspect Knowledge Marking scheme Show the formation of from blood circulatory system Marks

Fluid is originated form blood plasma which leaves the blood capillaries into the intercellular spaces between the cells Name fluid X Interstitial fluid Importance State the important of fluid X to the body cells Supplies the cell with their cellular requirement/oxygen /nutrient/glucose/amino acids//eliminate the excretory substances/carbon dioxide/urea from the cell Formation Explain how fluid X is formed P1-Blood flows from the artiries into capillaries which have a smaller diameter P2-Causes high hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end( of capillaries) P3-Forces some fluid out through the blood capillary wall Explain how interstitial fluid is formed P1-Blood flow form the arteries into the capillaries with a smaller diameter P2-Results in a higher hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end of the capillaries P3-the higher pressure forces some blood plasma through the capillary wall into the spaces between the cells P4-the fluid is known as interstitial fluid or tissue fluid P5-Interstitial fluid does not contain plasma protein ,erythrocytes and platelets 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

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Essay Enhancement corner No 1 Z X Y Marking scheme Marks

Describe the capillary-tissue exchange at X and at Z between the tissue fluid and the cells F1-At X:plasma carrying nutrient, oxygen and hormones, leaves the capillaries E1-this occurs because the blood pressure is higher than the osmotic pressure F2-At Z:Oxygen and nutrient molecule enter the cells E1-This occurs by diffusion, facilitated transport E2-Wastes and carbon dioxide leaves the cells E3-This occurs by diffusion (along a concentration gradient) 2 Describe with example, the transfer of dissolve material form the blood to the cells of the body P1-Dissolvd material form the red blood cells moves into the cells of the body through a network of capillaries surrounding all cells of the body through a network capillary surrounding all cells of the body P2-In the part of the capillary, network near the arterial end, blood pressure is much higher and causes some plasma to filter out of the capillaries under pressure into the tissue space to form tissue fluid P3-Tissue fluid acts as a medium of transport between the blood and the body cells P4-Nutrient such as glucose amino acids diffuses out of the blood in the capillaries into the tissue fluid and form there into thebody cells P5-Waste products formed by the cells such as urea and carbon dioxide diffuses out into the tissue fluid ,and carbon dioxide diffuses out into tissue fluid, and form there diffuses into the blood in he capillaries P6-As blood moves along the narrow capillaries, the blood pressure drops continuously P7-At the venous end of the capillary network most of the tissue fluid is reabsorb back into the capillaries by osmosis

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 56

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Diagram shows part of the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system inhuman body Explains three between the composition of fluid in P and Q F1-fluid P is red in colour, fluid q is colourless E1-Because fluid P has haemoglobin, fluid q does not have haemoglobin F2-Fluid P contain red blood cells, fluid Q ha no red blood cell E2-Bacause the red blood cells sre too large to diffuses move out of the blood capillary (to form interstitial fluid) F3-Fluid P contain blood cells and blood plasma,fluid Q only contain blood plasma without protein plasma E3-Bacause the protein plasma are to large to diffused out of the blood capillary F4-Fluid Q contain more lymphocytes, fluid P contain less lymphocytes E4-Bacaiuse as fluid Q flow through the lymphatic nodes Any 3 pairs of F and E The lymphatic system 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Aspect Knowledge

Question (Marking Scheme)

90% of fluid X returns to blood circulatory system while the remain 10% diffuses into the lymph vessel known as fluid Y Name fluid Y Lymph State the meaning of Lymph P1-Interstitial fluid that has not been reabsorbed into the blood sream goes into the lymph capilarries .Once inside the lymph capillaries the fliud is known a lymph P2-Lymph is a transparent yellowish fluid

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Question (Marking Scheme)

Aspect Knowledge

Differences

Name R and S. R Lymph capillary S Lymph node State one difference in composition between fluid Y and blood Fluid Y does not contain erythrocytes and large protein molecule as ( they are too large to pass through the capillary wall Explain one difference between the composition of interstitial fluid and lymph. 2 P1-lymph contains more / higher lymphocytes than interstitial fluid because P2system produces lymphocytes OR P3- lymph contains more fatty substances because P4-lacteals / lymph capillaries in villus transport fatty acid and glycerol / droplets of lipids / fat soluble vitamins to the blood stream (Any 2) Explain the differences between the composition of fluid R and fluid S Fluid R (blood plasma) 1. Has less lymphocyte Fluid S (lymph) 1. Has a larger numbers of lymphocyte

Explain : Lymphocyte is produced by the lymph node. 2. Contain erythrocyte & plasma protein / eg: fibrinogen through 3. Has high content of oxygen Explain : oxygen has been used up by the cell 3. Has lower contents of oxygen 58 2. No erythrocyte, no plasma protein / eg: fibrinogen

Explain: RBC & plasma protein are too big molecule to pass

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Question (Marking Scheme)

