Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

AP Biology

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. What term is used to describe the transfer of free energy from catabolic pathways to anabolic

pathways? a feedback regulation


. b . c . d . e .

bioenergetics energy coupling entropy cooperativity

The next questions are based on the following information. A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X ! A. "roduct A binds to the enzyme that converts X to at a position remote from its active site. #his binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
____ $. #he mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the

pathway is known as a metabolic inhibition.


. b . c . d . e .

feedback inhibition. allosteric inhibition. noncooperative inhibition. reversible inhibition.

____

%. Among enzymes& kinases catalyze phosphorylation& while phosphatases catalyze removal of

phosphate's(. A cell)s use of these enzymes can therefore function as an on*off switch for various processes. Which of the following is probably involved? a the change in a protein)s charge leading to a conformational change
. b the change in a protein)s charge leading to cleavage . c a change in the optimal p+ at which a reaction will occur . d a change in the optimal temperature at which a reaction will occur

. e the e,cision of one or more peptides .

Use the following information to answer the next questions. -n the presence of o,ygen& the three*carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. .irst& however& the pyruvate 1( loses a carbon& which is given off as a molecule of o,idized to form a two*carbon compound called acetate& and %( is bonded to coenzyme A.
____ /. +ow does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion? a active transport . b diffusion . c facilitated diffusion . d through a channel . e through a pore .

& $( is

____

0. #he primary role of o,ygen in cellular respiration is to a yield energy in the form of A#" as it is passed down the respiratory chain. . b act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen& forming water. . c combine with carbon& forming . . d combine with lactate& forming pyruvate. . e catalyze the reactions of glycolysis. .

____

1. Appro,imately how many molecules of A#" are produced from the complete o,idation of two

molecules of glucose ' a $


. b . c . d . e .

( in cellular respiration?

/ 10 %2 31

____

3. Which of the following describes ubi4uinone? a a protein in the electron transport chain . b a small hydrophobic coenzyme . c a substrate for synthesis of .A5+ . d a vitamin needed for efficient glycolysis . e an essential amino acid .

____

2. 6lycolysis is thought to be one of the most ancient of metabolic processes. Which statement

supports this idea? a 6lycolysis is the most widespread metabolic pathway.


. b . c . d . e .

6lycolysis neither uses nor needs 7$. 6lycolysis is found in all eukaryotic cells. #he enzymes of glycolysis are found in the cytosol rather than in a membrane* enclosed organelle. Ancient prokaryotic cells& the most primitive of cells& made e,tensive use of glycolysis long before o,ygen was present in 8arth)s atmosphere.

____

9. :ells do not catabolize carbon dio,ide because a its double bonds are too stable to be broken. . b has fewer bonding electrons than other organic compounds. . c is already completely reduced. . d is already completely o,idized. . e the molecule has too few atoms. .

____ 1;. <ost from catabolism is released during a glycolysis. . b the citric acid cycle. . c lactate fermentation. .

d electron transport. . e o,idative phosphorylation. .

____ 11. -n the thylakoid membranes& what is the main role of the antenna pigment molecules? a split water and release o,ygen to the reaction*center chlorophyll . b harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction*center chlorophyll . c synthesize A#" from A5" and "i . d transfer electrons to ferredo,in and then =A5"+ . e concentrate photons within the stroma .

____ 1$. -n mitochondria& chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matri, into the intermembrane space&

whereas in chloroplasts& chemiosmosis translocates protons from a the stroma to the photosystem --.
. b . c . d . e .

the matri, to the stroma. the stroma to the thylakoid space. the intermembrane space to the matri,. A#" synthase to =A5" reductase.

____ 1%. >eduction of =A5" occurs during a photosynthesis. . b respiration. . c both photosynthesis and respiration. . d neither photosynthesis nor respiration. . e photorespiration. .

____ 1/. What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the 4uantity of energy per photon? a #hey have a direct& linear relationship. .

b . c . d . e .

#hey are inversely related. #hey are logarithmically related. #hey are separate phenomena. #hey are only related in certain parts of the spectrum.

