Chapter 2
1. For the network shown in Figure P2.43, V
i
(t) is the input and i(t) is the output. The transfer function
I(S),V(S) of the network is
(a)
Cs
LCs
2
RCs 1
(b)
C
LCs
2
RCs 1
(c)
Cs
RCs
2
LCs 1
(d)
C
RCs
2
LCs 1
[IES 1993[
2. For the eld-controlled dc servomotor, as shown in Figure P2.44, the transfer function 0(s),E(s)
contains
(a) Two times constants, no integration (b) Two times constants, one integration
(c) One time constants, one integration (d) One time constants, one integration
[IES 1996[
3. Amechanical systemconsists of two mass-spring friction system, as shown in Figure P2.45. The order
of the transfer function X(s),F(s) is
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IES 1996[
R
L
j(t)
C
V
i
(t)
Figure P2.43 A network (Objective Question 1).
R I
g
(Constant)
Singular relation
J
1
I
L
Figure P2.44 A led-controlled servomotor.
Figure P2.45 Two mass-spring friction system.
4. Consider a multiple gear system, as shown in Figure P2.46. Which one of the following gives the
equivalent inertia referred to shaft 1?
(a) J
1
J
2
N
1
N
2
2
J
a
N
1
N
3
N
2
N
4
2
(b) J
1
J
2
N
2
N
1
2
J
3
N
2
N
4
N
1
N
3
2
(c) J
1
J
2
N
1
N
2
2
J
3
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
2
(d) J
1
J
2
N
2
N
1
2
J
3
N
1
N
2
N
3
N
4
2
[IES 2004[
5. For the mechanical system, shown in Figure P2.47, the system is described as:
(a) M
d
2
y
1
(t)
dt
2
B
dy
1
(t)
dt
= K y
2
(t) y
1
(t) [ [
(c) M
d
2
y
1
(t)
dt
2
B
dy
1
(t)
dt
= K y
1
(t) y
2
(t) [ [
[IES 2001[
B
N
N
B
B B N
N
J
J
J
Figure P2.46 A multiple gear system.
B
M
K
y
2
(t) y
1
(t)
f(t)
Figure P2.47 A mechanical system.
(b) M
d
2
y
2
(t)
dt
2
B
dy
2
(t)
dt
= K y
2
(t) y
1
(t) [ [
(d) M
d
2
y
2
(t)
dt
2
B
dy
2
(t)
dt
= K y
1
(t) y
2
(t) [ [
2
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Chapter 3
1. Consider a signal ow graph, as in Figure P3.12.
Signal ow graphs, which have the same transfer function, would include:
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iv) (d) (i) and (iv)
[IAS 1999[
2. Consider a signal ow graph shown in Figure P3.13.
1
s
2
s
3
s
1
K
2
K
3
K
(i)
1
s
2
s
3
s
1
K
2
K
3
K
(ii)
1
s
2
s
3
s
1
K
2
K
3
K
(iii)
Figure P3.12 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 1.
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
7
b
8
b
9
b
10
b
1
Z 2
Z
6
Z
Figure P3.13 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 2.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
3
Consider the following statements regarding the signal ow graph:
(i) There are three forward paths.
(ii) These are three individual loops.
(iii) These are two nontouching loops.
Of these statements:
(a) (i), (ii), and (iii) are correct. (b) (i) and (ii) are correct.
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct. (d) (i) and (iii) are correct.
[IES 1998[
3. Referring to Figure P3.14, match list I (signal ow graph) with list II (transfer function), and select
the correct answer using the codes given in the following list:
List I List II
A. Figure (i) 1.
P
1 Q
B. Figure (ii) 2.
Q
1 PQ
C. Figure (iii) 3.
PQ
1 PQ
D. Figure (iv) 4.
PQ
1 P
2
Figure P3.14 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 3.
4
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 2 3 4 1 (b) 2 3 1 4
(c) 3 2 1 4 (d) 3 2 4 1
[IAS 2000[
4. A system block diagram is shown in Figure P3.15.
The overall transfer function of the system is
C
R
=
G
1
G
2
G
3
1 G
1
G
2
G
3
H
1
G
2
H
2
G
3
G
2
H
3
The value of X in the gure would be equal to
(a) H
3
(b) G
3
H
3
(c) G
2
H
3
(d) G
3
H
3
[IAS 2001[
5. The signal ow graph of the system is shown in Figure P3.16.
The transfer function C(s),D(s) of the system is
(a)
G
1
(s)G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)H(s)
(b)
G
1
(s)G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)G
2
(s)H(s)
(c)
G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)G
2
(s)H(s)
(d)
G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)G
2
(s)H(s)
[IAS 2001[
R(s) +
+ +
1
G
2
G
3
G
1
H
2
H
C
X
Figure P3.15 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 4.
Figure P3.16 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 5.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
5
6. The closed loop system shown in Figure P3.17 is subjected to a disturbance N(s).
The transfer function C(s),N(s) is given
(a)
G
1
(s)G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)G
2
(s)H(s)
(b)
G
1
(s)
1 G
1
(s)H(s)
(c)
G
2
(s)
1 G
2
(s)H(s)
(d)
G
2
(s)
1 G
1
(s)G
2
(s)H(s)
[IES 1997[
7. The transfer function of the system shown in Figure P3.18 is
(a)
O
R
=
ABC
1 ABC
(b)
O
R
=
A B C
1 AB AC
(c)
O
R
=
AB AC
ABC
(d)
O
R
=
AB AC
1 AB AC
[IAS 1998[
Figure P3.17 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 6.
R +
+
A
B
O
C
Figure P3.18 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 7.
6
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
8. Three blocks G
1
. G
2
and G
3
are connected in some fashion such that overall transfer function is
G
1
G
3
(1 G
1
G
2
)
1 G
1
G
2
The blocks are connected in the following manner:
(a) G
1
. G
2
with negative feedback and combination in parallel with G
3
(b) G
1
. G
3
with negative feedback and G
2
in parallel
(c) G
1
. G
2
is cascade and combination in parallel with G
3
(d) G
1
. G
3
in cascade and combination in parallel with G
2
[IAS 2004[
9. In regeneration feedback, the transfer function is given by
(a)
G(s)
R(s)
=
G(s)
1 G(s)H(s)
(b)
G(s)
R(s)
=
G(s)H(s)
1 G(s)H(s)
(c)
G(s)
R(s)
=
G(s)H(s)
1 G(s)H(s)
(d)
G(s)
R(s)
=
G(s)
1 G(s)H(s)
[IAS 1992[
10. The transfer function C(s),R(s) of the system, whose block diagram is shown in Figure P3.19, is
(a)
G
1
G
2
1 G
1
H
1
G
2
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
(b)
G
1
G
2
1 G
1
H
1
G
2
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
(c)
G
1
G
2
1 G
1
H
1
G
2
H
2
(d)
G
1
(1 G
2
H
2
)G
2
(1 G
1
H
1
)
1 G
1
H
1
G
2
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
[IES 1993[
R(S)
C(S)
+ +
1
G
1
H
2
H
2
G
Figure P3.19 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 10.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
7
11. The signal ow graph of a closed loop system is shown in Figure P3.20, wherein T
D
represents the
disturbance reduces by
(a) Increasing G
2
(s) (b) Decreasing G
2
(s)
(c) Increasing G
1
(s) (d) Decreasing G
1
(s)
[IES 1997[
12. The response c(t) of a system to an input r(t) is given by the following different equation:
d
2
c(t)
dt
2
3dc(t)
dt
5c(t) = 5r(t)
The transfer function of the system is given by
(a) G(s) =
5
s
2
3s 5
(b) G(s) =
1
s
2
3s 5
(c) G(s) =
3s
s
2
3s 5
(d) G(s) =
s 3
s
2
3s 5
[IES 1996[
13. The gain C(s),R(s) of the signal ow graph, shown in Figure P3.21, is
(a)
G
1
G
2
G
2
G
3
1 G
1
G
2
H
1
G
2
G
3
H
1
G
4
(b)
G
1
G
2
G
2
G
3
1 G
1
G
2
H
1
G
2
G
3
H
1
G
4
(c)
G
1
G
3
G
2
G
3
1 G
1
G
3
H
1
G
2
G
3
H
1
G
4
(d)
G
1
G
3
G
2
G
3
1 G
1
G
3
H
1
G
2
G
3
H
1
G
4
[IES 2003[
Figure P3.20 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 11.
8
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
14. The overall gain C(s),R(s) of the block diagram, shown in Figure P3.22, is
(a)
G
1
G
2
1 G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
(b)
G
1
G
2
1 G
2
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
(c)
G
1
G
2
1 G
2
H
2
G
1
G
2
H
1
H
2
(d)
G
1
G
2
1 G
1
G
2
H
1
G
1
G
2
H
2
[IES 2003[
15. From Figure P3.23, the transfer function of the signal ow graph is
(a)
T
12
1 T
22
(b)
T
22
1 T
12
(c)
T
12
1 T
12
(d)
T
22
1 T
12
[IES 1992[
R(S) +
+
+
1
G
1
H
2
H
2
G
Figure P3.22 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 14.
1
X
12
T
22
T
2
X
Figure P3.23 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 15.
Figure P3.21 Signal ow graphs for Objective Question 13.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
9
Chapter 4
1. The unit-impulse response of a system is given by c(t) = 0.5e
t,2
. Its transfer function is
(a) 1,(s 2) (b) 1, 1 2s ( )
(c) 2, 1 2s) (d) 2, s 2 ( ) (
[IAS 1993[
2. If the unit-step response of a system is a unit impulse function, then the transfer function of such a
system will be
(a) 1 (b) 1,s
(c) s (d) 1,s
2
[IAS 1994[
3. When a unit-step input is applied, a second-order underdamped system has a peak overshoot of OP
occurring at t
max
. If another step input, equal in magnitude to the peak overshoot OP, is applied at
t = t
max
, then the system will settle down at
(a) 1 OP (b) 1 OP
(c) OP (d) 1.0
[IAS 1994[
4. The system shown in Figure P4.58 is subjected to a unit ramp input on close the switch (s).
(a) Steady-state error will increase and damping coefcient j will decrease.
(b) Both-steady state error and damping coefcient j will increase
(c) Both steady-state error and damping coefcient j will decrease.
(d) Steady-state error will decrease and damping coefcient j will increase.
[IAS 1995[
5. The impulse response of a system is given by
c(t) =
1
2
e
t,2
R(s)
K
K
1
s
s
s(s + a)
C(s)
+
Figure P4.58 Figure for Objective Question 4.
10
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
which of the following is its unit-step response?
(a) 1 e
t,2
(b) 1 e
t
(c) 2 e
t
(d) 1 e
2t
[IAS 1998[
6. For the system, shown in Figure P4.59, the damping factor j and undamped natural frequency v
n
are
respectively
(a)
2
KJ
_
f
and
J
K
r
(b)
K
J
r
and
f
2
KJ
_
(c)
f
2
KJ
_ and
K
J
r
(d)
2F
KJ
_ and
K
J
[IAS 1999[
7. Type of a system depends on the
(a) No. of its poles (b) Difference between the no. of poles and zeros
(c) No. of its real poles (d) No. of poles it has at the origin
[IAS 2000[
8. A unity feedback system has open loop transfer function as
G(s) =
16
s(s 16)
The natural frequency of the system is
(a) 16 (b) 8
(c) 2 (d) 4
[IAS 2002[
9. The system
G(s) =
0.8
s
2
s 2
is excited by a unit-step input. The steady-state output is
(a) 0.8 (b) 0.4
(c) 0.4 (d) Unbonded
[IAS 2003[
Figure P4.59 Figure for Objective Question 4.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
11
10. The systemshown in Figure P4.60 has a unit-step unit. In order that the steady-state error is 0.1, the
value of K required is
(a) 0.1 (b) 0.9
(c) 1.0 (d) 9.0
[IAS (EE) 1994[
11. The settling time of a feedback system with the closed-loop transfer function
C s ( )
R s ( )
=
v
2
s
s
2
2v
n
s v
2
n
is
(a) t
s
=
2
v
n
(b) t
s
=
v
n
2
(c) t
s
=
4
v
n
(d) t
s
= 4v
n
[IAS (EE) 1998[
12. The feedback control system shown in Figure P4.61 is
(a) Type 0 system (b) Type 1 system
(c) Type 2 system (d) Type 3 system
[IES (EC) 1993[
Figure P4.60 Figure for Objective Question 10.
+
2
2
( 1)
s
s +
2
( 1)
s
s s
+
+
2 3
( 3)
s
s s
+
+
Figure P4.61 Figure for Objective Question 12.
12
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
13. A typical control system is shown in Figure P4.62. Assuming R(s) = 1,s. the steady-state error is
(a)
1
1 K
(b) K
(c) Zero (d) 1
[IES (EC) 1995[
14. The velocity-error constant K
v
of a feedback system of a closed-loop transfer function
C(s)
R(s)
=
G(s)
1 G(s)H(s)
is
(a) K
v
= Lim
s0
sG s ( )H s ( ) (b) K
v
= Lim
s0
s
G s ( )
1G s ( )H s ( )
(c) K
v
= Lim
s0
sG s ( ) (d) K
v
= Lim
s0
s 1 G s ( )H s ( ) [ [
[IES (EC) 1998[
15. In the derivation of expression for peak percent overshoot
Mp = exp
1
2
p
!
100%
which one of the following condition is NOT required?
(a) The system is linear and time invariant.
(b) The system transfer function has a pair of complex conjugate poles and no zeros.
(c) There is no transportation delay in the system.
(d) The system has zero initial condition.
[GATE (EC) 2005[
16. For what values of a, does the system shown in Figure P4.63 have a zero steady-state error (timed)
for a step input?
