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The Evil Eye of Apopis Author(s): J. F. Borghouts Source: The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 59 (Aug., 1973), pp. 114-150 Published by: Egypt Exploration Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3856104 . Accessed: 20/11/2013 05:16
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(II4)

THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS


By J. F. BORGHOUTS

little attention has been i. To theevilglanceoftheeyeofApopis' so farrelatively of H. Bonnet, this paid. Underthe entry 'Apophis'or 'Boser Blick'in theReallexikon is nowhere mentioned.2 There valuable a article L. is, however, aspect by Kakosy version of Chapter o8 of the BookoftheDead3 found dealingwitha verycondensed in a Budapestfunerary whichcontains at leastthemainmythological facts of papyrus thatchapter:howthesun-boat the Mountain of how the crew was Brlw, approached overwhelmed thereand how thatsnake by the dreadful glanceof the snakeresiding was subsequently subduedby thegod Seth. certain 2. The earliest passagein whichtheeyeofApopisplaysa roleis theprotoof Book the ii [i6o], 375 b ff. above. In Coffin Dead, io8, mentioned Texts, type of (= BD 1i8, Budge 218, i2)4 it is said: 'I knowthatmountain of B-hw/on whichheaven rests. 120 rodsin itsbreadth. /It is a plateau(?),5 300 rodsin its length, /Sebek,/lord of Bihwis on theEast side ofthismountain. His house is of carnelian / /and thereis a snakeon thetopofthatmountain, in hislength; from hisforeside /30 cubits /3 cubits on are a knife.6 know the of name this snake: "who is on his who is in /I / mountain, his flame"7 is his name./Now whenitis thetimeof theofevening,8 he willturnhis eye
Series (London,
2

For the transliteration Apopis (not Apophis), see Gardiner,HieraticPapyri in theBritishMuseum,IIIrd


935), I (Text), 30 note 4.
I952'),

Blick).
3

H. Bonnet, Reallexikonder dgyptischenReligionsgeschichte (Berlin, L. Kikosy, 'Une versionabre


3-10.

51-3

(Apophis);

122

(B6ser

arts 20 (I962),

du chapitre 8 du Livre des Morts', Bull. du Musie hongrois des beaux-

P. Turin I993 (New Kingdom),rt.2, 4-6 (= Pleyte-Rossi,I I9, 4-6): 'thenRsntshall comewithgreatamulets then/Wedjoyetshall come to you(the sufferer) (siw wrw;or'a greatprotection'), withpurewater.I am purified father on the/big mountains by it-just as theydid fortheir ofB;hw-when thegreatmhy-snake Re'-Herakhty, of whose form the mrbs-spear appeared,in the frontside n mhwrn inr is, of one cubitof flintstone pi mrb; (nty n ds mhit hpri'f).'A mhy-snake occurs also in BD I68, Budge 433, I2 (in whose retinuethe deceased would like to be) and as a holylocal snake(forboth,cf. Wb. I, I27, 5-6). Is the name mhya variantof mhn(cf. CT has asked whether at some timethe Egyptiansidentified vii, 428c [onlyB2Bo])? B. Stricker Apopis and the see his De 8. grote zeeslang in our passage is (Leiden, I953), Perhaps the 'one cubit of flintstone' m.n-snake; only the pointof the spear? For the passage, cf. CT vI, 39h (read snt,'two-barbedharpoon'?). 7 The name varies according to the manuscripts of the CT version: tpydw whnf,tpy dw whmjf seem to some introduce after belongtogether; dw a separatename,imywhn2f or imywhm'f. The BD manuscripts have ds-wy, 'who throwstwo knives'.Elsewhere(CT
tpy dwf, imy hhf (hm'f, whf), while the related version of BD 149, Budge 370, 5, and Naville 1I, 392 has sty II [I54], 276/7a; 278/9a= BD II5, Budge 237, 3; 4-5; Sethe

4 The later version of BD io8 has been studied together with the then known CoffinTexts manuscripts by K. Sethe and others, 'Die Spruiche fiAr das Kennen der Seelen der heiligen Orte', ZAS 59 (1924), 43* ff.(transcription); 73 ff.(translation and commentary). The episode is also found in a somewhat modified form in BD 149, Budge 370, 2 ff. 5 Ti, determined by a wall, unattested elsewhere. Or read mti? 6 Ds, determined by the knife; BD manuscripts have ds, 'flintstone'. Something similar is said in the magical

on nextpage] 7 and 8 continued [footnotes

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

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comesabout amongthe crew/ and a greatbewilderment towardsRec./A standstill thecourse.'/Sethwillbendhimself hisreach.2 "Eh!" he saysto /within during (sgw.t) within himbywayofmagic. in /"I stand yourreach!/The courseoftheboatpassesoff close manner!/You who see from I a regular have ensnared afar,3 /just youreye! / male! Cover when am a robust are safe,I am safe!4/I am I head; your / / / you youis there been whose has to me against ;5/ magic great given you!" somebody (something) ?" "Something useful,6 / "Whatis this /O0 youwho creepon yourbelly"/.. .', etc. a snake in the place of setting the sun-boat meets who certainly is To summarize: name is The snake the here the crew and different. given 'hypnotizes' Apopis,though of one It is the earliest testimonies of Sethas a defender him. can withstand Seth only thatSeth can standup to the snakebecause he It is not impossible of the sun-god.7 statedin the spell; in himself eye(see 33), but thisis nowhere possessesa dreadful thus the lift to he seems of the the sequel snake, text, up awayits power.8 taking text speaks of the glance of Apopis9in a clear 3. No otherMiddle-Kingdom
and others,ZAS 57 (1922), 12; I9; 3*) thename ofthesnakewithwhomAtumhad to contendin orderto gain in Urk.vi, 63, 21, wherethe snake's This incident was stillremembered the rule overHeliopolis, is imywhm'f. rather thanimywhmfas S. Schott(ib. 62, 21-2) reads.The latter name reminds name is, however,Imynsrsr'f, one of the name imynsrfgivento Apopis in Edfu,I, 62, 9 (here textno. 5). betweenApopis and the sun-godtakesplace in the eveningin what seems to be the 8 So here the conflict is situatedin the east at morning west. Usually the fight im (Bonnet,Reallexikon, 52; Kees, Der Gotterglaube alten Agypten[Berlin, I9562], 54). Apopis belongs to B;hw, accordingto the Book of the Heavenly Cow, versionof Seti I, 87 (Ch. Kuentz, BIFAO 40 [I94I], 103). It is still a problemhow B;hw in earlytexts,as Liederan denSonnengott J. Assmann,Liturgzsche here,designatesthe west,and lateron the east. See recently and B4hwcan sometimes be underi. The latter'sproposalthatthe termsMmnw (Berlin, I969), 39, text-note ofthe sun according to whether thecontext concernsthe upper stood as theplace ofthe risingor ofthesetting world or the netherworld,is attractive. For parallelssee Sethe, ZAS 59 (1922), 84-5; A. Klasens, A Magical Statue Base (Socle Behague)(Leiden, See also P. Leiden I 348, vs. II, 5, wherea threatutteredby the magician begins: 'you will be 1952), 9I-2. dumbfounded (gg.tn),0 Ennead-for then,therewill be no heaven,forthentherewill be no earth . .', etc. 2 Sethe et al. ZAS 59 (I922), 74 'dann beugtsich Seth ihrentgegen';86: m-dr: 'im Abwehrvon offenbar fur entgegen.'For 'out of the reach of' (m separative)forwhich in the eine zusammengesetzte Praiposition
I

out ofthereachofthe snake,or does he exactlythe contrary, whilebeingsafely 3 8 c. Does Seth bend himself m drk, 'I standwithinyourreach' (and yet I can withstand you)? proudlyin 381c: rhr.i asserting 3 Or, following wi (S2C has m;.i): 'O you whom I have seen fromafar.' The otherCT and SYP: mf(w?)n'i cf. e.g. P. Chester wi whichmay containan active participle.For the expression, have mu9 BD manuscripts DecreeL. 2, vs. 21-2 (nwwi); Edfu, w;); OracularAmuletic BeattyIII, rt. 10, I and 9, 4; VIII, vs. 4, 2-3 (gmh
For a similar argument, see Pyr. 123od (king and demon); CT v [454] 326g-h = BD 90, Budge I92, Io-12 (similarly); P. Turin 1993, rt. 4, 8 (= Pleyte-Rossi, I24, 8) (demon and sufferer). 5 For Seth's magic,here expressedin the mannerof an epithet, comparePyr. 204a; CT II, 218a; Urk. Iv,
II, 288, 3. 4 I.e., when you keep

= BD 130, Budge Belegstellen to Wb. v, 586, io no examples are given, see CT III, 267f; 293b; vII, 393c and ZAS see Wb. the reach 'within For 8. J.Zandee, 97 (I97I), 158 n. of', v, 586, 3; 9 280, I I; 65, Budge 147,

calm, I shall do the same, and both of us will benefitby the agreement. yourself

For this role, see H. Te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion (Leiden, 1967), 98-o08. h la legende d'Anthee', Rev. Hist. Rel. 445 (I964), I-I2. See P. Barguet,'Parallele egyptien 9 Apopis as such is not knownbeforetheMiddle Kingdom,but he maybe connected withthe snakesin the who in BD 39 appears as a sort of Apopis). These anti-snakespells in Pyr. (among which is the rrk-snake, spells deal to a greatextentwiththe dangerouseye of the snake. See 30.
7 8

'eldest magician'in Amduat,see E. Hornung,Das Amduat (Wiesbaden, smsw, I542, 3. Perhaps he is the hkkw I970, I77, who differentiatesbetween Seth and the I963), II, I3I; but cf. H. Te Velde, JEOL 21 (I969-70), 6 jh; or 'magic power', 'spiritualpower' (Sethe: 'Geistermacht'). Eldest Magician.