Aspect Formation

Explain the formation of lymph in R. 3 P1-The high hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end of the capillaries P2-Forces blood constituents except large molecules diffuse out (through capillaries) into intercellular spaces between cells / to form tissues fluid P3-At venous end of capillaries where hydrostatic pressure is low P4-(90% of tissues fluid returned to circulatory system and) 10% diffused into lymph capillaries to form lymph. OR -Lymph originate from tissues fluid / interstitial fluid P6-At venous end of capillaries where hydrostatic pressure is low // Hydrostatic pressure is high in the interstitial fluid P7-(90% of tissues fluid / interstitial fluid / X is returned to circulatory system and) 10% is diffused into lymph capillaries to form lymph Any 3 Describe the formation of fluid Q F-the blood /the blood capillaries has very high hydrostatic pressure E1-forcing the blood plasma without the plasma protein/erythrocytes/platlets E2-To diffused out into the spaces between the tissues E3-to form interstitial fluid E4-into the lymphatic capillaries(the vessel with blunt end E6-Forming l\ymph/lymphatic fluid/fluid Q E7-consists of blood plasma without protein plasma/contains glucose.water , amino acids,mineral vitamins Function Explain the three function of the lymphatic system 6 P1-the lymphatic system returns the excess interstitial fluid back into the blood circulatory system E1-Excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid in the space between cells results in oedema P2-th lacteal absorbs lipids ( fats ) fat soluble vitamin A,D,E,and K E2-these are transported by lymphatic vessel to the blood circulatory P3-the lymphatic system provides immunological defences against the disease E3-Lymph nodes produces and store lymphocytes Module Biology Trial paper collection 59

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Aspect

Question (Marking Scheme) 2 P1-Return the excess interstitial fluid /fluid X back into blood circulatory system, P2-Lymphocytes produce antibodies ( to destroy pathogen ) P3-Transport lipid, Vitamin A,D,E,K to blood circulatory system any 2 Explain the importance of lymphatic system in human. F1-Maintain the fluid balance in the body E1-by returning excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream OR F2-Transport fatty acids and glycerol E2-from lacteal to circulatory system

Importance State two function of lymphatic system

The role of the lymphatic system in transport No (a) Marking scheme Marks

What happens of the excess interstitial fluid does not flow into lymph vessels? P1-the excess interstial fluid will accumulated ong the cells P2-Cuse swelling of the affected body tissues P3-Oedem occurs any 2P (b) 1 1 1 2

Name the disease 1 Oedema/tissue become swollen 1

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Marking scheme Marks 1 1 2

No (c)

Explain how the disease can be happen 2 P1-Excess interstitial fluid accumulates in the spaces between the cells P2-Excess interstitial fluid is not returned to the blood circulatory system any 2

(d)

(e) (f)

State the disease when vessels R in the leg are blocked by filarial worms. Elephantiasis / filariasis / oedema / tissue swelling Explain your answer in c (i). P1(When R is blocked,) excess tissues fluid is not returned to the bloodstream P2-The body tissues become swollen P3-because of too much fluid accumulates in the space between the cells (Any 2) 1 1 1 2 1 1

(g)

Essay enchament corner (b) Based on Diagram 10.2, describe how fluid S is formed from blood plasma until it is brought back into the blood circulatory system. P1 (When the blood flows from arteries into capillaries) there is higher pressure at the arterial end of the capillaries hydrostatic 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 Module Biology Trial paper collection 61

P2 - (This high pressure) forces some plasma to pass through the capillary walls into the intercellular spaces (between the cells) P3 Once the fluid leaves the capillary walls, it is called interstitial/tissue fluid // The interstitial fluid fills the spaces between the cells and constantly bathes the cells

P4 - 90% of the interstitial fluid diffuses back into blood capillary P5 - 10% of the interstitial fluid that has not been reabsorbed into the bloodstream goes into the lymph capillaries.(Once inside the lymph capillaries) the fluid is known as lymph / S P7 - lymph / S passes through lymphatic vessels into the thoracic duct P8 - lymph/ S eventually drains into the right subclavian vein. (Hence, lymph drains back into the blood)

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1.5 The role of the circulatory system in the defence mechanism of the body No Knowledge Marking scheme Blood circulatory system transport gases and nutrient to all parts of of the body .It removes and excretes waste material through the kidneys.It also protect our body form infection of disease. Table 1 shows the body defense mechanism Body defence mechanism Type of defences Lines of defences First line defence S Second line defence P Third line defence Q Name P and Q S: Skin and mucous P; Leucocyte/white blood cells/phagocytes/monocyte/neutrophill Q: Lymphocytes Line of defence First Line defence The skin P1 - Skin consist of keratin that make difficult enough to penetrate. P2 - Sweat contain acid / pH 3-pH 5/ is not conducive for the growth of microorganism. P3 - Sweat and sebum contain lysozyme that kills the microorganisms. The respiratory tract //nasal cavity and trachea P4 - mucus on the respiratory tract traps microbes/ dust/ particles P5 - the cilia which lines the respiratory tract The stomach P6 - Hydrochloric acid can kill the microorganisms ( that present in the foods and drinks) Tears and saliva Marking scheme

Explain how first line defence can prevent the entry pathogens into the body.

P7 - contain lysozyme protect eyes and mouth from invasion of


Second line defence Explain how P plays its role in defence mechanism 2 P1-Whiete blood cell /phagocytes engulf teh pathogen P2-By phagocytosis

pathogen.