(a) a = 0 (b) a = 1
(c) a _4 (d) For no value of a
1
s + 20
s + 40
s(s + 10)
+
R(s)
K
C(s)
Figure P4.62 Figure for Objective Question 13.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
13
[GATE (EE) 1992[
17. A system has the following transfer function
G s ( ) =
100 s 5 ( ) s 50 ( )
s
4
s 10 ( ) s
2
3s 10 ( )
The type and order of the system are respectively
(a) 4 and 9 (b) 4 and 7
(c) 5 and 7 (d) 7 and 5
[IES (EE) 1998[
18. For the system shown in Figure P4.64, the state value of the output c(t) is
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) (d) Dependent on the values of K and K
t
[IES (EE) 1999[
19. Consider the following statements regarding system shown in Figure P4.65, where m = mass,
B = frictional coefcient and K = spring constant:
1. It represents a conservative system.
2. It has a natural frequency of undamped oscillation of
K,m
p
.
3. It has a time constant of m/K of these statements.
2
1
5
s
s s a
+
+ +
1
4 s +
Figure P4.63 Figure for Objective Question 16.
K
s(s + 2s)
+
C(s)
K
1 + 0.025
Input = Unit step
Figure P4.64 Figure for Objective Question 18.
14
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(a) 1, 2, and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IAS 1997[
20. In Figure P4.66, spring constant is K, viscous friction coefcient is B, mass is M and the system
output motion is x(t) corresponding to input force F(t). Which of the following parameters relates to
the above system?
Here
1. The constant = 1,M
2. Damping coefcient = B, 2
KM
_
3. Natural frequency of oscillation =
K,M
p
[IES (EE) 1995[
21. The step response of a system is c(t) = 1 5e
t
10e
2t
6e
3t
. The impulse response of the
system is
(a) 5e
t
20e
2t
18e
3t
(b) 5e
t
20e
2t
18e
3t
(c) 5e
t
20e
2t
18e
3t
(d) 5e
t
20e
2t
18e
3t
[IAS 2003[
22. Given a unity feedback with
G s ( ) =
K
s s 4 ( )
B = 0
m
Figure P4.65 Figure for Objective Question 4.
M
k
F(t)
x(t)
Figure P4.66 Figure for Objective Question 20.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
15
the value of K for damping ratio of 0.5 is
(a) 1 (b) 16
(c) 4 (d) 2
[IAS 2003[
23. A unity-feedback control system has a forward-path transfer function G(s) is given by
G s ( ) =
10 1 s ( )
s
2
s 1 ( ) s 5 ( )
The steady-state error due to unit parabolic input
r(t) =
t
2
2
U(t)
is
(a) Zero (b) 0.5
(c) 1.0 (d) Innite
[IAS 2003[
24. Damping factor and undamped natural frequency for a position control system is given by
(a) 2
KJ
_
.
KJ
_
respectively (b)
K
2fJ
.
K,J
p
respectively
(c)
f
2
KJ
_ .
K,J
p
respectively (d)
J
2
Kf
_ .
KJ
p
respectively
[IES (EE) 1992[
25. Match List I (Time Domain Specication) with List II (Equation for Finding Its Value), and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
List I (Time Domain Specication) List II (Equation for Finding Its Value)
A. Peak overshoot 1. ,(v
n
1
2
p
)
B. Peak time 2. 4, v
n
( )
C. Rise time 3. exp(,
1
2
p
)%
D. Settling time (2%) 4. p cos
1
[,(v
n
1
2
p
)[
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 3 2 4 1 (c) 4 1 3 2
(b) 3 1 4 2 (d) 4 2 3 1
[IAS 2004[
26. In type I system, a constant output velocity at steady state will be possible, when
(a) There is no error.
(b) There is a constant steady-state error.
16
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(c) There is a variable steady-state error.
(d) There is a uctuating error.
[IES (EE) 1992[
27. If the time response of a system is given by the following equation
y t ( ) = 5 3 sin vt c
1
( ) e
3t
sin vt c
2
( ) e
5t
then the steady-state part of the above response is given by
(a) 5 3 sin vt s
1
( ) (b) 5 3 sin vt c
1
( ) e
3t
sin vt c
2
( )
(c) 5 e
5t
(d) 5
[IES (EE) 1996[
28. The impulse response of a system is 5e
10t
. its step response is equal to
(a) 0.5e
10t
(b) 5(1 e
10t
)
(c) 0.5(1 e
10t
) (d) 10(1 e
10t
)
[IES (EE) 1996[
29. The transfer function of a systemis 10/(1 s) when operated as a unity feedback system, the steady-
state error to a unit-step input will be
(a) Zero (b) 1/11
(c) 10 (d) Innity
[IES (EE) 1996[
30. The unit-impulse response of a second-order system is 1,6e
0.8t
sin 0.6t ( ) . Then the natural
frequency and damping ratio of the system are respectively
(a) 1 and 0.6 (b) 1 and 0.8
(c) 2 and 0.4 (d) 2 and 0.3
[IES (EE) 2003[
31. A second-order control system has
M jw ( ) =
100
100 v
2
10
2
_
jv
Its M
p
(peak magnitude) is
(a) 0.5 (b) 1
(c)
2
_
(d) 2
[IES (EE) 2003[
32. Consider the following system, shown in Figure P4.67, where x(t) = sin t. What will be the response
y(t) in the steady state?
x(t)
y(t)
1
s
s +
Figure P4.67 Figure for Objective Question 32.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
17
(a) sin(t 458),
2
_
(b) sin(t 458),
2
_
(c)
2
_
et
sin t (d) sin t cos t
[IES (EE) 2004[
33. The damping ratio and natural frequency of a second-order system are 0.6 and 2 rad/s respectively.
Which of the following combinations gives the correct values of peak and settling time, respectively,
for the unit-step response of the system?
(a) 3.33 s and 1.95 s (b) 1.95 s and 3.33 s
(c) 1.95 s and 1.5 s (d) 1.5 s and 1.95 s
[IES (EE) 2004[
34. Which of the following equations gives the steady-state error for a unity-feedback system excited by
u
s
t ( ) tu
s
t ( ) t
2
u
s
2
(a)
1
2 K
p
1
K
v
1
K
a
(b)
1
1 K
p
1
K
v
2
K
a
(c)
1
K
p
1
K
v
1
K
a
(d)
1
1 K
p
1
K
v
1
K
a
[IES (EE) 2004[
35. The steady-state error, due to a ramp input for a type-2 system, is equal to
(a) Zero (b) Innite
(c) Non-zero number (d) Constant
[IES (EE) 2001[
36. Which of the following is the steady-state error of a control system with step-error, ramp-error and
parabolic-error constants K
p.
K
u
K
a
. respectively, for the input 1 t
2
( )3j t ( )?
(a)
3
1 K
p
3
2K
a
(b)
3
1 K
p
6
K
a
(c)
3
1 K
p
3
K
a
(d)
3
1 K
p
6
K
a
[IES (EE) 2005[
37. The steady-state error of the type-1 second-order system to unit-ramp input is
(a) 2v
n
(b) 2,v
n
(c) 4,v
n
(d) None of these
38. The unit-step response of a second-order linear system, with zero initial states, is given by
c(t) = 1 1.25e
6t
sin(8t tan
1
1.333). t _ 0
The damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency of oscillation of the system are, respectively
(a) 0.6 and 10 rad/s (b) 0.6 and 12.5 rad/s
(c) 0.8 and 10 rad/s (d) 0.8 and 12.5 rad/s
[IAS 2000[
18
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
39. If a second-order systemhas poles at (1 j), then the step response of the systemwill exhibit a peak
value at
(a) 4.5 s (b) 3.5 s
(c) 3.14 s (d) 1 s
[IAS 2001[
40. In a continuous data system:
(a) Data may be a continuous function of time at all points in the system.
(b) Data is necessarily a continuous function of time at all points in the system.
(c) Data is continuous at the input and output parts of the system but not necessarily during
intermediate processing of the data.
(d) Only the reference signal is a continuous function of time.
41. A control system, having a unit damping factor, will give
(a) A critically damped response (b) An oscillatory response
(c) An undamped response (d) No response
[IES (EE) 1992[
42. Principles of homogeneity and superposition are applied to
(a) Linear time-variant systems (b) Nonlinear time-variant systems
(c) Linear time-invariant system (d) Nonlinear time-invariant systems
[IES (EE) 1993[
43. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
G s ( ) =
K
s s 1 ( )
If the gain K is increased to innity, then the damping ratio will tend to become
(a) 1,
2
_
(b) 1
(c) 0 (d)
[IES (EE) 1993[
44. The transfer system of a control system is given as
T s ( ) =
K
x
2
4s K
where K is the gain of the systemin radians/amp. For this systemto be critically damped, the value of
K should be
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IES (EE) 1996[
45. Consider the following statements with reference to a system with velocity-error constant,
K
c
= 1000:
1. The system is stable. 2. The system is of type 1.
3. The test signal used is a step input.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
19
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3
[IES (EE) 2003[
46. The response c(t) to a system is described by the differential equation
d
2
c t ( )
dt
2
4
dc t ( )
dt
5c t ( ) = 0
The system response is:
(a) Undamped (b) Underdamped
(c) Critically damped (d) Oscillatory
[IES (EC) 1999[
47. Consider the following transfer functions:
1.
1
s
2
s 1
2.
4
s
2
2s 4
3.
2
s
2
2s 2
4.
1
s
2
2s 1
5.
3
s
2
6s 3
Which of the above transfer functions represents underdamped second-order systems?
(a) 4 and 5 (b) 1, 4 and 5
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1, 3 and 5
[IES (EE) 2004[
48. The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is given by
G s ( ) =
K
s s 1 ( )
If the gain K is increased to innity, then the damping ratio will tend to become
(a) Zero (b) 0.707
(c) Unity (d) Innite
[IES (EE) 2005[
49. Consider the following statements in connection with the differential equation
4
d
2
y
dt
2
36y = 36x
1. The natural frequency of the response is 6 rad/sec.
2. The response is always oscillatory.
3. The percentage overshoot is 10%, and damping ratio of the system is 0.6.
4. Both system time constant and settling time are innite.
20
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4
[IES (EE) 2005[
50. A second-order system exhibits 100% overshoot. Its damping coefcient is:
(a) Equal to 0 (b) Equal to 1
(c) Less than 1 (d) Greater than 1
[IES (EE) 1998[
51. For a second-order system
2
d
2
y
dt
2
4
dy
dt
8y = 8x
the damping ratio is
(a) 0.1 (b) 0.25
(c) 0.333 (d) 0.5
[IES (EC) 1992[
52. In the type-1 system, the velocity error is:
(a) Inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the system
(b) Directly proportional to gain constant
(c) Inversely proportional to gain constant
(d) Independent of gain constant
[IES (EC) 1992[
53. A unity-feedback control system has a forward-path transfer function equal to
42.25
s s 6.5 ( )
The unit-step response of this system, starting from rest, will have its maximum value at a time
equal to
(a) 0 sec (b) 0.56 sec
(c) 5.6 sec (d) Innity
[IES (EC) 1993[
54. Match the system open-loop transfer functions given in List I with the steady-state errors produced
for a unit-ramp input. Select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I List II
A.
30
s
2
6s 9
1. Zero
B.
30
s
2
6s
2. 0.2
C.
30
s
2
9s
2. 0.3
D.
s 1
s
2
4. Innity
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
21
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 4 3 2 1
(c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 4 2 3 1
[IES (EC) 1993[
55. A plant has the following transfer function
G(s) =
1
s
2
0.2s 1
For a step input, it is required that the response settles to within 2% of its nal value. The plant
settling time is
(a) 20 s (b) 40 s
(c) 35 s (d) 45 s
[IES (EC) 2003[
56. A second-order control system is dened by the following differential equation:
4
d
2
c t ( )
dt
2
8
dc t ( )
dt
16c t ( ) = 16u t ( )
The damping ratio and natural frequency for this system are respectively
(a) 0.25 and 2 rad/s (b) 0.50 and 2 rad/s
(c) 0.25 and 4 rad/s (d) 0.50 and 4 rad/s
[IES (EE) 2001[
57. Assuming the transient response of a second-order system to be given by
c t ( ) = 1
e
4t
1 c
2
_ sin(v
n
1 c
2
_
0)
the setting time for the 5% criterion will be
(a) 1/4 s (b) 3/4 s
(c) 5/4 s (d) 4 s
[IES (EC) 1994[
58. Consider the systems with the following open-loop transfer functions:
1.
36
s s 3.6 ( )
2.
100
s s 5 ( )
3.
6.25
s s 4 ( )
The correct sequence of these systems in increasing order of the time taken for the unit-step
response to settle is
(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 3, 1, 2
(c) 2, 3, 1 (d) 3, 2, 1
[IES (EC) 1994[
22
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
59. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I (Characteristic equation) List II (Nature of damping)
A. s
2
15s 26.25 1. Undamped
B. s
2
5s 6 2. Under-damped
C. s
2
20.25 3. Critically damped
D. s
2
4.55s 42.25 4. Overdamped
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 3 1 4
(c) 4 3 1 2 (d) 1 2 4 3
[IES (EC) 1994[
60. For the control system in Figure P4.68 to be critically damped, the value of gain K required is:
(a) 1 (b) 5.125
(c) 6.831 (d) 10
[IES (EC) 1995[
61. A system has an open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
10
s s 1 ( ) s 2 ( )
What is the steady-state error when it is subjected to the input
r t ( ) = 1 2t
3
2
t
2
?
(a) Zero (b) 0.4
(c) 4 (d) innity
[IES (EC) 1995[
62. Consider a unit-feedback control system shown in Figure P4.69. The ratio of the time constants of
the open-loop response to the closed-loop response will be:
2
s
2
+ 7s + 2
+
R(s) C(s)
K
Figure P4.68 Figure for Objective Question 60.