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J. F. BORGHOUTS

manneras something but the peculiarmoveability (dbndbn; dreadful, mhn)of the of noted in CT There be an his is allusion to it in one vII, 495a. may 'pupil' (b;)' eye of the particular 'to ward off spells devotedto him,in CT v [4i4], intended Apopis from the boat of Rec' (244a). A menaceby Apopis is cited(244 e-f): 'He has said that he would rebel againstRe, / that he would commita robbery (rw?)againsthim.' this Elsewhere accusation is repeated, but thenfollows (247 b-c) (d-e): 'but Re' falls downon himin hisbeautiful boat(nfrw.t) /and he (Rec) sails on withthefire-spewing BiC and BiL).' Evidently the latter is unharmed. Was it the eye of Rec eye(irtwtt, to rob(cf. 5)? If so, theconflict whichApopisthought alludedto in thisspellmight be between theEye ofApopisand theEye ofRec,thelatter actually beinghypostatized in theform of a goddess,as it often is in latetexts (see 28). or damaging oftheeyeof Re' as partofthedifficult circumstances 4. The robbing at thehandofApopismayalready thesun-god has to endure which be a rather common Middle Kingdomtexts.The result themein certain ofthe conflict is alwaysa victory is woundedduring but the latter forthe sun-god, the battle.From some CT spells, Book the Two to the it referred to as of belonging Ways, might appearthatthewounds, in his fact are the wounds the that the is face, through nsp.w2 eye damaged (therefore, or 'bleariness' it is called nkn.t).In this way, an 'obscuration' comes about, (hity)3 whichis healed by the care of the deceased,the speaker.CT vii [Io89], 369d-370b: has driven 'He (thespeaker) from the Lord-of-All, /he away(dr) theobscuration (hr)4 has spit on the wounds(nsp.w)of Re<, so thathe (Re<) revives and feelswell (rnh) how to ward off knows so NN that he is driven back / (hsf)Apopis, (ndm). (ht) when beingbright (bk). It is thisNN who has driven away(dr) theobscuration (hIty)from so thatit is bright thedamaged (bfk)' eye(nkn.t),6 (373 a-b) '... NN has savedRecfrom ofApopis./He does notfallintohis(Apopis's)fetters. therage(ns`ni) /NN is theone
Papiro ieratico n. 54003, Turin, I970). Cf. also a verb nb;b; (Wb. I, 243, 14): Pyr. 98a; Io4a; CT vII, 472f. 2 Wb II, 319, 9. 3 Wb. III, 35, 8-I2 ('cloudiness'); 35, I3-I4 ('bleariness'); Wb. der medizinischen Texte,II (Berlin,I962), 'heaven is opened,the cloudinessis drivenaway from 584-5. Cf. CT vII [1099], 393C: wb bi; hsr Fhtym dr-f,

he has come (iw)'.5 From CT vII [1094]: 'NN has fetchedthe Sound Eye (wd;.t), it

I For b;(Q), 'pupil' (oftheeye),an earlyformof br,see CT n1, 45 a-b = P. Turin 54003,vs. 4; 9 (A. Roccati,

See also CT vnI [Io99], manuscripts in the version of BD 130, I4, Naville II, 339, and Budge 280, Io-II). 408b = BD 130, 29, Naville II, 340; Budge 283, 2; CT vII [IIoo], 418b; [III2] 44Ia; c = BD 135, Budge 1964], p. 32 and pl. I ).

of hity: the eye [D 5], except B6C, which has the rainingheaven [N 4]; the latterin all it' (determinative

The Litanyof Re [New York, 295, I; 295, 3. See also Litany of theSun, versionof Seti I, II3 (A. Piankoff,

4 Or: 'the obscuration whichshows an ideogramofthe face', etc., as suggestedby one of the manuscripts hr (B12C). Clearly'obscurationof the face(view)' is meantin CT vII, 426c (hsrhrty strokeafter hr); cf. also have bsrhFty m hrhrf in the faceis drivenaway from ('the bleariness VII, 441c wheresome manuscripts him') m hrn Wsir / NN). as in BD I35, Budge 295, 3-4 (hsrhnty s FollowingBjBo; B2Bo has 'successfully, (m successfully' htp, mhtp) whileB12Cseemsto have takenhtand thus showinga word htiwdetermined iw together, by the snake: 'he who should be drivenback' (cf. CT II, 13d) or 'he who roams about' (cf. Wb. III, 348, I8?). 6 Determined of BD 90, Budge I92, 8, namelyCT v [453], 323b and [454], 326a, by im. In the prototypes in irt Tmwnknt, 'the damagedeye ofAtum' is determined in thesame manner.Cf. also Wb. I, thewordnkn't The theory of H. Te Velde (Seth, 36) thatthesetermsrefer to a sexual abuse resp. nkkt). 347, 6 and 9 (nknkt, to me. of the eye seems unwarranted

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

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is caused to be bright who createsa rumour (sd hrw)I/ and the damagedeye (nkn.t) Sound NN the . Eye (wd.tt), savingit fromits harm brings (sb.k)'2(376b-377c)'.
(kn)' (378c). The phraseology,however,is not too clear; nowhereis it said thatApopis

to the eye of snatched awaythe eye of Rec,as it is said about Seth withregard really Horus.3 themeoccursalso in of the eye of the sun-godas a mythological 5. The robbing it is said thatthe textsof the New Kingdom.In the sixthhourof the Book Amduat ofUpper and LowerEgyptare addressed strw;w, by Re(, and thencomes:hm./n kings after word this the 'the robberdoes not knowthem'.In manyversions immediately and next comes the 'copula' (provisional ntrt follows, subject)pw, (not determined) nt thisas 'thismeansthatthe the words Rr. Perhapsone mightinterpret and then or else 'the robberof the robberof the Divine Eye of Rec does not knowthem',4 Divine Eye e does notknowthem-thatis, (theDivine Eye) of Re('. rww, if referring one of CT v, 244fand 247c,citedabove.5A curious in thiscase to Apopis,reminds
to the latter, see Wb. iv, 566, 7. In the role of Seth, the opponentof Apopis ? For fd rw referring Cf. the use of the word sbakt, (?) in the Ritual of Hitting the Ball, for 'eye-which-bestows-brightness' whichsee 10-29. For sbik,sbk,as a verb meaning'to see', see Wb. Iv, 94, 15. Otherreferences p. 125 n. 9. 3 For this,see J.Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict ofHorusand Seth(Liverpool, 1960), 28 ff.;H. Te Velde, Seth, with the Eye, the distinction betweenthe Eye of Ree 46 ff.At a certainpoint in the historyof the conflict r van Voss, De odste ersievan Dodenboe . M.. Heerma and the Eye of Horus seems to have got lost; cf. , I 7a (Leiden, 1963), 248; H. Te Velde, Seth,47. The typicalrobberof the eye of the sun-god(the hnpwd4t) is the oryx,but the core of this mythis stillunknown. the fight withApopis, cf. also CT vI [1033], 273 a-b: 'I have warded on the wounds after For the spitting have in, 'to fetch')forhimApopis,/ I have spat forhimon thewounds(nspw)' but othermanuscripts off(hsf;
I
2

of Apopis,/because I know(how) to spit on the wounds(nspw) /when I see (them?). / I am 'I am the horror the one who spits on the wounds, so that he (the sun-god?) is relieved(ndm('w))'. Elsewhere,the sun-god is BD 'comes out of'(pri m; 'to recoverfrom'?)the wounds (nsp'w),as in Edfu,III, 222, 15; non-committal The lattertwo passages 99, Budge 204, i. Elsewhere,e.g. in CT VII [820], I9p, the meaningmay be 'fight'. of whichshows manysimilarities withthe 'speckled snakes' (sbwt), the description to the fight perhapsrefer with Excursus that of the II in my The Magical Texts of to the (cf. fight Apopis terminology) (including the sun-godis 'wearied(grh)ofthewounds', CT PapyrusLeidenI 348 [Leiden, 1971 = OMRO 51]). Further, of Re<, thathe-or the II, I54a; BD 39, Budge 0o6, i. In a way,the 'wounds' have become so characteristic 'lord of the wounds'. For relevant deceased, who wantsto be his equal-is indicatedas nb nspw, passages,see 6 (citingalso P. Leiden 1 344, vs. 3, 2 forthe enemyas one pri Lieder, 122, text-note J. Assmann,Liturgische m nspw). and anti-snake spells, use the Magical texts,especiallythose belongingto the genre of the anti-scorpion antecedents are prominent: betweenRe' and a snake in theirown way. Two mythical one concerns conflict Re< is bittenand a glance of manyotherallusions),the otherconcernsRe and Apopis. In the latterconflict, to the themewe are pursuing-is hardlymentioned, the snake-to return perhapsonlyin a texton the Louvre de la statue Les Inscriptions de Djed-Her-LeStatue 10777, 34-5, cited by E. Jelinkova-Reymond, gudrisseuse Sauveur (Cairo, 1956), 20 n. 3): 'this hand of Atum which drives away the disturbance (nfni)at heaven,the disorder partofthe sentenceis moreor less a parallelto Ddhr Statue, 12 ff.; by his eye(hnnm ir.t.f).'The first the latterpart is unique. 4 Amduat[6] 102, 4-5 (hm/'n st rw;w);sequel in 103, 7 (ntrt some versions).Not in the pw nt Rr, following Version abregee. rather of Seth as the 'robber',pointing 5 E. Hornung(Das Amduat,II, II3 n. ii) thinks to BD 138, Budge as a 'robber' mightalso refer the robberof Osiris. Apopis's qualification 314, i. But thereSeth is, as often, to his robbingthe sun-god of his place in the bark which,like the robbingof the Nile-water,also leads to Cf. e.g. P. RamesseumC, vs. 4, 11-12 (Gardiner, The Ramesseum the themeof a cosmic catastrophe. Papyri
[Oxford, 1955], p. II); pl. 32; P. Turin 1993, vs. 9, 3 (Pleyte-Rossi, 122, 3). Re< bitten by a snake created by Isis (e.g. P. Turin 1993, rt. 6, I2 ff. = Pleyte-Rossi, 131, 12 ff.and variants;