P3-Hydrolytic enzyme/lysozyme digest/breakdown the pathogen (product are absorbed)

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A B

Based on the diagram a and B Name an explain how the structure play its role in defence mechanism6 F1-Diagram A-Neutrophill Diagram B Monocytes/Macrophage P1-Phagocytosis P2-The phagocyte is attracted by the chemical produced by the bacterium P3-The phagocyte extends its pseudopodium toward the bacterium to engulf it P4-Indigestion of the bacterium form the phagosome P5-The phagosome combine with a lysosome P6-Lysosome releases lysozyme into the phagosome P7-the bacterium inside the phagosome is destroyed by the lysozyme P8-the phagocytes released the digested products from the cell Third line defence Any 8P Name the substances produced by Q(Lymphocytes) /Name the cells that produce antibodies in our body1 Antibodies / Lymphocytes State the characteristic of the substance you stated in (b) (i) 1 Specific In third line defence, B produces antibody, give the meaning of antibody is protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of an antigen State one of the ways which antibodies help to defend the body Agglutination /Neutralisation /opsonisation/precipitation Describe briefly how a plays its role in body defences 3 P1-Phagocytes move toward antigens/pathogen using pseudopodium P2-Phagocytes surround the antigen /pathogen P3-Antigen /pathogen wrapped in vacuole and hydrolysed by hydrolytic enzyme P4-Destroyed antigen /pathogen is removed from the phagocyte max 3 Give definition of antigen and antibody .Explain briefly the mechanism used by antibody to protect our own body against disease 4 Antigens is molecule that produced by microorganism that initiate antibody production Antibody is protein that produced by immune system cells that bind to foreign molecule /microorganism P1-Antibody bind to the specific antigen binding site P2-Hence , inactivates antigen by several ways P3-Neutralisation /Lysis/Aggulutination /Opsonisation Module Biology Trial paper collection 63

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The various type of Immunity Aspect Definition Explain the two type of immunity 4 F1-Active immunity P1-Means the body produces its own antibodies in response to stimulation by an antigen F2-Passive transport P2-Means the body receive an antibosies in response to stimulation by an outside source Source Describe how immunity is obtained through6 (i) active immunity P1-Active immunity can be obtained by vaccination/inoculation//artificially accuquired P2-Vaccine is a suspension of dead or weakens bacteria/virus/pathogen P3-Wite blood cell are stimulated to produce antibodies against the pathogen P4-Active immunity is also obtained when an individual has recovered form a certain disease//naturally accuquired P5-A readymade supply of antibodies will give immunity towards that disease (ii)Passive immunity P1-Passive immunity can be obtained by an individual by injecting antibodies. Antiserum into the body//artificially accuquired P2-No antigen is put into the body, so the body does not produce its own antibodies P3-Passive immunity can also be obtained by a baby when the antibodies form the mothers blood plasma diffuse into the foetus through the placenta//naturally accuquired Artificially Active immunity No (a) Marking scheme Diagram show the changes of anti bodies concentration in the blood of individual X Marks Marking scheme There are two type of immunity of human to prevent infection form disease

Name the substances that are injected into the blood of individual X / What is the substance injected into the blood of individual X and individual Q ? P : vaccine //Dead or weakened bacteria / viruses / antigens Module Biology Trial paper collection

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(b)

State the type of immunity / name the type of immunity obtained by individual X P : Artificial/(acquired ) active immunity The body produces its own antibodies to fight against infections by pathogens. 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2

(c)

Based on the diagram ,Explain why first and second injection are required by individual X F1-First injection ,the concentration of antibodies is low /below immunity level/below than 50 arbitary unit E1-Because the vaccine stimulate lymphocyte to produce antibodies slowly/less antibodies F2-Second injection , the concentration of antibodies is above immunity level /above 50 arbitrary units E2-Because vaccine stimulates the lymphocyte to produce more antibodies/exceed immunity level

(d)

Explain why a person needs a second injection to maintain the level of immunity3 F-Booster dose P1-Stimulate lymphocyte to produce more antibodies P2-To achieve immunity level P3-that protect the person against the disease 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3

(e)

A person having measles. Explain how he get the disease F-the first time measles virus enter the blood E1-the lymphocyte takes longer time to produce antibodies E2-The level of antibody is lower than the immunity level ( so he gets the measles) Table 4.1 shows a schedule of immunisation given for every new born Malaysian until the age of two. Type of immunity Tiberculosis(B.C.G) Hepatitis B (First dose) 1 month Hepatitis B (second dose) 3 month Triple antigen Polio (First dose) 5 month Triple antigen Polio (second dose) 9-24 month Germans measles 1/2 1 -2yaer Triple antigen Polio (Third dose) Based on table,state the type of pathogen which cause the disease Virus / bacteria Age New born

(f)

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Marking scheme Marks 1

No (a)

Explain why there is need for second and third doses for the immunisation F1: Immunisation is given to prevent infection from pathogens that caused diseases like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus. German measles ( state at least 2 example ) F2: New born are injected with vaccines to get Artificially Active Immunity F3: First dose are given to induce baby lymphocytes to produce antibodies which are specific against the antigens / bacteria / virus F4: 2nd and 3rd dose are booster dose to increase the production of antibodies at a faster rate. F5: Achieved immunity level // antibodies remained in the blood for a long time and provide permanent immunity / protect them from the next infection

1 1 1 1 3

(b)

