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Piping Fundamentals

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Pi+in& F,nda!en#al) - For Fre)her n&ineer) Pi+in& .y)#e! - 'ha# i) #ha#/

Con"e+# 0ayo,# 1e2elo+!en# Pi+in& Co!+onen#) 3 #heir a""e)) re4,ire!en#. .#rai&h# len&#h re4,ire!en#). 5rien#a#ion o6 2ario,) #a+in&), "o!+onen#), e#". Pi+in& 1rain) 3 7en#) 8n),la#ion. Ma#erial 3 .i9in& Cri#i"al +i+in& )y)#e! "on)idera#ion. Pi+e .#re)) Analy)i). Pi+e .,++or#)

Pi+in& F,nda!en#al) - For Fre)her n&ineer) 0e# ,) 6ir)# 1i)",)) a(o,# ':A; 8. P8P < 8# i) a ;,(,lar i#e! !ade o6 !e#al, +la)#i", &la)) e#". !ean# 6or "on2eyin& 0i4,id, Ga) or any #hin& #ha# 6lo*). 8# i) a 2ery i!+or#an# "o!+onen# 6or any ind,)#rial +lan#. And i#=) en&ineerin& +lay) a !a>or +ar# in o2erall en&ineerin& o6 a Plan#. 8n ne?# 6e* +a&e) *e )hall #ry #o 6a!iliari9e a(o,# +i+e and i#=) "o!+onen#).

In any plant various fluids flow through pipes from one end to other. Now let us start with a plant where we see three tanks. Tank-1, Tank-2 and Tank-3 We have to transfer the ontent of Tank no. 1 to the other two tanks. We will need to onne t pipes to transfer the fluids from Tank-1 to Tank-2 and Tank-3

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To solve these pro+lems we need the pipe omponents, whi h are alled )I)" .ITTIN'$

We have *ust +rought the pipes, now we need to solve some more pro+lems. )ipes are all straight pie es.
are s ipe sp me si,e o n s rent e "v diffe of

We need some +ran h onne tions

We need some +end onne tions

These are the pipe fittings, There are various types of fittings for various purposes, some ommon types are "l+ows/%ends, Tees/%ran hes, &edu ers/"0panders, 1ouplings, 2lets, et .

3nyway, the pipes and fittings are in pla e, +ut the ends are yet to +e *oined with the Tank no,,les.

We now have to omplete the end onne tions. These, in piping term, we all

T"&4IN3! 12NN"1TI2N$.

$o far this is a ni e arrangement. %ut there is no ontrol over the flow from Tank-1 to other tanks. We need some arrangement to stop the flow if needed

These are flanged *oints This is a welded *oint

To ontrol the flow in a pipe line we need to fit a spe ial omponent. That is alled - 53!5"

There are many types of valves, ategori,ed +ased on their onstru tion and fun tionality, Those are - 'ate, 'lo+e, 1he k, %utterfly, et .

2ther than valves another important line omponent of pipe line is a filter, whi h leans out der+ies from the flowing fluid. This is alled a


(ere we see a more or less fun tional piping system, with valves and strainer installed. !et us now investigate some aspe ts of pipe fle0i+ility.

If this tank no,,le e0pands, when the tank is hot.

In su h ase we need to fit a fle0i+le pipe omponent at that lo ation, whi h is alled an "6)3N$I2N


When some fluid is flowing in a pipe we may also like know the parameters like, pressure, temperature, flow rate et . of the fluid.

To know these information we need to install IN$T&#4"NT$ in the pipeline.

Ne0t we shall look into how to $#))2&T the pipe/and it8s omponents.

There are various types instruments to measure various parameters. 3lso there are spe ifi riteria for installation of various pipe line instruments.

(ere are some of the pipe supporting arrangements. There an +e numerous variants. 3ll depend on piping designer8s preferen e and *udgement.

!et us see some 2T("& types of supports

We have *ust ompleted a pipe line design. We shall rewind and he k how it is really done in pra ti e. .irst the flow s heme is planned, 19 What, 29 .rom what point, 39 To whi h point

)ipe si,es are sele ted, pipe material and pipe wall thi kness are sele ted. Types of 5alves are planned 3lso the types of instruments re:uired are planned

We represent the whole thing in a drawing whi h is alled )iping and Instrumentation ;rawing, in short )<I;. .or )<I; generation we use $))<I; software. %y this time you have already ome to know that while we prepare )<I;s in $))<I;, we enter all the pipe lines system information in the drawing. $o the $))<I; drawing is an Intelligent drawing whi h under it8s surfa e arries all the information a+out a pipe like, )ipe si,e, .lowing .luid, et . !et us see a )<I; prepared in $))<I;

;hi) i) )"reen +i"#,re o6 P381 !ade (y .PP381 86 *e "li"$ on any line i# *ill )ho* #he 1a#a e!(edded.