R(s) C(s)
+
2
4 s +
Figure P4.69 Figure for Objective Question 62.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
23
(a) 1:1 (b) 2:1
(c) 3:2 (d) 2:3
[IES (EC) 1995[
63. Consider the following overall transfer function for a unity feedback system
4
s
2
4s 4
Which of the following statements regarding this system are correct?
1. Position error constant K
p
for the system is 4.
2. The system is of type one.
3. The velocity-error constant K
v
for the system is nite.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
[IES (EC) 1996[
64. A rst-order system is shown in Figure P4.70. Its time response to a unit-step input is given by
(a) c t ( ) = 1,T ( )e
t,T
(b) c t ( ) = T(1 e
t,T
)
(c) c t ( ) = (1 e
t,T
) (d) c t ( ) = Te
t,T
[IES (EC) 1996[
65. For a unity-feedback system, the open-loop transfer function is
G s ( ) =
16 s 2 ( )
s
2
s 1 ( ) s 4 ( )
What is the steady-state error if the input is r t ( ) = 2 3t 4t
2
( )u t ( )?
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3 [IES (EC) 1996[
66. A system has a transfer function
C s ( )
R s ( )
=
4
s
2
1.6s 4
For the unit-step response, the settling time (in seconds) for 2% tolerance band is
(a) 1.6 (b) 2.5
(c) 4 (d) 5
[IES (EC) 1996[
R(s) C(s)
1
1 sT +
Figure P4.70 Figure for Objective Question 64.
24
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
67. A second-order system has the damping ratio and undamped natural frequency of oscillation
v
n
. The settling time at 2% tolerance band of the system is
(a)
2
v
n
(b)
3
v
n
(c)
4
v
n
(c) v
n
[IES (EC) 2000[
68. Which of the following is the steady-state error for a step input applied to a unity-feedback system
with the open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
10
s
2
14s 50
?
(a) e
ss
= 0 (b) e
ss
= 0.83
(c) e
ss
= 1 (d) e
ss
=
[IES (EC) 2001[
69. In the system shown in Figure P4.71, where
r t ( ) = 1 2t t _ 0 ( )
the steady-state value of the error e(t) is equal to
(a) Zero (b) 2/10
(c) 10/2 (d) Innity
[IES (EE) 2001[
70. Consider the unity-feedback system as shown in Figure P4.72. The sensitivity of the steady-state
error to change in parameter K and parameter a with ramp inputs are respectively
(a) 1, 1 (b) 1, 1
(c) 1, 0 (d) 0, 1
[IES (EC) 2002[
71. When the time period of an observation is large, the type of error is:
(a) Transient error (b) Steady-state error
(c) Half-power error (d) Position-error constant
[IES (EC) 2003[
r(t) e(t) C(t) +
2
10( 1)
( 2)
s
s s
+
+
Figure P4.71 Figure for Objective Question 69.
r(t) e(t) C(t) +
2
10( 1)
( 2)
s
s s
+
+
Figure P4.72 Figure for Objective Question 70.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
25
72. What is the unit-step response of a unity-feedback control system having forward-path transfer
function
G s ( ) =
80
s s 18 ( )
?
(a) Overdamped (b) Critically damped
(c) Underdamped (d) Undamped oscillatory
[IES (EC) 2004[
73. What is the steady-state error for a unity-feedback control system having
G s ( ) =
1
s s 1 ( )
due to unit-ramp input?
(a) 1 (b) 0.5
(c) 0.25 (d)
0.5
_
[IES (EC) 2005[
74. Given a unity-feedback system with
G s ( ) =
K
s s 4 ( )
what is the value of K for a damping ratio of 0.5?
(a) 1 (b) 16
(c) 4 (d) 2
[IES (EC) 2005[
75. Match List I (System G(s)) with List II (Nature of response), and select the correct answer using the
codes given.
List I (System G(s)) List II (Nature of response)
A.
400
s
2
12s 400
1. Undamped
B.
900
s
2
90s 400
2. Critically damped
C.
225
s
2
30s 225
3. Underdamped
D.
625
s
2
0s 225
4. Overdamped
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 3 1 2 4 (b) 2 4 3 1
(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 2 1 3 4
[IES (EC) 2005[
76. An underdamped second-order system with negative damping will have the two roots:
(a) On the negative real axis as real roots
(b) On the left-hand side of the complex plane as complex roots
26
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(c) On the right-hand side of the complex plane as complex conjugates
(d) On the positive real axis as real roots
[IES (EC) 2005[
77. Which of the following expresses the time at which second peak in step response occurs for a second-
order system?
(a)
v
n
1
2
p (b)
2
v
n
1
2
p
(c)
3
v
n
1
2
p (d)
1
2
p
[IES (EC) 2005[
78. The steady-state error of a stable of type 0 unity-feedback system for a unit-step function is
(a) 0 (b) 1,(1 K
p
)
(c) (d) 1,K
p
[GATE (EC) 1990[
79. A second-order system has a transfer function given by
G s ( ) =
25
s
2
8s 25
If the system, initially at rest, is subjected to a unit-step input at t = 0, the second peak in the
response will occur at
(a) j s (b) j,3 s
(c) 2 j,3 s (d) j,2 s
[GATE (EC) 1991[
80. A unity-feedback control system has an open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
4 1 2s ( )
s
2
s 2 ( )
If the input to the system is a unit ramp, the steady-state error will be
(a) 0 (b) 0.5
(c) 2 (d) Innity
[GATE (EC) 1991[
81. The step-error coefcient of a system
G s ( ) =
1
s 6 ( ) s 1 ( )
with unity feedback is
(a) 1,6 (b)
(c) 0 (d) 1
[GATE (EC) 1995[
82. Consider a unity-feedback control system with open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
K
s s 1 ( )
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
27
The steady-state error of the system due to a unit-step input is
(a) Zero (b) K
(c) 1/K (d) Innite
[GATE (EC) 1998[
83. For a second-order system with the closed-loop transfer function
T s ( ) =
9
s
2
4s 9
the settling time for 2% band, in seconds, is:
(a) 1.5 (b) 2.0
(c) 3.0 (d) 4.0
[GATE (EC) 1999[
84. If the characteristic equation of a closed-loop system is s
2
2s 2 = 0, then the system is
(a) Overdamped (b) Critically damped
(c) Underdamped (d) Undamped
[GATE (EC) 2001[
85. Consider a system with a transfer function
G s ( ) =
s 6
Ks
2
s 6
Its damping ratio will be 0.5 when the value of K is
(a) 2/6 (b) 3
(c) 1/6 (d) 6
[GATE (EC) 2002[
86. The transfer function of a system is
G s ( ) =
100
s 1 ( ) s 100 ( )
For a unit-step input to the system, the approximate setting time for 2% criterion is:
(a) 100 s (b) 4 s
(c) 1 s (d) 0.1 s
[GATE (EE) 2002[
87. For a feedback-control system of type 2, the steady-state error for a ramp input is:
(a) Innite (b) Constant
(c) Zero (d) Interminate
[GATE (EE) 1996[
88. A unit-feedback system has an open-loop transfer function G(s). The steady-state error is zero for
(a) Step input and type-1 G(s) (b) Ramp input and type-1 G(s)
(c) Step input and type-0 G(s) (d) Ramp input and type-0 G(s)
[GATE (EE) 2000[
89. A unity-feedback system has an open-loop transfer function
G(s) =
25
s(s 6)
28
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
The peak overshoot in the step-input response of the system is approximately equal to:
(a) 5% (b) 10%
(c) 15% (d) 20%
[GATE (EE) 2000[
90. If the ramp input is applied to a type-2 system, the steady-state error is:
(a) Positive constant (b) Negative constant
(c) Zero (d) Positive innity
[GATE (EE) 2000[
91. Consider the unit-step response of a unity-feedback control system, whose open-loop transfer
functions is
G(s) =
1
s(s 1)
The maximum overshoot is equal to
(a) 0.143 (b) 0.153
(c) 0.163 (d) 0.173
[GATE (EE) 1996[
92. An open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback system is given by
K
s s 1 ( )
If the value of gain K is such that the systemis critically damped, the closed-loop poles of the system
will lie at:
(a) 0.5 and 0.5 (b) j0.5
(c) 0 and 1 (d) 0.5 j0.5
[GATE (EE) 2002[
93. The block diagram shown in Figure P4.73 gives a unity-feedback closed-loop control system. The
steady-state error in the response of the above system to the unit-step input is:
(a) 25% (b) 0.75%
(c) 6% (d) 33%
[IES (EE) 2001[
94. A block diagramof a closed-loop control system is given in Figure P4.74. The values of K and P are
respectively (such that the systemhas a damping ratio of 0.7 and an undamped natural frequency, v
n
,
of 5 rad/sec):
(a) 20 and 0.3 (b) 20 and 0.2
(c) 25 and 0.3 (d) 25 and 0.2
u(t) + v(t)
3
15 s +
15
1 s +
Figure P4.73 Figure for Objective Question 94.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
29
[IES (EC) 1997[
95. The unit-impulse response of a second-order underdamped system, starting from rest, is given by
c(t) = 12.5e
6t
sin 8t. t _ 0
The steady-state value of the unit-step response of the system is equal to:
(a) 0 (b) 0.25
(c) 0.5 (d) 1.0
[GATE (EE) 2004[
96. In the case of a second-order system described by a differential equation
Jd
2
0
0
dt
2
F
d0
0
dt
k0
0
= k0
i
where 0
i
and 0
0
are the input and output shaft angles, the natural frequency is given by:
(a)
K,J
p
(b)
J,K
p
(c)
KJ
_
(d)
K J
_
[IES (EC) 1997[
97. Assuming unit-ramp input match List I (Systemtype) with List II (Steady-state error), and select the
correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I (system type) List II (steady-state error)
A. 0 1. K
B. 1 2.
C. 2 3. 0
D. 3 4. 1,4
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 2 4 3 3 (b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 1 2 4 3
[IES (EC) 2003[
98. A unity-feedback second-order control system is characterized by
G s ( ) =
K
s Js B ( )
s( s + 2)
K
+
C(s)
R(s)
1 + sP
Figure P4.74 Figure for Objective Question 95.
30
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
where J =moment of inertia, K =systemgain and B =viscous damping coefcient. The transient
response specication, which is not affected by variation of system gain, is the:
(a) Peak overshoot (b) Rise time
(c) Settling time (d) Damped frequency of oscillation
[IES (EE) 1997[
99. A linear second-order system with the transfer function
G s ( ) =
49
s
2
16s 49
is initially at rest and is subjected to a step-input signal. The response of the system will exhibit a
peak overshoot of:
(a) 16% (b) 9%
(c) 2% (d) Zero
[IES (EE) 1998[
100. The unit-impulse response of a linear time-invariant second-order system is
g(t) = 10e
8t
sin 6t (t _ 0)
The natural frequency and the damping factor of the system are respectively
(a) 10 rad/s and 0.6 (b) 10 rad/s and 0.8
(c) 6 rad/s and 0.6 (d) 6 rad/s and 0.8
[IES (EE) 1999[
101. If (a jb) are the complex conjugate roots of a characteristic equation of a second-order system,
then its damping coefcient and natural frequency will be respectively:
(a)
b
a
2
b
2
_ and
a
2
b
2
p
(b)
b
a
2
b
2
_
(c)
a
a
2
b
2
_ and
a
2
b
2
p
(d)
a
a
2
b
2
_ and a
2
b
2
[IES (EE) 2000[
102. A unity-feedback control system has a forward-path transfer function
G s ( ) =
10 1 4s ( )
s
2
1 s ( )
If the system is subjected to an input
r(t) = 1 t
t
2
2
t _ 0 ( )
then the steady-state error of the system will be:
(a) Zero (b) 0.1
(c) 10 (d) Innity
[IES (EE) 2000[
103. The effect of error-rate damping is:
(a) To reduce steady-state error (b) Delay the response
(c) To provide larger settling time (d) None of the above
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
31
Chapter 5
1. If the characteristic equation of a system is s
3
14s
2
56s k = 0 then it will be stable only if:
(a) 0 < K < 784 (c) 10 K 600
(b) 1 < K < 64 (d) 4 < K < 784
[IAS 1994[
2. The rst two rows of Rouths tabulation of a fourth-order system are:
s
4
1 10 5
s
3
2 20
The number of roots of the system lying on the right half of the s-plane is:
(a) Zero (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IAS 1996[
3. The rst stability test showed the sign as follows:
Rows I II III IV V VI VII
Signs + + + + +
The number of roots of the system lying the right half of the s-plane is:
(a) 2 (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 5
[IAS 1998[
4. For the block diagram shown in Figure P5.21, the limiting values of K for the stability of inner loop
is found to be x < K < y, the overall system will be stable if and only if:
(a) 4x < K < 4y (b) 2x < K < 2y
(c) x < K < y (d) x,2 < K < y,2
[IES (EE) 2000[
Figure P5.21 Figure for Objective Question 4.
32
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
5. A system with the characteristic equation s
4
2s
3
11s
2
18s 18 0 will have a closed-loop
poles such that:
(a) All poles lie in the left half of the s-plane.
(b) All poles lie in the right half of the s-plane.
(c) Two poles lie symmetrically on the imaginary axis of the s-plane.
(d) No pole lies on the imaginary axis of the s-plane.
IAS 1993
6. By properly choosing the value of K, the output c(t) of the system (as shown in Figure P5.22) can be
made to oscillate sinusoidally at a frequency (in rad/s) of:
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
IAS 1993
7. Which one of the following statements is true for the system shown in Figure P5.23?
(a) Open-loop system is unstable but closed-loop system is stable.
(b) Open-loop system is stable but closed-loop system is unstable.
(c) Both open-loop and closed-loop system are stable.
(d) Both open-loop and closed-loop systems are unstable.
IAS 1993
K
s(s+1)(s+4)
c(t)
Figure P5.22 Figure for Objective Question 6.