Aminah was shocked when a doctor told that her baby has been diagnosed with Hepatitis B.She explained to the doctor that her baby already got her first immunization for Hepatitis B last month .Based on your biological knowledge explain why this incident occurs6 F: able to state the immunity correctly P:Able to explain why the baby has been diagnosed with Hepatitis B F1-Artificially acquired active immunity P1-Vaccination /vaccine injection P2-It will activate the body to produce antibodies P3-Result in the production of a low level of antibodies concentration P4-(but) the dose does not sufficient to protect against the disease P5-Second booster dose is necessary P6-to increase antibody production over a level of immunity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6

(c)

Diagram 10.1.2 is a graph showing the concentration of antibody in the blood of an individual after receiving two injections

Immunity level

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Time (weeks)

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1st vaccination

2nd vaccination

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1

P1 - The graph shows Artificial Active Immunity P2 - The person has been injected with a vaccine P3 - The vaccine contain killed or weakened antigens/ bacteria/viruses P4 - antigens/bacteria stimulates lymphocyte / WBC to produce antibodies P5 - 1st dose usually induces a slow production of antibody (and shorter lasting) P6 - Booster dose (2nd and 3rd ) are needed to stimulates more antibody to achieve immunity level ( and larger lasting response). P7 - any invasion of the pathogenic microorganisms, the body is able to destroy them immediately P8 - Eg of vaccination: BCG / Hepatitis / Polio / HPV (cervix cancer) Naturally Passive Immunity No (a) Marking scheme Diagram shows a mother is breastfeeding her baby

Marks

Explain the type of immunity that the baby would acquire 3 F-Natural passive immunity E1-Because breast milk contain antibody E1-Antibofy destroys pathogen E3-Protect the baby form disease (which the mother immune ) (b) Explain the importance of vaccination to a new born baby F-Vaccination contain vaccine/weak/dead pathogen E1-Stimulates the lymphocytes E2-To produce antibody E3-Enchance production of antibodies until achieve the immunity level E4-To protect the body against disease any 2 (c) Explain the type of immunity shown in diagram (a feotus in the placenta) F1-Natural acquired passive immunity E1-A foetus can receive material antibodies naturally through its mother placenta E2-these antibodies protect the baby in the first few months after birth Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 1 1 67 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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No (d)

Body immune system is important to every individual. Explain the differences between the immune system of an infant with adult who has been suffered Chikungnya3 P1-immune system for adult is Natural Active Immunity. While /immune system for infant is natural Passive Immunity P2-Adults Lymphocytes activated to produce antibodies. Meanwhile ,infant get the antibodies when it pass naturally from mother to foetus across the placenta/When babies breast feed P3-Adult long lasting immunity while, infant temporary immunity Artificially Passive immunity 1 1 1 3

No (a)

Marking scheme

Marks

State the content of the injections/What is the substance injected into the blood of individual P? Q : antiserum //Serum containing antibodies (b) State the type of immunity obtained by individual P and individual Q. Q : Artificial passive immunity The body receives antibodies produced from outside sources to fight against infections by pathogens (c) Explain the reason for your answer P1-the antibody increase above the immunity level immediately after the injection is given P2-The quantity of antibody in blood last for only two weeks/does not last long Differences Aspect First injection Marking scheme State the difference between the level of immunity in individual A and individual Y P1-In individual X Agter the first infection the level of antibody is low which is not suffieicnt to protect against the disease P2-In individual Y after the first injection, the level of antibody is high enough to provide immunity against teh disease Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 2 68 1 Marks 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

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Marking scheme Explain the difference you state in above P1-individual X ,the first injection with vaccine induces a low level of antibody concentration as the body required time to make its own antibody against antigen P2-In individual y ,immunity is obtained by injecting serum containing specific antibodies.The body does not produce own antibodies 1 2 1 Marks

Aspect First injection

Second injection

Explain the difference in the concentration of antibodies in the blood individual X and Y after second injection 2 F-In X after second injection, the concentration of antibodies increases, slowly and become higher than immunity level and is maintained for a long time E1-In Y, after second injection, the concentration of antibodies reduces slowly to below the immunity level Why is second injection required by individual x and Y X to booster/stimulate production /released of the antibody//to increase production of antibody Y: can go against//destroy the antigen /prevent diseases 1 1 2 1 1 2

Difference

Name the type of immunity obtained by individual and individual Compare and contrast between the type of immunity obtained by individual X and individual Y Individual Y F1-Artificially acquired active immunity D1-Immunity is obtained through an injection with a vaccine D2-Does not result in immediate immunity against disease D3Since the body produce own antibodies ,the induced immunity usually lasts for long time Individual X F2-Artificially acquired Passive immunity D4Immunity is obtained through an injection with serum which contains specific antibody D5result in immediate immunity against disease D6-As the body does not produce its own antibodies the immunity lasts only for a short term and offers temporary 2 2 2 2 8

Give two differences between the types of immunity obtained by individual X and Y i. Individual x is lasting permanent whereas individual Y is short lasting ot temporary ii. Individula is slow respose but individual Y immediate response iii. Individual x need lymphocytes to produce antibody whereas individual Y is ready Y readymade antibody any 2 State the difference of the antibody concentration in the blood between individual x and individual Y .Explain your answer Individual A :immunity last longer Immunity B Receive immediate immunity Module Biology Trial paper collection 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 69