____ 10. What is the primary function of the :alvin cycle? a use A#" to release carbon dio,ide . b use =A5"+ to release carbon dio,ide . c split water and release o,ygen . d transport >u?" out of the chloroplast . e synthesize simple sugars from carbon dio,ide .

Use the following figure and the stages labeled A, B, C, , and ! to answer the following questions.

Figure 10.2
____ 11. Which molecule's( of the :alvin cycle is@are most like molecules found in glycolysis? a A& ?& :& and 8 . b ?& :& and 8 . c A only . d : and 5 only . e 8 only .

____ 13. Which of the following se4uences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

a =A5"+ . b =A5"+ :alvin cycle . c =A5"+ chlorophyll :alvin cycle . d photosystem - photosystem -. e =A5"+ electron transport chain .

____ 12. Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into

smaller ones? a catalysis


. b . c . d . e .

metabolism anabolism dehydration catabolism

____ 19. Which of the following is 'are( true for anabolic pathways? a #hey do not depend on enzymes. . b #hey are usually highly spontaneous chemical reactions. . c #hey consume energy to build up polymers from monomers. . d #hey release energy as they degrade polymers to monomers. .

____ $;. Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics? a 8nergy cannot be created or destroyed. . b #he entropy of the universe is decreasing. . c #he entropy of the universe is constant. . d Ainetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of . matter. e 8nergy cannot be transferred or transformed. .

____ $1. .or living organisms& which of the following is an important conse4uence of the first law of

thermodynamics? a #he energy content of an organism is constant.


. b . c . d . e .

#he organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment. #he entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in comple,ity. 7rganisms are unable to transform energy. Bife does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.

____ $$. Biving organisms increase in comple,ity as they grow& resulting in a decrease in the entropy of an

organism. +ow does this relate to the second law of thermodynamics? a Biving organisms do not obey the second law of thermodynamics& which states . that entropy must increase with time. b Bife obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as . the organism grows is balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe. c Biving organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics.
. d As a conse4uence of growing& organisms create more disorder in their . environment than the decrease in entropy associated with their growth. e Biving organisms are able to transform energy into entropy. .

____ $%. Which of the following statements is a logical conse4uence of the second law of thermodynamics? a -f the entropy of a system increases& there must be a corresponding decrease in . the entropy of the universe. b -f there is an increase in the energy of a system& there must be a corresponding . decrease in the energy of the rest of the universe. c 8very energy transfer re4uires activation energy from the environment. . d 8very chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe. . e 8nergy can be transferred or transformed& but it cannot be created or destroyed. .

____ $/. Which of the following statements is representative of the second law of thermodynamics? a :onversion of energy from one form to another is always accompanied by some . gain of free energy. b +eat represents a form of energy that can be used by most organisms to do work. . c Without an input of energy& organisms would tend toward decreasing entropy.

. d :ells re4uire a constant input of energy to maintain their high level of . organization. e 8very energy transformation by a cell decreases the entropy of the universe. .

____ $0. Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell? a dehydration reactions . b hydrolysis . c respiration . d digestion . e catabolism .

____ $1. :hemical e4uilibrium is relatively rare in living cells. Which of the following could be an e,ample

of a reaction at chemical e4uilibrium in a cell? a a reaction in which the free energy at e4uilibrium is higher than the energy . content at any point away from e4uilibrium b a chemical reaction in which the entropy change in the reaction is Cust balanced . by an opposite entropy change in the cell)s surroundings c an endergonic reaction in an active metabolic pathway where the energy for that . reaction is supplied only by heat from the environment d a chemical reaction in which both the reactants and products are only used in a . metabolic pathway that is completely inactive e #here is no possibility of having chemical e4uilibrium in any living cell.
.

____ $3. Which of the following best describes enthalpy '+(? a the total kinetic energy of a system . b the heat content of a chemical system . c the system)s entropy . d the cell)s energy e4uilibrium . e the condition of a cell that is not able to react .

____ $2. Why is A#" an important molecule in metabolism? a -ts hydrolysis provides an input of free energy for e,ergonic reactions.

. b . c . d . e .