3fter the )<I; is ready we start the layout work. (ere we arryout pipe routing / layout in 5irtual 3; environment. We use );$ 3; software to route piping in the )lant virtual 3; spa e. We all this as piping modeling or physi al design. While development of piping layout we have to onsider the following )iping from sour e to destination should +e as short as possi+le with minimum hange in dire tion. $hould not hinder any normal passage way. 3lso should not en roa h any e:uipment maintenan e spa e.

Not )refera+le


While arrying out pipe routing we also need to onsider the following 5alves, strainers, instruments on the pipe should +e easily a essi+le.

If needed separate 311"$$ )!3T.2&4$ to +e provided to fa ilitate these. ;esired lo ation and orientation of valves / instruments and other pipe omponents are to +e he ked and maintained, like some valves or strainers an only +e installed in hori,ontal position. $pe ifi re:uirements for instrument installation to +e he ked, like temperature gauge an not +e installed in pipe whi h is less than = in h in si,e. $pe ifi re:uirements of $T&3I'(T !"N'T( of pipe for some omponents to +e maintained, like for flow orifi e we need to provide 1> times diameter straight pipe length at upstream of orifi e and > times diameter straight at down stream of orifi e.

"0ample of $traight length re:uirement for .low 2rifi e

.or )ipeline whi h shall arry li:uid, we have to make sure that all air is allowed to vent out of the line when the line is filled with li:uid. To a hieve this a 5"NT onne tion with 5alve is provided at the top most point of the pipeline.

3lso arrangement is kept in the pipeline so that li:uid an +e drained out if re:uired. To a hieve this a ;&3IN onne tion with 5alve is provided at the lowest point of the pipeline )ipes are also slopped towards low points. !et us look into typi al 5ent and ;rain arrangement in a pipeline

This is a 3; model of .eed water line along with pumps and other a essories

!et us have a look into a piping model done +y );$ 3;

INSULATION - When hot fluid flows through pipe then generally pipe is insulated. There are two primary reasons for insulating the pipe arrying hot fluid. 1ontaining the heat inside the pipe. Insulation preserves the heat of the fluid. It is alled (ot Insulation )ersonnel safety, so that people do not get +urn in*ury +y tou hing hot surfa e of pipe. Itinsulated is alled )ersonnel )rote tion Insulation 1old pipes are also 1old or hilled fluid arrying pipes are insulated to prevent heating of old fluid from outside. It is alled 1old Insulation. $ome times old pipes are insulated to prevent ondensation of atmospheri water vapor on pipe surfa e. It is alled 3nti-$weat Insulation. 2ther types of Insulation When gas flows through pipes at high velo ity, it reates noise. In su h ases pipes are insulated to redu e noise. It is alled 3 ousti Insulation. $ome times pipe and it8s ontent are heated from outside, +y heat tra ing element. In that ase pipe along with heat tra ing element are insulated to onserve the heat of the tra er. It is alled (eat Tra ing Insulation.

IN$#!3TI2N 43T"&I3! - The insulating material should +e +ad ondu tor of heat. There are two +asi ategories

19 .i+rous 4aterial, whi h has large voids full of air +etween fi+ers - 1ork, 'lass Wool, 4ineral Wool, 2rgani .i+ers. Note stagnant air is a +ad ondu tor. 29 1ellular 4aterial, whi h has losed void ells full or air - 1al ium $ili ate, 1ellular 'lass ?.oam 'lass9, )olyurethane .oam ?)#.9, )olystyrene ?Thermo ol9, et . $ome times 1ast material like 1ement )laster or )laster of )aris are also used. IN$#!3TI2N 1!3;;IN' - Insulation materials are generally soft or fragile. $o the outer surfa e of insulation are prote ted with 3luminum sheet or 'I sheet ladding.
Have a look at how pipes are insulated, and general components of insulation

)ipe 4aterial $ele tion - to sele t appropriate pipe material +ased on flowing fluid property. Find out type of Fluid flowing Find out Fluid 2emp. 3 ressure Check ipe life (+pectancy $elect suitable ,aterial per practice -*ote./0 Check ,at. 1isted in "esign Code *% $ee *ote. / '($ ipe ,aterial %&

Note-1 @ 4aterial is sele ted per past e0perien e with ost in mind and per material listed in design ode. If material is not listed in ode we may sele t ne0t suita+le material listed.

)ipe $i,ing 1al ulation - to sele t re:uired pipe diameter +ased on velo ity and pressure drop. Find out Flow volume per second Check Velocity Allowable per second Calc. flow area required and ipe si!e Calc. ress. "rop for that ipe si!e Check ress. "rop meets ress. #udget *% )ncrease ipe $i!e )ipe Thi kness $ele tion - to sele t appropriate pipe thi kness +ased on flowing fluid property. $elect ,at. 3 "iameter as above Find out Fluid 2emp. 3 ressure "ecide on Corrosion allowance Calc. ipe 2hickness per Code '($ ipe $i!e %&