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Predicting No Marking scheme A boy was bitten by a snake. He was unconscious and he was hospitalised. (c) Using your biological knowledge, describe how you could save this boy. F1: Snake venom / toxin acts as antigen to our body F2: Injection of serum which contains instant antibodies /antiserum / anti-toxin must be given to the patient. F3: Antibody-antigen action occured very fast F4: Antitoxin/ antibody reacts with toxin / snake venom/ antigen and neutralize it / he is saved. Ali was bitten by snake and become unconscious. Explain how you can save Ali P1-Injected by antiserum containing antibody/antibody through artificial passive immunity P2-Readymade antibody will destroy/nuetralise antigen /venom AIDS (acquired Immunodeficiency) Aspect Affect Marking scheme The rate of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection continues to increase rapidly all over the world7 (i)Explain how the HIV affects and cripples the bodys immune system P1: HIV infects helper T cells (T-lymphocytes) P2: Decrease in the number P3: The body becomes weak and defences against pathogen s P4: The patient dies from other secondary infections e.g. pneumonia,Kaposi sarcoma Explain how HIV affect the bodys immune system 4 F-HIV weaken the immune system E1-By attacking T Lymphocytes which coordinate the immune system E2-Decrease in the function of nervous system E3-the patient can expose himself to secondary infection Diagram 10.6 shows the structure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that infects the human immune system. 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Marks

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F - HIV reproduce inside the lymphocyte P1 - less antibody is produced // destruction of immune system P2 - it take 8 -10 years for the symptoms of disease to appear. P3 - the body prone to various infections P4 - immune system collapses and victim dies.

Way to prevent

Suggest ways to prevent the spread of HIV P5: refraining form promiscuous behavior and use of condom P6: Sticky screening of donated blood P7: Use of sterile needles and syringes P8: Carry out awareness campaigns to make the public aware of dangers HIV and how it spreads Any 3 P

1.6 Apreciatting a healthy cardiovascular system Aspect Adaptation Marking scheme Heart is very important in the human transport system Explain the adaption of muscle tissue in order for the heart to function efficiently2 E1-Cardiac muscle require energy to contract and relax E2-Mitochondria released energy (through cell respiration ) F1-Muscle tissue is myogenic E1-Which contract and relax without stimulation by nerve impulse E1-Excess cholesterol deposited on inner walls of arteries E2-Rsluts in atherosclerosis ( Lumen of arteries become smaller E3-Blood flow is reduced causing the heart to pump faster E4-Hogh pressure is exerted on the cigarette smoke reduce supply of oxygen to the heart E6-Nicotine I the cigarette hardens the wall of arteries E7-Reduce the elasticity of blood vessels E8-Causing high blood pressure /causing heart attack

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Marking scheme Mr Suhardi who is 42 years old is an editor for a famous magazine. Recently he is confirmed to be suffering form cardiovascular disease. He has a few bad habits such as smoking 20 cigarettes a day, taking fast food meal and lacking of exercise 10 Able to explain the reason of cardiovascular disease because of smoking 20 cigarettes a day F1-In the cigarette/tobacco smoke,there is carbon monoxide,tar and nicotine that cause cardiovascular disease P1-Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen supply to the heart and body cells causing arteriosclerosis P3-Nicotine stimulate the production of adrenaline hormone, which increase the heart rate and blood pressure P4-Nicotine encourages blood clotting in the narrow artery causing cardiovascular diseases P5-Tarin the tobacco smoke is carcinogenic/cause cancer/cause mutation Able to explain the reason of cardiovascular disease because of constantly taking fast food meal F2-Fast food contain a lot of unsaturated fat nad choilestrol P6-Fat and cholesterol deposit on the arterial walls P7-The lumen becomes small , and its wall hardens P8-Less blood flow /blood flow blocked P9-Causes atherosclerosis P10-Blood clots can be formed in the artery causing thrombosis F2+any 2Ps Able to explain the reason of cardiovascular disease because of Lacking of exercise F3-Exercise reduce fat level in the blood P11-reuduce the risk of arteriosclerosis because there is less at deposits on the blood vessel walls P2-Increase cardiovascular durability P13-Blood circulatory system becomes more efficient and smooth P14-Increase the heart strength F3+any2Ps Explain the effect of taking excess fatty food in the long term to our blood circulatory system / human healthy life. P1 - Fatty food contain high cholesterol level in blood P2 - Our body has better ability to store fats rather than use it ( release energy) P3 - Cholesterol deposited (in inner wall) of artery cause arteriosclerosis P4 - Lumen of artery become smaller / narrow cause high blood pressure P5 - If coronary artery is blocked, cause angina / heart attack (no oxygen and nutrient to the heart is supplied) P6 - If artery to the brain is blocked, cause stroke

Aspect Effect

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Ablood test shows that a mans erythrocytes count is below normal. Explain the possible consequences of this condition on his health. P1- Less red blood cells(RBC / erythrocyte)/ haemoglobin to combine with oxygen P2- to form oxyhaemoglobin P3 - less oxygen transported to body cells/ tissues// less oxygen diffuses into the body tissue P4 - for cellular respiration P5 - less energy is produced P6 - resulting in tiredness/ breathlessness/ weakness// fatigue P7- Pale looking appearance // anaemia.