= BD 136B, Budge 302, 8; 147, Budge 361, 2 (all manuscripts have hsf); CT vi [I 13], 444a-d (foll. BQC):

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an addressto a demon(who is ordered not to passagein CT v [454] 324f-i contains here as look at the deceased)whichruns as follows:'Look at the evildoers (isft-yw, of Shu /who come after to chopoff to cut you/in order yourhead,in order torturers) neck an nt rn m off as order of Since (m wpwt / he-who-turns-with-his-eye your irt-f).' becauseofhis eye( 33), he might thegod Shu can be feared be theone who gavethe But remarkably orderto the executioners. the version of BD 90, Budge 191, enough, rn mirt-f thewords nbf,'he whohas robbedhislord'.Did theNewI4, replaces byrcw think redactors of P? Kingdom Apopis Also,in BD 7, a spellfor'passing alongthenasty bankofApopis',thelatter is addressed as '0 you,(only)a piece ofwax,/who takeby as well be accusedof robbing thewaterof theNile.2 is not clear; Apopismight In theBookofGates,3 ofmagicians [9],I4-15 itis said bya group (hkw): 'Hey,rebel who is / engaged(in evil)! Apopis,whose evil has been brought about! Your faceis !' The latter wherethewordhr is used, reminds (htmw phrase, destroyed hrk),Apopis one of CT II, 382d cited above: hbstpk, 'coveryourhead!' An even morestriking is provided division thegodswhoprotect by a passagein thetenth parallel (80), where Re say to Apopis: 'Darkness for your face (kkw n hrok),0 Wmmty!'4 Perhaps it is becauseof his eyethanbecauseofthegeneral rather of his head or face repulsiveness thatin theBookofGates,[5] 55,Apopisis calleddwdw-tp, 'he with the very bad head'. the of hr both refer to as someother Tp and may faculty seeing, appearsfrom passages In theBookofCaverns, it is tobe cited.5 'Re( said: sets in the western 62, [5], V-63, V,
J. Zandee, who has translatedand commentedon the chapter in NederlandsTheologisch Tijdschrift, no solution.He thinks it improbable ) but offers Wageningen7 (I953), 193-212, discussesthe passage (p. that Seth would have been meant here. If it is not Apopis, it mightbe Shu; for Shu as a dreadful god in role texts,see J.Zandee, Death as an Enemy(Leiden, 6),9 2I5. Perhaps some unknownmythical funerary R of the throne. In the of Shu is alluded to; perhapshe robbed his father neturbulent storiesconcerning the of the god-kingsas told on the Ismailia Naos (G. Goyon, KSmi 6 [1936], i ff.),Shu's reignat the beginning established.-For rnm irt,cf. perhaps CT vi, 235d. mythis, however,peacefully 2 Cf. note 5 on previouspage. 3 Cited from Le Livre desportes [division]and plate in the variousfasciclesof Ch. Maystreand A. Piankoff, use is made of the recenttranslation (Cairo, 1939 ff.).In the following, by J. Zandee, 'The Book of Gates', Studies presentedin Honour of Professor C. J. Bleeker(Leiden,I969). pp. 282-324 in: Liber Amicorum. 4 theNew Kingdomon (see Wb. I, 25I, 15). A geniusw;mmw as a name ofApopis occursfrom W;mmty (no occurs in CT vii,II7p. He is mentionedamong the fourApopis-snakesoccurring in special determinative) late mythology:Dw-kd, W;br, W;mt and Hmhmti(Medamud [I05] in 1i. Drioton, 'Les Inscriptions',in to the fourApopisRapportsur lesfouillesde Medamoud(1925) [Cairo, I926], 46). Perhaps theycorrespond snakes alreadymentionedin an i8th-Dynastyfunerary text,see A. Shorter, JEA 23 (1937), 36; 38. Four
priests deal with the Apopis-snakes: one is for W;mmty (Edfu, I, 538, I-2), one for Wbr (539, 13-14), one for

Budge 29, 6-7). What the object of the alleged robberyis, robbing'(i wr mnhitim rwG,

of the enemieswho in (543, 9-Io), and one forHmhmty (543, 17-18). Are theya reminiscence Apopis himself sometimessaid to act againstthe sun-god in a group of four? Cf. Pyr. 229b; BD 15, A. are texts religious
Shorter, Catalogue, I (London, 1938), 73, 15; P. Turin I993, rt. I,Ii II5, I7-i8. 83-4; Urk. vi, 99,I7-i8; (Pleyte-Rossi, II8,
II);

Ddhr Statue,

no proofin the textthatthe snake is Apopis. But in [5] 62, v (a ....) thatname is undoubtedly assignedto is mentioned.Cf. dw-hr in a passage cited in 32, and bin-hr, in 35. Apopis. In [6] 135, 9, a snake dw-hr

A. Piankoff, BIFAO

as an evil snake is sometimes from distinguished W;mmty Apopis proper,as in the textscited above and in col. 2:'Fear Horus, thechampion, the Unique Lord, who slaystheenemiese.g. Kom Ombo,no. 635, vertical the enemyof Re<!' as Apopis fearshim and(4hn) W?mmty, s A similar name is givento a snakein the Book of Caverns(cited from[division] and platein the editionof
41 [I942], 42 [I944], and 43 [I945]) [6] 129, 2 and 130, I: dwdw-hr. There is, however,

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

II9

(Cairo JdE 69771, III, 23).6

in orderto makeprovisions mountain forthosewho are in theearth.He shinesin the mountain in orderto drivehim away,/ Wnty, eastern Apopis,whose eye is evil (dw blinded A who should be text in irt), enigmatic (sp[.w]).' parallel writing (62, V, a ... a) 'he withtheverybad face'. refers to Apopisas thedwdw-hr, If the of from established suchtexts, it is 6. malignant glance Apopisis sufficiently to the 'warding oftherrk-snake'. off Rrkis known as timeto turnto BD 39, devoted a nameofApopis.' The textruns: 'Whenyou speak,yourfaceis averted (pnrw hrk) / heart is cut out laid the bonds are by Mafdet, /your gods,your by Hdd.t(a scorpion by is about she !' Macat; brought your/damage by slaysyou (Budge I05, 10-13). goddess), of the face probablymeans the averting of his piercing The averting glance.Elsemoundin therealmofthedead,and he therrk-snake is situated on a particular where, is addressed by the deceasedas follows (BD 149, g, 43-4, NavilleII, 403; Budge 372, the one who is at homein Iss, who biteswithhis mouth, you,Rrk, I4): 'Backwards, who lames(?gb;)2 withhis eyes!' runs: 'in stela fromDeir el Medineh3 An isolatedpassage on a veryfragmentary similar is an address to blindhim(r sp.f).'Somewhat order to slay(shr)Apopis,in order on a statueof RamessesIII (Cairo JdE 6977I),4 also in a spellagainst Apopisattested ofthePtolemaic ofanti-Apopis incantations P. Bremnerfoundin thegreatcollection Rhind: hrhrhrk p hr.k,'Fall downon yourface,yourfaceis blinded!'(Cairo JdE 26, I2). In P. Bremner-Rhind 26, i6, 69771,III [backside],i8 = P. Bremner-Rhind, it is said: nn mu'knn dg;k,5 'you shall not see, you shall not perceive!'The earlier nndg;.tw.k, has: nnmu.tw-k version 'you shallnotbe seen,you shallnotbe perceived' 7. A texton a woodentabletofthe late periodin Berlin, published by S. Schott,7 'all men all It is said to all the evil is directed / patricians (rmt), eye. (pr-t), against

I Wb. II, 440, 2 (BD-passages); J. Zandee, Death, Ioo. In Old- and Middle-Kingdomtextsthe rrk-snake is a dangerousbeing in the netherworld,in the New Kingdom(BD) the name is also applied to Apopis. After thatperiod,the name disappears. 2 Wb. v, 164, 4, mentioning gb;, g;b and once (Lc) gb;g.The deteronlythispassage. The word is written is the simplexofgbgb, minativeis the eye. Perhaps the verb in the variousmanuscripts givenby Wb. v, 165, as 'to be lame'. But in P. ChesterBeattyVII, rt. 8, 3 (bkbb)it has an object. 9-io intransitively 3 B. Bruyere,Rapportsur lesfouillesde Deir El Medineh(I927), Cairo, I928 (= FIFAO, Rapports pre4 (tomb i I26). liminaires, 5), 42, fig.29, fragment 4 'I. Drioton,'Une statueprophylactique also in 'Une de Ramses III', ASAE 39 (1939), 57-89; translation statuede Ramses III dans le desertd'Almazah', Pages d'egyptologie (Cairo, I957), 53-68. S E. Edel, ZAS 8i (I956), i6, sub X, readsgz.k; however, to judge by the photograph, Faulkner'stranscription dg; seems correct. 6 Otherutterances or beingblind(fp) ofApopis: 'I have blindedhis eyes! in thispapyrusabouttheblinding of Thoth fallen/ and annihilated-thetwo fingers are blind!' 'he shall be I blind, being 20); (27, 'you (27, ); are in youreyes!' (30, 2-3); 'you are blind,being annihilated !' (30, 15); 'you are blind, being annihilatedand drivenback!' (30, 2I); 'you are blind, you shall not see (nn gmhhk)!' (3I, io); 'Horus in his bark has blinded and vice versa!' (31, x8); 'be blinded,you!' (31, 24). In an you!' (31, 15); 'you are blind, being annihilated, interalia on the Socle Behague, it is said ([6] g, 13 and variants;A. Klasens, A anti-Apopisspell, attested up yourface Magical Statue Base, 38): 'yourhead has been cut off;you have been cut to pieces,you do notlift cf. ibid. the evil effect of the of to the refer The latter 10O and the glance; undoing may greatgod!' against Wageningen7 (1953), 210-I. Tijdschrift, J. Zandee, NederlandsTheologisch 7 Berlin23308; see S. Schott,'Ein Amulettgegenden b6sen Blick', ZAS 67 (1931), o6-io; also translated im alten Agypten in G. Roeder, ZaubereiundJenseitsglauben (Ziirich, 1961), 124-5 and pl. 13.