Figure P5.23 Figure for Objective Question 7.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
33
8. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I (Roots in the s-plane) List II (Corresponding impulse response)
34
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 5 1 2 4 (b) 3 4 2 1
(c) 5 2 1 4 (d) 4 3 1 5
[IAS 1995[
9. Consider the following statements regarding the stability analysis by RouthHurwitz criterion.
1. For a system to be stable, all the coefcients of the characteristic equation must be present and of
the same sign.
2. If a system is to be stable, there should not be any sign change in the rst column of the Rouths
array.
3. The order of the auxillary equation obtained from the elements of the Rouths table is always
odd.
Of these statements:
(a) 1 and 2 are correct.
(b) 2 and 3 are correct.
(c) 1 and 3 are correct.
(d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
[IAS 1999[
10. Aclosed-loop systemis shown in Figure P5.24. The largest possible value of u for which the system
would be stable is:
(a) 1 (b) 1.1
(c) 1.2 (d) 2.3
[IES (EC) 1998[
11. The number of roots in the left-half of s-plane for the equation s
3
4s
2
s 6 = 0 would be
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IAS 2001[
Figure P5.24 Figure for Objective Question 10.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
35
12. The characteristic equation of a feedback-control systemis s
3
Ks
2
5s 10 = 0 for the systemto
be critically stable, the values of K should be
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IES (EE) 1999[
13. A closed-loop system is stable when all its poles in the s-plane lie
(a) On the positive real axis (b) On the imaginary axis
(c) In the left half (d) In the right half [IAS 2002[
14. Consider the equation 2s
4
s
3
3s
2
5s 10 = 0. The number of roots this equation has in the
right half of the s-plane is:
(a) One (b) Two
(c) Three (d) Four
[IAS 2003[
15. The feedback system shown in Figure P5.25 is stable for all values of K is given by:
(a) K 0 (b) K < 0
(c) 0 < K < 42 (d) 0 < K < 60
[IAS 2003[
16. For making an unstable system stable:
(a) Gain of the system should be increased.
(b) Gain of the system should be decreased.
(c) The number of zeros to the loop transfer function should be increased.
(d) The number of poles to the loop-transfer function should be increased.
[IES (EE) 1992[
17. While forming a Rouths array, the situation of a row zeros indicates that the system:
(a) Has symmetrically located roots
(b) Is not sensitive to variations in gain
(c) Is stable (d) Is Unstable
[IES (EC) 1997[
18. The characteristic equation of a closed-loop systemis given by s
4
6s
3
11s
2
6s k = 0. Stable
closed-loop behavior can be ensured when the gain K is such that:
(a) 0 < K < 10 (b) K 10
(c) _ K < (d) 0 < K _ 20
[IES (EE) 1993[
Figure P5.25 Figure for Objective Question 15.
36
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
19. By a suitable choice of the scalar parameter K, the system shown in Figure P5.26 can be made to
oscillate continuously at a frequency of:
(a) 1 rad/s (b) 2 rad/s
(c) 4 rad/s (d) 8 rad/s
[IES (EE) 1993[
20. The open-loop transfer functions with unity feedback are given below for different systems:
1. G s ( ) =
2
s 2
2. G s ( ) =
2
s s 2 ( )
3. G(s) =
2
s
2
(s 2)
4. G s ( ) =
2 s 1 ( )
s s 2 ( )
Among these systems, the unstable system is
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 4
[IES (EE) 1993[
21. The open-loop transfer function of a control system is given by
K s 10 ( )
s s 2 ( ) s a ( )
The smallest possible value of a for which this system is stable in a closed loop for all positive values
of K is:
(a) 0 (b) 8
(c) 10 (d) 12
[IES (EE) 1994[
22. The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is given by
G s ( ) =
K s 2 ( )
s 1 ( ) s 7 ( )
For K 6, the stability characteristic of the open-loop and closed-loop conguration of the system
are, respectively:
(a) Stable and stable (b) Unstable and stable
(c) Stable and unstable (d) Unstable and unstable
[IES (EE) 1994[
Figure P5.26 Figure for Objective Question 19.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
37
23. The open-loop transfer function of a system is given by
G s
K
s s 2 s 4
The value of K which will cause sustained oscillations in the closed-loop unity feedback, is:
(a) 16 (b) 32
(c) 48 (d) 64
IES (EE) 1996
24. The characteristic equation 1 G(s)H(s) 0 of a system is given by s
4
6s
3
11s
2
6s
K 0. For the system to be stable, the value of the gain K should be:
(a) Zero (b) Greater than zero but less than 10
(c) Greater than 10 but less than 20 (d) Greater than 20 but less than 30
IES (EE) 1996]
25. The characteristic equation for a third-order is q(s) a
0
s
3
a
1
s
2
a
2
s a
3
0: For the third-
order system to be stable, besides that all the coefcients have to be positive, which one of the
following has to be satised as a necessary and sufcient condition?
(a) a
0
a
1
a
2
a
3
(b) a
1
a
2
a
0
a
3
(c) a
2
a
3
a
1
a
0
(d) a
0
a
3
a
1
a
2
IES (EE) 2004
26. For which of the following values of K, the feedback, shown in Figure P5.27, is stable?
(a) K > 0 (b) K < 0
(c) 0 < K < 42 (d) 0 < K < 6 0
IES (EE) 2005
27. Consider the equation 2s
4
s
3
3s
2
5s 10 0: How many roots does this equation have in
the right half of the s-plane?
(a) One (b) Two
(c) Three (d) Four
IES (EE) 2005
Figure P5.27 Figure for Objective Question 26.
38
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
28. When all the roots of the characteristic equation are found in the left of an s-plane, the response
due to the initial condition will:
(a) Increase to innity as time approaches innity
(b) Decrease to zero as time approaches innity
(c) Remain constant for all time
(d) Be oscillating
[IES (EC) 1992[
29. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the lists:
List I (characteristic root location) List II (system characteristic)
A. (1 j), (1j) 1. Marginally stable
B. (2 j), (2j), (2j), (2j) 2. Unstable
C. j, j, 1, 1 3. Stable
Codes: A B C A B C
(a) 1 2 3 (b) 3 1 2
(c) 2 3 1 (d) 1 3 2
[IES (EC) 1992[
30. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the list:
List I (Roots in the s-plane) List II (Impulse response)
A. Two imaginary roots
B. Two complex roots in the right half plane
C. A single root on the negative real axis
D. A single root at the origin
Codes: A B C D
(a) 2 3 1 4
(b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 3 2 4 1
[IES (EC) 1992[
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
39
31. Howmany roots of the characteristic equation s
5
s
4
2s
3
2s
2
3s 15 = 0 lie in the left half
of the s-plane?
(a) 1 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 5
[IES (EC) 1993[
32. Acontrol systemis shown in Figure P5.28. The maximumvalue of the gain K for which the systemis
stable is:
(a)
3
_
(b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 5 [IES(EC) 1993[
33. Consider the following statements regarding the number of sign change in the rst column of Routh
in respect of the characteristic equation s
2
2as 4:
1. If a = , where is near to zero, number of sign changes will be equal to zero.
2. If a = 0, the number of sign change will be equal to one.
3. If a = . where = near zero, the number of sign changes will be equal to two.
Of these statements:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IES (EC) 1994[
34. The value of K for which the unity-feedback system
G s ( ) =
K
s s 2 ( ) s 4 ( )
crosses the imaginary axis is
(a) 2 (b) 4
(c) 6 (d) 48
[IES (EC) 1997[
35. The rst column of a Routh array is:
s
5
1
s
4
2
s
3
3,2
s
2
1,3
s
1
10
s
0
2
Figure P5.28 Figure for Objective Question 32.
40
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
How many roots of the corresponding equation are there in the left of the s-plane?
(a) 2 (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 5
[IES (EC) 1996[
36. The characteristic equation of a system is given by 3s
4
10s
3
5s
2
2 = 0. This system is:
(a) Stable (b) Marginally stable
(c) Unstable (d) None of (a), (b) or (c)
[IES (EE) 2002[
37. The loop transfer function of Q closed-loop system is given by
G s ( )H s ( ) =
k
s
2
s
2
2s 2 ( )
The angle of departure of the root locus at s = 1 j is
(a) Zero (b) 90
(c) 90
(d) 180
K 2 ( )s 8 = 0. where K is the forward gain of the system. The condition for the closed-loop
stability is:
(a) K = 0.528 (b) K = 2
(c) K = 0 (d) K = 2528
[GATE (EC) 1990[
48. The characteristic equation of a feedback control system is given by s
3
5s
2
K 6 ( ) s K = 0.
where K > 0 is a scalar variable parameter. In the rootloci diagram of the system, the asymptotes
of the rootlocus for large values of K meet at a point in the s-plane, whose coordinates are:
(a) (3, 0) (b) (2, 0)
(c) (1, 0) (d) (2, 0)
[GATE (EC) 1991[
49. For a second-order system, damping ratio, . is 0 < < 1, then the roots of the characteristic
polynomial are:
(a) Real but not equal (b) Real and equal
(c) Complex conjugates (d) Imaginary
[GATE (EC) 1995[
50. The number of roots of s
3
5s
2
7s 3 = 0 in the left half of the s-plane is:
(a) Zero (b) One
(c) Two (d) Three
[GATE (EC) 1998[
51. The transfer function of a system is
2s
2
6s 5
s 1 ( )
2
s 2 ( )
The characteristic equation of the system is:
(a) 2s
2
6s 5 = 0 (b) s 1 ( )
2
s 2 ( ) = 0
(c) 2s
2
6s 5 s 1 ( )
2
s 2 ( ) = 0 (d) 2s
2
6s 5 s 1 ( )
2
s 2 ( ) = 0
[GATE (EC) 1998[
52. A system described by the transfer function
H s ( )=
1
s
3
cs
2
Ks 3
is stable. The constraints on a and K are:
(a) c 0. cK < 3 (b) c 0. cK 3
(c) c < 0. cK 0 (d) c 0. cK < 0
[GATE (EC) 2000[
44
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
53. The characteristic polynomial of a system is q s 2s
5
s
4
4s
3
2s
2
2s 1. The system is:
(a) Stable (b) Marginally stable
(c) Unstable (d) Oscillatory
GATE (EC) 2002
54. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is
G s
K
s s
2
s 2 s 3
The range of K for which the system is stable is:
(a) 21/44 > K > 0 (b) 13 > K > 0
(c) 21/4 < K < 1 (d) 6 < K < 1
GATE (EC) 2004
55. For the polynomial P s s
5
s
4
2s
3
2s
2
3s 15; the number of roots that lie in the right
half of the s-plane is:
(a) 4 (b) 2
(c) 3 (d) 1
GATE (EC) 2004
56. A feedback system is shown in Figure P5.30. The system is stable for all positive values of K, if:
(a) T 0 (b) T < 0
(c) T > 1 (d) 0 < T < 1
IES (EE) 2000
57. The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is
G s
K s 10 s 20
s
2
s 2
The closed-loop system will be stable, if the value of K is:
(a) 2 (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 5
IES (EE) 1998
Figure P5.30 Figure for Objective Question 56.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
45
58. The number of roots of the equation 2s
4
s
3
3s
2
5s 7 = 0 that lie in the right half of the
s-plane is:
(a) Zero (b) One
(c) Two (d) Three
[GATE (EE) 1998[
59. The characteristic equation of a feedback control system is 2s
4
s
3
3s
2
5s 10 = 0. The
number of roots in the right half of the s-plane are:
(a) Zero (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
[GATE (EE) 2003[
60. First column elements of the Rouths tabulation are 3, 5, 3/4, 1/2 and 2. It means that there
is/are:
(a) One root in the left half of the s-plane (b) Two roots in the half of the s-plane
(c) Two root in the right half of the s-plane (d) One root in the right half of the s-plane
[IES (EC) 1999[
61. The loop gain GH of a closed-loop system is given by
K
s s 2 ( ) s 4 ( )
The value of K for which the system just becomes unstable, is:
(a) K = 6 (b) K = 8
(c) K = 48 (d) K = 96
[GATE (EE) 2003[
62. A unity-feedback system having an open-loop gain
G s ( )H s ( ) =
K 1 s ( )
1 s
becomes stable when:
(a) | K | 1 (b) K 1
(c) | K | < 1 (d) K <1
[GATE (EE) 2005[
63. The algebraic equation F(s) = s
5
3s
4
5s
3
7s
2
4s 20 is given. F(s) = 0 has:
(a) A single complex root with the remaining roots being real
(b) One positive real root and four complex roots, all with positive real parts
46
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(c) One negative real root, two imaginary roots and two roots with positive real parts
(d) One positive real root, two imaginary roots and two roots with negative real parts
[GATE (EE) 2006[
64. The characteristic equation of a control system is given by s(s 4)(s
2
2s 2) K(s 1) = 0.
What are the angles of the asymptotes for the root loci for K _ 0?
(a) 608, 1808, 3008 (b) 08, 1808, 3008
(c) 1208, 1808, 2408 (d) 08, 1208, 2408
[IES (EE) 2005[
65. Figure P5.64 shows the Nyquist plot of the open-loop transfer function G(s)H(s) of a system. If
G(s)H(s) has one right-hand pole, the closed-loop system is:
(a) Always stable
(b) Unstable with one closed-loop right-hand poles
(c) Unstable with two closed-loop right-hand poles
(d) Unstable with three closed-loop right-hand poles
[GATE (EC) 2003[
66. For the equation s
3
4s
2
s 6 = 0. the number of roots in the left half of the s-plane will be:
(a) Zero (b) One
(c) Two (d) Three
[GATE (EE) 2004[
Figure P5.64
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
47
Chapter 6
1. Which one of the following application software is used to obtain an accurate root locus plot?
(a) LISP (b) MATLAB
(c) dBASE (d) Oracle
[IES (EC) 2003[
2. Despite the presence of a negative feedback, control systems still have problems of instability
because the:
(a) Components used have nonlinearities.
