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Project Report

on
STATUS MONITORING CARD
submitted as a part of course curriculum for

Bachelor of Technology
in Electronics and Communication Engineering

Submitted to

Submitted by

( Session: 2009-2013 ) Department of Electronics and Communication


WORLD COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
CERTIFICATE OF EXAMINATION

This is to certify that we have examined the Training report on ________________________________________submitted by , student of

final year B.Tech(Electronics and Communication Engg.).We hereby accord our approval of it as an Industial Training carried out and presented in a manner required for partial fulfillment for the Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Communication) degree of Maharshi Daynand University (Rohtak). This approval does not necessarily endorse or accept every statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn as recorded in the Training report; it only signifies the acceptance of the Training report for the purpose for which it is submitted.

(Name)
Examiner (Internal)

(Name)
Examiner (External )

(Name)
HOD (E&CE)

Date

Date

Date

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to the authorities of Bharat Electronics Limited, Ghaziabad for having permitted us to go ahead with the Training on Status Monitoring Card in partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Engg.) degree syllabus of Maharshi Daynand

Communication

University(Rohtak.) I am very thankful to Mr. Ajay Dagar, Head of the department of Electronics & Communication Engineering for approving our Training , encouragement and supervision. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards Mr. R.N.TYAGI, SE, HRD, Bharat Electronics Limited, Ghaziabad for accepting my letter and allowing me to complete my training at Bharat Electronics. I am extremely grateful to Er. JEEVESH PACHORI , MGR (D & ER), Bharat Electronics Limited, for permitting me to join RADAR department. Further I would like to thank Mr. ANKIT DHIMAN, DE (D&E-R) for their kind help extended during the entire period of training and for their time to time guidance and help extended during each stage our project. Finally, I would like to thank each and every member of BEL family for making me feel comfortable and helping me in every possible manner. timely

Date

DECLARATION

I, , student of B.TECH 8th Semester, studying at World College Of Technology and Management, hereby declare that the six months training report on Automation and Robotics is been completed.

The information and data given in the report is authentic to the best of my knowledge.

The training report is not being submitted to any other University for award of any other Degree, Diploma and Fellowship.

DATE:

Kumar Saurav

SYNOPSIS
Under the Supervision of

(21 JAN 2013-14 JULY 2013)

SUBMITTED BY :-

Introduction
BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL), the premier electronics company in India which has the distinction of being the first defence PSU to acquire operational Navaratna status was established in 1954 to meet the specialized electronic need of Indian Defence Services. Over the year it has grown into a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit company serving the need of customers in diverse fields. BEL offers products and services in a wide spectrum fields like Radars, Military communication, Naval systems, EW systems, Telecommunication, Sound and Vision broadcasting, Opto-electronics, Tank electronics, Solar and photovoltaic systems, Information technology, software and electronic components. Besides having Seven state of art manufacturing units spread across the length and breadth of the country. BEL has a network of regional offices, marketing centres and service centres. BEL has also two offices in New York and Singapore, primarily for pronouncement of components and materials. BEL has two joint venture companies GE-BE Limited and MULTITONE Ltd. BEL also has a subsidiary named BEL-DELFT Electronics Ltd at Pune. BEL has independent R & D division in all its unit and spend over 5% of its annual turnover on R & D. It has also set up Central Research Lab (CRL) at Bangalore and New Delhi to undertake blue sky research. About 60% of BELs turnover accursed from products developed either in house or in association with DRDO labs. BEL has adopted the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach. All the divisions/units of BEL have obtained ISO:9000 accreditation. ISO:14001 accreditation has been attained by Ghaziabad unit and the engineering services division of Bangalore unit. BEL has been successfully increasing its contribution in the field of civilian electronics, the most visible being the solar powered LED based traffic signal system and the electronic voting machine. Other Civilian products include the GPS based fish finder, Telemedicine system, PC motherboards and the computer. BEL also sets up communication network on turnkey basis. One such network is been set up in Andhra Pradesh.