-t provides energy coupling between e,ergonic and endergonic reactions. -ts terminal phosphate group contains a strong covalent bond that when hydrolyzed releases free energy. -ts terminal phosphate bond has higher energy than the other two. A& ?& :& and 5

____ $9. Which of the following is most similar in structure to A#"? a an anabolic steroid . b a 5=A heli, . c an >=A nucleotide . d an amino acid with three phosphate groups attached . e a phospholipid .

____ %;. A solution of starch at room temperature does not readily decompose to form a solution of simple

sugars because a the starch solution has less free energy than the sugar solution.
. b . c . d . e .

the hydrolysis of starch to sugar is endergonic. the activation energy barrier for this reaction cannot be surmounted. starch cannot be hydrolyzed in the presence of so much water. starch hydrolysis is nonspontaneous.

____ %1. Which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true? a 8nzymes decrease the free energy change of a reaction. . b 8nzymes increase the rate of a reaction. . c 8nzymes change the direction of chemical reactions. . d 8nzymes are permanently altered by the reactions they catalyze. . e 8nzymes prevent changes in substrate concentrations. .

____ %$. #he active site of an enzyme is the region that a binds allosteric regulators of the enzyme. . b is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme. . c binds the products of the catalytic reaction. . d is inhibited by the presence of a coenzyme or a cofactor. .

____ %%. According to the induced fit hypothesis of enzyme catalysis& which of the following is correct? a #he binding of the substrate depends on the shape of the active site. . b Dome enzymes change their structure when activators bind to the enzyme. . c A competitive inhibitor can outcompete the substrate for the active site. . d #he binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme)s active site. . e #he active site creates a microenvironment ideal for the reaction. .

"efer to #igure $.% to answer the following questions.

Figure 8.1
____ %/. Which of the following is true of enzymes? a 8nzymes may re4uire a nonprotein cofactor or ion for catalysis to take speed up . more appreciably than if the enzymes act alone. b 8nzyme function is increased if the three*dimensional structure or conformation . of an enzyme is altered. c 8nzyme function is independent of physical and chemical environmental factors . such as p+ and temperature. d 8nzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by lowering activation energy . barriers.

____ %0. !inc& an essential trace element for most organisms& is present in the active site of the enzyme

carbo,ypeptidase. #he zinc most likely functions as a'n( a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme.
. b . c . d . e .

noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme. allosteric activator of the enzyme. cofactor necessary for enzyme activity. coenzyme derived from a vitamin.

Use the following information to answer the following questions. Duccinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. #he reaction is inhibited by malonic acid& which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. -ncreasing the ratio of succinate to malonic acid reduces the inhibitory effect of malonic acid.
____ %1. What is the purpose of using malonic acid in this e,periment? a -t is a competitive inhibitor. . b -t blocks the binding of fumarate. . c -t is a noncompetitive inhibitor. . d -t is able to bind to succinate. . e -t replaces the usual enzyme. .

____ %3. :ompetitive inhibitors block the entry of substrate into the active site of an enzyme. 7n which of the

following properties of an active site does this primarily depend? a the ability of an enzyme to form a template for holding and Coining molecules
. b . c . d . e .

the enzyme)s ability to stretch reactants and move them toward a transition state the enzyme providing an appropriate microenvironment conducive to a reaction)s occurrence the enzyme forming covalent bonds with the reactants the enzyme becoming too saturated because of the concentration of substrate

____ %2. What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down comple,

molecules? a anabolic pathways


. b . c . d . e .

catabolic pathways fermentation pathways thermodynamic pathways bioenergetic pathways

____ %9. #he molecule that functions as the reducing agent 'electron donor( in a redo, or o,idation*reduction

reaction a gains electrons and gains energy.


. b . c . d . e .

loses electrons and loses energy. gains electrons and loses energy. loses electrons and gains energy. neither gains nor loses electrons& but gains or loses energy.

____ /;. When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom& what happens? a 8nergy is released. . b 8nergy is consumed. . c #he more electronegative atom is reduced. .

d #he more electronegative atom is o,idized. . e A and : are correct. .