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I20

J. F. BORGHOUTS

all people (hnmm.t), etc., who will / throwthe evil eye (irt bint) plebeians(rhy-t), son of Mehwet-em-weskhet againstPediamon-/nebnesuttaui, / in any evil or bad fashion:you will be slain like/ Apopis,you will be dead and not be alive forever!' of the comparison withthe slaying (I, 5-II, I-4). It is possiblethatin thiscontext refers to theaverting ofthelatter's thanto the Apopismoreparticularly glance, rather is massacre which his doom his and that of followers. unspecified always the specialritualbest attested in Ptolemaic textswhichforms the 8. Apartfrom of there are a in few other mentions of evil Ptolemaic subject o0ff., Apopis's eye texts.A passagein Edfu,III, 34I, 6-io (a hymnic addressto Re) runsas follows:'O whileApopis Rec,be high,be high!Come,please,Rec! You arehighin yourhighness, in that /is debasedin hisdebasedness. Come,please,Rec, youmayappear yourappearis darkness ance,whilethere (kkw)in theeyeofApopis!/Come,please,Re(, that[you inyourbeauty, in hishatefulness-while whileApopisis hateful maybe] beautiful you, and crew is in and there is reverence O Re(, arejoyful, reverence; / joyful your rejoicing to you every day,whileAtumis endowedwithright-and-truth (mmrt). [Trium]phant over is Rec overApopis(fourtimes);Horus of Behdet,/thegreatgod,is triumphant his enemies deviceof (fourtimes)!' 'Darknessin the eye ofApopis' maybe a literary the of the which because asserting enemy's privation light spendslife, 'appearing (of in the eyes' of the livingis a well-known the sunrays) themein sun hymns.2 But in viewofthepassagein theBookofGates[I0] 80 citedabove,itshouldrather refer tothe of the influence of his malevolent ofApopis,thatis, theundoing eye. blinding the is in boat of the due to the ritualactionof the thisis When sun-god safety, king,who 'bends down (ksm)the one whose eye is aggressive (? khb irt); he is like withhis eye,/hisenemies fallen downontotheslaughter-block' Horus,beingcontent khb in The term also occurs irt Edfu,vi, 3I3, 10 (hereno. 9, 19).3 (Edfu,v, 72, 8-9). from 9. Fromall this,it maybe clearthatone oftheterrible weaponsto be feared the the demonof chaos is his malevolent When sun-boat would be eye. caughtby its be theresult. The danger is countered the might glance,a cosmiccalamity by averting can onlybe donebysomeit; butthelatter way-or bydefying glancein somemagical one equal toApopis,likeSeth,or bythesun-god's Before itself. overto the eye passing it is necessary one ofritual forthesakeofcompleteness to consider third device, order, relation theeyeof the sun-godand the demonof the darkelabobetween the curious Guides. In a singular in thetombof ratedin someoftheNether-world representation mounted ram's in thebody RamessesIX theeyeofthesun-god, a finds itself head, by The latter's nameis Wnty, whichis often a nameofApopis.5 of a crocodile.4 Apopisin
I 2

3 4

As S. Schott(op. cit. 109, under 12) alreadypresumed. Liederan denSonnengott, See J. Assmann,Liturgische 41-2 (n. 3), withmanyexamplesfromtexts.
See p. 130o n. 2.

La Creation du disque solaire A. Piankoff, De geboorte van Horus (Cairo, I953), 67-9 and pi. 38; B. Stricker, existsin the tombof RamessesVII, but herethe eye is I (Leiden, I963), 41-2; fig.8. Anotherrepresentation the scene is also foundin P. Salt 825, 9, see Ph. Derchain, missing.The legends are the same. As a vignette, Le PapyrusSalt 825 (Brussels,1965),II, pi. 21* and B. Stricker, op. cit.42, 43 (fig.9). Here thereis mentionof Mwt (perhaps the uraeus in the disc?), Mift (the plume on the crocodile's head), and the crocodileitself mhwUt, 'he who belongsto his ash, livingon putrefaction'. whichis called iryss'f,rnh 5 See references givenby A. Piankoff, op. cit. 69 n. i.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I2I

theform ofa crocodile is rather he is closely associated withthe attested,' rarely though tortoise2 and thescorpion.3 It is said in thisparticular caveof Wnty:'The diskof the dat the of The fromhis mysteries. Wnty. greatgod opens god (Re) emerges Wnty vomits (bs); he breaksout (r;r)the eye of Re whichis in his (Wnty's)belly.Its (the intoits apparitions.' said so, one may eye's) pupil enters Though it is not expressly thecrocodile's histail.4 supposethatthesun diskentered bodythrough Though Wnty is a notinfrequent nameofApopis,it is rather notan Apopis-like animalin theusual inimical sensewhichis represented here.5 The crocodile rather a primeval represents divinebeing,a kind of equal of Re<, and the latterrejuvenates himself at nightby its It Rec looks like his chaotic passingthrough body.6 meeting other, counterpart,7 but without of enmity; is it the depthand theprimeval oftheir feelings surroundings which annihilate the contrasts? is hailed.8 The same Elsewhere, meeting-place Wnty ambivalent character is sometimes ownedby W;mmty, who,apartfrom beingApopis himself or an associateofhis,9 also occursas theguardian ofthegods in their restingThe same be the case with Nhb-k;w who is an sometimes of may places.Io equivalent a beneficent who at timeseven bestows life.'3The same Apopis,IIbutelsewhere godz2 holdsgood forthesnakeDsr-tp.I4
Amduat [2] 38, i; [7] II8, 2; 123, I; 123, 5; 124, 4; I25, 6; I27, 2; [Io] 175, 4; Book of Gates [Io] 79; P. Mag. Harris, rt. 5, 7; Ddhr Statue, 72; 156; P. Bremner-Rhind, 23, 12; Edfu, I, 417, II (left); v, 113, 9; Dendera, Iv, 193, I4 (no. Io). In Dendera, VI, 91, 8, N.i-hr occurs as a snake-god. In CT , 208a, n.h in Nh-.hr (who is

The crocodileNhR-hr (Wb. II, 290, I7) as an enemyof Rec appears as a kindof Apopis in some texts,e.g.

perhapsApopis in that passage, since his 'band', sm;y't,occurs ibid. 207f) is determined by --. Mostlythe determinative is Z. Perhaps in P. Jumilhaci6, 8, it is used transitively of the eye (cf. J. Vandier's note 524
on p. 195 of the edition).
2 See B. Van de Walle, 'La tortue dans la religion et la magieegyptiennes', La NouvelleClio 5 (1953), I73189, i8o ff. 3 Cf. P. Turin 1993, vs. 4, I (= Pleyte-Rossi,136, i): 'A small, small thing,the sisterof the snake,the scorpion,the sisterof Apopis !' 4 Cf. a similar 'entersintohis (the passage in Amduat[12] 197, 7, wherethe sun-god,in orderto be reborn, 'looker'(no. 756; thename snake's)tail and comesout ofhismouth'.In Amduat[ii] I80, 2 a snake,namedptry, is determined by the snake onlyin the Versionabregee, 258) carriesa goddess on its back who 'devours' the again when the sun-godis born. figures (ssm'w)of the starsbut bringsthemforth 5 ContraA. Piankoff, op. cit. 69 n. i and E. Homung, Das Amduat, I, I33; cf. also A. Volten,MDAIK 16 also refers to a crocodilerbsin Amduatwhichholds an eye betweenitsjaws. This is (I958), 359 n. 4. Piankoff the of as he but thatof Osiris (Amduat[7] 132, 10-I33, 3 and no. 554; see E. Horrather eye Re, not, says, shall nung, op. cit. 138-9, n. 6). But the finalclause of thissection: 'He who knowsit-him the rbs-crocodile thatthisrepresentation at leastindicatedsomething not devour' suggests terrible forthe Egyptians.Elsewhere as protectors, see A. Piankoff, the cavernof Pn-wnty containstwo snakeswho function op. cit. pi. 25, 3 and

as a Sethe, ZAS 57 (1922), 12 n. i, pointed to the factthatAtum himselfwas sometimesrepresented to the fight ofAtumwiththe snakebeforeHeliopolis(see above snake. Kees, G6tterglaube2, 248 n. I, referring the snakewas 'im GrundeAtumselbst?' For primevalgods as snakes,see especially p. I114n. 7) askedwhether is C. De Wit, Les W. Brede Kristensen,Het levenuit de dood (Haarlem, 1949), 37-8. Very characteristic whereOsirisis addressed: 'You are du temple Inscriptions d'Opet, a Karnak (Brussels, 1958), 278, leftsection, the Smooth Snake (nry),the lord who prospers(?) that which exists,the most masculineof the gods, who (sfrsnkt)in the primevaltime.' For othercharacteristic passages, see Kees, op. cit. 55 ff. began darkness 8 BD I5, Budge 38, 5; I36A, Budge 298, 4. 9 See p. ii8 n. 4. IO E. Hornung,Das Amduat,ii, io6-7, withreferences. "I E.g. Pyr. 229 a-b; '2255a' = Neith, 717 (R. Faulkner, The Ancient EgyptianPyramidTexts,ii [Oxford, 99 n. 7). 1969], 77); CT vi, 39h; P. Louvre 3865, 4, 2-3 (cited by J. Zandee, Death as an enemy, I2 References fromCT apud J. Zandee, op. cit. 98 ff.;see also Edfu,IV, 30I, 15. on nextpage] 13 and 14 continued [footnotes
7

pp. 29-30.