Over the years, BEL has grown from strength to strength, surmounting the obstacles and challenges that lay in its path with resilience and determination backed by a professional management and dedicated workforce.

DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT :The 3D Low Level Light Weight ASLESHA Radar project is going on in Bharat Electronics Limited . We are working on STATUS MONITORING CARD (SMC) which is a part of sub system of Aslesha Radar. The various sub systems of Aslesha Radar are given below :-

Sub Systems of ASLESHA


1. Semi Active Array Antenna 2. Central Unit 3. Pedestal 4. Quadripod 5. CDU and accessories 6. Power Supply System

STATUS MONITORING CARD (SMC)


As all the radar electronics is on rotating sensorhead, monitoring the status signals of each module plays very critical role during field testing . SMC module provides the status of all the modules in the Central Unit (CU) to the remotely located Commander Display Unit (CDU) .

The Status Monitoring card is realized using a low- cost, and low-density FPGA device and 386COTs based processor. The voltages from the Power Converter module are sensed using the Digital Output from the ADC, and the voltage status representation in the CDU indicates the corresponding DC-DC Converter failure. Also, the voltages status is represented in three levels like: Normal, Low, and Failure conditions.

The status signals from the other modules like DDS,DRS,UPC etc are buffered and the sample data is sensed using the FPGA and reported to the CDP using the RS232 interface from the board processor . The status signals from DDS, indicates the component level failure of 50MHz Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO), and the DDS device. In the case of UPC, the failure Status of 60 MHz OCXO and the mixer output are provided .Also the status of the power divider input is indicated using another set of signals as PDL01 and PDL02. An IFF reset signal is provided based on the command from CDU.

Front view of status monitoring card (SMC)

This is the component side of SMC. The white outlined part shown includes Microcontroller and FPGA .The microcontroller used in SMC became obsolete which is used for the serial communication between FPGA and CDU . Now we are implementing UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) in FPGA using RS232 Serial Communication by VHDL coding .

Table of Contents
Serial No. Topic SYNOPSIS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Introduction to Organisation Various Departments Project Work 3D Low Level Light Weight ASLESHA Radar Salient Features Technical Specifications ECCM features Physical Specifications Block diagram of ASLESHA radar Sub systems of ASLESHA Chapter 4 SMC UART a) What is UART ? b) Why do we need UART ? 36 Project Work 32 33 5 12 20 26 Page No.

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c) description

FPGA a) Applications of FPGA b) Diagram of FPGA 43

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VHDL Programming
a) VHDL code for clock b) RTL view of clock c) Waveform for clock d) VHDL code for transmitting data e) RTL view of transmitting data

48 49 50 51 52 53

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CHAPTER -1

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Introduction to organization

BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL), the premier electronics company in India which has the distinction of being the first defense PSU to acquire operational Navaratna status was established in 1954 to meet the specialized electronic need of Indian Defense Services. Over the year it has grown into a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit company serving the need of customers in diverse fields. BEL offers products and services in a wide spectrum fields like Radars, Military communication, Naval systems, EW systems, Telecommunication, Sound and Vision broadcasting, Opto-electronics, Tank electronics, Solar and photovoltaic systems, Information technology, software and electronic components. Besides having Seven state of art manufacturing units spread across the length and breadth of the country. BEL has a network of regional offices, marketing centers and service centers. BEL has also two offices in New York and Singapore, primarily for pronouncement of components and materials. BEL has two joint venture companies GE-BE Limited and MULTITONE Ltd. BEL also has a subsidiary named BEL-DELFT Electronics Ltd at Pune. BEL has independent R & D division in all its unit and spend over 5% of its annual turnover on R & D. It has also set up Central Research Lab (CRL) at Bangalore and New Delhi to undertake blue sky research. About 60% of BELs turnover accursed from products developed either in house or in association with DRDO labs. BEL has adopted the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach. All the divisions/units of BEL have obtained ISO:9000 accreditation. ISO:14001 accreditation has been attained by Ghaziabad unit and the engineering services division of Bangalore unit.