____ /1. Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction? a . b . c . d . e .

is o,idized and is o,idized and is reduced and

is reduced.

is reduced. is o,idized. is o,idized.

is reduced and is reduced and

is o,idized.

____ /$. Which of the following statements describes =A5 ? a =A5 is reduced to =A5+ during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. . b =A5 has more chemical energy than =A5+. . c =A5 is reduced by the action of hydrogenases. . d =A5 can donate electrons for use in o,idative phosphorylation. . e -n the absence of =A5 & glycolysis can still function. .

____ /%. Where does glycolysis takes place? a mitochondrial matri, . b mitochondrial outer membrane . c mitochondrial inner membrane . d mitochondrial intermembrane space . e cytosol .

____ //. #he A#" made during glycolysis is generated by a substrate*level phosphorylation. .

b . c . d . e .

electron transport. photophosphorylation. chemiosmosis. o,idation of =A5+ to =A5 .

____ /0. #he o,ygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event? a glycolysis . b accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain . c the citric acid cycle . d the o,idation of pyruvate to acetyl :oA . e the phosphorylation of A5" to form A#" .

____ /1. Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether o,ygen '7$( is present or absent? a electron transport . b glycolysis . c the citric acid cycle . d o,idative phosphorylation . e chemiosmosis .

____ /3. Why are carbohydrates and fats considered high energy foods? a #hey have a lot of o,ygen atoms. . b #hey have no nitrogen in their makeup. . c #hey can have very long carbon skeletons. . d #hey have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen. . e #hey are easily reduced. .

____ /2. -n addition to A#"& what are the end products of glycolysis?

a and . b and pyruvate . c =A5+ and pyruvate . d and =A5+ . e & & and citrate .

____ /9. #he free energy for the o,idation of glucose to

and water is *121 kcal@mole and the free energy for the reduction of =A5E to =A5+ is E0% kcal@mole. Why are only two molecules of =A5+ formed during glycolysis when it appears that as many as a dozen could be formed? a <ost of the free energy available from the o,idation of glucose is used in the . production of A#" in glycolysis. b 6lycolysis is a very inefficient reaction& with much of the energy of glucose . released as heat. c <ost of the free energy available from the o,idation of glucose remains in . pyruvate& one of the products of glycolysis.
d #here is no or water produced as products of glycolysis. . e 6lycolysis consists of many enzymatic reactions& each of which e,tracts some . energy from the glucose molecule.

____ 0;. Dtarting with one molecule of glucose& the FnetF products of glycolysis are a $ =A5 & $ + & $ pyruvate& $ A#"& and $ . . b $ =A5+& $ + & $ pyruvate& $ A#"& and $ . . c $ & $ pyruvate& / A#"& and $ . . d 1 &1 & $ A#"& and $ pyruvate. . e 1 &1 & %1 A#"& and $ citrate. .

____ 01. -n glycolysis& for each molecule of glucose o,idized to pyruvate a $ molecules of A#" are used and $ molecules of A#" are produced. . b $ molecules of A#" are used and / molecules of A#" are produced. . c / molecules of A#" are used and $ molecules of A#" are produced. . d $ molecules of A#" are used and 1 molecules of A#" are produced. .

e 1 molecules of A#" are used and 1 molecules of A#" are produced. .

____ 0$. A molecule that is phosphorylated a has been reduced as a result of a redo, reaction involving the loss of an inorganic . phosphate. b has a decreased chemical reactivityG it is less likely to provide energy for cellular . work. c has been o,idized as a result of a redo, reaction involving the gain of an . inorganic phosphate. d has an increased chemical reactivityG it is primed to do cellular work. . e has less energy than before its phosphorylation and therefore less energy for . cellular work.

____ 0%. Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis? a an agent that reacts with o,ygen and depletes its concentration in the cell . b an agent that binds to pyruvate and inactivates it . c an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized . d an agent that reacts with =A5+ and o,idizes it to =A5 . e an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain .

____ 0/. Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase? a -t both splits molecules and assembles molecules. . b -t attaches and detaches phosphate groups. . c -t uses glucose and generates pyruvate. . d -t shifts molecules from cytosol to mitochondrion. . e -t uses stored A#" and then forms a net increase in A#". .