6 So also B. H. Stricker, op. cit. 41.

D 141

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122

J. F. BORGHOUTS The riteofhitting theball

thereare the scenesof the rite'hitting io. Finally, (skr)the ball (hm,hm;,etc.)'. It seemsadvisableto deal withthemnow,in orderto complete the dossier aboutthe is connected withhim.After this,thepiceyeofApopis,as faras the'evileye' in texts turewillbe complete to add other with to the data,especially enough glanceof regard the snakein general ( 32), gods and men( 33 ff.). ( 30-I), of demons One of the first to thisritewas A. Erman,who in his Die Religion to pay attention derAgypter' characterized thesescenesas an anti-Apopis Becausetherite ritual. briefly it was shortly has also the appearance of a ball-game, discussedby S. Mendnerin his Das Ballspielim Lebender Vilker.2 from short references Apart by Ph. Derchainand F. Daumas,3the most recentdiscussionof themis by C. De Vries in an articlein Studiesin HonorofJohnWilson4 the stressis laid on the sportive, where,however, not on thereligious aspect. The ritecan be briefly summarized as follows: thekinghitsa ballsbefore a goddess, From Hathor. the it that ball the the legends usually appears represents eyeofApopis whichis hitawayand thusdebased.This conclusion is, however, onlyafforded by the Ptolemaic where the are more At nineteen examples, legends explicit. present examples are known to me from various el-Bahari, Luxor, Edfu, Dendera, temples (Deir Philae), theearliest ofwhichdatefrom theEighteenth Forthesakeofconvenience, the Dynasty. Ptolemaic textsare givenherenotin their in but the order of the order, chronological volumesin whichtheyhave been published.
Ioo; p. 4. Discussed by C. De Vries,op. cit. 27, 31, 33. Cf. also Porter-Moss,Top. Bibl. I (Oxford, as such (not in the first edition,p. 121 (46)). 19722), 351 (38) wherethe scene is now mentioned King TuthmosisIII beforeHathor. Title: 'Hittingthe ball (hmi) forHathor,chiefof Thebes.' Hathor: 'Words6 spoken by Hathor, chiefof Thebes: O beloved son,7much desired,/ lord of the Two Lands (Mn-hpr-k;-Rrc. How well is thisland sinceyou receivedtheWhiteCrown,/since
14 See n. 148 of my The Magical Textsof PapyrusLeiden I 348.
13

= E. Naville,The Temple Iv (London,190o), pl II. No. I: Deir el-Bahari ofDeirel-Bahari,

Ddhr Statue, 170-I

Metternich Stela, 21-2.

1 (Berlin, 1934), 449 n. 2, referring to our nos. I, 2, 12, and 2o. Dr. B. H. Stricker refers me to ZAS 48 of Edfu. I have (I910), 76, where H. Junker quotes Seth's eyes beingplayedwithas a ball in theHorus-myth been unable to findthe passage. 2 (Miinster,1956), 43-5 ('Agypten'). The scenes are not mentioned in S. Wenig and A. Touny, Der Sport im AltenAgypten (Leipzig, I969). 3 Ph. Derchain, Rites egyptiens, I. Le Sacrificede l'oryx(Brussels, 1962), 28; F. Daumas, Dendara et le d'Hathor The latter sharesthe opinionof H. Junker (Cairo, 1969), 76, 78. temple (see n. i) and associatesthe ball withthe eyes,not of Apopis, but of Seth. 4 C. De Vries, 'A Ritual Ball Game?' Studies in Honor of John A. Wilson(Chicago, 1969 [SAOC 35]),
25-35. s For the word, see Wb. iII, 93, 10-I (.hm); I2 (Fm't). 6 Text of this legend in Urk. iv, 292, 12-293, 2. 7 The textgivessit,not sr, but the t appearsto have been deleted(cf. Urk. iv, 292 n. c). Was the leftpor-

tion of the scene originally intendedforI;atshepsut? The representation of the kingon the rightportionis not carvedover an earlierfigure. But thereare more mistakes, see nextnote. certainly

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I23

you establishedIthe Red Crown on / your forehead,since you liftedup / the Two Ladies, since eternally!' you appeared withthem,living2 no Tuthmosis III: legends. Legends of welfare(etc.) behind king: 'Wedjoyet,mistressof King heaven. May she give lifeand well-being(to) the King of Upper and Lower Egypt,lord of giving the bodily son of Re< (Dhwty-msw-nfr-hprw)\, appearing3as King of offerings (Mn-hpr-k;-Rr)I, like the of of throne as the chief in of Millions Re(.' the Boat Atum, Upper Egypt a Two menbelow,each havinga ball in hand: 'fetching (hnp) by god's servant,afterhe has hit themaway'.4 12. No. 2: Luxor temple= A. Gayet,Le Templede Louxor,Ier fascicule(Paris, 1894 = MMF, 25), pl. 68 (no. 74), fig.2I3.5 Mentionedby C. De Vries,op. cit. 28, note 13 ;6 see now also PorterMoss, Top. Bibl. ii (I9722), 327 (I53). probablyHathor.7 King AmenophisIII beforegoddess withHathor crown,therefore Title: 'Hittingthe ball (hm.t),in orderthathe may be givenlife.' the son of Re< (Imn-htpw),... King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt (Nb-mc.'t-Rr)j, . . . livingeternally.' [destroyed] Hathor: 'Beloved8ofAmen-R'c,lord ofthe thronesof the Two Lands, givenall life; all stability . . .' and well-beingis withher ... [destroyed] I3. No. 3: Luxor = Wb. III, 93, 12, quoted in the Belegstellen pages, 26). (III, handwritten Mentionedby C. De Vries,op. cit. 28, note 12;9 see now also Porter-Moss,op. cit. 11 (I9722), 319 in the chapel of Mut, here quoted froma copy made by Sethe for (iII). Unpublished inscription the Wb.'I King AmenophisIII beforelioness-headedSakhmet. Title and Formula: 'Hittingthe ball (.hm.t),in orderthathe may be given life.' King: 'Making glad the heartof her,who createdhis beauty.' and well-being,all sanity,all gladness and the passing Sakhmet:'May she give all life,stability of millionsof years.'
I
2

to the White Crown (hd.t). which cannotrefer The texthas grg'f,


.

From here on in Urk. Iv,

of the verb hnp.The signs while De Vries considersit the determinative I take to be kmin, the throwing-stick, are facingeach other, of the hnp-group to the leftand to the right thoughthe s at the utmostrightis an exceps. For km.9, Wb.v, 33, 10 and Faulkner, Dict. I92, quoteonly read hnpin hm-ntr tion.So perhaps km;9nf this passage. The object pronoun s may be inaccurateforsw, the 'ball' being masculinein this scene (hm), (see nos. 2, 3, and 8), or else forst, plural (Gardiner,Eg. thoughit seems to occur elsewhereas a feminine n. Gr.3,39, marginal I2a). 5 Also published in R. Campbell, The Miraculous Birth of King Amon-hotep III and other Egyptological Studies(Edinburgh,1912) in a photograph facingp. 74, but the verybad qualitymakes it useless. 6 Referring to H. Nelson, Key Plans ShowingLocations of Theban Temple Decorations(Chicago, 1941 [OIP 56]), pi. 23, section G, room 13, no. 298 (like Gayet). 7 The legends establishingthe identityof the goddess are destroyed;for Mut as Hathor, see Bonnet, Reallexikon, 492, 493.
8

fromthatgiven by C. De Vries, op. cit. 33-4, whose main problem differs P . My translation This sign, of thevertical the to lies in thereading of thesign (notto he eleft,as he states). right grouphnp

JfP

291, 9-Io.

Luxorscene. 10Kindlycommunicated in a letter datedJuly of the BerlinWorterbuch to me by Dr. W.-F. Reineke 8,


I970. Full publicationof the two Luxor scenes has been promisedby C. De Vries,op. cit. 28 n. 12.

9 Referring to H. Nelson, Key Plans, pi. 23, section D, room II, no. 206 (west wall); opposite the next

Mry,notmryt.

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SALE
Fi 211

LXXv
Fi~ 215

2eet $3FReisres MlurNord

212 FiP2Pi2g

FIG. i. Gayet, Le Temple de Louxor, pl. 68 (no. 2, I2).