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BEL has been successfully increasing its contribution in the field of civilian electronics, the most visible being the solar powered LED based traffic signal system and the electronic voting machine. Other Civilian products include the GPS based fish finder, Telemedicine system, PC motherboards and the computer. BEL also sets up communication network on turnkey basis. One such network is been set up in Andhra Pradesh.

Over the years, BEL has grown from strength to strength, surmounting the obstacles and challenges that lay in its path with resilience and determination backed by a professional management and dedicated workforce.

BEL has production units established at different parts of thecountry. The year of establishment and location are as follows:

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Year of Establishment 1954 1971 1979 1983 1985 1985 1986 1986 1986

Location Bangalore(Karnataka) Ghaziabad(U.P.) Pune(Maharashtra) Machilipatnam(A.P) Panchkula(Haryana) Chennai(Tamil Nadu) Kotdwara(U.P) Taloja(Maharashtra) Hyderabad(A.P)

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LOCATION OF BEL UNITS IN INDIA

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Customer Profile & BEL Product Range

Defence Army

Tactical and Strategic Communication Equipment and Systems, Secrecy Equipment, Digital Switches, Battlefield Surveillance Radar, Air Defence and Fire Control Radar, Opto-Electronic Instruments, Tank Fire Control Systems, Stabilizer Systems, Stimulators and Trainers. Navigational, Surveillance, Fire Control Radar, IFF, SONAR Systems, Torpedo Decoys, Display Systems, EW Systems, Simulators, Communication Equipment and Systems. Surveillance and Tracking Raiders, Communication Equipment and Systems, IFF and EW Systems. Communication Equipment and Systems. Precision Tracking Radar, Ground Electronics, Flight and On-Board Subsystems. MW, SW & FM Transmitters. Low, Medium and High Power Transmitters, Studio Equipment, OB Vans, Cameras, Antennae, Mobile and Transportable Satellite Uplinks.

Navy

Air Force Non-Defense Para-Military Space Department All India Radio Doordarshan (T.V. Network) NCERT Department Telecommunications

TV Studios on Turnkey Basis for Educational Programs of Transmission Equipment (Microwave and UHF) and PCM Multiplex, Rural and Main Automatic Exchanges, Flyaway Satellite Terminals, Solar Panels for Rural Exchanges Videsh Sanchar Nigam and MCPC VSAT, SCPC VSAT, Flyaway Earth Stations. Hub Stations, other corporate bodies Up/Down Converters, LAN Modems Civil Aviation Airport Surveillance Radar, Secondary Surveillance Radar Meteorological Department Cyclone Warning and Multipurpose Meteorological Radar Power Sector Satellite Communication Equipment Oil Industry Communication Systems, Radar Forest Departments, Communication Systems Irrigation and Electricity boards

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Components

Defence Non-Defence

Transmitting Tubes, Microwave Tubes, Lasers, Semiconductors-Discrete, Hybrid and Integrated Circuits

Batteries,

All India Radio, Transmitting Tubes, Microwave Tubes, and Vacuum Tubes Doordarshan(TV Network), Department of Telecommunications and Civil Industries Entertainment Industry B/W TV Tubes, Silicon Transistors, Integrated Circuits, Bipolar and CMOS, Piezo Electric Crystals, Ceramic Capacitors and SAW Filters Telephone Industry Switching Industry Instrumentation Industry Medical & Health Care Integrated Circuits, Crystals Vacuum Interrupters Liquid Crystal Displays X-ray Tubes

Systems/Network
It includes Identity Card Systems Software, Office Automation Software, LCD On-line Public Information Display Systems and Communication Networks / VSAT Networks.

FORMATION OF THE UNIT PRODUCT RANGE


The product ranges today of the company are:

Radar Systems
3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. 17

Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force. Tactical Control Radar Systems for the Army Battlefield Surveillance Radar for the Army IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and Export ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation. Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems.

Communications
Digital Static Tropo scatter Communication Systems for the Air Force. Digital Mobile Tropo scatter Communication System for the Air Force and Army. VHF, UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment. Bulk Encryption Equipment. Turnkey Communication Systems Projects for defence & civil users. Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence Telemetry/Tele-control Systems.

