Sie sind auf Seite 1von 33

5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.

doc
1
Activated Sludge - Types of Processes and Modifications


1 Conventional
Influent Effluent
PF Aeration Tank
HRT = 8 - 15 hrs
O
2
supply
Return sludge Waste sludge
O
2
demand
Tank length
2 Tapered Aeration
Influent Effluent
PF Aeration Tank

Return sludge Waste sludge O
2
supply
Tank length O
2
demand
3 Step Aeration
Influent
Effluent
PF Aeration Tank

O
2
supply
Return sludge Waste sludge
O
2
demand
Tank length
4 Completely Mixed
Influent Completely Mixed Aeration Tank Effluent


O
2
supply
Return sludge Waste sludge
O
2
demand
Tank length
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point



5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
2

5 Contact Stabilization
Effluent
Influent

HRT = 3 - 6 hrs
Return sludge Waste sludge
6 Kraus Process
Waste sludge
Effluent
Influent Aeration Tank


Reaeration Tank
HRT = 24 hrs
(Nitrification) Digested supernatant
Digested sludge
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point
Alternate waste
sludge drawn
off point
HRT = 20 -
90 min



Aeration alone can account for half of the operation costs at a typical treatment plant (p. 8,
Logan, 2008)



Gas Transfer theory

1. General Gas Transfer Equation

The rate of oxygen transfer

( )
L s
dC
K a C C
dt
=

where C
s
= oxygen concentration in the liquid at saturation, mg/L
= f (T, dissolved solids)
C = oxygen concentration in the liquid at time, t
K
L
a = oxygen transfer rate coefficient, hr
-1

= f (T, types of diffuser, depth of aerator, types of mixer, tank geometry)

C
s
- C = dissolved oxygen deficit, D, mg/L



C > Cs
C < Cs
t
Cs C
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
3


2. Two-film Theory (Lewis and Whitman, 1923)



C
l
= concentration of gas in bulk liquid
C
sl
= concentration of gas in surface liquid
C
g
= concentration of gas in bulk gas
C
sg
= concentration of gas in surface gas



Gas film control Liquid film control
C
g
-for very soluble gas - for not very soluble gas
e.g., NH
3
e.g., O
2

=
C
sl
= C
sg
= C
g
C
g
C
l
C
sg
= Cs
l
= C
l
C
l



=
Air - turbulent (well
mixed body of air)
Liquid film - laminar molecular
layer
Liquid - turbulent (well mixed
body of water)
Gas film - laminar molecular layer -
stagnant mass of air (molecular
diffusion)
C
l
C
g
C
sl
C
sg
microlayer
resistance (60
um)
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
4


3. Diffusion

- Gas diffusion (molecular diffusion) through a liquid film
- Ficks first law of diffusion

( ) VC
C
J DA
t x
c
c
= =
c c

L
3
M L
2
M M
------- = ----- L
2
------ = ----
T L
3
T L
3
L T

where D = molecular diffusion coefficient, L
2
T
-1

A = surface area, L
2

x = liquid film thickness, L

Since
2 1
l s
C C C C
x x x x
c
~ =
c

V = film volume between the gas and liquid interface

Assuming V= constant,

2 1 2 1
l s s l s l
C C C C C C C
J V DA DA DA
t x x x x x
c
= = = =
c


( )
s l
C D
V A C C
t x
c
=
c


( )
L s l
C
V K A C C
t
c
=
c


where K
L
= D/x = oxygen transfer rate, LT
-1


divided by V yields

( )
L s l
C A
K C C
t V
c
=
c


Let a = A/V

( )
L s l
C
K a C C
t
c
=
c

L 1
--- ---
T L

The rate of O
2
transfer is
controlled by a liquid film


C
g
x
1

C
s
x
2
C
l
x

x
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
5


where C
s
C
l
= concentration gradient, major driving force
K
La
= oxygen transfer rate coefficient, T
-1
, hr
-1


K
La
depends on types of gas and liquid (film thickness), increased by mixing intensity, waves
a depends on surface area, A, increased by finer bubbles


Bubbles

In general, the rate of oxygen transfer increases with:

a) decreasing bubble size (larger contact area)
b) longer contact time
c) added turbulence

- Gas transfer increases with area A
- A/V increases by producing fine bubbles and/or breaking the surface


Bubble diameter, mm Bubble diameter, mm
10
B
u
b
b
l
e

r
i
s
i
n
g

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
K
L
2 10 2







From two observations,
optimum size = 2 mm
< 2 mm clogging problem in diffuser heads (bacterial slime), more maintenance
> 2 mm, tends to lose K
L
, O
2
transfer rate

Smaller bubble size gives slower
velocity, thus more contact time.
Smaller bubble size gives smaller K
L
, less
- turbulence, less surface breaking
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
6


Evaluation of K
L
a

value


( )
L s
dC
K a C C
dt
=

( )
0
1
o
C t
L
C
s
dC K a dt
C C
=

} }



( ) | |
0
( 1) ln
o
C
t
s L
C
C C K a t ( =



( ) | |
0
ln
o
C
t
s L
C
C C K a t ( =




( ) ( ) ln ln
s s o L
C C C C K a t =


( ) ( ) ln ln
s s o L
C C C C K a t =

ln
s
L
s o
C C
K a t
C C
| |
=
|

\ .