"efer to #igure &.', showing the citric acid cycle, as a guide to answer the following questions.

Figure 9.2
____ 00. +ow many reduced dinucleotides would be produced with four turns of the citric acid cycle? a 1 and / =A5+ . b $ and 2 =A5+ . c / and 1$ =A5+ . d 1 .A5 and / =A5 . e / .A5 and 1$ =A5 .

____ 01. Dtarting with citrate& which of the following combinations of products would result from three turns

of the citric acid cycle?


a . b . c . d . e .

1 A#"& $ $ A#"& $ % A#"& % % A#"& 1 %2 A#"& 1

& % =A5+& and 1 & 1 =A5+& and % & % =A5+& and % & 9 =A5+& and % & % =A5+& and 1$

____ 03. .or each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle& what is the

total number of =A5+ E

molecules produced?

a . b . c . d . e .

/ 0 1 1; 1$

____ 02. A young animal has never had much energy. +e is brought to a veterinarian for help and is sent to

the animal hospital for some tests. #here they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration& and his cells produce more lactate than normal. 7f the following& which is the best e,planation of his condition? a +is mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer . mitochondrial membrane. b +is cells cannot move =A5+ from glycolysis into the mitochondria.
. c . d . e .

+is cells contain something that inhibits o,ygen use in his mitochondria. +is cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate. +is cells have a defective electron transport chain& so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl :oA.

____ 09. :ellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which of the following? a substrate*level phosphorylation . b chemiosmotic phosphorylation . c converting o,ygen to A#" . d transferring electrons from organic molecules to pyruvate . e generating carbon dio,ide and o,ygen in the electron transport chain .

____ 1;. 5uring aerobic respiration& electrons travel downhill in which se4uence? a food citric acid cycle A#" =A5E . b food =A5+ electron transport chain o,ygen . c glucose pyruvate A#" o,ygen . d glucose A#" electron transport chain =A5+

. e food glycolysis citric acid cycle =A5+ A#" .

____ 11. Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located? a cytosol . b mitochondrial outer membrane . c mitochondrial inner membrane . d mitochondrial intermembrane space . e mitochondrial matri, .

____ 1$. -nside an active mitochondrion& most electrons follow which pathway? a glycolysis =A5+ o,idative phosphorylation A#" o,ygen . b citric acid cycle electron transport chain A#" . c electron transport chain citric acid cycle A#" o,ygen . d pyruvate citric acid cycle A#" =A5+ o,ygen . e citric acid cycle =A5+ electron transport chain o,ygen .

____ 1%. 8nergy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump +E ions into which location? a cytosol . b mitochondrial outer membrane . c mitochondrial inner membrane . d mitochondrial intermembrane space . e mitochondrial matri, .

____ 1/. #he direct energy source that drives A#" synthesis during respiratory o,idative phosphorylation is a o,idation of glucose to and water. . b the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from =A5+ to the . mitochondrial electron transport carriers.

c the final transfer of electrons to o,ygen. . d the difference in + concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial .

membrane. e the thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the . citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of A5".

____ 10. When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matri, across the inner membrane and into

the intermembrane space& the result is the a formation of A#".


. b . c . d . e .

reduction of =A5 . restoration of the =a @A balance across the membrane. creation of a proton gradient. lowering of p+ in the mitochondrial matri,.

____ 11. Where is A#" synthase located in the mitochondrion? a cytosol . b electron transport chain . c outer membrane . d inner membrane . e mitochondrial matri, .

____ 13. Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the

:alvin cycle?
a and glucose . b and . c A5"& & and =A5" . d electrons and + . e A#" and =A5"+ .

____ 12. Where does the :alvin cycle take place? a stroma of the chloroplast . b thylakoid membrane . c cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplast . d chlorophyll molecule . e outer membrane of the chloroplast .

____ 19. -n autotrophic bacteria& where are the enzymes located that can carry on organic synthesis? a chloroplast membranes . b nuclear membranes . c free in the cytosol . d along the outer edge of the nucleoid . e along the inner surface of the plasma membrane .