Antennae
Antennae for Radar, Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications. Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems.

Microwave Component
Active Microwave components like LNAs, Synthesizer, Receivers etc. Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers, etc

Most of these products and systems are the result of a harmonious combination of technology absorbed under ToT from abroad, Defence R&D Laboratories and BEL's own design and development efforts.

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Organization:
The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions as follows: Design & Engineering Divisions : Development and Engineering-R Development and Engineering-C Development and Engineering-Antenna.

Equipment Manufacturing Divisions : Radar Communication Antenna Systems Microwave Components.

Support Divisions: Material Management Marketing & Customer Co-ordination Quality Assurance & Torque Central Services PCB & Magnetics Information Systems Finance & Accounts Personnel & Administration Management Services.

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CHAPTER - 2

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DEPARTMENTS
TEST EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION DEPARTMENT
TEST EQUIPMENT SUPPORT (TES) Main functions are: Develops technical support to other departments. Repair of equipment in case of failure. Maintenance of equipments. Periodic calibration of equipments.

This section deals with testing and the calibration of electronic equipments only the standards of this department are calibrated by National Physics Laboratory (NPL).

AUTOMATION TEST EQUIPMENT (ATE) Component testing gives faults of various discrete components of a PCB. Integrated circuits tester tests various ICs. Functional testing compares output to decide whether the function is being performed to the desired level of accuracy.

P.C.B. FABRICATION DEPARTMENT


PCB is abbreviated form of printed circuit board. As the name suggests, in a PCB the electrical circuit is printed on a glass epoxy board. This reduces the complex writing network whose trouble shooting in case of shorting or misconnection is not easy.

Types of PCBs:
Single Sided: Having circuit pattern only on one side of the board. Double Sided: Having circuit pattern on both sides of the board Additionally Multilayered PCBs are also manufactured which use Surface Mounting Technology during process of assembly.

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QUALITY CONTROL WORKS


According to some laid down standards, the quality control department ensures the quality of the product. The raw materials and components etc. purchased are inspected according to the specifications by the IG department. Similarly QC works department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. The fabrication inspection checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made as per the part drawing. Plating, Painting and stenciling etc are done and checked as per the BEL standards. The assembly inspection department inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB, cable assembly, cable form, modules, racks and shelters as per latest documents and BEL standards. The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as: D&E mistake Shop mistake Inspection mistake

A process card is attached to each PCB under inspection. Any error in the PCB is entered into the process card by certain codes specified for each error or defect. After mistake is detected, following actions are taken: Observation is made. Object code is given. Division code is given. Change code is prepared. Recommended action is taken.

WORKS ASSEMBLY
This department plays an important role in the production. Its main function is to assemble various components, equipments and instruments in a particular procedure. It has two sections:PCB assembly and Electronic assembly.

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In PCB assembly, the different types of PCB are assembled as per BEL standards. PCB is received from the PCB department on which soldering of component is done either by hand soldering or wave soldering.

HAND SOLDERING: WAVE SOLDERING:

In case of hand soldering, soldering is done manually. Wave soldering is a procedure in which PCBs are fed to the

wave soldering machine from the opening on one side and the soldering is done by machine and after the soldering is done PCBs are collected from the another opening of the machine and after that cleaning is done.

MAGNETICS DEPARTMENT
In the magnetics department different types of transformers and coils are manufactured, which are used in the various defence equipments i.e. radar, communication equipments. This department basically consists of three sections.

PRODUCTION CONTROL
Basic function of production control is to plan the production of transformer and coils as per the requirement of respective division (Radar & Communication). This department is divided into two groups Planning Planning store

WORKS (PRODUCTION)
Production of transformers and coils are being carried out by the works departments. Following process are required for the manufacturing of transformer/coils Preparation of former Winding Insulation Tape Sleeve Impregnation

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Mechanical Assembly Enveloping Moulding Oil filling Painting Stencilling

Types of Transformer :
Following types of transformers are being manufactured in this department Air and Oil cool transformers Pulse transformers Air core type Moulding type transformers P.C.B. Mounting transformers

QUALITY CONTROL
After manufacturing the transformer /coils the otem is offered to the inspection department to check the electrical parameters (DCR,No load current, full load current, dielectric strength, inductance, insulation resistance and mechanical dimension) as mention in the GA Drawing of the product.