L
K a t
s
s o
C C
e
C C










Intercept =
Slope = -K
L
a
t
( ) ln
s
C C
( ) ln
s o
C C
Slope = -K
L
a
t
ln
s
s o
C C
C C
| |
|

\ .
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
7
Oxygen Transfer and Oxygen Requirements

1. Importance





2
m
O
DO
K DO

=
+









a. The rate of aerobic microbial metabolism is independent of the DO concentration above a
critical (minimum) value.

b. Below the critical value, the rate is reduced by the limitation of oxygen required for
respiration.

c. Critical DO concentrations reported in the literature for activated-sludge system range
from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/L.
- For conventional and high-rate aeration basin = 0.5 mg/L
- A typical DO for activated sludge operation would be 2.0 mg/L (W. C. King, PE. Exam,
p. 230)


2. Oxygen Transfer Models

Cell membrane
Liquid film
CO
2
DO
(Rate of O
2
transfer) Rate of O
2
utilization
Microbial cell
Bubble

dC/dt = oK
La
(|Cs - C) dC/dt = r

Figure x.x. Schematic diagram of oxygen transfer in activated sludge.

- Oxygen is dissolved in solution and then extracted from solution by the biological cells.

At steady state, [the rate of oxygen transfer] = [the rate of oxygen utilization]

m
/2
Critical DO cinc (0.2 - 2 mg/L)
K
O2
DO (mg/L)
2 0.2 0.5
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
8

In clean water

The rate of oxygen transfer

( )
L s
dC
K a C C
dt
=
where C
s
- C = dissolved oxygen deficit, mg/L
K
la
= oxygen transfer rate coefficient, hr
-1

= f (T, types of diffuser, depth of aerator, types of mixer, tank geometry)
C
s
= oxygen concentration in the liquid at saturation, mg/L
C = oxygen concentration in the liquid at time, t

K
La
depends on temperature, types of diffuser/ mixer, depth of aerator,
tank geometry

Effect of temperature on K
La
- vant Hoff-Arrhenius relationship

( ) 20
, ,20
T
La T La C
K K u

= 6-61 (ME, p. 286)



where K
La, T
= oxygen mass-transfer coefficient at temperature T, s
-1

K
La, 20EC
= oxygen mass-transfer coefficient at 20 EC, s
-1


Range of value = 1.015 - 1.040
Typical value = 1.024

In general, the rate of oxygen transfer increases with:

a ) decreasing bubble size
b ) longer contact time
c ) added turbulence


In wastewater

The rate of oxygen transfer from air bubble to wastewater in an aeration tank:
( )
L s
dC
K a C C
dt
o | =

where dC/dt = rate of oxygen transfer, mg/L/hr
o = alpha factor or coefficient (oxygen transfer coefficient) of the wastewater
| = beta factor or coefficient (oxygen saturation coefficient) of the wastewater
K
L
a = oxygen transfer rate coefficient, hr
-1

Cs = oxygen concentration at saturation, mg/L
C = oxygen concentration in the liquid at time t, mg/L
| Cs - C = dissolved oxygen deficit in wastewater, mg/L


5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
9

The alpha (o) factor

- The alpha (o) factor is the oxygen transfer coefficient factor for waste (see Table 5-32, 4
th
ME
447)

- is defined as the ratio of the oxygen transfer coefficient in water to that in clean water:

(K
L
a) in wastewater
= ---------------------------
(K
L
a) in clean water

2) The factor o is influenced by many conditions related to:

a ) the characteristics of the wastewater (temp, soluble BOD, SS conc)
b ) the aeration equipment (types of aerators, mixing intensity, tank configuration)

3. The magnitude can even change between the influent and effluent ends of plug-flow aeration
tank.
Viessman & Metcalf &
Hammer Eddy
VH ME (p. 429) King (PE Exam, p. 230)
_____________________________________________________________________________
For municipal wastewater 0.7 - 0.9 (0.4-1.1) .3 - 1.2
0.82
Fine-bubble diffusers as low as 0.4 0.4 - 0.8
Mechanical aerator as high as 1.1 0.6 - 1.2
____________________________________________________________________________


The beta (|) factor

The beta (|) factor is the salinity-surface tension correction factor (4
th
ME 447)

- is defined as the ratio of the DO saturation concentration in the wastewater to that in clean
water:

Cs in wastewater
= ------------------------
Cs in clean water

The | value is influenced by the wastewater constituents (at constant temperature) including:
a ) dissolved solids, salts
b ) dissolved organics
c ) dissolved gases

For municipal wastewater | = 0.7 - 0.98, commonly 0.95 (ME, 429)
= 0.95 (King, PE. Exam, p. 230)
| = 0.9, seldom less than 0.8 (VH)
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
10

Dissolved Oxygen Utilization Rate, r (mg O
2
/L-hr)

The rate of DO utilization by microorganisms in an activated-sludge system can be determined
by placing a sample of mixed liquor in a closed container and measuring the dissolved-oxygen
depletion with respect to time.

(a) (b)
MLVSS


- O
2
is used for cell synthesis and
respiration.


I













1) The oxygen utilization rate, r, is the slope of the resultant curve.

2) The oxygen utilization rate, r, depends on the microorganisms ability to metabolize waste
organics based on such factor as:

a ) F/M ratio
b ) mixing conditions
c ) temperature

3) A general range for the oxygen utilization rate r in the mixed liquor of conventional
and completely mix (high-rate) activated-sludge systems is:

r = 20 - 100 mg/L hr. (Typical range: 20 - 80 mg/L hr)


O
2
probe
MLVSS
Slope = r = oxygen utilization rate
mgO
2
/L-hr
(b) End of plant
(a)
Front of plant
Time (hr)
DO (mg/L)
remaining
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
11


Air and Oxygen

- At sea level and at 20C, dry air has a density of ~1.2 kg/m
3
varying with pressure and
temperature.

(SI units)
a) The density of air is 1.205 kg/m
3
at 20C and 1 atm.
b) O
2
content in air is 23% (w/w); i.e., 0.23 kg O
2
/kg air

2 2
3 3
0.23 1.205 0.27715 kg O kg air kg O
kg air m air m air
=

1 m
3
of air contains 0.27715 kg of O
2
under the standard conditions (T=20C, p=1 atm).