(b) Dynamic equations of the subsystems are not known exactly.
(c) Mathematical analysis involves approximations.
(d) The system has a large negative phase angle at high frequencies.
[GATE (EC) 2005[
3. The open-loop transfer function of unity-feedback control system is
G s ( ) =
K
s s a ( ) s b ( )
. 0 < a _ b
The system is stable if:
(a) 0 < K <
a b
ab
(b) 0 < K <
ab
a b
(c) 0 < K < ab a b ( ) (d) 0 < K <
a
b
a b ( )
[IES (EC) 2000[
4. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by
G s ( ) =
K s 2 ( )
s s
2
2s 2 ( )
The centroid and angles of root locus asymptotes are respectively:
(a) Zero and 90
. 90
. 60
. 120
. 90
[IAS 1993[
5. The open-loop transfer function is given by
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
K s 1 ( ) s 3 ( )
s
2
4s 8
48
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Its root locus diagram is
IAS 1994
6. Which of the following are the features of the breakaway point in the root-locus of a closed-loop control
system with the characteristic equation 1 KG
1
s H
1
s 0?
1. It need not always occur only on the real axis.
2. At this point G
1
s H
1
s 0:
3. At this point
dk
ds
0:
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
IES (EC) 1997
7. The root-locus plot of an open-transfer function
GH s
K
s s 2 s 4
is
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
49
[IAS 1996[
8. To improve the stability and time response of a control system, poles are often added to the system
transfer function. In this context, which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Zero poles: makes the system stable and slow responding
(b) One pole: makes the system less stable and slow responding
(c) Two poles: makes the system less stable and fast responding
(d) Three poles: makes the system conditionally stable and fast responding
[IAS 1997[
9. Consider the following statements regarding root loci:
1. All root loci start from respective poles of G(s) H(s).
2. All root loci end at the respective zeros of G(s) H(s) or go to innity.
3. The root loci are symmetrical about the imaginary axis of the s-plane.
Of these statements:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IAS 1997[
10. If the open-loop transfer function of a feedback system is given by
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
K
s s 2 ( ) s
2
2s 5 ( )
then the centroid of the asymptotes will be:
(a) 1, 0 (b) 1, 0
(c) 0, 1 (d) 0, 1
[IAS 1998[
11. Consider the following statements regarding the root-locus technique for analyzing linear control
systems:
1. Root-locus is the locus of the roots of the characteristic equation as the closed-loop gain K is
varied from zero to innity.
50
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
2. The number of branches of the root-loci is equal to the number of poles of the open-loop transfer
function.
3. For a particular point in the s-plane to lie on the root-locus, the angle criteria to be satised is
2I 1 ( ). where I = 0. 1. 2.
Of these statements:
(a) 1 and 2 are correct. (b) 2 and 3 are correct.
(c) 1 and 3 are correct. (d) 1, 2 and 3 are correct.
[IAS 1999[
12. Figure P6.25 shows root-loci of the open-loop transfer function G(s)H(s) of a system. Consider the
following inferences drawn from the gure:
1. It has no zero. 2. It is a stable system.
3. It is a second order system.
Which of these inferences are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
[IAS 2000[
13. The characteristic equation of a unity-feedback control system is given by s
3
K
1
s
2
s K
2
= 0.
Consider the following statements in this regard:
1. For a given value of K
1
, all the root-locus branches will terminate at innity for K
2
in the positive
direction.
2. For a given value of K
2
, all the root-locus branches will terminate at innity for the variable K
1
in the positive direction.
3. For a given value of K
2
, only one root-locus branch will terminate at innity for the variable K
1
in the positive direction.
Of these statements:
(a) 1 and 2 are correct (b) 3 alone is correct
(c) 2 alone is correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IES (EE) 1993[
j
s-plane
Figure P6.25 Figure for Objective Question 12.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
51
14. The transfer function for a system is
G s ( ) =
K s 2 ( )
s 1 ( ) s 3 ( ) s 4 ( )
. k 0
Two branches (loci) of the plot directed along asymptotes are centered at a point:
(a) 3 (b) 4
(c) 2 (d) 1
[IAS 2001[
15. The root-locus plot of a system having open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
K s 10 ( ) s 70 ( )
s
3
s 100 ( ) s 200 ( )
will have angle of asymptotes as:
(a) 608, 1008 (b) 608, 1808, 3008
(c) 608, 1208, 1808 (d) 608, 908, 1208
[IAS 2003[
16. The intersection of root locus branches with the imaginary axis can be determined by use of:
(a) Nyquist criterion (b) Rouths criterion
(c) Polar plot (d) None of above
[IES (EE) 1992[
17. Which of the following is not necessarily valid for root-locus pattern?
(a) The n nite zeros and m poles are plotted on the s-plane. Then (m n) indicates the number of
non-nite zeros.
(b) The number of poles gives the number of loci.
(c) Avalue of s on the real axis is a point on the root locus, if the total number of poles and zeros on the
real axis to the right of the point is even.
(d) There are as many asymptotes as non-nite zeros.
[IES (EE) 1992[
18. The root locus of a unity feedback systemis shown in Figure P6.26. The open-loop transfer function is
given by:
Figure P6.26 Figure for Objective Question 18.
52
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(a)
K
s s 1 ( ) s 2 ( )
(b)
K s 1 ( )
s s 2 ( )
(c)
K s 2 ( )
s s 1 ( )
(d)
Ks
s 1 ( ) s 2 ( )
[IES (EE) 1993[
19. Given the unity-feedback system with
G s ( ) =
K
s s 1 ( ) s 2 ( )
The root-locus of the system is given by
[IES (EE) 2004[
20. Figure P6.27 shows the root-locus of open-loop transfer function of a control system
* pole v zero origin
PQ = 2.6 = PQ
/
RP = 1.4
OR = 2.0
OQ = 1.4 = OQ
/
j
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
53
The value of the forward-path gain K at the point P is:
(a) 0.2 (b) 1.4
(c) 3.4 (d) 4.8
[IES (EE) 1994[
21. For a unity-negative feedback control system, the open-loop transfer function is
G s ( ) =
K
s s 1 ( ) s 2 ( )
The root-locus plot of the system is:
[IES (EC) 1999[
j
R
P
Q
Q
2
1
_ _
u (b)
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
1 0
0 2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
2
0
_ _
u
(c)
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
1 0
0 1
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
1
0
_ _
u (d)
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
0 0
2 2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
2
2
_ _
u
[IAS 1996]
4. A control system is represented as x = AX BU, y = CX. Consider the following statements in
this regard:
1. The pair (AB) is controllable implies that the pair (A
T
B
T
) is observable.
2. The condition of controllability depends on the matrices A and B of the system.
3. The pair (AC) is observable implies that the pair (A
T
C
T
) is controllable.
Of these statements:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IAS 1997]
5. The state representation for a second-order system is given by X
1
= x
1
u, X
2
= x
1
2x
2
u.
Consider the following statements regarding the above systems:
1. The system is completely state-controllable.
2. If x
1
is the output, then the system is output controllable.
3. If x
2
is the output, then the system is output controllable.
66
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Of these statement:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IAS 1997]
6. Given a system represented by equation
X =
0 1
2 3
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; Y = 1 0 [ [x
The equivalent transfer function representation G(s) of the system is:
(a) G(s) =
1
s
2
5s 2
(b) G(s) =
1
s
2
3s 2
(c) G(s) =
3
s
2
3s 2
(d) G(s) =
2
s
2
2s 2
[IES 1993]
7. A nonlinear system cannot be analyzed by Laplace transform because:
(a) It has no zero initial conditions.
(b) The superpositions law cannot be applied.
(c) Nonlinearity is generally not well dened.
(d) All of the above.
[IES 1992]
8. Which of the following statements regarding the state transition matrix is correct?
(a) f(0) = 0 (b) f(0) = 0 = f 1=t ( )
(c) f t
1
t
2
( ) = f(t
1
) f(t
2
) (d) f t
1
t
2
( )f(t
1
t
0
) = f(t
2
t
0
)
[IAS 2000]
9. A system G(s) is expressed in the state variable form as x = JX Bu, y = CX Du. Consider the
following statements with regard to the properties of Jordan canonical matrix J.
1. The diagonal elements of J are poles of G(s).
2. All the elements below the principal diagonal are zeros.
3. All the elements above the principal diagonal are zeros.
Among these statements:
(a) 1 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 alone is correct (d) 3 alone is correct
[IAS 1999]
10. For
f(s) =
s 6
s
2
6s 5
1
s
2
6s 5
5
s
2
6s 5
s
s
2
6s 5
_
_
_
_
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
67
the coefcient matrix A is:
(a)
6 5
6 0
_ _
(b)
5 5
0 6
_ _
(c)
6 0
5 6
_ _
(d)
0 1
5 6
_ _
[IAS 1998]
11. A linear second-order single-input continuous time system is described by the following set of
differential equations:
X
1
= 2x
1
4x
2
, X
2
= 2x
1
x
2
u(t)
where x
1
and x
2
are state variables and u(t) is the input. The system is:
(a) Controllable and stable (b) Controllable but unstable
(b) Uncontrollable and unstable (d) Uncontrollable but stable
[IAS 1998]
12. The second-order system X = AX has
A =
1 1
1 0
_ _
The values of its damping factor x and natural frequency o
n
are respectively:
(a) 1 and 1 (b) 0.5 and 1
(c) 0.707 and 2 (d) 1 and 2
[IES 1996]
13. Which of the following properties are associated with the state transition matrix (t)?
1. f(t) = f
1
(t)
2. f(t
1
=t
2
) = f(t
1
) f
1
(t
2
)
3. f t
1
t
2
( ) = f(t
2
) f(t
1
)
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
[IES 1996]
14. The state variable description of a single-input single-output linear system is given by: X(t) =
AX(t) bu(t) and y(t) = CX(t); where
A =
1 1
2 0
_ _
; B =
0
1
_ _
; C = 1 1 [ [
The system is:
(a) Controllable and observable (b) Controllable but on observable
(c) Uncontrollable but observable (d) Uncontrollable and unobservable
[IES 1996]
68
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
15. A system is described by state equation
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
2 0
0 2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
1
1
_ _
u
The state transition matrix of the system is:
(a)
e
2t
1
0 e
2t
_ _
(b)
e
2t
0
0 e
t
_ _
(c)
e
2t
1
0 e
2t
_ _
(d)
e
2t
1
0 e
2t
_ _
[IES 1994]
16. The state equation of a system is
X =
0 1
20 9
_ _
X
0
1
_ _
u
The poles of this system are located at:
(a) 1, 9 (b) 1, 20
(c) 4, 5 (d) 9, 20
[IES 1995]
17. The system matrix of a continuous-time system, described in the state variable form, is
A =
x 0 0
0 y 1
0 1 2
_
_
_
_
The system is stable for all values of x and y satisfying:
(a) x <
1
2
; y >
1
2
(b) x >
1
2
; y > 0
(c) x < 0; y < 2 (d) x < 0; y <
1
2
[IES 1993]
18. The state representation of a second-order system is x
1
= x
1
u, x
2
= x
1
2x
2
u. Consider the
following statements regarding the above system:
1. The system is completely state controllable.
2. If x
1
is the output, then the system is completely output controllable.
3. If x
2
is the output, then the system is completely output controllable.
Of these statements
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
[IES 1993]
19. The state space representation of a system is given by:
X =
1 0
0 2
_ _
X
1
0
_ _
u and Y =
1
1
_ _
X
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
69
Then the transfer function of the system is:
(a)
1
s
2
3s 2
(b)
1
s 2
(c)
s
s
2
3s 2
(d)
1
s 1
[IES 2003]
20. Consider the following statements with respect to a systemrepresented by its state space model X =
AX BU and Y = CX:
1. The static vector X of the system is unique.
2. The eigen values of A are the poles of the system transfer function.
3. The minimum number of state variables required is equal to the number of independent energy
storage elements in the system.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2, and 3
[IES 2003]
21. A certain linear time invariant system has the state and the output equations given below:
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
1 1
0 1
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
0
1
_ _
u; Y = 1 1 [ [
x
1
x
2
_ _
If x
1
(0) = 1; x
2
(0) = 1; u(0) = 0 then
dy
dt
t=0
is:
(a) 1 (b) 1
(c) 0 (d) None of above
[GATE 1997]
22. A linear discrete-time system has the characteristic equation z
3
0.81z = 0. The system:
(a) Is stable
(b) Is marginally stable
(c) Is unstable
(d) Stability cannot be accessed from the given information
[GATE 1992]
23. A linear time-invariant system is described by the state variable model
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
1 0
0 2
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
0
1
_ _
u 1 2 [ [
x
1
x
2
_ _
(a) The system is completely controllable.
(b) The system is not completely controllable.
(c) The system is not completely observable.
(d) The system is not completely observation.
[GATE 1992]
70
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
24. A linear second-order single-input continuous time system is described by the following set of
differential equations:
X
1
(t) = 2x
1
(t) 4x
2
(t); X
2
(t) = 2x
1
(t) x
2
(t) 4(t)
where x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) are the state variables and u(t) is the control variable. The system is:
(a) Controlled and stable (b) Controlled but unstable
(c) Uncontrolled and unstable (d) Uncontrolled but stable
[GATE 1992]
25. A system described by
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
0 1
1 1
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
To test its stability by Lyapunovs method, the following V-functions are considered:
V
1
= 2x
12
x
22
; V
2
= x
12
x
22
Which of these V-functions are suitable in this case?