MICROWAVE LABORATORY
This section undertakes: Manufacturing of films and microwave components to meet internal requirements. Testing of low power antenna for which test-site is about 100 Km from the factory at Sohna.

The main component testing in this department is: Oscillators Amplifiers 24

Mixers Radiation elements (e.g. Feeders) Microwave components (e.g. Isolators, circulators, waveguides etc.) Filters (e.g. LPF, BPF, Uniplexers, and Multiplexers etc.)

Functioning of component is listed below:


Frequency response Noise figure VSWR Directivity and coupling Power measurements

Various instruments in the lab are:


Adaptor Attenuator Coupler Mixer Detector

DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING (D & E) DEPARTMENT


As the name suggests D&E dept. performs the function of development and engineering of the requirements of the companys customers which are mainly national defence organizations. There are five sections in this dept. Radar1, Radar2, Communication, Antennae and Data Handling. The five sections work in co-ordination with each other and give an aggregate result as output of D&E dept. and this output is send as an report to the CRL (Central Research Laboratory) where the requirements of the customers framed by D & E are considered and a software is developed fulfilling all the requirements. The pace of development and technological obsolescence in the field of electronics necessitates a strong Research and Development base. This is all the more important in the area of Defence Electronics. BEL Ghaziabad has since its inception laid a heavy emphasis on indigenous Research and Development.

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CHAPTER - 3

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Project Review 3D LOW LEVEL LIGHT WEIGHT ASLESHA RADAR


3d low level light weight aslesha radar used for measuring the three dimensions that are distance ,angle and height of the target . It is light in weight & can be carried from one place to another easily .It has many features which are explained below :-

Salient Features
S-Band 3D surveillance for aerial targets at low and medium altitude Detection and tracking of fighter aircraft, helicopters, slow moving

micro-light aircraft Helicopters and UAVs


Track while scan of up to 100 targets Integrated IFF Extensive BIT Enabled for networking with Integrated Asterix protocol

TECHINCAL SPECIFICATIONS
Radiated RF power 1100 W (peak), 110 W (Av)

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Radar instrumented range 60 Km Target detection range Height coverage Elevation coverage Accuracy Range Azimuth Height < 50 m <0.5 500m 50 Km for 2 sqm RCS 30 m to 6000 m (AGL) 0 to 30

Resolution Range <150 m

Azimuth < 7

ECCM FEATURES
Wide RF Band width Very low antenna side lobes LPI Tx wave form Digital pulse compression Burst-to- burst frequency agility

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Auto selection of least jammed channel JSP and jammer angle estimation

Physical Characteristics
Radar Weight : : : <205Kg (Unpacked), excluding power source <250 Kg (Packed with Soft Cases) <380 Kg (Packed with Hard cases)

Modular for ease of transportation and quick assembly / dismantling Capability to carry modules under-slung by helicopter Ease of assembly and dismantling at remote site of small dimensions with minimum manpower.

Environment
Temperature Humidity : -30C to 50C : Upto 90% at 40C

Winds

: Operation up to 50 Knots & Survival up to 70 Knots

Operation in rain, snowfall, dust etc

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RADAR

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Sub Systems of ASLESHA


Semi Active Array Antenna Central Unit Pedestal Quadripod CDU and accessories

Power Supply System


Planar Antenna
Break down details

Array Segment 1 Array Segment 2 Array Antenna Frame Antenna unit consists of 18 linear arrays each consisting of 2 sub arrays fed by a 1:2 power divider. 1.7 m cable with BMA female connector connects the antenna unit to the planar array.