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I25

madeby Sethewhich to thedifferences from thepreceding scene. onlyrefers apparently III before lioness-headed Sakhmet. KingAmenophis Titleandformula: theball(hm?)in order thathe maybe given life.' 'Hitting eventual the same as in former scene. unknown, King: legend perhaps Sakhmet: unknown. legend

as a variantof the former. 14. No. 4: Luxor = Wb. III, 93, 12, partly quoted in the Belegstellen a copy from Unpublished; quotedby C. De Vries, op. cit.28,n. I2.' Legendsare heretranslated

I5. No. 5: Edfu,I, 62, 5-I3; pl. I6; Porter-Moss,Top. Bibl., vi (1939), I46 (under 219-20). Mentioned by C. De Vries,op. cit. 29 n. 14. Titleandformula:'Hittingthe ball (hmw).Words spoken: I have bentdown (sdh)2the pupil(im) oftherebel,/N(i)k,3I have stricken before (hwi) itwiththe bik(-staff) you. The iris(df) ofthe Sound like Eye(wdbt)is safeon itsplace,it/is flourishing again(whmf Khepri.' rnpi)

IV before Hathor. KingPtolemy

theiris(dfd)/of W;mmty.Words spoken:takeforyourself the bik(-staff) whichhas grown up (nSd,5 fromthe eye of Re<6(and) the ball (hmw),the iris(df) of He-who-is-in-his-fire.7 I have hit (skr) it

lordof diadems beloved King: 'The son of Re (HeirofEuergetes)l, (Ptolemy, living eternally, ofIsis)j,thesonoftheNobleLady(spst), theboy(s;), theyoungster tears the child who (im),4 (id), in order to make heart theSoundEyes,their /your (as for) rejoice; rageis no more.'

in thedarkness.8 Words theGreat who theEye of Re<, One,/LadyofDendera, spoken byHathor, in Edfu, theEye-which-bestows-brightness oftheMajesty oftheKing,theLiving sojourns (sb4kt)9
Eye (rnht)which is bright (b;k) and safe on its place. Those who have rebelledagainstit, are no in existence.10 Words longer spoken: I grantyou thatyou see (mwlk n) the eye of Rec, /thatyou
to H. Nelson, Key Plans, ibid., no. 218 (east wall), oppositethe former scene. Referring

Hathor: 'I give you youreyes whilebringing thatwhichis hidden youjoy, so thatyou illuminate

damaged); Dendera = no. i6 (formula: Brugsch, Thes. 1398). Other, similartermsused for the destruction of the inimicaleye are, forinstance,wnp(Dendera,V, 67, i [no. In]); ptpt(Edfu, IV, 305, 9 [no. 8]; G. Benedite,Philae, 8I, 13 [no. i8]); npd(Edfu, IIn, 146, 6; iv, 305, 7 [no. 8]); sft, (Edfu,iv, 149, 7 [no. 7]; Dendera, iv, 193, 14 [no. 10]; Dendera, unpubl. [no. 16, king]); skr(Edfu, Iv, 149, 8 [no. 7]; Dendera, unpubl. [no. 15, king]); tfts(Edfu,IV, 305, 8 [no. 8]; Dendera, v, 66, I1 [no. ii];G. Benedite,op. cit.,8I, 13 [no. 18]); dn (Dendera, unpubl. [no. I6, Harsomtus]). 6 Something similaris said about the b;k-oil-not the club or staff, ht-in the laboratory textof the Edfu temple. Edfu, II, 202, 5: 'I bringyou the moringa-oil (b;k), pleasant of smell, fromthe drops (dfdw)of the or oils is explainedin a eye of Re(.' There are otherpassages in which the divine originof certainperfumes similarway, see forinstanceP. Salt 825, 2, 2 ff.; Edfu,III, i85, I5. For the oppositionbetweenthe club of b.k-woodand the ball (also made of wood?), see 29. 7 For imynsr-f, determined cf. the snakename imynsrsr.f in Urk.vi, 63, 21-2 and the prototypes of by VTf, thatpassage wherethe name is different, discussed above p. I14 n. 7.
8 Compare Edfu, I, 233, 14; II, 69, 8; 83, I2. 9 Sb;k t, Wb. Iv, I3-14. Derived from 'to see', ibid. 94, I6-I7. For the simplexbi4(Wb. I, 426, i, found sbrk, in CT see S. 'Le vII, Sauneron, Ig6e) already pretreastronomed'Esna', Kemi 15 (1959), 36-4I, especially ofa rootbk'to see', commonto severalSemito-Hamitic p. 40. Perhapscomparethemanyderivatives languages,

2 Wb. IV, 371, 7. 3 Wb. I, 205, 4; J. Zandee, Death, 295. 4 So similarly Edfu, 11, 228, Ii; III, 140, 5; IV, 113, 13; 305, 13 (here no. 8); Dendera, IV, 193, 13 (here no. IO). 5 Wb. ii, 342, 13-16; also in Edfu, IV, I49, 5 (here no. 7); VI, 313, 7 (no. 9): Dendera, vi, 134, 3 (no. 12;

discussed by A. B. Dolgopol'sky, Yazyki Afriki (Moscow, 1966), 57. Perhaps connectedwith the verb sb4k, 'to makeclear' (Wb. iv, 86) whereasI have translated thewordsb;ktas 'the eye whichbestowsbrightness'. See also above, p. 117 n. 2.
o1 Cf. Edfu, IV, 149, 6 (no. 7): m n wnf. For m n wn, see also Edfu, in, 286, I2.

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I26

J. F. BORGHOUTS

in you,2 ruler.' youaretheir (dg).' Theirlordis embodied

and thatwhichthe moon perceives behold(p(t)r.kn) the eye of Horus, thatwhichthe sun encircles

i6. No. 6: Edfu, III, 348, Io-I4; pl. 82 (here op. cit.29 n. 15; fig.2). Citedby C. De Vries, see also Porter-Moss, Top. Bibl.vI, I35 (97, i).

withher enemy.' mistress (shrc)3 (hnwt)enjoysherself King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt(Heir of the Epiphaneis,whom Ptah has selected, who does thejustice of Re<, the livingimage of Amun)|,the son of Re( (Ptolemy,livingeternally,

Hathor. VII before KingPtolemy thatthe the Mighty the ball (hm;)forhis mother, Titleandformula: One, making 'Hitting

ofprotection.) ofPtah)l, beloved /Euergetes.' legends (Therefollow in Edfu, theEye of Re<,who sojourns of Hathor:'Wordsspokenby Hathor, Lady Dendera, of mistress the the of all the of mistress / library: lady writing, gods,Sfht-rbwy, ladyof heaven, I grant place.' youyourSoundEyes,beingsafeon their
No. 7: Edfu,IV, 149, 4-I50, 2; ix, pl. 87. 17N.

his beingshall be no more! The slaughter-snake is burnt eyes / his gleaming (?sft),6 (d4f), driven has been He-whose-character-is-evil8 cut are / away,his pupil(im.f) up (sft). (?str'ty;fy)7 0 Eye ofR !' has beenhit(skr).Rejoice, you(hrrir-rt),
Similarly: Edfu, I, 233, 7-9; 449, 6; III, 140, 3; 238, 5-6; 268, I6-I7; 316, 8; iv, 8i, 12-I3; 139, 6; 389, 5; VII, I63, I3; 3II, II; Edfu Mammisi, 28, 4; Dendera, III, 142, 6-7; v, 63, II; Philae, II, 287, 2I-2; A. Black-

whichis tornup (nsd). Enjoy yourself Wbr4 (? r-4df)s (hknr-t),0 Lady of Dendera: /theburn-snake

Hathor. VII before KingPtolemy theiris(dfd)/ of takeforyourself Wordsspoken: theball(Qhmw). Titleand Formula: 'Hitting

23. man, The Templeof Bfgeh, 2 Nb.sn a; understand im.k.

3 So similarly or the crocodile: Edfu,III, 257, I3, and 287, 6-7. For in scenes of killingthe hippopotamus thejoy whichthe goddess derivesfromthe playfulrite,compareEdfu, nII,348, I0 (no. 6); IV, 149, 5 (no. 7); 149, 8 (id.); Dendera,Iv, 193, I0-II (no. Io); cf. Dendera,v, 66, Io (no. II) and G. Benedite,Philae, 8i, 13 (no. i8). 4 A common name for Apopis (Wb. I, 295, I ), abbreviated fromwbn-r;,'he whose mouth is widely opened'. s Probablyso, on thestrength determined ofEdfu,vi, 179, 17 (r-d4f by the brazier)and vIII, 21, 15 ('I bring For some otherexamplesof alliterathe as a like burnt-offering'). [determined, here,onlyby snake] you r-d4f and theirobject, see, forinstance,wbd... wbr(Edfu,VI, 179, 17-18; viI, tion betweenverbs of destruction II, 192, 5); nk ... nik Philae, 8x, 13 [no.I8]); npd ... nbd(Dendera, (G. BEnedite, 157, 8-9); ptpt... ptr'ty'fy ... . . nk ... i); np hnp(Edfu, iv, 284, ng; (Edfu,vii, 310, ng; (Edfu,vi, 141, io); ng. (Dendera, iv, 8i, 8); hbt ... hbty ... o0-II; hnty 9; -2; vII, VII, 173, 7); 77, (Edfu, 2; v, 56, Iv, 305, 213, (Edfu, 87, 2); Fnty v, 5; snfty (Edfu, (Edfu,vI, 313, i6; vI, I75, I4-15) snt... sf.-z (Edfu,IV, I49, 6-7); sft... I, 573,I5); sft... sfty
II, 75, 4).
6 7

Perhaps compareEdfu,vII, 12, 14 (a ritualof killingApopis): Written


o '
> \\ s=-

'';

read dsty ? orsftty

to Edfu, citedin Wb.iv, 332, I I as a wordfor'eyes', referring . Perhapsa spellingof styty, the to contain a word seems but Urk. iv, 1466, 7, parallelpassage in 937, stwtyf(y), I, 233, whichis incorrect. withthe verbsty(ibid. our substantive is connected 'the his of has stwt eyes'. Perhaps rays irtyf(y), 15 clearly withtheeyes,see 327, 13-14). Another 332, 4-6) whichperhapsmeans'to shoot' (a glance; for'shooting',sty, in Edfu,IV, I36, 15. Cf. also P. ChesterBeatty is t"z spellingof 'eyes' in whichthe radicalsinterchange VIII, vs. 3, 4 (contextdamaged). Or is our word to be connectedwith a noun probablymeaning'enemies, ' in written Edfu,II, 75, 6? I) ( x"x' strty'w 8 theMiddle Kingdomon (CT vn, 466b), Dw-kd,a commonname forApopis (Wb. v, 547, 22), alreadyfrom or forSeth (e.g. Edfu,I, 483, 8; vII, 265,I5).

