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HOW TO

The purpose of a narrative is to entertain or inform readers by telling them a story.

Language Features
1. Good descriptive word use captivating the attention of your target audience. For example: The sky was as grey as grandpas hair. 2. Use of the five senses in your narrative. 3. Verb use to capture the actions taking place in your narrative. For example: She gasped with excitement. 4. Incorporation of characters names in your narrative. 5. Descriptive word use about characters and events within your narrative. For example: He was a tall man, about six feet, with brown hair and sea-blue eyes.

Narrative Structure
1. Orientation You need to give your reader key information about who is involved in your narrative, when the story takes place, and where the action occurs. 2. Complication A complication is a crisis that occurs in the lives of your characters. Complications build tension and suspense in a narrative, making it interesting to read. You may choose to have more than one complication in your story. 3. Evaluation The evaluation is the reaction that your characters have towards the complication. Characters express their thoughts directly through their speech or indirectly through their actions. 4. Resolution The resolution is the solution to the complication that arises. 5. Coda Coda is like a moral to the story. Coda is often used in Fairytale or Dreamtime stories. The use of Coda is optional.

Setting
The setting refers to the environment in which the story takes place. Setting can include specific information about time and place. Setting can also include information about the weather, or climate where your story takes place.

Time This refers to the time period that your story is set in. Your story could be set in the past, present, or future. Time also refers to the time of day, month, date or even season. Your narrative could take place in the 21 st century, or even as far back as the time when Dinosaurs walked the earth! (Its up to you!)

Place This often refers to the physical, environmental or geographical location of the story. The place may change several times throughout your story. For example Your story may originate in the heart of New York City. Part way through your story, your characters may find themselves in Los Angeles, Australia or even somewhere completely imaginary, such as Narnia or Hogwarts. Climate/Weather The climate or weather could play a pivotal role in your story. For example Your narrative may begin in the midst of a hurricane, where your characters are surrounded by extreme weather conditions. This disaster could be the complication of your narrative, or contribute to the suspense that you subject your reader to.

Atmosphere
Atmosphere refers to the general mood of the story. Provide your reader with a clear atmosphere or mood. You want the reader to experience the raw emotion of your story so that they can relate to the characters (and also events that are taking place). Is there emotion in your narrative?

For example: The air was filled with ash coloured smog, so thick that it was near impossible to breathe.

Characters
Characters are the people, animals and objects that play a role in the story. Protagonist The protagonist is the main character of your story. A story can have more than one main character. As this character is the most important in your story, you must take the time to paint a clear image of him/her. Use description to convey their personality and appearance. The protagonist is the character that a reader is supposed to identify with, whether or not he/she is a hero or a villain. Antagonist The antagonist is a corresponding character to the main character and may be a source of a narratives main conflict or complication. The antagonist may not be a bad or evil person (or object), but her or she opposes the protagonist in a significant way.

Motif
A motive is a recurring element in a story that has symbolic significance. For example In Shakespeares Macbeth, blood is a recurring element that has symbolic significance. This sets the mood for the overall narrative.

Symbolism
A symbol is a word/idea/image that represents something other than itself. Symbols may have universal significance, such as the love heart, which represents love.

Theme
In contemporary literature, theme refers to the central idea of the story, or the message that the author is trying to convey. This idea generally relates to the human condition, such as life, society and human nature. Some common themes that are widely used in narratives include:
Relationships Love Identity Coming of age Horror Tragedy Suspense Suffering Comedy Crime Mystery History

Context
Context refers to the conditions, including social background, historical background, time and place surrounding a particular circumstance, and facts situated around your narrative. For example: The popular film Ten Things I hate about you is an adaptation of William Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew, in a modern day context.

Point of view
The point of view is the relationship that the writer establishes between the reader and the characters perspective in which the story is being told through. Generally, the point of view in a narrative comes from the main character so that the reader can see the events he/she takes part in. This allows the reader to relate to the character. All people have a different point of view, and account on events that unfold.

The narrator is the story-teller. The narrator presents the series of events or experiences throughout the narrative. The narrator presents the narrative in the first, second or third person.

First person narrator


I/me/we/us (speaking) This person is the only character who knows what is happening in the story if it directly affects them. Examples of a first person narrator: Diaries Journals Autobiographies

Second person narrator


Speaks directly to the reader Examples of a second person narrator: Instructional writing Recipes Manuals How to writing

Third person narrator


Them/They/Her/him/He/She A third person narrator knows many details from the details of the protagonist, to the details of the minor characters in the story. Novels are commonly texts that employ a third person narrator.

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