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CHAPTER - 4

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PROJECT WORK STATUS MONITORING CARD


The status monitoring card is a small part of Central Unit which is sub system of ASLESHA basically it gives health status of the incoming signal and transmit the status to the remotely located Commanders Display Unit (CDU). As all the radar electronics is on rotating sensor head, monitoring the status signals of each module plays very critical role during field testing . SMC module provides the status of all the modules in the Central Unit (CU) to the remotely located Commander Display Unit (CDU) .

The Status Monitoring card is realized using a low- cost, and low-density FPGA device and 386COTs based processor. The voltages from the Power Converter module are sensed using the Digital Output from the ADC, and the voltage status representation in the CDU indicates the corresponding DC-DC Converter failure. Also, the voltages status is represented in three levels like: Normal, Low, and Failure conditions.

The status signals from the other modules like DDS,DRS,UPC etc are buffered and the sample data is sensed using the FPGA and reported to the CDP using the RS232 interface from the board processor .

The status signals from DDS, indicates the component level failure of 50MHz Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillator (OCXO), and the DDS device. In the case of UPC, the failure Status of 60 MHz OCXO and the mixer output are provided .Also the status of the power divider input is indicated using another set of signals as PDL01 and PDL02. An IFF reset signal is provided based on the command from CDU.

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STATUS MONITORING CARD

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FRONT VIEW OF STATUS MONITORING CARD

This is the component side of SMC. The white outlined part shown includes Microcontroller and FPGA .The microcontroller used in SMC became obsolete which is used for the serial communication between FPGA and CDU . Now we are implementing UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) in FPGA using RS232 Serial Communication by VHDL coding . 35

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver & Transmitter)

What is a UART?
The UART (universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter) module provides asynchronous serial communication with external devices such as modems and other computers. The UART can be used to control the process of breaking parallel data from the PC down into serial data that can be transmitted and vice versa for receiving data. The UART allows the devices to communicate without the need to be synchronized. The UART consists of one receiver module and one transmitter module. Those two modules have separate inputs and outputs for most of their control lines, the lines that are shared by both modules are the bi-directional data bus, master clock (mclkx16) and reset.

WHY DO WE NEED A UART?


1) Control the receiving and transmitting time of the data: Since the data stream has no clock, data recovery depends on the transmitting device and the receiving device operating at close to the same bit rate. The UART receiver is responsible for the synchronization of the serial data stream and the recovery of data characters.

2) Increase the accuracy and decrease the effect of the noise: The UART system can tolerate a moderate amount of system noise without losing any information.

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Schematic of UART

Implementation of a digital UART by VHDL


VHDL can be used for the behavioral level design implementation of a digital UART and offers several advantages.

The advantages of using VHDL to implement UART:


VHDL allows us to describe the function of the transmitter in a more behavior manner rather than focus on its actual implementation at the gate level.

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VHDL makes the design implementation easier to read and understand, they also provide the ability to easily describe dependencies between various processes that usually occur in such complex event-driven systems. It is easier to test the UART by the VHDL simulation and find out if any discrepancy occurs.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF UART

How do we use the UART?


The use of the UART can be confusing at first but is rather straightforward once an understanding of the UART is acquired. To begin, let us take a look at the UART data format. This implementation of the UART transmits in blocks of 11 bits; 1 leading low start bit, 1 trailing high stop bit, 1 parity bit and 8 data bits. The UART data format is shown below.

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The UART data format

The transmit and receive line of the UART are held high while no transmission/reception is taking place. In the transmission of a sequence the active low start bit indicates to the receiving UART that a new sequence of data is on its way. This causes the receiving UART to take the next 8 bits as the transmitted data and the bit after that as the parity of these 8 data-bits. Lastly, a high stop bit is used to indicate the end of a block. The parity can be set as even or odd and is used to indicate whether or not there has been an error in the received data bits. Note that errors can still occur even if the parity bit indicates no parity errors. For example, if the transmitted sequence is "11110000" and the parity is set as even, the parity bit that would be transmitted with the sequence would be '0'. If the received sequence is "11101000", the calculated parity of this sequence also equals the transmitted parity bit of '0', thereby fooling the receiving UART into thinking that there were no errors in transmission.