(US customary units)
a) Air density = 0.075 lb/ft
3

b) O
2
content in air is 23% (w/w); i.e., 0.23 lb O
2
/lb air

2 2
3 3
0.075 0.23 0.0173
1
lb air lb O lb O
ft air lb air ft air
| | | |
=
| |
\ .\ .


1 ft
3
of air contains 0.0173 - 0.0174 lb of O
2




Power Requirement

1) Purposes of Aeration

a ) Provide oxygen
- to satisfy microbial oxygen demand, r
b ) Provide mixing
- Mixing requirements range from 0.75 to 1.50 HP per 1000 ft
3
of tank volume (King,
PE Exam, p. 230).

2) The aerator power required depends on:
a ) Type of activated-sludge process
b ) BOD loading
c ) Oxygen transfer efficiency of the aerator equipment.

3) Aerator performance
- Aeration systems are compared on the basis of mass of gaseous oxygen transferred to
dissolved oxygen per unit of energy expended:



5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
12

Oxygen Transfer Rate

2 2 2 2
lb of O lbs O kg of O kg O
or
horsepower-hr HP-hr killowatt-hr kW-hr
= =


Oxygen Transfer Efficiency, OTE (%)

2
2
mass of O dissolved (transferred) in water
OTE(%) =
mass of gaseous O applied


The values specified for efficiency are based on operation in clean water with zero DO
concentration and standard conditions (20C, 1 atm).



Example Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (%) Use SI units

62.43 m
3
of air is required (need to be applied) per kg of BOD applied to an aeration
tank. The aerator is capable of transferring 1.7 kg of O
2
(dissolved) per kg BOD applied. What
is the oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE)?

Assumptions:
The density of air at 20C and 1 atm is 1.205 kg/m
3
. Since air contains 23% O
2
(w/w),
(0.23 kg O
2
/kg air)(1.205 kg air/m
3
) = 0.27715 kg O
2
/ m
3
of air

1 m
3
of air contains 0.27715 kg of O
2
under the standard conditions (T = 20C, p = 1 atm).

Mass of O
2
dissolved (transferred) in water
Oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) = -----------------------------------------------------
Mass of gaseous O
2
applied

O
2
transferred (dissolved) = 1.7 kg of O
2
/ kg BOD applied.


62.428 m
3
of air 0.27715 kg O
2
17.30 kg of O
2

O
2
applied = ------------------------- ---------------------- = -------------------------
kg of BOD applied m
3
of air kg of BOD applied


1.7 kg of O
2
/ kg BOD applied
OTE (%) = ------------------------------------------------ (100) = 9.8 %
17.30 lb of O
2
/ kg of BOD applied


Unit conversion: 1 kg = 2.2046 lb, 1 ft
3
= 0.028317 m
3



5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
13

Example Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (%) US customary units

1000 ft
3
of air is required (need to be applied) per lb of BOD applied. The aerator is
capable of transferring 1.7 lb of O
2
(dissolved) per lb BOD applied. What is the oxygen transfer
efficiency (OTE)? Note: 1 ft
3
of air under the standard conditions (T = 20C, p = 1 atm)
contains 0.0174 lb of O
2
.

(Solution)
Assumptions: Air contains 23% O
2
(w/w) and air density is 0.0174 lb/ ft
3


Mass of O
2
dissolved (transferred) in water
Oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) = -----------------------------------------------------
Mass of gaseous O
2
applied

O
2
transferred (dissolved) = 1.7 lb of O
2
/ lb BOD applied.

1000 ft
3
of air 0.0174 lb of O
2
17.4 lb of O
2

O
2
applied = ------------------------- ----------------------- = -------------------------
lb of BOD applied ft
3
of air lb of BOD applied

1.7 lb of O
2
/ lb BOD applied
OTE (%) = ------------------------------------------------ (100) = 9.8 %
17.4 lb of O
2
/ lb of BOD applied


Oxygen Transfer Rate

Cell membrane
Liquid film
CO
2
DO
(Rate of O
2
transfer) Rate of O
2
utilization
Microbial cell
Bubble


dC/dt = oK
La
(|Cs - C) dC/dt = r
r = oxygen utilization rate

a. Under steady-state conditions of oxygen transfer in an activated-sludge system, the rate of
oxygen transfer to dissolved oxygen is equal to the rate of oxygen utilization:

Change in DO in wastewater = O
2
transfer rate - O
2
utilization rate

( )
L s
dC
K a C C r
dt
o | = (1)

where r = oxygen utilization rate by microorganisms in activated sludge, mg/L
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
14


At steady state, dc/dt =0

L
s
r
K a
C C
o
|
=

(2)

For clean water (at standard test conditions, 20C)
( )
L s
dC
K a C C r
dt
= (1)

At steady state, dC/dt = 0 and let r = r
o

( )
o L s
r K a C C = (2)

The DO deficit is maximum when C = 0, thus
or
o
o L s L
s
r
r K a C K a
C
= = this K
L
a is the smallest K
L
a value.
When the test is conducted under standard conditions at T = 20C,
,20
,20
o
La
s
r
K
C
= (3)

K
La
is a function of temperature. For a given temperature T,
20
, ,20
T
La T La
K K u

= (4)

Substituting (3) into (4) yields
20
,
,20
T o
La T
s
r
K
C
u

=
(5)


For wastewater, at given temperature T,
( )
, La T s T
dC
K C C r
dt
o | = (7)

Substituting (5) into (7) yields
( )
20
,20
T
o
s T
s
dC r
C C r
dt C
o u |

= (8)

5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
15
Under the steady state conditions of oxygen transfer in an activated-sludge system, the rate of
oxygen transfer is equal to the rate of oxygen utilization.