Reduce risk of cardiovascul ar disease

Explain how a healthy lifestyle leads to a healthy cardiovascular system 10 Criteria: C1 What are cardiovascular diseases C2 Factors contribute to cardiovascular disease C2 Ways to ensure a healthy cardiovascular system (F1: What are cardiovascular diseases) P1.1 Cardiovascular diseases are disorders of the heart / the blood circulatory system P1.2: Examples - coronary thrombosis/atherosclerosis / heart attack/hypertension/embolism / angina (F2: Factors due to ) P2: genetic / family history /age P2.1: the type of food we eat / bad eating habits P2.2: diet high in fats/ cholesterol and low in fibre P2.3: deficiencies in antioxidant vitamins and minerals P2.4: sedentary lifestyle / lack of exercise P2.5: stress / cigarette smoking P2.6: obesity / diabetes (F3: Ways to ensure a healthy cardiovascular system) P3.1: A healthy lifestyle - regular exercise and a proper balanced diet P3.2: Avoid / minimize-excess sugar - high in calories P3.3 Avoid / minimize processed foods - harmful artificial substances P3.4: Avoid /r minimize foods that contain hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated fats and trans fatty acids P3.5: Consumption of such foods will cause cardiovascular diseases P3.6: Do not cook meat or fat at high temperatures P3.7: (Such practice will) avoid fat and cholesterol oxidation P3.8 ( responsible for) build up of arterial plaque / injury to arterial cells P3.9: Eat less - only when hungry / do not overeat P3.10: Adequate fiber intake help prevent cardiovascular diseases (heart and stroke)Any ten points Module Biology Trial paper collection 73

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1.7 The transport of substances in plants Aspect Knowledge Marking scheme Marks

Drawing Skill

A What is the structure shown in diagram A: root B: stem State one reason for your answer for A Presences of root hair Draw and label the observation of the root and stem cut across.

B 1 1 2

Phloem Xylem

3 Vascular Tissues Aspect Knowledge Marking scheme The stem of the plant is cut across at XY and viewed under a microscope. A cross section of the stem is shown in Diagram 4.2. Marks

Function

State/Name what tissue X and Y are. X : Phloem Y : Xylem State the function of tissue X. P1: Transport dissolved organic solutes // organic substances P2 : From the leaves to the storage organs ( e.g roots) [2 marks] State the function of tissue X. P1: Transport water and mineral salt P2 : Which absorbed by the roots up the stems to the leaves [2 marks]

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Marking scheme Diagram 4.1 shows the apparatus set up in an experiment to study the role of the vascular tissue in the transport of water in plants. Marks

Aspect Experiment

Differences

State the function of the eosin solution To stain the xylem (vessels) (with red dye) State the differences between the arrangement of vascular bundles in the stem and vascular tissues in the root of dicotyledonous plant and a monocotyledonous plant dicotyledonous plant Monocotyledonousp plant Stem Vascular bundles arranged in a Vascular bundles scattered ring throughout the stem root Xylem radiates from teh centre Xylem tissue alternates with in the form of star and Phloem phloem tissue in the form of ring fills the area between the xylem tissue Marking scheme

1 1 2 Marks

Strcuture

Structure of Tissue Y (Xylem) is formed from the specialization of a cell. During cell Xylem in specialization, the plant is unable to produce lignin. relation to Explain the effect of this on the function of tissue Y. (xylem) transport F1 : Lignin is important to make tissue Y strong // increase its mechanical strength E1 : Without lignin, tissue Y will collapse E2 : Therefore, it cannot form a continuous hollow tube E3 : To allow water (molecules) to flow upwards continuosly F2 : Lignin makes the tissue become impermeable E4 : Materials cannot pass into the xylem cells E5 : Causes the tissue to become hollww E6 : Allows continuous flow of water [6 marks] Notes : (F1 + any 2 E1 / E2 / E3) and (F2 + any 2 E4 / E5 / E6) Explain how the xylem vessel is adapted to carry out its function F -The end walls of the xylem vessel are open E1- So that the cell are joined end to end to form a long continous tube E2-This arrangement allows water to flow upward continuously from one cell to the next Module Biology Trial paper collection

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Marking scheme Discuss the importance of transportation of water in plants F-It is necessity/need .important ( for water transport in plant to survive) E1-Water is a medium to transport minerals E2-As the medium of biochemical reaction (in cells) E3-Tranpiration creates a transpirational pull/pull water form roots E4-Evaporation of water (during transpiration keeps the plants cool E5-Water provides turgor pressure for support E6-Water /are needed in guard cells in the opening of stomata any 5 correct 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 Marks

Strcuture Importance

Structure of Phloem in relation to transport

State the type of transport involved in Diagram 4.3. Translocation Explain why does the part above the ring become swollen after two week F : The products of photosynthesis cannot be transported to the parts below the ring P : as tissue M / phloem is removed Explain why have the leaves not wilted after two weeks. F : Water can still be transported to the leaves P : as tissue K / xylem is not removed from the stem Based on the observation above, explain the role of phloem in the transport system in plants F1-Transport the organic substances produced form photosynthesis to various part of plant P1-Organic substances cannot be transported to the part below because there is no phloem P2-the substances accumulate in the part above ring part, cause it to be swollen P3-Swollen show the transport of organic substances is continuous transport Based on Diagram , explain what happens to the tree after one month. P1 - Phloem is removed P2 - glucose / organic substance cannot be transported to the root/ below the ring / downwards P3 - so, glucose accumulate at this part (upper part of the ring) P4 - Upper part of the ring swells / become bigger Module Biology Trial paper collection