(a) Only V
1
(b) Only V
2
(c) Both V
1
and V
2
(d) Neither V
1
nor V
2
[IES 1993]
26. The transfer function of a zero-order-hold system is:
(a) (1=s) (1 e
sT
) (b) (1=s) (1 e
sT
)
(c) 1 (1=s)e
sT
(d) 1 (1=s)e
sT
[GATE 1998]
27. Given
A =
1 0
0 1
_ _
the state transition matrix eAt is given by:
(a)
0 e
t
e
t
0
_ _
(b)
e
t
0
0 e
t
_ _
(c)
e
t
0
0 e
t
_ _
(d)
0 e
t
e
t
0
_ _
[GATE 2004]
28. The state variable equations of a system are X
1
= 3x
1
x
2
u; X
2
= 2x
1
; Y = x
1
u: The
system is:
(a) Controllable but not observable (b) Observable but not controllable
(c) Neither controllable nor observable (d) Controllable and observable
[GATE 2004]
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
71
29. The zero-input response of a system given by the state-space equation
x
1
x
2
_ _
=
1 0
1 1
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
and
x
1
(0)
x
2
(0)
_ _
=
1
0
_ _
is
(a)
te
t
t
_ _
(b)
e
t
t
_ _
(c)
e
t
te
t
_ _
(d)
t
te
t
_ _
[GATE 2003]
30. The transfer function y(s)/u(s) of a system described by the state equations x(t) = 2x(t) 2u(t)
and y(t) = 0:5x(t) is:
(a)
0:5
s 2
(b)
1
s 2
(c)
0:5
s 2
(d)
1
s 2
[GATE 2002]
31. For the system described by the state equation
x =
0 1 0
0 0 1
0:5 1 2
_
_
_
_
x
0
0
1
_
_
_
_
u
If the control signal u is given by u = [0:5 3 5[x v; the eigen values of the closed-loop
system will be:
(a) 0, 1, 2 (b) 0, 1, 3
(c) 1, 1, 2 (d) 0, 1, 1
[GATE 1999]
32. The system model described by the state equations is
X =
0 1
2 3
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; Y = 1 1 [ [x
(a) Controllable and observable (b) Controllable but not observable
(c) Observable but not controllable (d) Neither controllable nor observable
[GATE 1999]
33. A system is described by a state equation X = AX BU. The output is given by Y = CX, where
A =
4 1
3 1
_ _
; B =
1
1
_ _
; C = 1 0 [ [
Transfer function G(s) of the system is:
(a)
s
s
2
5s 7
(b)
1
s
2
5s 7
72
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(c)
s
s
2
3s 2
(d)
1
s
2
3s 2
[GATE 1995]
34. The eigen values of the matrix
a 1
a 1
_ _
are:
(a) (a 1); 0 (b) a; 0
(c) (a 1); 0 (d) 0; 0
[GATE 1994]
35. The matrix of any state-space equations for the transfer function C(s)=R(s) of the system, shown in
Figure P7.17, is
(a)
1 0
0 1
_ _
(b)
0 1
0 1
_ _
(c) [1[ (d) [3[
[GATE 1994]
36. The transfer function for the state variable representation X = AX Bu, Y = CX Du is
given by:
(a) D C(sI A)
1
B (b) B(sI A)
1
C D
(c) D(sI A)
1
B C (d) C(sI A)
1
D B
[GATE 1993]
37. Consider a seconds order system whose state-space representation is of the form X = AX Bu. If
x
1
(t) = x
2
(t), the system is:
(a) Controllable (b) Uncontrollable
(c) Observable (d) Unstable
[GATE 1993]
38. A linear system is described by the following state equation X(t) = AX(t) BU(t); where
A =
0 1
1 0
_ _
Figure P7.17 Figure for Objective Question 35.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
73
The state-transition matrix of the system is:
(a)
cos t sin t
sin t cos t
_ _
(b)
cos t sin t
sin t cos t
_ _
(c)
cos t sin t
sin t cos t
_ _
(d)
cos t sin t
cos t sin t
_ _
[GATE 2006]
39. A system with input x[n] and output y[n] is given as
y[n[ = sin
5
6
pn
_ _
x[n[
The system is:
(a) Linear, stable and invertible (b) Nonlinear, stable and non-invertible
(c) Linear, stable and non-invertible (d) Linear, unstable and invertible
[GATE 2006]
40. The eigen value of the system represented by
X =
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
X
are:
(a) 0, 0, 0, 0 (b) 1, 1, 1, 1
(c) 0, 0, 0, 1 (d) 1, 0, 0, 0
[GATE 2002]
41. For the system
X =
2 3
0 5
_ _
X
1
0
_ _
u
which of the following statements is true?
(a) The system is controllable but unstable (b) The system is uncontrollable and unstable
(c) The system is controllable and stable (d) The system is uncontrollable and stable
[GATE 2002]
42. The equation in Objective Question 41 may be organized in the state-space form as follows
d
2
o
dt
2
do
dt
_
_
_
_
= P
do
dt
o
_ _
QV
a
where the P matrix is given by:
(a)
B
J
K
2
LJ
1 0
_
_
_
_ (b)
K
2
LJ
B
J
0 1
_
_
_
_
74
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(c)
0 1
K
2
LJ
B
J
_
_
_
_
(d)
1 0
B
J
K
2
LJ
_
_
_
_
[GATE 2003]
43. The state transition matrix for the system X = AX with initial state X(0) is:
(a) (sI A)
1
(b) e
At
(0)
(c) Laplace inverse of (sI A)
1
_
(d) Laplace inverse of (sI A)
1
(0)
_
[GATE 2002]
44. The state variable description of a linear autonomous system is X = AX, where X is the
two-dimensional state vector, and A is the system matrix given by
A =
0 2
2 0
_ _
The roots of the characteristic equation are:
(a) 2 and 2 (b) j2 and j2
(c) 2 and 2 (d) 2 and 2
[GATE 2004]
45. For the matrix
P =
3 2 2
0 2 1
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
one of the eigen values is equal to 2. Which of the following is an eigen vector?
(a)
3
2
1
_
_
_
_
(b)
3
2
1
_
_
_
_
(c)
1
2
3
_
_
_
_
(d)
2
5
0
_
_
_
_
[GATE 2005]
46. If
R =
1 0 1
2 1 1
2 3 2
_
_
_
_
then the top view of R
1
is:
(a) 5 6 4 [ [ (b) 5 3 1 [ [
(c) 2 0 1 [ [ (d) 2 1 1=2 [ [
[GATE 2005]
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
75
47. For a system with the transfer function
H(s) =
3(s 2)
4s
2
2s 1
the matrix A in the state-space form X = AX Bu is equal to:
(a)
1 0 0
0 1 0
1 2 4
_
_
_
_
(b)
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 2 4
_
_
_
_
(c)
0 1 0
3 2 1
1 2 4
_
_
_
_
(d)
1 0 0
0 0 1
1 2 4
_
_
_
_
[GATE 2006]
48. A linear system is described by the state equations
X
1
X
2
_ _
=
1 0
1 1
_ _
x
1
x
2
_ _
0
1
_ _
r ; C = x
2
where r and C are the input and output respectively. The transfer function is:
(a)
1
s 1
(b)
1
(s 1)
2
(c)
1
s 1
(d)
1
(s 1)
2
[IES 1997]
49. Consider the following state equations for a discrete system:
x
1
K 1
x
2
K 1
_ _
=
1=2 0
1=4 1=4
_ _
x
1
K ( )
x
2
K ( )
_ _
1
1
_ _
u K ( );
y K ( ) = 1 1 [ [
x
1
K ( )
x
2
K ( )
_ _
4u K ( )
The system given above is:
(a) Controllable and observable (b) uncontrollable and unobservable
(c) Uncontrollable and observable (d) Controllable and unobservable
[IES 1997]
50. The state and output equations of a system are as under:
State equation:
x
1
t ( )
x
2
t ( )
_ _
=
0 1
1 2
_ _
x
1
t ( )
x
2
t ( )
_ _
0
1
_ _
u(t)
Output equation: C(t) = 1 1 [ [
x
1
t ( )
x
2
t ( )
_ _
76
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
The system is:
a. Neither state controllable nor output controllable
b. State controllable but not output controllable
c. Output controllable but not state controllable
d. Both state controllable and output controllable
[IES 1998]
51. A linear time-invariant system is described by the following dynamic equation:
dx(t)
dt
= Ax(t) Bu(t); y(t) = Cs(t)
where
A =
0 1
2 3
_ _
; B =
0
1
_ _
; C = 1 1 [ [
The system is:
(a) Both controllable and observable (b) Controllable, but not observable
(c) Observable, but not controllable (d) None of the above
[IES 2002]
52. The state-space representation in a phase-variable form for the transfer function
G(s) =
2s 1
s
2
7s 9
is
(a) x =
0 1
9 7
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; y = 1 2 [ [x (b) x =
1 0
9 7
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; y = 0 1 [ [x
(c) x =
9 0
0 7
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; y = 2 0 [ [x (d) x =
9 7
1 0
_ _
x
0
1
_ _
u; y = 1 2 [ [x
[IES 2002]
53. The asymptotic approximation of the log magnitude versus frequency plot of a minimum phase
system with real poles and one zero is shown in Figure P7.18.
60 dB/dec
60 dB/dec
40 dB/dec
54
0.1 2 5 25 rad/sec
dB
40 dB/dec
Figure P7.18 Closed-loop poles and response: a. stable system; b. unstable system.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
77
Its transfer function is:
(a)
20(s 5)
s(s 2) (s 25)
(b)
10(s 5)
(s 2)
2
(s 25)
(c)
20(s 5)
s
2
(s 2) (s 25)
(d)
50(s 5)
s
2
(s 2) (s 25)
[GATE (EE) 2001]
54. The Bode plot shown in Figure P7.19 has G jo ( ) as:
(a)
100
jo(1 j0:5o)(1 j0:1o)
(b)
100
jo(2 jo)(10 jo)
(c)
10
jo 1 2jo ( ) 1 10jo ( )
(d)
10
jo(1 0:5jo)(10:1jo)
[IES (EE) 1999]
55. The system, with the Bode magnitude plot, shown in Figure P7.20, has the transfer function:
Figure P7.19 Figure for Objective Question 53.
0
20
40
60
0.01 0.05 0.1
1
s + 1 x (t) y (t)
(b) 55
(c) 55
(d) 125
1 2x
2
_
(b) o
n
=
(1 2x
2
)
x
4
x
2
1
_
_
(c) o
n
=
(1 2x
2
)
4x
4
4x
2
2
_
_
(d) o
n
=
(1 2x
2
)
4x
4
4x
2
2
_
_
[GATE (EC) 1994]
61. The log-magnitude Bode plot of non-minimum system is shown in Figure P7.22.
Its transfer function is given by:
(a) G s ( ) =
s 10
s 100
(b) G s ( ) =
s 10
s 100
(c) G s ( ) =
s 10
1 100
(d) G s ( ) =
s 10
s 100
[IES (EC) 1997]
Figure P7.22 Figure for Objective Question 61.
80
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
62. For the minimum phase system to be stable:
(a) Phase margin should be negative and gain margin should be positive.
(b) Phase margin should be positive and gain margin should be negative.
(c) Both phase margin and gain margin should be positive.
(d) Both phase margin and gain margin should be negative.
[IES (EC) 2005]
63. With negative feedback in a closed-loop control system, the system sensitivity to parameter
variations:
(a) Increases (b) Decreases
(c) Becomes zero (d) Becomes innite
[IES (EC) 2005]
64. Consider the following statements regarding the frequency response of a system as shown in Figure
P7.23
1. The type of the system is one.
2. o
3
= static error coefcient (numerically).
3. o
2
= (o
1
o
2
)=2:
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
[IES (EC) 2003]
65. A system with zero initial conditions has the closed-loop transfer function
T s ( ) =
s
2
4
s1 ( ) s4 ( )
The system output is zero at frequency:
(a) 0.5 rad/sec (b) 1 rad/sec
(c) 2 rad/sec (d) 4 rad/sec
[GATE (EE) 2001]
20 db/dec
40 db/dec
log
0
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
b
)
1
3
_
(c) 2 (d) 2=
3
_
[IES (EC) 1994]
75. A linear state time-invariant system is forced with an input x(t) = Asin ot under steady-state
conditions (see Figure P7.25),
the output y(t) of the system will be:
(a) A sin (ot x); where x = tan
1
[G(jo)[ (b) [G(jo)[Asin ot G jo ( ) [ [
(c) [G(jo)[Asin 2ot G jo ( ) [ [ (d) AG(jo) sin ot G jo ( ) [ [
[IES (EC) 1993]
76. Consider the following statements with regard to the bandwidth of a closed-loop system:
1. In a system, where the low-frequency magnitude is 0 dB on the Bode diagram, the bandwidth is
measured at the 3-dB frequency.
2. The bandwidth of the closed-loop control system is a measurement of the range of delity of
response of the systems.
3. The speed of response to a step input is proportional to the bandwidth.
4. The system with the larger bandwidth provides a slower step response and lower delity ramp
response.
Which of the statements give above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 2, 3 and 4
[IES (EE) 2005]
x(t) y(t) G(s)
Figure P7.25 Figure for Objective Question 75.
84
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
77. The Bode phase angle plot of a system is shown in Figure P7.26.
The type of the system is:
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
[IES (EE) 2003]
78. Which one of the following transfer functions represents the Bode plot, as shown in Figure P7.27?
(a) G =
1s
1s
(b) G =
1
(1s)
2
(c) G =
1
s
2
(d) G =
1
s(1s)
[IES (EE) 1993]
79. The Bode plot of the transfer function G(s) = s is:
(a) Zero magnitude and phase shift
(b) Constant magnitude and constant phase-shift angle
(c) 20 dB/decade and phase shift of p=2
(d) 20 dB/decade and constant phase-shift angle
[IES (EE) 1992]
Figure P7.26 Figure for Objective Question 77.