At steady state, dC/dt = 0, the oxygen utilization rate is given as

( )
20
,20
T o
T s
s
r
r C C
C
o u |

| |
=
|
|
\ .
(9a)
or
20
,20
T s
T o
s
C C
r r
C
|
o u

| |

=
|
|
\ .
(9b)


DO at saturation, C
s





Empirical formula for DO at saturation, C
s


Cs = 14.652 - 0.41022(T) + 0.007910 (T)
2
- 0.000077774 (T)
3



Example: Determine the O
2
saturation concentration at T = 30EC,

Cs = 14.652 - 0.41022(30) + 0.007910 (30)
2
- 0.000077774 (30)
3
= 7.3645
Cs = 7.4 mg/L

5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
16


Oxygen Requirement, OR, W (lb O
2
/ day or kg O
2
/ day)

Multiplying the oxygen utilization rate by the aeration tank volume, V, (or volume of MLVSS)
yields the oxygen requirement, OR, W:

Oxygen requirement = (Oxygen utilization rate) (Volume of aeration tank or volume of MLVSS)

OR = W = r V

Units:
( )
3
2 2
2 3 3
g O 24 hrs 1 kg O
O Requirement (OR, W) = m of MLVSS
m of MLVSS hr day 10 g day
kg
( | | | || |
=
( | | |
\ .\ . \ .


( )
2 2
2
mg O 24 hrs 1 lb lb O
O Requirement (OR, W) = L of MLVSS
L of MLVSS hr day 453,600 mg day
( | | | || |
=
( | | |
\ .\ . \ .

( )
2
24 8.34 /
/
lb O mg hr lb MG
MG
day L hr day mg L
| | | |
| |
=
| | |

\ .
\ . \ .



Multiplying Eq (9b) by V yields

20
,20
T
s
T T o
s
C C
W r V r V
C
|
o u

| |

= =
|
|
\ .

Let W
o
= r
o
V
20
,20
T s
T o
s
C C
W W
C
|
o u

| |

=
|
|
\ .

where
W
T
= r
T
V = the amount of oxygen required under the process condition
= mass transfer rate of oxygen under the process condition, lb O
2
/d
W
o
= r
o
V = the amount of oxygen transferred under standard test condition
= mass transferre rate of oxygen at standard test conditions (i.e., tap water at 20C),
lbO
2
/d, kgO
2
/d
= 1.024

Cs,
20
= 9.08, 9.17, or 9.2


20
(1.024)
9.2
T s
T o
C C
W W
|
o

| |
=
|
\ .
or
20
(1.024)
9.17
T s
T o
C C
W W
|
o

| |
=
|
\ .





5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
17


Total Oxygen Requirement, W
T


The total oxygen requirement is composed of:

a) Oxygen required for the CBOD removal
b) Oxygen required for the NBOD removal


a) Oxygen required for CBOD removal, W
B
(lb O
2
/d) or (kg O
2
/d)

W
B
= r V = r Q


b) Oxygen required for NBOD, W
N
(lb O
2
/d) or (kg O
2
/d)

W
N
= 4.6 (TKN) or W
N
= 4.57 (TKN) (mg/L)
= 4.6 TKN) Q or = 4.57 TKN) Q (kg/d) or (lb/d)

where TKN = TKN that is converted to nitrate, mg/L
4.6 or 4.57 = conversion factor for amount of oxygen required for complete oxidation of
TKN

Note: TKN = Total Kjeldahl nitrogen = (Org-N) + (NH
3
-N) + (NH
4
+
-N)



c) Total oxygen required, W
T


The total amount of oxygen required on average conditions can be estimated using the following
formula:

W
T
= W
B
+ W
N


Total O
2
required = O
2
required for CBOD removal + O
2
required for NBOD removal

( )
( ) 1.42 4.57
T
Q So S
W Px Q No N
f
(
( = +
(





where 1.42 = conversion factor for cell tissue to BOD
L

f = 0.68 = factor to convert BOD
5
value to BOD
L
(BOD
5
/BOD
L
= 0.68)
P
x
= net mass of VSS (cells) produced
4.57 = conversion factor for amount of oxygen required for complete oxidation of TKN.


5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
18

Air Requirement, w

- based on mass and volume:
- Air mass requirement = mass air flow rate = weight of flow of air, w (kg air/s, lb air/s)
- Air volume requirement = air flow rate, Q
A
(m
3
air/s, ft
3
air /s)

1) Air mass requirement, w (kg air/s, lb air/s)

(SI unit)
( )( )
2
2
2
0.23
( )
O
kg O
OR kg Air
s
w
kg O
X OTE s
kg Air
= = =


where w = air mass requirement, kg air/s
OR = O
2
requirement, kg O
2
/s
X
O2
= O
2
content in (make-up) air = 23 kg O
2
/kg Air or 0.27715 kg O
2
/ m
3
of air
OTE or FOTE = field O
2
transfer efficiency, fraction

(US customary unit)
( )( )
2
2
2
0.23
( )
O
lbO
OR lb Air
s
w
lbO
X OTE s
lb Air
= = =


where w = air mass requirement, lb air/s
OR = O
2
requirement, lb O
2
/s
X
O2
= O
2
content in (make-up) air = 23 lb O
2
/lb Air or 0.0174 lb O
2
/ft
3
Air
OTE or FOTE = field O
2
transfer efficiency, fraction