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Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1

Strcuture Adaptation

Marking scheme Phloem are important structure in plant transport system Explain how Phloem in the leaf help in plant transport P1-Phloem tissue composed of sieved tubes P2-With the end walls of each cell are perforated by pores to from sieves plates P3-Which allow substances to pass from one cell to another Importance State two important of translocation in plants F1-For growth and respiration F2-Excess organic substance e.g. glucose transported to be store as starch Predicting R(companion) play an important role in helping s in the plant transportation Predict what will happen to the plant if structure r is not presence? P1-The plant will dye P2-(Without R/companion cell) no energy will be provided to the sieve tube P3-Hence dissolve organic substances sucrose/cannot be transported (from leaves to the storage organ other part of plant) any 2 Predict the effect of removing the ring bark form teh branch Explain your answer. P1-The branch will be die P2-Owing to a lack of organic substances in the parts below the rings 1.8 the movement of water form root to leaves No Marking scheme Diagram shows some cells involved in the loss of water from part of a leaf

1 1 1 1

1 1

Marks

Name the tissue labeled X and Y X:Xylem tissue Y:Spongy mesophyll On the diagram ,use arrows ( ) to indicate the movement of water hat results in the loss of water through transpiration 1

1 1

1 The bigger the size of the leaves, the higher the rate of transpiration Explain the above statement2 F-More water will diffuses out form the leaf E1-Surface area that exposed to surrounding is bigger/larger E2-Munber of stomata is higher/more stomata Module Biology Trial paper collection

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The external condition that affect the rate of transpiration Marking scheme Transpiration is the loss water form a living plant due to evaporation Knowledge State two external conditions affecting the rate of transpiration 2 P1-Light intensity P2-Temperature P3-humidity P4-air movement Essay Enhancement corner Explain the importance of transpiration .Describe the effect of external condition on transpiration Aspect Definition Marking scheme F-Transpiration is the loss of water vapour through evapouration from the leaves of plants P1-the loss of water is replaced by the absorption of water from the soil P2-Transpiration help in the absorption and transportation water and mineral ions of from the soil External factor Light intensity F1-External factor such as light intensity, temperature, humidity and air movement affect transpiration rate F1-An increase in light intensity increases the rate of transpiration E1-Light stimulate the opening of stomata, As a result more water vapour evaporate and diffuse out of the stomata F1-Higher temperature increase the rate of evaporation of film of water on mesophyll surface E1-The rate of diffusion of water out of the stomata also increase Air movement F1-Accumulated water vapour on the leaf surface will remove by faster air movement E1-Air movement increases the concentration gradient between the water vapour in the leaves and the atmosphere outside F1-High humidity surrounding the leaves reduces the evaporations water through stomata E1-cause evaporation to slow down Explain how the factors affect the rate of transpiration? Aspect Temperature Marking scheme Explain how the factors that affect the rate of transpiration F1-Environmental temperature increases ,the rate of evaporation of water from the surface of leaves increases E1-Hence the rate of transpiration increases as high temperature/ decreases at low temperature Module Biology Trial paper collection Marks 1 1 Aspect Marks 1 1 1 1

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

Temperature

Humidity

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Marking scheme F2- The light intensity increases, it will speed up the rate of transpiration E2-When light intensity is high, the stomata open, Cause the rate of transpiration increases E4-When light intensity is low ,stomata close, cause rate of transpiration decreases F3-when air movement is fast, it increase therate of evaporation and cause the rate of transpiration increase F4When there is no air movement Marks 1 1 1 1 6 1

Aspect Light intensity

Air movement

The movement of water from soil to leaves Diagram shows the pathway of water transport in three different part L,M and N of a plant

No

Marking scheme Explain how the rate of water transport through L, M and N is affects on a windy day 8 F1-Rate of water transport through L, M and N is higher on a windy day F2-When the air movement increase/wind , more water vapuor will evaporate form the surface of the meosphyll cells into the air spaces

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 79 1

Part L/ Leaves

E2-the moving air will move more water vapour away form the stomata E3-incraeses the concentration gradient between the water vapour in the leaf and the outside of the leaf E4-The lost of water form mesophyll cell makes the cell hypertonic to an adjacent cells /xylem E5-More water from the (adjacent cells /xylem vessels) diffuses in to mesophyll cell by osmosis E6-Increase the transpirational pull

Part N/ E7-Presence of cohesive/water and molecule bind together//adhesive /water molecule and stem xylem wall /capillary action E8-Causes the water to moves continuously upward Part M/ E9-the transpirational pull drawn more water from the xylem in the leaves and stem and root: eventually from the xylem in the root E10-Soil is hypertonic compared to the root hair//vice versa E11-More water for the soil diffuses into the root hair by osmosis Module Biology Trial paper collection

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Movement of water through stem R and s are vascular tissue. Explain how R and S are involved in the movement of substances in plants Aspect F1-S are xylem (vessels) Marking scheme P2-Xylem /S are well adapted for water transport which are long/narrow/continous tubes P3-Which transport water in plants P5-By capillary action P5-Due to the force between water molecule /cohesion force,and the force between water molecule and wall of xylem /S/adhesion force OR P4-By root pressure P5-Water enters xylem bu osmosis OR P4-By transpirational pull P5-Water is pulled out of xylem (during transpiration ) P1-R are phloem /sieve tubes and companion cells P2-Which transport organic compound/glucose/product of photosynthesis P3-By translocation any 2 Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

F2-Phloem

The regulation of transpiration by stomata An experiment on a plant is carried out to study the rate of water loss from 0500 to 0300 the next day. Graph 6.1 shows the result of the experiment and diagram 6.2 shows the structure of a stoma and the cells found in the epidermal layer of a leaf.