The top-level schematic of the transmit and receive module are shown

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The signals and their respective description

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FPGA

WHAT IS FPGA?

FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturinghence "field-programmable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) . FPGAs have large resources of logic gates and RAM blocks to implement complex digital computations. As FPGA designs employ very fast IOs and bidirectional data buses it becomes a challenge to verify correct timing of valid data within setup time and hold time. FPGAs can be used to implement any logical function that an ASIC could perform. FPGAs contain programmable 42

logic components called "logic blocks", and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together"somewhat like many (changeable) logic gates that can be inter-wired in (many) different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flipflops or more complete blocks of memory.

Common FPGA Applications Video & Image Processing Aerospace and Defense
o Avionics/DO-254 o MILCOM o Missiles & Munitions o Secure Solutions o Space

Audio
o Connectivity Solutions o Portable Electronics o Radio o Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

Automotive o High Resolution Video

o Image Processing o Vehicle Networking and Connectivity o Automotive Infotainment

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Broadcast
o Real-Time Video Engine o Edge QAM o Encoders o Displays o Switches and Routers

Consumer Electronics
o Digital Displays o Digital Cameras o Multi-function Printers o Portable Electronics o Set-top Boxes

Data Center
o Servers o Security o Routers o Switches o Gateways o Load Balancing

High Performance Computing


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o Servers o Super Computers o SIGINT Systems o High-end RADARS o High-end Beam Forming Systems

Industrial
o Industrial Imaging o Industrial Networking o Motor Control

Medical
o Ultrasound o CT Scanner o MRI o X-ray o PET o Surgical Systems

Security
o Industrial Imaging o Secure Solutions o Image Processing Video o Video Over IP Gateway o Digital Displays

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o Industrial Imaging

DIAGRAMS OF FPGA

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VHDL PROGRAMMING

VHDL is very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language.

We had created two programs using VHDL coding in QUARTUS 2 software. In first program we generate a clock signal of 9600kbps baud rate for transmission of data. The frequency of Base Band signal is 50MHz. The time period for 9600kbps signal is 104.2nS. For Base Band signal the counter will count 1 pulse in 20nS, Now for time period of 104.2nS the counter will count up to 6 pulses . Now for first 6 pulses the output clock will be HIGH and for next 6 pulses it will be LOW. 47

The clock will be low and high alternatively after every 6 pulse duration. Thus clock signal of required Baud Rate is generated.

Now we will write the VHDL code for Clock generation and Transmitting data in QUARTUS 2 software .

VHDL CODE FOR CLOCK

library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_arith.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity baudrate is port( clock : in std_logic; p : out std_logic); end baudrate; architecture behavior of baudrate is begin process(clock)

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variable count :natural:=0; begin if ( clock'event and clock='1') then if( count<6)then count:=count +1 ; p<= '1'; elsif( count<12)then p<= '0'; count:=count+1; else count:=0; end if; end if ; end process; end behavior;

RTL VIEW OF CLOCK

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This is the Register Transistor Logic (RTL) diagram of clock at required Baud Rate.

WAVE FORM FOR CLOCK

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VHDL CODE FOR TRANSMITTING DATA

library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity bufferrr is port(d,clk : in std_logic; y : out std_logic); end bufferrr; architecture behavioural of bufferrr is signal i : std_logic_vector(7 downto 0); begin process(d) begin if(clk'event and clk='1') then for k in 7 downto 0 loop i(k) <= d; end loop; if(clk'event and clk='1') then for k in 7 downto 0 loop y<= i(k); end loop; end if; end if; end process; end behavioural;

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RTL VIEW FOR TRANSMITTING DATA

d and clk are the input and y is the output .In this basically two D-flip flops are connected in cascade to transmit data and clk signal is used for enabling the flip flop .

The waveform of transmitting data that is generated by simulation of code in QUARTUS 2 software is shown :

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