90
0 db
180
= 1
= 1
Phase
(degrees)
90
180
270
(b) 90
(c) 45
(d) 90
[IAS 2004[
104. Consider the following statements:
1. Nyquist criterion is in frequency domain.
2. Bode plot is in frequency domain.
3. Root-locus plot is in time domain.
4. Routh Hermitzs criterion is in time domain.
Which of the following is correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct. (b) 2, 3 and 4 are correct.
(c) 1 and 2 are correct. (d) All four are correct.
[IES (EE) 1992[
105. The advantages of the Nyquist stability test are:
(a) It guides in stabilizing an unstable system.
(b) It enables to predict closed-loop stability from open-loop results.
(c) It is applicable to experimental results of frequency response to open-loop system.
(d) All of the above
[IES (EE) 1992[
106. Which of the following is used for the Nyquist plot?
(a) Pole zero plot (b) Closed-loop function
(c) Open-loop function (d) Characteristic equation
[IES (EE) 1992[
107. The constant M-circles corresponding to the magnitude (M) of the closed-loop transfer of a linear
system for values of M greater than one lie in the G-plane and to the:
(a) Right of the M = 1 line (b) Left of the M = 1 line
(c) Upper side of the M = +j1 line (d) Lowe side of the M = j1 line
[IES (EE) 1992[
108. Consider the Nyquist diagram (Figure P7.41) for given KG(s)H(s). The transfer function KG(s)H(s)
has no poles and zeros in the right half of the plane. If (1, j0) point is located rst in region I and then
in region II, the change in stability of the system will be from:
(a) Unstable to stable (b) Stable to stable
(c) Unstable to unstable (d) Stable to unstable
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
95
[IES (EE) 2002[
109. The Nyquist plot (Figure P7.42) of a control systemis shown below. For this system, H(s) is equal to:
(a)
K
s 1 sT
1
( )
(b)
K
s
2
1 sT
1
( )
(c)
K
s
3
1 sT
1
( ) 1 sT
2
( )
(d)
K
s
2
1 sT
1
( ) 1 sT
2
( )
[IES (EE) 2003[
110. The Nyquist plot for the closed-loop control system with the loop transfer function
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
100
s s 10 ( )
is plotted. Then the critical point (1, j0) is:
(a) Never enclosed (b) Enclosed under certain conditions
(c) Just touched (d) Enclosed
[IES (EE) 2004[
Real
Im
Figure P7.41 Figure for Objective Question 108.
Figure P7.42 Figure for Objective Question 109.
96
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
111. Consider the following Nyquist of a feedback system having open-transfer function
GH s
s 1
s
2
s 2
as shown in Figure P7.42. What is then number of closed-loop poles in the right half of the s-plane?
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
IES (EE) 2004
112. Consider the following statements for a counter-clockwise Nyquist path:
1. For a stable closed-loop system, the Nyquist plot of G(s)H(s) should encircle (1, j0) point as many
times as there are poles of G(s)H(s) in the right half of the s-plane, the encirclements, if there are any,
must be made in the counter-clockwise direction.
2. If the loop-gain function G(s)H(s) is a stable function, for a stable closed-loop system is always
stable.
3. If the loop gain function G(s)H(s) is a stable function. For a stable closed-loop system, the Nyquist
plot of G(s)H(s) must not enclose the critical point (1, j0).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3 (d) only 3
IES (EE) 2004
113. Match List I (Nyquist plot of loop-transfer function of a control system) with List II (Gain margin in
dB), and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists.
List I List II
A. Does not intersect the axis between 0 and 1. >0
(1, j0)
B. Intersects the negative real axis 2. 1
between 0 and (1, j0)
Figure P7.43 Figure for Objective Question 111.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
97
C. Passes through (1, j0) 3. < 0
D. Encloses (1, j0) 4. 0
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 2 4 1 3 (b) 3 1 4 2
(c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 3 4 1 2
[IES (EE) 2005[
114. The open-loop transfer function of a unity-negative feedback system is
G s ( ) =
K s 10 ( ) s 20 ( )
s
3
s 100 ( ) s 200 ( )
The polar plot of the system is:
[IES (EC) 1999[
98
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
115. The effect of adding poles and zeroes can be determined quickly by:
(a) Nicholas chart (b) Nyquist plot
(c) Bode plot (d) Root locus
IES (EC) 1992
116. The polar plot of a transfer function passes through the critical point (1, 0). The gain margin is:
(a) Zero (b) 1 dB
(c) 1 dB (d) Innity
IES (EE) 1999]
117. The polar plot of
G s
10
s s 1
2
intercepts the real axis at o o
0
. Then, the real parts and o
0
are respectively given by:
(a) 5, 1 (b) 2.5, 1
(c) 5, 0.5 (d) 5, 2
IES (EC) 1992
118. For the transfer function
G s H s
1
s s 1 1 0:5s
the phase cross-over frequency is:
(a) 0.5 rad/sec (b) 0.707 rad/sec
(c) 1.732 rad/sec (d) 2 rad/sec
IES (EC 1993
119. The gain-phase plot of an open-loop transfer function of four different systems labeled A, B, C and
D are shown in Figure P7.43. The correct sequence of the increasing order of stability of the four
systems will be:
Figure P7.43 Figure for Objective Question 119.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
99
(a) A, B, C, D (b) D, C, B, A
(c) B, A, D, C (d) B, C, D, A
IES (EC) 1994
120. A portion of a polar plot of an open-loop transfer function is shown in Figure P7.44. The phase
margin and gain margin will be respectively:
(a) 30
and0:75 (b) 60
and 0.375
(c) 60
and 1=0:75
IES (EC) 1999
121. A unity-feedback system has the following open-loop frequency response.
The gain margin and phase margin of the system are:
(a) 0 dB, 170
(c) 0 dB, 10
3 4.8 130
4 3.15 140
5 2.25 150
6 1.70 157
8 1.00 170
10 0.64 180
100
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
122. The type and order of the system, whose Nyquist plot is shown in Figure P7.45, are respectively:
(a) 0, 1 (b) 1, 2
(c) 0, 2 (d) 2, 1
IES (EC) 1995
123. The radius and the center of M circles are given respectively by:
(a)
M
M
2
1
;
M
2
M
2
1
; 0
(b)
M
2
M
2
1
;
M
M
2
1
; 0
(c)
M
2
M 1
;
M
2
M 1
; 0
(d)
M
2
M
2
1
;
M
2
M
2
1
; 0
IES (EC) 1996
124. Which one of the following is the polar plot of a typical type zero system with open-loop transfer
function
G jo
K
1 joT
1
1 joT
2
= 0
40
Re
Im
Figure P7.45 Figure for Objective Question 122.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
101
[IES (EC) 1996[
125. The constant M circle for M = 1 is the:
(a) Straight line x = 1=2 (b) Critical point (j, j0)
(c) Circle with r = 0.33 (d) Circle with r = 0.67
[IES (EC) 1999[
126. Consider the following statements: The gain margin and phase margin of an unstable system may
respectively be:
1. Positive, positive 2. Positive, negative
3. Negative, positive 4. Negative, negative
Of these statements:
(a) 1 and 4 are correct. (b) 1 and 2 are correct.
(c) 1, 2 and 3 are correct. (d) 2, 3 and 4 are correct.
[IES (EC) 1996[
127. The polar plot of an open-loop transfer function of a feedback-control system intersects the real axis
at 2. The gain margin of the system is:
(a) 6 dB (b) 0 dB
(c) 6 dB (d) 40 dB
[IES (EC) 1996[
128. Match List I (scientist) with List II (contribution in the area of), and select the correct answer using
the codes given below the lists:
List I List II
A. Bode 1. Asymptotic plots
B. Evans 2. Polar plots
102
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
C. Nyquist 3. Root locus techniques
4. Constant M and N plots
Codes: A B C A B C
(a) 1 4 2 (b) 2 3 4
(c) 3 1 4 (d) 1 3 2
IES (EC) 2000
129. The polar plot (for positive frequencies) for the open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback
control system is shown in Figure P7.46. The phase margin and the gain margin of the system are
respectively:
(a) 1508 and 4 (b) 1508 and 3/4
(c) 308 and 4 (d) 30
and 3/4
IES (EE) 2000
130. Which of the following equations represents the constant magnitude locus in the G-plane for M1;
x-axis in Re G(jo ) and y-axis in Im G(jo )?
(a) x 0.5 (b) x 0
(c) x
2
y
2
1 (d) x 1
2
y
2
1
IES (EC) 2000
131. Which of the following features is NOT associated with Nicholas chart?
(a) (0 dB,1808) point on Nicholas chart represents the critical point (1 j0).
(b) It is symmetric about1808.
(c) The M loci are centered about (0 dB,1808) point.
(d) The frequency at the intersection of the G(jo ) locus and M 3 dB locus give a bandwidth of
the closed-loop system.
IES (EC) 2000
0.25
Im G(j)
Re G(j)
j1
j1
1 1
Figure P7.46 Figure for Objective Question 129.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
103
132. The open-loop transfer function of a system is
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
K
1 s ( ) 1 2s ( ) 1 3s ( )
The phase crossover frequency o
c
is:
(a)
2
_
(b) 1
(c) Zero (d)
3
_
[IES (EC) 2001[
133. The open-loop transfer function of a unity-feedback control system is given as
G(s) =
1
s(1 sT
1
)(1 sT
2
)
The phase crossover frequency and the gain margin are respectively:
(a)
1
T
1
T
2
_ and
T
1
T
2
T
1
T
2
(b)
T
1
T
2
_
and
T
1
T
2
T
1
T
2
(c)
1
T
1
T
2
_ and
T
1
T
2
T
1
T
2
(d)
T
1
T
2
_
and
T
1
T
2
T
1
T
2
[IES (EC) 2001[
134. A constant N-circle having center at 1=2 j0 ( ) in the G-plane, represents the phase angle
equal to:
(a) 180
(b) 90
(c) 45
(d) 0
(b) 0
(c) 45
(d) 90
tan
1
2x
2
1 4x
4
_
_
2
(b) PM =tan
1
2x
2x
2
1 4x
4
_
_
(c) PM =90
tan
1
2x
2
1 4x
4
_
_
2
(d) PM =180
tan
1
2x
2
1 4x
4
_
_
2
[IES (EC) 2003[
145. The phase angle of the system
G s ( ) =
s 5
s
2
4s 9
varies between:
(a) 08 and 908 (b) 08 and908
(c) 08 and1808 (d)90 and1808
[IES (EE) 2001[
146. Which of the following statements is correct in respect of the theory of stability?
(a) Phase margin is the phase angle lagging, in short of 1808, at the frequency corresponding to a
gain of 10.
(b) Gain margin is the value by which the gain falls short of unity, at a frequency corresponding to
90
phase lag.
(c) RouthHurwitz criterion can determine the degree of stability.
(d) Gain margin and phase margin are the measure of the degree of stability.
[IES (EC) 2004[
= 0
=
Re
Im
Figure P7.47 Figure for Objective Question 143.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
107
147. The radius of constant-N circle for N = 1 is:
(a) 2 (b)
2
_
(c) 1 (d)
1
2
_
[IES (EC) 1999[
148. The forward-path transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
G s ( ) =
1
1 s ( )
2
What is the phase margin for this system?
(a) p rad (b) 0 rad
(c) p=2 rad (d) p rad
[IES (EC) 2004[
149. All the constant-N circles in the G-plane cross the real axis at the xed points. Which are these
points?
(a) 1 and origin (b) Origin and 1
(c) 0.5 and 0.5 (d) 1 and 1
[IES (EC) 2004[
150. What is the value of M for the constant-M circle represented by the equation 8x
2
18x 8y
2
2
_
s s 1 ( )
is:
(a) 0 (b) 3
(c) 6 (d)
[GATE (EC) 1999[
158. The phase margin (in degrees) of a system having the loop transfer function
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
2
3
_
s s 1 ( )
is:
(a) 458 (b) 308
(c) 608 (d) 308
[GATE (EC) 1999[
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
109
159. The constant-M loci is symmetrical with respect to:
(a) Real axis and imaginary axis (b) M 1 straight line and the real axis
(c) M 1 straight line and the imaginary axis (d) M 1 straight line
IES (EC) 1998
160. A system with the transfer function
G s
s
1 s
is subjected to a sinusoidal input r t sin ot in steady-state, the phase angle of the output relative
to the input at o 0 and o 1 will be respectively:
(a) 0
and 90
(b) 0
and 0
(c) 90
and 0
(d) 90
and 90
Im Im
Re Re
(a) (b)
1
1 O O
Im
Im
Re
Re
(c)
(d)
110
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Which of these plots represents a stable system?