____ 3;. When o,ygen is released as a result of photosynthesis& it is a by*product of which of the following? a reducing =A5" . b splitting the water molecules . c chemiosmosis . d the electron transfer system of photosystem . e the electron transfer system of photosystem -.

____ 31. A plant has a uni4ue photosynthetic pigment. #he leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow.

What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment? a red and yellow
. b . c . d . e

blue and violet green and yellow blue& green& and red green& blue& and yellow

Use the following information to answer the questions below. #heodor W. 8ngelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism& thus e,posing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. +e added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. +e noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
____ 3$. What did 8ngelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue areas? a ?acteria released e,cess carbon dio,ide in these areas. . b ?acteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature of the . red and blue light. c ?acteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most o,ygen . being released. d ?acteria are attracted to red and blue light and thus these wavelengths are more . reactive than other wavelengths. e ?acteria congregated in these areas due to an increase in the temperature caused . by an increase in photosynthesis.

____ 3%. An outcome of this e,periment was to help determine a the relationship between heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms. . b the relationship between wavelengths of light and the rate of aerobic respiration. . c the relationship between wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released. . d the relationship between wavelengths of light and the o,ygen released during . photosynthesis. e the relationship between the concentration of carbon dio,ide and the rate of . photosynthesis.

____ 3/. -f you ran the same e,periment without passing light through a prism& what would you predict? a #here would be no difference in results. . b #he bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments. . c #he number of bacteria present would decrease due to an increase in the carbon . dio,ide concentration. d #he number of bacteria present would increase due to an increase in the carbon . dio,ide concentration. e #he number of bacteria would decrease due to a decrease in the temperature of . the water.

____ 30. Which of the events listed below occur in the light reactions of photosynthesis? a =A5" is produced. . b is reduced to =A5" . . c carbon dio,ide is incorporated into "6A. . d A#" is phosphorylated to yield A5". . e light is absorbed and funneled to reaction*center chlorophyll a. .

____ 31. As a research scientist& you measure the amount of A#" and =A5"+ consumed by the :alvin cycle

in 1 hour. ou find %;&;;; molecules of A#" consumed& but only $;&;;; molecules of =A5"+. Where did the e,tra A#" molecules come from? a photosystem -. b . c . d . e .

photosystem cyclic electron flow linear electron flow chlorophyll

____ 33. Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated

from the stroma. #his damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes? a the splitting of water
. b . c . d . e .

the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll the flow of electrons from photosystem -- to photosystem the synthesis of A#" the reduction of =A5"

____ 32. What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve? a establishment of a proton gradient . b diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane . c reduction of water to produce A#" energy

. d movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma . e formation of glucose& using carbon dio,ide& =A5"+& and A#" .

____ 39. -n a plant cell& where are the A#" synthase comple,es located? a thylakoid membrane . b plasma membrane . c inner mitochondrial membrane . d A and : . e A& ?& and : .

____ 2;. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and

respiration? a >espiration is the reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.


. b . c . d . e .

"hotosynthesis stores energy in comple, organic molecules& while respiration releases it. "hotosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration occurs only in animals. A#" molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration. >espiration is anabolic and photosynthesis is catabolic.

____ 21. Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells? a thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts . b stroma of chloroplasts . c outer membrane of mitochondria . d matri, of mitochondria . e cytoplasm .

____ 2$. Dynthesis of A#" by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during a photosynthesis.

. b . c . d . e .

respiration. both photosynthesis and respiration. neither photosynthesis nor respiration. photorespiration.

____ 2%. 6eneration of proton gradients across membranes occurs during a photosynthesis. . b respiration. . c both photosynthesis and respiration. . d neither photosynthesis nor respiration. . e photorespiration. .

____ 2/. -n a protein comple, for the light reaction 'a reaction center(& energy is transferred from pigment

molecule to pigment molecule& to a special chlorophyll a molecule& and eventually to the primary electron acceptor. Why does this occur? a #he action spectrum of that molecule is such that it is different from other . molecules of chlorophyll. b #he potential energy of the electron has to go back to the ground state.
. c . d . e .