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BIBLIOTHEQUE
E. PAROI SUD

(?blb' Ino
......

Qg
L11

de la FriseduBandeau --Inscription

0
..

9l o

--1--

10..
I

2 a3

'

4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~lr,l'

NORD PARIO

PAPOI EST

FIG. 2. Chassinat,Le Temple d'Edfou,III, pi. 82 (no. 6, I6).

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128

J. F. BORGHOUTS

whichnevertheless of W?mmty (sb;kt)4 bringyou the ball (hm)as theeye-which-bestows-brightness in the Land-of-Atum !'8 (There followotherlegends.) the Sound Eye,7theEye of Rec,Pre-eminent I burn the enemyof Your Hathor: 'I give you your rebels,falleninto your slaughter-block.9 Eof R, who sojourns Majesty./Words spokenby Hathor,theGreatOne, Lady of Dendera,the Eye in the Dendera nome (ti rrt),greatof strength-shehas driven in Edfu, the Uraeus, Pre-eminent / repellingthe rebels with her spells.I0Words spoken: be away the one-whose-character-is-evil, of the gods, / defenderof the great ennead!I" I have welcome in peace and stability, protector of face(m hsr overN(i)k, as one fierce you beingmighty (phty k),12 acceptedyour(act of) strength who cuts down the enemies. I slaughter your rebels,/ I drive back those who violatedyour Ar), him who of I the yourroad.' trespasses company(tt) paths, slay i8. No. 8: Edfu,IV, 305, 6-306, 4; X, I, pl. 93. King PtolemyVII beforeHathor. Title and formula:'Hitting the ball (hmw).Words spoken: / take for yourselfthe divine eye

Wordsspoken: oftheLady oftheHill-of-Giving.3 whom theuraeus-goddess the dancer praises, I oftherattle! ofthesistra, the GreatOne, mistress I cometo you,Hathor, /ofthemnit-collar,

who does the justice of Re<, the livingimage of Amin)l, Euergetes,7hywho bestowswater(?),'

whom Ptahhas selected, (HeiroftheEpiphaneis, King: 'The KingofUpperand LowerEgypt

the iris(4ft) You aretheuraeus, the club (m smr ht).6 has beencrusheds /of handling through

withdirectobject)theball (hmt), whileprotecting /yourMajesty,I have (m tsts).I have kicked(khb, or read ntrr*,etc.? For Zwz,'to bestow',see Wb. I, 57, 8. Written ;%Tbs cf. in Dendera,iv, 193, I2-I3 (no. io). n hryt-tp n ljsw biryt-tp; F,rw

itsiris(df)/anditspupil(im)as something battered cutout(mnp_), ofN(Z)k4 as something (ntrt)

3 For 'It-di as a name of the Denderah nome, see Gauthier,Dict. I, 35, 50, 124. For the variouswritings des temples of the name, see Daumas, Les Mammisis (Paris, 1958), 197-8 n. 4. egyptiens 4 For the sb4kt-eye owned by Apopis, see Dendera,iv, 193, 14 (no. Io); Dendera = no. I6 (Brugsch,Thes. (Dendera = no. i6); ntrt (G. B6n6dite,Philae, 8I, 12 [no. i8]); mrt 1398). Othertermsforhis eye are: wd?t (Edfu, iv, 305, 7 [no. 8]; Dendera,v, 66, 9; 67, I [no. II]; Dendera = no. I5; Dendera = no. I6 [Brugsch, see 33). The used fortheeye ofRe' (but forSeth's wd;t-eye, Thes. 1398]). These (and other)termsare mostly of the beliefthat factof theirbeing employedforthe eyes of both opponents,Re' and Apopis, is a testimony both eyes, inimicaland opposed to each other,were of equal terrific power. 5 Hbhbtiir-f;so similarly Edfu,vi, 313, 12 (no. 9). 6 M sm/r cf.especiallyP. Bremner-Rhind, ht.For the pregnant 32, I: sm;r.nfcbfm hib'k, meaningof sm/r, his hornintoyourneck'; see also Wb. iv, 125, I ('to handle'). The ht, 'club', is the ht n bfk, 'he has thrust

thus found in Edfu, iv, 305, 13 (no. 8); Dendera, v, 67, I (no. iI); 175, 4 (no. I7).

vi, 134, 5 (no. 12) and Dendera Mammisi,

7 For Hathor as the iris(df, see Edfu,iv, 149, 11 (no. 7); v, 228, 5; also written dftand dfd)of the wd;t-eye, vi, 3I3, I5 (no. 9); Dendera, 11,48, 5-6; IIi, 138, 8; 146, 4; 184, 2; iv, 77, 9; 252, 5; 267, 8-9; Dendera = no.

157, 9; Dendera, iv, 193, 17 (no. io); Dendera = no. i6; G. Benedite, Philae, 20, 6; 51, 8; H. Junker and E. Winter, Philae, I, 248, 15; II, 7, 20. So similarly of Isis, see Amduat [7] 117, 7; II8, 6; 123, I, 2; I25, 5; Edfu, III, 220, io; H. Junker and E. Winter, Philae, i, I69, 12; G. Benedite, op. cit., 84, 19-85, I; Philae-

I5; Dendera = no. i6 (Brugsch, Thes. I398). For Wedjoyet,see Dendera,v, 86, I. 8 A veryfrequent name forthe Dendera templein Ptolemaictexts,see Gauthier,Diet. VI, 19. 9 So similarly Dendera, vi, 134, I0 (no. 12); G. Benedite, Philae, 8I, z2(no. i8). 10 For Hathor drivingaway Apopis by means of her spells, see e.g. Edfu,iv, 305, 17 (no. 8); v, 57, Io; viI,

vonPhildundKalabsa (AnzeigerWien, Kalabsha hymneditedby H. Junker, Ein PreisderIsis aus den Tempeln
I957, Nr. i8), 269; 271 (line 4); P. Bremner-Rhind 23, I9; 30, 9; 31, I7. " So similarly Edfu, VI, 313, 15 (no. 9); Dendera, IV, 193, I4 (no. io). 12 So similarly in no. i6 (said by Hjarsomtus). Compare Edfu, iv, I51, 2: ssp i nhztkmw'n4ip4ty-k; 306, 3

i nhztk; Dendera = no. i5: sspni. .... (fty-r-k n rcpp;vi, 313, 15 (no. 9): s.spwn ir-n'k [???]); (no. 8): sspn-ird-t In the leftofthisscene(not belonging a to it): same scene: ssp-n'iirw-k column (said by 'Iy). adjoining utmost m'n-'i kn'k. irwk n k;'i. Cf. also Philae, II, 351, i8: dgi'n-iirw-k fsp-n'i

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS


(sh'-t) '3

I29

Praiseto you(hnw theeyes ofthat hacked /one(pfy). nt), 0 lady of rejoicing up (ptpt) (pt(r)ty)' has been slaughtered The slaughter-snake (hy),ladyofpraise (hnt) /withmyknife (hnw)! (hnty)2

whomPtahhas selected, King: 'The KingofUpperand LowerEgypt (HeiroftheEpiphaneis, of the son of Re (Ptolemy, who does thejusticeof ReC, Euergetes, living image Amun)l, living beloved of who the of has taken club with Ptah),Euergetes, / eternally, (ti) (ht) b.k-wood together theball(hm)in his hand,4 (hnr) [whoenjoyshimself (?)]5 as a boy(s;), a youngster (id), a child I havecome/toyou,whoguidetheTwo Landsof(?) himwhois in thehori(im).Words spoken: zon (?), you,horizon-dweller you [.. .]6 thatone (pfy);strong (?) [.....] (? rwd?)is the fury of whose nature is the is butchered8 before punitive (dndn) him, (? hsf ki);7 / enemy you.You are ofherfather thefoster-child about whose life one of her son.'9(There Re(,you, rejoices-because foryoutherebel[s] Hathor:'I ensnare with themagical I slay(shr) /on mymouth.I0 (rth) spells thosethere who wIw im Words the / (nfy) against you(nty conspire k). spoken by Hathor, Lady of of who the in the who bestows Dendera, Eye Re, sojourns Edfu, sovereign brightness (sbrkt) withherform who cameforth from his body," great of (irw),thedaughter /oftheLord-of-All, in the day-bark. Wordsspoken:be welcome in peace,you who execute the magic,pre-eminent ofeyeswith therays ofyour disk.I haveaccepted theslaughter /whoarebright rebels, (rd)which
yourslaves.' I9. No. 9: Edfu,VI, 313, 6-17; Ix, pi. 151. followotherlegends.)