2) Air volume requirement, Q
A
, ft
3
air/s
( )( )
2
3
2
2
3
0.22715
( )
A
O
kg O
OR m Air
s
Q
kg O
X OTE s
m Air
= = =


where Q
A
= air volume requirement, w m
3
air/s
OR = O
2
requirement, kg O
2
/s
X
O2
= O
2
content in (make-up) air = 23 kg O
2
/kg air or 0.22715 kg O
2
/m
3
air
OTE or FOTE = field O
2
transfer efficiency, fraction

(U.S. customary units)
( )( )
2
3
2
2
3
0.0174
( )
A
O
lbO
OR ft Air
s
Q
lbO
X OTE s
ft Air
= = =


where Q
A
= air volume requirement, ft
3
air/s
OR = O
2
requirement, lb O
2
/s
X
O2
= O
2
content in (make-up) air = 23 lb O
2
/lb Air or 0.0174 or 0.175 lb O
2
/ft
3
Air
OTE or FOTE = field O
2
transfer efficiency, fraction
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
19



Note: Under standard conditions,

( )
100 1 1 100
23 0.075 1440
A o
Q W
eff
| |
| || || |
=
| | | |
\ .\ .\ .
\ .


| |
3 3
2
2
1
min min
ft air lbO ft air d
d lbO
( (
( (
=
( (
( (




| |
3 3
2
2
1 ft air lbO ft air d
s d lbO s
( (
( (
=
( (
( (




where
Q
A
= air flow rate (scfm) required to transfer Wo of oxygen at standard condition
eff = oxygen transfer efficiency of the aerator at standard condition, %


Example
Given: V = 0.5 Mgal (1892.7 m
3
); Q = 2 Mgal/day (7570.8 m
3
/d); So = 200 mg/L; S = 0 mg/L;
The oxygen utilization rate, r = 50 mg/L-hr; O
2
transfer efficiency = 10%;
1 ft
3
of air contains 0.0174 lb O
2
(1 m
3
of air contains 0.27715 kg of O
2
);
1 gal = 3.7854 x 10
-3
m
3


Determine: 1) oxygen required, (lb O
2
/day); (kg O
2
/day)
2) air mass requirement, mass air flow rate, or weight of flow of air, w (lb/d); (kg/d)
3) air volume required, Q
A
(ft
3
/day); (m
3
/day)
4) lb O
2
used / lb BOD
5
removed; kg O
2
used / kg BOD
5
removed

(Solutions) SI unit

1) Mass of O
2
required, kg /day = r V

50 mg 1892.7 m
3
24 hr 1 x10
-3
kg/m
3

= --------- ------------ -------- ---------------- = 2,271 kg O
2
/day
L-hr day mg/L

2) Air mass required, w (kg/d)


( )( )
2
2
2
2, 271 /
0.23
(0.1)
O
OR kgO d
w
kgO
X OTE
kg air
= =

2,271 kg O
2
/day kg air
w = --------------------- --------------- = 98,750 kg air/day
0.1 0.23 kg O
2

5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
20

3) Air volume requirement, Q
A
, m
3
air/d

( )( )
2
2
2
3
2, 271 /
0.27715
(0.1)
A
O
OR kgO d
Q
kgO
X OTE
m air
= =

2,271 kg O
2
/day 1 m
3
of air 81,941 m
3
air
Air volume (m
3
) = ---------------------- ------------------ = ------------------
required per day 0.1 0.27715 kg O
2
day
Q
A



4) kg O
2
used 2,271 kg O
2
/day 1 mg/L
------------------------ = ------------------------------------- --------------
kg BOD
5
removed (200 - 0) mg/L (7,570.8 m
3
/d) 10
-3
kg/m
3


2,271 kg O
2
/day 1.5 kg O
2

= ----------------------------- = -------------
1,514 kg BOD
5
/ day kg BOD
5



(U.S. customary units)

1) Mass (lb) of O
2
required /day = r V

50 mg 0.5 Mgal 24 hr 8.34 lb/Mgal
= ---------- ------------ -------- ----------------- = 5,000 lb O
2
/day
L-hr day mg/L

\
2) Air mass required, w (lb/d)

( )( )
2
2
2
5, 000 /
0.23
(0.1)
O
OR lbO d
w
lbO
X OTE
lb air
= =

5,000 lbO
2
/d lb air
w = ---------------- ---------------- = 217,391 lb air/day
0.1 0.23 lb O
2



3) Air volume requirement, Q
A
, ft
3
air/d


( )( )
3
2
2
2
3
5, 000 / 2,874, 000
0.0174
(0.1)
A
O
OR lbO d ft air
Q
lbO
X OTE d
ft air
= = =
5-Oxygen Transfer_F12.doc
21


4) lb O
2
used 5,000 lb O
2
/day
------------------------ = -----------------------------------------------
lb BOD
5
removed (200 - 0) mg/L (2 Mgal/day)(8.34)

5,000 lb O
2
/day 1.5 lb O
2

= --------------------------- = ------------
3336 lb BOD
5
/ day lb BOD
5





Example
Given: Wastewater temperature, T = 15EC; Cs = 10.2 mg/L at 15EC; C = 2 mg/L at
15EC; Cs = 9.2 mg/L at 20EC; = 0.9; - = 0.95; OTE = 10 %; 2 = 1.024 for temperature
correction; total oxygen required, W
T
= 4536 kg/d = 10,000 lb O
2
/d.

Determine: (1) Mass transfer rate of O
2
at standard conditions, Wo
(2) Air flow rate Q
A
(w) required at standard test conditions.



(Solution)

20
( )
9.2
T s l
T o
C C
W W
|
o u

| |
=
|
\ .