#he molecular environment lets it boost an electron to a higher energy level and also to transfer the electron to another molecule. 8ach pigment molecule has to be able to act independently to e,cite electrons. #hese chlorophyll a molecules are associated with higher concentrations of A#".

____ 20. Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and

the :alvin cycle? a #he light reactions provide A#" and =A5"+ to the :alvin cycle& and the cycle
.

returns A5"& & and =A5" to the light reactions. b #he light reactions provide A#" and =A5"+ to the carbon fi,ation step of the . :alvin cycle& and the cycle provides water and electrons to the light reactions.
c #he light reactions supply the :alvin cycle with .

to produce sugars& and the :alvin cycle supplies the light reactions with sugars to produce A#". d #he light reactions provide the :alvin cycle with o,ygen for electron flow& and

. the :alvin cycle provides the light reactions with water to split. e #here is no relationship between the light reactions and the :alvin cycle. .

____ 21. Where do the enzymatic reactions of the :alvin cycle take place? a stroma of the chloroplast . b thylakoid membranes . c outer membrane of the chloroplast . d electron transport chain . e thylakoid space .

#or the following questions, compare the light reactions with the Cal(in cycle of photosynthesis in plants.
____ 23. "roduces =A5+ a light reactions alone . b the :alvin cycle alone . c both the light reactions and the :alvin cycle . d neither the light reactions nor the :alvin cycle . e occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis .

____ 22. "roduces =A5"+ a light reactions alone . b the :alvin cycle alone . c both the light reactions and the :alvin cycle . d neither the light reactions nor the :alvin cycle . e occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis .

____ 29. "roduces three*carbon sugars a light reactions alone

. b . c . d . e .

the :alvin cycle alone both the light reactions and the :alvin cycle neither the light reactions nor the :alvin cycle occurs in the chloroplast but is not part of photosynthesis

____ 9;. #he sugar that results from three FturnsF of the :alvin cycle is glyceraldehyde*%*phosphate '6%"(.

Which of the following is a conse4uence of this? a .ormation of a molecule of glucose would re4uire 9 Fturns.F
. b . c . d . e .

6%" more readily forms sucrose and other disaccharides than it does monosaccharides. Dome plants would not taste sweet to us. #he formation of starch in plants involves assembling many 6%" molecules& with or without further rearrangements. 6%" is easier for a plant to store.

____ 91. :A< plants keep stomata closed in daytime& thus reducing loss of water. #hey can do this because

they
a . b . c . d . e .

fi, fi, fi,

into organic acids during the night. into sugars in the bundle*sheath cells. into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells. .

use the enzyme phosphofructokinase& which outcompetes rubisco for use photosystems - and -- at night.

____ 9$. "hotorespiration lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis by preventing the formation of a carbon dio,ide molecules. . b %*phosphoglycerate molecules . c A#" molecules. . d ribulose bisphosphate molecules. . e >u?" carbo,ylase molecules.

____ 9%. #he alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the

or :A< systems are said to be compromises. Why? a 8ach one minimizes both water loss and rate of photosynthesis.
. b compromises on water loss and :A< compromises on photorespiration. . c 8ach one both minimizes photorespiration and optimizes the :alvin cycle. . d :A< plants allow more water loss& while plants allow less into the .

plant.

e .

plants allow less water loss but :am plants but allow more water loss.

____ 9/. -f plant gene alterations cause the plants to be deficient in photorespiration& what would most

probably occur? a :ells would carry on more photosynthesis.


. b . c . d . e .

:ells would carry on the :alvin cycle at a much slower rate. Bess A#" would be generated. #here would be more light*induced damage to the cells. <ore sugars would be produced.

____ 90. +ow is photosynthesis similar in and :A< plants? a -n both cases& only photosystem - is used. . b ?oth types of plants make sugar without the :alvin cycle. . c -n both cases& rubisco is not used to fi, carbon initially. . d ?oth types of plants make most of their sugar in the dark. . e -n both cases& thylakoids are not involved in photosynthesis. .