(a) 1 alone (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4
[IES (EE) 2000[
162. The system with the open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
1
s s
2
s 1 ( )
has a gain margin of:
(a) 6 dB (b) 0 dB
(c) 3.5 dB (d) 6 dB
[GATE (EC) 2002[
163. The gain margin and the phase margin of a feedback system with
G s ( ) H s ( ) =
s
s 100 ( )
3
are:
(a) 0 dB, 08 (b) ;
(c) ; 0
(d) 88:5dB;
[GATE (EC) 2003[
164. If the Nyquist plot of an open-loop transfer function of a feedback control system is shown in the
left half of the s-plane (Figure P7.48), then the number of closed-loop poles in the right half of the
s-plane will be:
(a) Zero (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) 3
[IES (EE) 1999[
0
=
1
Re
GH plane
Im
Figure P7.48 Figure for Objective Question 164.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
111
165. Which of the following polar diagrams corresponds to a lag network?
[GATE (EC) 2005[
166. The gain and phase crossover frequencies in rad/sec are respectively:
(a) 0.632 and 1.26 (b) 0.632 and 0.485
(c) 0.485 and 0.632 (d) 1.26 mA and 0.632 V
[GATE (EC) 2005[
167. The polar plot of
G s ( ) =
1 s
1 4s
=
= 0
Re
Im
(a)
Im
=
= 0
Re
(d)
Im
=
= 0
Re
(b)
Im
=
= 0
Re
(c)
112
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
for 0 _ o _ in the G-plane is :
[IES (EE) 1999[
168. The Nyquist plot of G jo ( )H jo ( ) for a closed control systempasses through the (1, j0) point in the
GH-plane. The gain margin of the system in dB is equal to:
(a) Innite (b) Greater than zero
(c) Less than zero (d) Zero
[GATE (EC) 2006[
169. A unity-feedback system has the open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
1
s 2 ( ) s 1 ( ) s 3 ( )
The Nyquist plot of G encircles the origin:
(a) Never (b) Once
(c) Twice (d) Thrice
[GATE (EE) 1992[
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
113
170. The polar plot of a type 1, 3 pole, open-loop system is shown in Figure P7.49. The closed-loop
system is:
(a) Always stable
(b) Marginally stable
(c) Unstable with one pole on the right half s-plane
(d) Unstable with two poles on the right half s-plane
[GATE (EE) 2001[
171. The Nyquist plot of a loop transfer function G(s)H(s) of a closed-loop control system passes through
the point (1, j0) in the G(s)H(s) plane. The phase margin of the system is:
(a) 08 (b) 458
(c) 908 (d) 1808
[GATE (EE) 2002[
172. The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given as
G s ( ) =
as 1
s
2
The value of a to give a phase margin of 45
is equal to:
(a) 0.141 (b) 0.441
(c) 0.841 (d) 1.141
[GATE (EE) 2004[
173. The gain margin of a unity-feedback control system with the open-loop transfer function
G s ( ) =
s 1
s
2
is:
(a) 0 (b) 1=
2
_
(c)
2
_
(d)
[GATE (EE) 2005[
Figure P7.49 Figure for Objective Question 170.
114
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
174. 207. In the GH (s) plane, the Nyquist plot of the loop-transfer function
G s H s
pe
0:25
s
passes through the negative real axis at the point:
(a) (0.25, j0) (b) (0.5, j0)
(c) (1, j0) (d) (2, j0)
GATE (EE) 2005
175. If the compensated system shown in Figure P7.50 has a phase margin of 60
at the crossover
frequency of 1 rad/sec, then the value of the gain K is:
(a) 0.366 (b) 0.732
(c) 1.366 (d) 2.738
GATE (EE) 2005
176. The Nyquist plot for a control system is shown in Figure P7.51
the bode plot for the same system will be
Figure P7.50 Figure for Objective Question 175.
Figure P7.51 Nyquist plot for Objective Question 176.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
115
177. The Nyquist plot of the open-loop transfer function G(s)H(s) is shown in Figure P7.52. It indicates
that:
(a) The open-loop system is unstable, but the closed-loop system is stable.
(b) Both open-loop and closed-loop systems are unstable.
(c) Open-loop system is stable, but closed-loop system is unstable.
(d) Both open-loop and closed-loop systems are stable.
IES (EE) 1997
1
2
1
1
|G|
|G|
|G|
|G|
40 dB/dec
40 dB/dec
40 dB/dec
40 dB/dec
20 dB/dec
20 dB/dec
20 dB/dec
60 dB/dec
60 dB/dec
(c) (d)
(b)
0
(a)
J Im
GH plane
(1, j0)
= +
= 0
+
=
Re
Figure P7.52 Figure for Objective Question 177.
116
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
178. Which of the following statements regarding the stability of a feedback control system is correct?
(a) Gain margin (GM) gives the complete information about the relative stability of the gain system.
(b) Phase margin (PM) gives the complete information about the stability of the system.
(c) GM and PM together give information about the relative stability of the system.
(d) Gain cross-over and phase cross-over frequencies give the required information about the relative
stability of the system.
[IES (EC) 1998[
179. Match List I (Plot/diagram/chart) with List II (Characteristic), and select the correct answer using
the codes given below the lists:
List I List II
A. Constant-M loci 1. Constant gain and phase shift loci of the closed-loop system
B. Constant-N loci 2. Plot of loop gain with variation of o
C. Nichol?s chart 3. Circles of constant gain for closed-loop transfer function
D. Nyquist plot 4. Circles of constant phase shift of closed-loop transfer function
Codes: A B C D A B C D
(a) 3 4 2 1 (b) 3 4 1 2
(c) 4 3 2 1 (d) 4 3 1 2
[IES (EE) 1998[
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
117
Chapter 8
1. A system is described by
X
0 1
2 3
X
0
i
u
The system is
(a) Controllable and observable (b) Uncontrollable and observable
(c) Controllable and unobservable (d) Uncontrollable and unobservable
IAS 1995
2. Which one of the following methods is NOT used for the analysis of nonlinear control systems?
(a) Phase plane method (b) Decreasing function method
(c) Liapunovs method (d) Piecewise linear
IES 2003
3. The state equations of a system are given by _ x X u; y X. The system is
(a) Controllable and observable
(b) Controllable but not completely observable
(c) Neither controllable nor completely observable
(d) Not completely controllable but observable
IES 2005
4. The state representation of a second-order systemis _ x
1
x
1
u; _ x
2
x
1
2x
2
u. Consider the
following statements regarding the above system:
1. The system is completely state controllable.
2. If x
1
is the output, then the system is completely output controllable.
3. If x
2
is the output, then the system is completely output controllable.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 are correct (b) 1 and 2 are correct
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d) 1 and 3 are correct
IES 1993
5. The system matrix of a continuous-time system, described in the state variable form, is
A
x 0 0
0 y 1
0 1 2
2
4
3
5
The system is stable for all values of x and y satisfying
(a) x < 1=2; y < 1=2 (b) x > 1=2; y > 0
(c) x < 0; y < 2 (d) x < 0; y < 1=2
IES 1993
6. The state equation of a system is
X
0 1
20 9
X
0
1
118
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
The poles of this system are located at
(a) 1; 9 (b) 1; 20
(c) 4; 5 (d) 9; 20
IES 1995
7. The z-transform of a signal is given by
Cz
1z
1
1 z
4
41 z
1
2
Its nal value is
(a) 1=4 (b) Zero
(c) 1:0 (d) Infinity
GATE 1999
8. The transfer function, Ys=Us, of a system described by the state equations xt 2xt 2ut
and yt 0:5xt is
(a) 0:5=s 2 (b) 1=s 2
(c) 0:5=s 2 (d) 1=s 2
GATE 2002
9. The state variable equations of a system are:
1. x
1
3
x1x2
2
2. x
2
2
x1
The system is
(a) Controllable but not observable (b) Observable but not controllable
(c) Neither controllable nor observable (d) Controllable and observable
GATE 2004
10. Given
A
1 0
0 1
the state transition matrix is given by
(a)
0 e
t
e
t
0
(b)
e
t
0
0 e
t
(c)
e
t
0
0 e
t
(d)
0 e
t
e
t
0
GATE 2004
11. If
5 0 2
0 3 0
2 0 1
2
4
3
5
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
119
The inverse of A is
(a)
1 0 2
0 1=3 0
2 0 5
2
4
3
5
(b)
5 0 2
0 1=3 0
2 0 1
2
4
3
5
(c)
1=5 0 1=2
0 1=3 0
1=2 0 1
2
4
3
5
(d)
1=5 0 1=2
0 1=3 0
1=2 0 1
2
4
3
5
GATE 1998
12. Given the homogenous state space equation
X
3 1
0 2
the steady state value of X
ss
lim
t!1
xt, given the initial value of X0 10; 10
T
, is
(a) X
ss
0
0
(b) X
ss
3
2
(c) X
ss
10
10
(d) X
ss
1
1
GATE 2002
13. The matrix of any state-space equation for the transfer function Cs=Rs of the system, shown in
Figure P8.22, is
(a)
1 0
0 1
(b)
0 1
0 1
(c) 1 (d) 3
GATE 1994
14. A system is described by the state equation XX AX BU. The output is given by Y CX,
where
A
4 1
3 1
; B
1
1
; C 1; 0
The transfer function Gs of the system is
(a)
s
s
2
5s 7
(b)
1
s
2
5s 7
(c)
s
s
2
3s 2
(d)
1
s
2
3s 2
GATE 1995
Figure P8.22 Figure for Objective Question 13.
120
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
15. A state variable system
Xt
0 1
0 3
Xt
1
0
ut
with the initial condition X(0) 1 3
T
and the unit step input u(t) has the state transition matrix
(a)
1
1
3
1 e
3t
0 e
3t
2
4
3
5
(b)
1
1
3
e
t
e
3t
0 e
t
2
4
3
5
(c)
1
1
3
e
t
e
3t
0 e
3t
2
4
3
5
(d)
1 1 e
t
0 e
t
" #
GATE 2005
16. A state variable system
Xt
0 1
0 3
Xt
1
0
ut
with the initial condition X(0) 1 3
T
and the unit step input u(t) has the state transition
equation
(a) Xt
t e
t
e
t
(b) Xt
t e
t
3e
3t
(c) Xt
t e
3t
3e
3t
(d) Xt
t e
3t
e
t
GATE 2005
17. The value of matrix A in X AX for the system described by the differential equation y
2y 3y 0 is
(a)
1 0
2 1
(b)
1 0
1 2
(c)
0 1
2 1
(d)
0 1
3 2
IES 1998
18. The minimum number of states necessary to describe the network shown in Figure P8.23 in a state
variable form is
Figure P8.23 Figure for Objective Question 18.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
121
(a) 2 (b) 3
(c) 4 (d) 6
IES 1998
19. A system is represented by y 2y 5y 6y 5x. Its state variables are x
1
y; x
2
y and
x
3
y. Then the coefcient matrix A will be
(a)
0 1 0
0 0 1
6 5 2
2
4
3
5
(b)
0 1 0
0 0 1
2 5 6
2
4
3
5
(c)
0 0 1
0 1 0
6 5 2
2
4
3
5
(d)
0 0 1
0 1 0
2 5 6
2
4
3
5
IES 1999
20. The state equation of a linear system is given by X AX BU, where
A
0 2
2 0
and B
0
1
The state transition matrix of the system is
(a)
e
2t
0
0 e
2t
(b)
e
2t
0
0 e
2t
(c)
sin 2t cos 2t
cos 2t sin 2t
(d)
cos 2t sin 2t
sin 2t cos 2t
IES 1999
21. Consider the single-input, single-output system with its state variable representation:
X
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 3
2
4
3
5
X
1
1
0
2
4
3
5
U; Y 1 0 2X
The system is
(a) Neither controllable nor observable (b) Controllable but not observative
(c) Uncontrollable but observable (d) Both controllable and observable
IES 2001
22. A particular control system is described by the following state equations:
X
0 1
2 3
X
0
1
U and Y 2 0X
122
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
The transfer function of this system is
(a)
Ys
Us
1
2s
2
3s 1
(b)
Ys
Us
2
2s
2
3s 1
(c)
Ys
Us
1
s
2
3s 2
(d)
Ys
Us
2
s
2
3s 2
IES 2001
23. A transfer function of a control system does not have pole-zero cancellation. Which one of the
following statements is true?
(a) System is neither controllable nor observable
(b) System is completely controllable and observable
(c) System is observable but uncontrollable
(d) System is controllable but unobservable
IES 2002
24. Consider the following statements:
1. Adiscrete-time systemis said to be stable, if and only if its response for until impulses t decays
with K
2. RouthHerwitz testing may be applied to determine the stability of the discrete-data systemusing
bilinear transformation
Z
1 v
1 v
Adiscrete data systemis unstable if any of the roots of the characteristics equation lies within the unit
circle on the complex plane.
Which of these statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3
(c) 3 only (d) 2 and 3
IES 2003
25. For a unity-feedback system, the origin of the s-plane is mapped in the z-plane by the transformation
z e
ST
to which one of the following?
(a) Origin (b) 1 j0
(c) 1 j0 (d) 0 j1
IES 2004
26. A linear time-invariant discrete-time system is described by the vector-matrix difference equation
xk 1 Fxk Guk
where xk is the state vector, F is an n n constant matrix, G is an n r constant matrix and
u(k) is the control vector. The state transition matrix of the system is given by the Z-transform of
(a) ZI F (b) ZI FZ
(c) ZI F
1
G (d) ZI F
1
Z
GATE 1991
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
123
27. The Z-transform of the time function
X
1
k0
n k
is
(a)
Z 1
Z
(b)
Z
Z 1
(c)
Z
Z 1
2
(d)
Z 1
2
Z
GATE 1998
28. The block diagram of a sampled-data system is shown in Figure P8.24
(a)
GRz
1 GHz
(b)
GzRz
1 GHz
(c)
GRz
1 GzHz
(d)
GzRz
1 GzHz
IES 1998
29. Consider the following statements regarding hold circuits for the reconstruction of sampled signals:
1. Hold circuits are essentially low-pass lters.
2. A rst-order hold circuit introduces less phase-lag in comparison to zero hold circuit
3. A zero-order hold has a at gain-frequency response over the frequency range 0 v 2=T,
where T is the sampling period.
Which of the following is correct?
(a) 3 alone (b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 alone
IES 1999
30. The overall pulse transfer function of the system shown in Figure P8.25 is
Figure P8.24 Figure for Objective Question 28.
Figure P8.25 Figure for Objective Question 30.
124
.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(a)
1 exp1
Z exp1
(b)
Z1 exp1
Z 1Z exp1
(c)
1 exp1
Z exp1
(d)
Z1 exp1
Z 1Z exp1
IES 1999
31. The system matrix of a discrete system is given by
A
0 1
3 5
The characteristic equation is given by
(a) z
2
5z 3 0 (b) z
2
3z 5 0
(c) z
2
3z 5 0 (d) z
2
z 2 0
IES 2001
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
.
125
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