( )( )
20
,20
/
T
o
T
s l s
W
W
C C C o u |



SI units:

(1)

( )| |
2
15 20
4536 /
6, 789 /
0.9 1.024 0.95 (10.2 / ) 2 / / 9.2 /
o
kg d
W kgO d
mg L mg L mg L

= =





(2)
( )( )
( )
( )
2
3
2 2
3
1
4,536 /
1440 min 138.67
min 0.22715
0.1
A
O
d
kgO d
OR m air
Q w
X OTE kg O
m air
| |
|
\ .
= = = =
| |
|
\ .


7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

22

US customary units:

(1)
20
( )
9.2
T s l
T o
C C
W W
|
o u

| |
=
|
\ .


( )( )
20
,20
/
T
o
T
s l s
W
W
C C C o u |



( )| |
2
15 20
10, 000 /
14, 966 /
0.9 1.024 0.95 (10.2 / ) 2 / / 9.2 /
o
lb d
W lbO d
mg L mg L mg L

= =




(2)
( )( )
( )
( )
2
3
2 2
3
1
14, 966 /
1440 min 6, 000
min 0.0174
0.1
A
O
d
lbO d
OR ft air
Q w
X OTE lb O
ft air
| |
|
\ .
= = = =
| |
|
\ .

or

( )
100 1 1 100
23 0.075 1440
A o
w Q W
eff
| |
| || || |
= =
| | | |
\ .\ .\ .
\ .


( )
100 1 1 100
14, 966 6025 6000
23 0.075 1440 10
A
w Q scfm scfm
| || || || |
= = = =
| | | |
\ .\ .\ .\ .



Aeration Devices

Table 6-14 (ME p. 278) lists the commonly used aeration devices.

Classification of Aerators:
1. Submerged
1) Diffused air
2) Sparger turbine
3) Jet

2. Surface
1) Low-speed turbine
2) High-speed floating
3) Rotor-brush
4) Cascade

Typical devices used for the oxygen transfer (Figure 6-33).
a) fine bubble diffused-air
b) medium bubble diffused-air
c) sparger turbine
d) static tube mixer
e) jet reactor
f) low-speed turbine
g) high-speed floating aerator
h) rotor-brush aerator.

7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

23

Selection of Aeration Devices (Aerator system)

The selection of an aerator system in process design must consider:

a) Oxygen transfer efficiency (%)
b) Oxygen transfer rate (kg/kW hr; lb/hp hr)
c) Effective mixing (Mixing Requirement = 10 - 30 SCF/min per 1000 ft
3
aeration tank
volume
d) Flexibility
e) Reliability
f) Maintenance of equipment
g) Costs (capital, operational & maintenance)




7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

24



Estimation of Oxygen Supply Requirements (King, PE exam, p. 229)

Design oxygen requirements (lb O
2
/ lb BOD
5
) - Ten States Standards (1978):

a) For activated sludge modifications (other than extended aeration), 1.1 lb O
2
/ lb BOD
5

b) For extended aeration mode of operation, 1.8 lb O
2
/ lb BOD
5




Mechanical Aeration (King, PE Exam, p. 229; ME)

Oxygen transfer rate, N (lb O
2
/ HP-hr), N, under field conditions:

( 20)
0
1.024
9.08
T sat
DO DO
N N
|
o

(
=
(

(1)
or
( 20)
0
1.024
9.17
T sat
DO DO
N N
|
o

(
=
(

(2)

We use Eq (1)

or
( 20)
0
1.024
9.17
T
waltt L
C C
N N
|
o

(
=
(

5-62 (4
th
ME 447)

where N = oxygen transfer rate under field conditions, kg O
2
/kW-hr, lb O
2
/ HP-hr
No = oxygen transfer rate under standard test conditions (at 20C, zero DO),
kg O
2
/kW-hr, lb O
2
/ HP-hr = a test certifying O
2
transfer
o = alpher factor = oxygen transfer coefficient factor for waste (see Table 5-32, 4
th
ME
447)
| = beta factor = salinity-surface tension correction factor, usually 1 (4
th
ME 447)
C
L
= DO = operating DO concentration (mg/L)
DO
sat
= C
walt
= DO saturation concentration in tap water for the specific temperature and
altitude (mg/L) see Fig 5-68 (4
th
ME 447) or Table 7-4 (Handout).
9.17 or 9.08 = DO
sat
for standard test conditions (mg/L)
T = wastewater temperature (C)

- The field and standard transfer rates for various mechanical aeration devices are shown in
Table 7-23.




7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

25



The theoretical nameplate horsepower is

2 2
2 2
( / ) 1
( )
( / )
O Demand lbO hr
hp nameplate
O Transfer Rate lbO hp hr n
| |
=
|

\ .


2 2
2 2
( / ) 1
( )
( / )
O Demand kgO hr
kW nameplate
O Transfer Rate kgO kW hr n
| |
=
|

\ .


where n = the number of aerators






Example(16.3, R&R, p. 516) A completely mixed activated sludge plant is located at El. 2000 ft
(610 m).
a) the oxygen demand is 2680 lb/day (1220 kg/d) during the summer when the wastewater
temperature is 82F (27.8C).
b) the alpha value is 0.75 and beta is 0.95.
c) the operating DO is 2.0 mg/L
d) four aerators are to be used
e) the manufacture has a test certifying the transfer (No) as 2.2 lb O
2
/hp-hr (nameplate hp)
(1.34 kg O
2
/kW-h).

Determine the theoretical aerator power per aerator (name plate hp).




7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

26

(Solution)

Temperature, T = (82 - 32) (5/9) = 27.8C
Saturation DO, Cs = 7.95 mg/L at T = 27.8 C at El = 0 ft
(Cs = 7.95 at T= 27C from Table D-1, 4
th
ME 1746)

Note: Cs = 14.652 - 0.41022(T) + 0.007910 (T)
2
- 0.000077774(T)
3

Cs = 14.652 - 0.41022(27.8) + 0.007910 (27.8)
2
- 0.000077774(27.8)
3

= 7.67 mg/L

1. Altitude correction
P
z

Cs,
Pz
= Cs,
760
----------------
760 mmHg

where P
z
= Barometric pressure at El = z ft
Cs
, 760
= Saturation DO at temperature at TC at El = 0 ft.