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No (a)

(b)

Marking scheme Based on the graph, explain how light intensity and the structure in diagram 6.2 affect the rate of water loss 10 F1 : From 0500 to 0170, the rate of water loss increases E1: Light intensity increases E2 : stimulates photosynthesis in the guard cells./ (The guard cells) start producing glucose E3 : This makes energy available for potassium to move into guard cells E4 : by active transport E5 : (The guard cells) become hypertonic (compared to the cell sap) of the epidermal cells. E6 : Water molecules from the epidermal cells diffuse into the guard cells by osmosis E7 : Causing the guard cells to bend outwards E8 : the stoma opens (to allow water to escape to the atmosphere through it) F2 : From 0170 to 0300, the rate of water loss decreases E9 : Light intensity decreases / causes the rate of photosynthesis to decrease / soon stop. E10 : The guard cells become flaccid E11 : and bend inwards E12: The stoma closes and this prevent water molecules to escape through it. Notes : (F1 + any 5 Es) + (F2 + 3 Es) Diagram shows cell Q during day time

Marks

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10

Explain how light intensity affect the opening of structure R 3 F1-High light intensity stimulates photosynthesis in guard cells /cell E1-Gruard cells producing glucose //Potassium ions (K+) diffuses /moves into guard cells by active transport E2-The guard ells become hypertonic compare to neighboring cell E3-Water moves into/diffuses by osmosis E4-Guard cells/Cell Q become turgid(Stoma open) Module Biology Trial paper collection

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No (a)

(b)

Marking scheme The size of pore T is controlled by two guard cells Explain the process which occurs in the opening of pore T F1-During the day//the presence of sunlight F2-Gurad cells carry out photosynthesis//glucose is produce E1-active transport of potassium ions into the guard cells increases E2-Osmotic pressure in the guard cells increases E3-Water enter the guard cells increases E4-Water enter the guard cells by osmosis E5-Hydrstatic pressure in the guard cells increases E6-the guard cells become turgid any 4 correct diagram shows the opening of stomata during the midday

(c)

(d)

Describe the change that take place in guard cells which caused the above situation F-Large amount/higher concentration of glucose in guard cells produced by the photosynthesis E1-K+ ions area actively pumped from surrounding epidermal cells into the guard cell E2-It causes osmotic pressure in guard cells increase//the guard cell become more concentrated than neighbor cells/adjacent cells E3-Water form neighbor cells move in the guard cells by osmosis E4-the guard cells become turgid and curve out ward and stomata open Explain the movement of water molecule form air space through pore T 2 F-the lost of water (molecule) form a plant into the atmosphere E1-in the form of water vapor//evaporation of water E2-Occurs when the water content in the atmosphere is lower than ( in the sub-syamayal air space ) in leaves(Accept the difference in any suitable physical condition between these two regions) any2 The plant is grown in an area which is exposed to hot weather during day Explain the adaptation of plant in order to survive in the environment Leaves /(young) stem are covered with thick cuticle /waxy Have sunkened stomata//stomata are in grooves More stomata on the lower epidermis (compared to the upper epidermis) the stomata are closed during the day //absorption of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis occurs during the night the young leaves roll /to reduces the surface area these are to reduce the rate of transpiration /lost of water from the plant

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SULIT Chapter 1:Transport 2014

State two adaptation of the in regulating the rate of transpiration in plant. Explain how these adaptations help in the rate of transpiration Aspect F1-Guard cell contain chloroplast Marking scheme P1-During the day time sunlight stimulates photosynthesis in the guard cell P2-Glucose produced during photosynthesis generates the energy required for the active transport of potassium ions(k+) form adjacent cells into guard cells P3-Guard cell become hypertonic,water form adjacent cells diffuses into guard cell by osmosis P4-The guard cell swell up become turgid P5-The turgid guard cells bend outward,cause stomata to open for transpiration P6-At night when no photosynthesis carry out potassium ions exit the guard cell P7-Water diffuses from the hypotonic guard cells to adjacent cells by osmosis P8-Guard cells become flaccid and thus the stoma closes to lower the rate of transpiration P1-Guard cell become turgid .the thinner outer cell wall stretches more than the thicker inner cell wall P2-Thus guard cell bend outward and the stoma opens for transpiration P3-When Guard cells become flaccid, The thinner outer cell wall does not stretch thus stomata straighten to close the stoma Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

F2-Guard cell have cell wall of uneven thickness. the inner wall is thicker than the outer layer

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Identify this phenomena (guttation ) and compare the two phenomena transpiration and guttation No Marking scheme F-The phenomenon shown is guttation Similarity: Both transpiration and guttation involve the loss of water form plants Differences: Guttation D1-Water loss in form of liquid D2-Occurs through a pores known as hydathodes D3-Rate of guttation is high at night or during cool humid morning Marks 1 1

Transpiration Water loss in form of water vapour Water mainly loss through stomata Transpiration occur during day time only

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