In )ower plant there are some piping whi h arries steam at high pressure and temperature. 3nd also there are piping whi h arries water at (igh pressure. These pipes arries the main y le steam and water of the steam power plant. These pipelines are all the 1&ITI13! )I)IN'. 5ery spe ial are are taken for design of these piping. .irst the pipe material sele tion for su h piping is very important as it has to withstand the high pressure and may +e also high temperature. 3s these pipes arry the main system fluid of the power plant, they are given the right of way, and routed at +eginning of the overall plant layout. $team pipes run at very high temperature and the hot pipes e0pand. We have to +uilt in fle0i+ility in the high temperature pipe routing so that the e0pansion for e is a+sor+ed within the piping. 3lso there should +e enough fle0i+ility in these pipe routing so that high loads are not transferred to the no,,les of Tur+ine or )umps There are many re ogni,ed international odes whi h lay down guide lines and mandatory re:uirements for design of su h piping. The most important odes used +y power plant piping engineers are 3$4" 3N$I %31.1- )ower )iping 1ode < I%& - the Indian %oiler &egulation

)ipe $tress 3nalysis

We have already seen that some of the pipes are su+*e ted to high pressure and high temperature. 3lso pipes arry the load of the flowing fluid. We need to he k and onfirm the pipe is not going to fail with these loading. This pro ess of he king the stress developed in the piping due to various loading is alled )ipe $tress 3nalysis/.le0i+ility analysis. In the pro ess of 3nalysis we apply various postulated loading on the pipe and find out the stress resulted from these loading. Then we he k with governing odes if those stresses generated are a epta+le or not. We he k support load < movement for various loading ondition. We also he k out the terminal point loading generated from pipe to the e:uipment onne ted to the pipe. This loading are to +e within a epta+le limits of the e:uipment suggested +y the vendors. We also find out the pipe growth due to hange in temperature and need to keep the movement of pipe within a epta+le limits. )ipe $tress 3nalysis is an Intera tive and Iterative pro ess. "a h step is he ked If a he k fails we have to go +a k, modify the layout and restart the analysis.

)I)" $T&"$$ 3N3!A$I$ Inputs

'eometri layout of )ipe )ipe supporting onfiguration )ipe ;iameter and Thi kness )ressure inside )ipe 1old and (ot temperatures of )ipe Weight of )ipe and insulation Weight of arrying .luid )ipe material )roperty ?Aoung8s 4odulus, Thermal "0pansion 1oeffi ient9 Thrust on pipe due to +lowing wind. Thrust on pipe due to earth:uake !oad of $now on pipe 3ny transient loading like $team (ammer load 3ny other load on the piping

Tools we use
)I)$A$ - is an integrated pipe stress analysis module of )!3;"$ 2BBB 1"3$"& - 1ommer ial )iping analysis software There are many other ommer ial software availa+le

$tress of the pipe at various loading onditions !oad at various supports and restrains. 4ovement of pipe at support lo ations )ipe terminal point loading.

1odes and $tandards

In general )ower )lant )iping have to omply stipulations of 3$4" 3N$I %31.1 In India )ower y le )iping to omply I%& ode re:uirements.

Types of )ipe $upports

)n the beginning of this discussion we talked about various types of pipe supports. Here is some elaboration
There are three general types &igid type ?no fle0i+ility in the dire tion of restrain9 $pring type ?3llows pipe movement in dire tion of loading9
&igid $upport &igid (anger 5aria+le $pring 1onstant !oad $pring

;ynami $upport ?;egree of restrain depends on a eleration of load9 There are two types of spring support 5aria+le load type, here support load hanges as the pipe moves. 1onstant load support, the load remains onstant within some range of movement.

;ynami $upport, $nu++er &igid $upport

$ome $pe ial 1onsiderations for )iping

When pipes are routed #N;"& '&2#N; ?%uried9 following points to +e kept in mind4 4inimum pipe si,e to +e routed under ground shall +e not less than1 in h. 3void flange *oint in #/' piping. Ceep in mind if pipe leaks #/', it will +e diffi ult to dete t, so avoid #/' routing of pipe arrying ha,ardous fluid. )ipe to +e laid +elow .rost Done at areas where am+ient temperature goes +elow free,ing. #/', %uried piping should +e properly prote ted from orrosion. )ipe may +e properly wrapped and oated to prevent orrosion. 2r #/' piping +e prote ted +y using 1athodi prote tion. .ree,e )rote tion of outdoor )iping4 In the areas where the am+ient temperature goes +elow free,ing there is a possi+ility that the li:uid ontent of pipe may free,e while the plant is under shut down. .or similar ase pipes are wrapped with heat tra ing elements to maintain the ontent temperature a+ove free,ing ?around = deg. 19 even when the am+ient temp. is +elow free,ing. "le tri (eat tra ing is done +y wrapping ele tri oil around pipe, whi h turns on as the am+ient temperature goes down. )ipes are insulated over the heat tra ing oils. (eat tra ing an also +e done +y winding $team tu+es around main pipes.

We have come to the End of Session. Hope you have gathered the fundamentals on the subject of Piping