Barometric pressure, p = 760 mmHg at El at 0 ft
Barometric pressure, p = 706 mmHg at El at 2000 ft (Table 16.1, R&R, p. 509)

706 at El 2000 ft
Cs = (7.95 mg/L) -------------------- = 7.39 mg/L at El = 2000 ft
760 at El 0 ft






7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

27


( 20)
0
1.024
9.17
T sat
DO DO
N N
|
o

(
=
(



where N = oxygen transfer rate under field conditions (lb O
2
/ HP-hr)
No = oxygen transfer rate under standard test conditions = 2.2 lb O
2
/ HP-hr
o = alpha factor = 0.75
| = beta factor = 0.95
DO = operating DO concentration = 2.0 mg/L
DO
sat
= DO saturation concentration in tap water for the temperature 27.8C and altitude
2000 ft = 7.39 mg/L
9.17 = DO
sat
for standard test conditions (mg/L)
T = wastewater temperature = 27.8 C


(US customary units)

(27.8 20) 2
1.087 2.2 (0.95)(7.39) 2.0
1.024 (0.75)
9.17
lbO lb
N
hp hr hp hr

| | (
= =
|
(


\ .


The theoretical nameplate horsepower is

2 2
2 2
2
2
( / ) 1
( / )
2680
24 1
25.7 ( )
1.087
4
O Demand lbO hr
hp
O Transfer Rate lbO hp hr n
lbO day
day hr
hp nameplate
lbO
hp hr
| |
=
|

\ .
| | | |
| |
| |
\ .
|
= =
|
|
\ .
|

\ .




(SI units)

DO saturation value = 7.92 mg/L
The elevation = 610 m = (610 m)(3.281 ft/m) = 2000 ft
Barometric pressure = 706 mmHg
Cs = 7.36 mg/L at 610 m
No = 1.34 kg / kW hr

(27.8 20)
2
(0.95)(7.39) 2.0
1.34 1.024 (0.75) 0.662 /
9.17
N kgO kW hr

(
= =
(




7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

28
The theoretical nameplate (kW) is

2
2
1220
24 1
19.2 ( )
0.662
4
kgO day
day hr
kW kW nameplate
kgO
kW hr
| |
| |
| |
| |
\ .
|
= =
|
|
\ .
|

\ .



Diffused Aerators

The standard oxygen transfer efficiency for various devices is shown in Table 7-24. The
reported values correspond with a diffuser depth of 15 ft

Power requirements for blowers:

1 2
1
1
29.7
n
w
w R T p
P
n e p
(
| |
( =
|
(
\ .

for SI unit

where 29.7 = constant for SI units conversion

1 2
1
1
550
n
w
w R T p
P
n e p
(
| |
( =
|
(
\ .

for U.S. customary units

where 550 = ftlb/shp

P
w
= power requirement of reach blower, kW, hp
w = mass air flow rate or weight of flow of air, kg/s, lb/sec
R = engineering gas constant for air = 8.314 kJ/k mol K
= 53.3 ft. lb/ lb-air.R
T
1
= absolute inlet air temperature, K, R (Rankine, R = F + 459.6)
p
1
= absolute pressure at blower inlet, atm, psi
p
2
= absolute pressure at blower outlet, atm, psi
n = (k 1)/k = 0.283 for air, where k = 1.395 for air
e = compressor/blower efficiency (0.70 to 0.90)

* Mixing requirements for diffused aeration systems range from 10 to 30 standard
ft
3
/min per 1000 ft
3
of tank volume.








7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

29


Example7-12 (King, PE exam, p 232)
For a community of 100,000, determine the size of aeration equipment for a ceramic grid
diffused aeration system for a municipal activated sludge treatment facility which provides
secondary treatment.

- The field O
2
transfer efficiency is estimated to be 15%.
- The aeration system must be sized to deliver the peak O
2
requirement.
- Mixing requirements are normally satisfied if the air supply rate exceeds 10 to 30
SCF/min per 1000 ft
3
of aeration basin volume.
- Wastewater characteristics are:
Average per-capita flow rate = 100 gal/capitaday
Peak factor = 2.2
Wastewater concentrations: BOD
5
in raw wastewater = 220 mg/L
SS = 220 mg/L


Aeration Tank Volume:

Dimension of aeration basin: water depth = 15 ft; width = 30 ft; length = 185 ft
For 4 units, total volume = 4 (15 ft)(30 ft)(185 ft) = 333,000 ft
3


General Assumptions:

- 35% of BOD in raw wastewater is removed in the primary treatment.
- Average O
2
supply requirement = 1.1 lb O
2
/lb BOD
5
(Ten State Standards)
- Field O
2
Transfer Efficiency (FOTE) for the aeration equipment (diffused aerator) = 15%

Assumptions on the blower:

- Absolute pressure at blower inlet (p
1
) is assumed to equal atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi):
- Absolute pressure of blower output (p
2
) is assumed to exceed static pressure by 3 psi to allow
for head loss in the piping system, filter, and diffuser.
- T
1
= inlet air temperature = 100F = 100F + 460 = 560R (Rankine)
- e = compressor / blower efficiency = 0.80 (ranging from 0.70 to 0.90)

Steps:
1. Calculate average flow rate, Q
ave
(MGD)
2. Calculate BOD loading to the secondary treatment process (lb BOD
5
/d)
3. Calculate oxygen requirement (lb O
2
/d) at average flow and peak flow
4. Calculate air requirement (lb air/min)
5. Calculate volume of air supply rate (SCF/min) based on air requirement
6. Calculate volume of air supply rate based on mixing requirement, (SCF/min)/1000 ft
3

7. Determine design air supply rate based on step 5) and 6) using conservative approach (lb
air/s)
8. Calculate blower horsepower

7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

30


(Solution)

100 gal 1 Mgal
1 ) Average flow rate, Q
ave
= (---------------)(100,000 people) (----------) = 10 Mgal/day
Capita day 10
6
gal

2) BOD loading to the secondary treatment process (lb BOD
5
/d)

Assumption: BOD
5
removal in the primary clarifier = 35% (see Table 7-9)

8.34 lb/Mgal
BOD loading to the aeration tank = (220 mg/L)(10 Mgal/day)( ------------------) (1- 0.35)
mg/L
= 11926.2 lb BOD
5
/day


3) O
2
requirement (lb O
2
/ day)

Average O
2
supply requirements = 1.1 lb O
2
/ lb BOD
5
[Ten States Standards (1978)]


At average flow
11926.2 lb BOD
5
1.1 lb O
2

O
2
requirement = ---------------------- ------------ = 13,118.8 lb O
2
/ day
day lb BOD
5


= 13,120 lb O
2
/ day

At peak flow - the aeration system must be sized to deliver the peak O
2
requirement.

Using the peak factor of 2.2:

O
2
requirement (peak design) = (2.2) (13,120 lb O
2
/ day) = 28,900 lb O
2
/day

4) Mass air flow requirement, w (lb air/min):

Note: The standard transfer efficiency of a ceramic grid, diffused air system is estimated to
be 30% (see Table 7-24).
- The O
2
transfer efficiency under field conditions (FTE) is estimated to be 15%
- The O
2
content (mass fraction) of air (X
O2
) is 0.23 lb O
2
/lb air.

2
2
( )( )
O
O
w
X FTE
=

where w = air (mass) requirement (lb air / sec)
O
2
= biological oxygen requirement (lb/sec)= 28,900 lb O
2
/ day
X
O2
= oxygen content in make-up air (mass faction = 0.23)
7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

31
FTE = field transfer efficiency of oxygen (decimal) = 0.15


(28,900 lb O
2
/day)(day/1440 min)
w = -------------------------------------------- = 582 lb air /min
(0.23 lb O
2
/lb air) (0.15)

5) Air volume requirement, Q
A
, ft
3
air/d (volumetric air supply rate):

(582 lb air /min)
Air (SCF/min) = -------------------------------- = 7,760 ft
3
(SCF) air / min
0.075 lb air / ft
3
air (SCF)

SCF = standard cubic foot


or


( )( )
( )
3
2
2
2
3
28,900 / 1 / 1440min
7, 689
0.0174
min
(0.15)
A
O
lbO d d
OR ft air
Q
lbO
X OTE
ft air
= = =


6) Mixing requirement:

- Mixing requirements are normally satisfied if the air supply rate exceeds 10 to 30
SCF/min per 1000 ft
3
of aeration basin volume.

Since the volume of the aeration basin = 333,000 ft
3
,

7,760 ft
3
(SCF) / min 23.3 ft
3
(SCF) / min
Air supply = -------------------------- = -------------------------- OK
333,000 ft
3
1000 ft
3



7) Design air supply rate (mass flow rate)

For purpose of the design, a conservative approach is assumed; that is,
air supply rate = 30 ft
3
(SCF)/min per 1000 ft
3
of aeration basin volume (see (6)).


Mass air flow rate, w

30 ft
3
/min 0.075 lb air min
w = -------------- (333,000 ft
3
)(----------------) (---------) = 12.5 lbs air/sec
1000 ft
3
ft
3
60 sec


7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

32

8) Blower horsepower

1 2
1
1
550
n
w RT p
HP
n e p
(
| |
( =
|
(
\ .



where HP = horsepower of compressor/blower
w = mass air flow rate (lb/sec)
R = gas constant = 53.3 ft. lb / lb-air
T
1
= inlet air temperature (R, where R = F + 459.6), Rankine
p
1
= absolute pressure at blower inlet (psi)
p
2
= absolute pressure at blower outlet (psi)
n = 0.283 for air
e = compressor/blower efficiency (0.70 to 0.90)

Assumptions on the blower:
- T
1
= inlet air temperature = 100F = 100F + 459.6 = 560R
- e = compressor/blower efficiency = 0.80 (0.70 to 0.90)
- Absolute pressure at blower inlet (p
1
) is assumed to equal atmospheric pressure (14.7
psi):
- p
1
= absolute pressure at blower inlet = 14.7 psi (atmospheric pressure)
- Absolute pressure of blower output (p
2
) is assumed to exceed static pressure by 3 psi to
allow for head loss in the piping system, filter, and diffuser.

absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + gage pressure

p
2
= p
1
+ P
2
+ P
3

Inlet Headloss Head due to
in piping water depth
system

(15 ft) 62.4 lb ft
2

p
2
= 14.7 psi + 3 psi + --------- --------- ----------- = 24.2 psi
ft
3
144 in
2


where 15 ft = water depth












p
1
=
15 ft
p
2
7-Oxygen Transfer_F10

33


The total blower horsepower:

0.283
(12.5 / sec)(53.3)(560 ) 24.2
1 454
(550)(0.283)(0.80) 14.7
lb R psi
HP HP
psi
(
| |
( = =
|
( \ .



Six units at 100 HP are recommended to provide flexibility to match air supply rates with
experienced demand: i.e., 5 + 1 down for maintenance = 6 units