withthe childrenof the inertones (nsw bdsw).2 / you have made withApopis,the massacre(htyt)

I execute I giveyouthefour as (mntyw), (hbi)Nubia for you,I hackup (quarters) (hb7) theBedawin XI before Hathor. King Ptolemy

isf ki Ai ? . For this epithet,see Wb. v, i6, 17: 'als Beiwortrichtender G6tter,im Sinne von "dem Unrechtwehren"', quotingUrk.viii, i i,f and 78, i (Khons); Kom Ombo[76] Io (context deficient). Xi possibly refers to thenature ofthegodin question: 'whosenature is punitive'. For hsf in thissense, see Wb.III, 336, would be conveyedby the participlehsfin the god's name Isf-hr, 'whose 13-i8. A somewhatsimilarsenseh face;o (= h glance?) repels',in CT vii, 428a; 483n. In P. Bremner-Rhind, 32, 31 it is a name of Apopis. In our no. i6 (Dendera) Hathor's epithethsf nt may be translated of front'.In all 'punitive(repelling, terrifying) III by ki, hr,or hnt,the noun not these cases, sfwould be qualified being its object. 8 read hnb(i for )), Wb. , 113, 4. 10 See p. 128 n. 10. 9 I.e. the kingor 'IYy. Ptolemaictextsalwayssuggest'childrenof the inertones', as if the bdswwere a class apart. Earlier,Bdst is a goddess,occurring as earlyas Pyr. 558a. The 'childrenof BdSt' are foundin CT i, 253f(as protectors!); iv [335] CT v, 233; 290/291a = BD 17, Budge 6i, 3; 17, 71, Naville59, iI, vi, 350. From the New Kingdom in manymanuscripts on, writings suggest'childrenof the bdsw(t) ('inertones')', nextto 'childrenof Bdft',see 8o and Budge 74, Introductory Hymn,Budge 2, 8 (Ani); BD 17, 5, Naville II, I8, 33; 24, II, Naville 13; I40, Budge 316, 8; Book of Gates [io] 77.
12

not as 'eyes' in Wb. (but cf. I, 565, I-2 and 3) in Ptolemaictexts,see e.g. Edfu, I, 572, 2; Iv, For ptrty, II n. 265, 3; v, 228, 4; G. Ben6dite,Philae, 81, 13 (no. I8). Gardiner,RdE translated (I957), 52 I1, the word 'beholdingeyes'. 2For the play on words,see above, p. 126 n. 5. ntydetermined by the snake is unknownto Wb. which an entry as a termfor'enemies', as crocodiles(III, 12I, 14). A snake inwty has, however, occurs alreadyin the Book of Caverns[i] 3, 5. In Edfu,vii, 173, 9, the determinative is ,,,and here,as elsewhere(e.g. Edfu, iv, 213, 2) the word simplymeans 'enemy'. 3 For thisword,givenby Wb. Iv, 24, 13 forthe Graeco-Romanperiod,comparethe masculine sf, 'knife', in CT iI, 6ie; 107b; vr,333n; vin,4851; 487h. The same phraseology in Dendera,vi, 134, 5 (no. 12); Dendera no. 15; Dendera Mammisi,175, 3-4 I (no. I 7 7; damaged); Dendera,v, 67, (iIi).. e . 5 Restore VI, 34, 7 (no. 12). [lrrm]s; id im; compare Dendera,pfy, 6 The text gives , ( ?)
239, 8;

eaetc.

" Compare Edfu, VI, 313, 14 (no. 9); Dendera, iv, 193, 16-17 (no. io); vi, 134, 8 (no. 12).

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I30

J. F. BORGHOUTS

King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,lord of the Two Lands (Heir of the Euergeteis, whom Ptah has selected,who does thejustice of Re(, the livingimage of Amin)l, the son of Re<, lord of diadems (Ptolemy,livingeternally, / beloved of Isis)l: I have come to you, the one about

/the Snake(r),' so thatApopis hitforyoutheball(hm), I tearup (nSd)theeyeball (br) of Wbr, one!' is doneawaywith in a as the Golden / One,as a triumphant Appear (rwi) slaughtering.

Title and Formula: 'Hittingthe ball (hm).Words spoken: 0 Golden One, Lady of Dendera, I

in the Land of Atum.' (There follow Noble Lady (spst),the Mistress(hnwt),Ra<et,pre-eminent of legends protection.) Hathor: 'Words spokenby Hathor,thegreatlady,ladyofDendera,the Eye of Re(, ladyofheaven, his body,theEye-which-bestowsfrom ofall thegods,the daughter of Re(, who came forth mistress in peace, 0 strongone (kn), be welcome Sound the of the as4 iris / Eye: brightness (sb;kt), (dfd) I have of the hero(pry-r), (nht); acceptedyour(act of) victory champion(nh) gods [and goddesses]. (sft) Sfth6with your victory joyful for (me)5 / is your power (wsr) since you have slaughtered (phrtyw)9 (bw titi);8 the watchers you strength (phty)in the Place-of-Trampling (m nhtk).71 grant assure /yourprotection.'
20. No. io: Dendera, Iv, I93, 9-I94,

whoselifeone rejoices, without ruler equal. I bring youtheeye(irt)ofhim-whose-eye-is(hkkt) has been crushed(4bhbtiir'f)3 beforeyou. You are the /which nevertheless violent(? khbirt),2

Unnamed King beforeHathor.

2; pl. 30I.

of face,sweetof Wbr,in orderthatit maygive abundantpleasure/to you,'00 Eye of Re(, beautiful enemies!' while heart become loveliness.May your slayingyour appeased (htp ib.t), the son of Re' ([not inscribed])l, King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt ([not inscribed])l, the greatgod, one over whom / the uraeus rejoices! The King of Upper and Lower Egypt ([not is on his seat as a boy (s;), a youngster inscribed])I, (id), a child (im) while chasingaway Nr (?)," the while while / repellingNhk-hr,"2 eye-which-bestows-brightness cuttingup (sft) (sb.k(t))'3 of
For thisindicationof Apopis, see e.g. Edfu,vi, I60, I3; VII, II3, 2; 200, 12. No doubt the snake, r, who of Edfu,is Apopis; forrefs.see E. Reymond, in the cosmogonic the workofthe creator triedto destroy myths The MythicalOrigin apparently (Manchester,1969), 19 n. I; 34; I95, wheretheidentity oftheEgyptianTemple goes unnoticed. 2 Khb irt,followed would be: 'he whose eye should be kicked(away).' translation by 4JWt.An alternative run 'who bends down (and) kicks(away) the in 8) would accordingly The passage Edfu,v, 72, 8 (translated eye', or 'who bends down the one whose eye is to be kicked(away)'. In Edfu,IV,305, 8 (no. 8) the 'ball' (hmt)
is the direct object of khb(for khb,see Blackman and Fairman, JEA 29 [i943], Nowhere has irt a suffixpronoun.
4 m. 0; n for 6 For the

theiris(dfd)of Wordsspoken:/takeforyourself theball (hmwy). Titleandformula: 'Hitting

see p. 126n. 5. Sft-i as a name forApopis is so faronlyknownto me playon thewordssf ... sft-h, fromEdfu texts: Edfu, III, 8, 13; 33, 13; IV, 128, 7; 359, 2; V, 243, I4; VI, i60, I2; 332, II-I2; VII, I8, 9; like 'he whose figure 107, I0; I75, I5; 269, 9; vIII, 76, 7; Edfu Mammisi,148, 13. Could it mean something (? ?) is to be cut up' ? A concretemeaningof h seems not to be attested. 7 Compare Dendera,v, 67, 4-5 (no. 1): hwi'n.k m nht'k. / hftyw'k see E. Reymond,op. cit. 34 (withrefs.)and I07-8. 8 For the bwtiti,'Place of Crushing'(trampling), 9 For phrty, see Wb .1, 548, I8 ('Reisender o. a.'). In Ptolemaictexts,a meaning'watcher','guardian' (cf. Wb. I, 548, I7 and phr hF,ibid. 545, I I and Gardiner,WZKM 54 [I957], 45 n. 7) is oftensuitable. See phrt, forinstanceEdfu,v, 56, 6 (Horus as the hnty I90, phrtyw);I4I, 6 (sim.); i81, 8 (the 14 ka's Inty Wtst-jHr); 8 (kingas hnty VI, 237, 7 (the gods of thenome phrtyw); by q ']); 192, 14 (Onuris as hnty phrtyw [determined wrwhntP-n-Rr); 277, I (Shu). Io Ttff ;wt-ib/r't. of Pe are thephrtyw
II

33 (n. 21); 30 [i944], 19 (n. 40)). 3 See p. 128 n. 5. 5 hntsn(.i).

(?) iw

; 'the terrible one'? See Wb. nI, 277, 9-Io;

CT II, I2of; VI, 320i (next to Hu and Sia); BD 145,

two are namesof gate-watchers); nrwty (not in Wb): CT vI, 377b; Budge 334, 14; 146, Budge 350, 4 (thelatter I3 See p. 128 n. 4. I2 See p. 121 n. i. Book of Caverns[2] 19, 2.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS


ofprotection.) I (Therefollow legends

13I

Ennead.' thegreat a godwhodefends ofthePowers, theheart whofills He is theprotector W;mmty.

of Re(,themhn-snake of thecobra-snake Hathor:'Wordsspoken ladyof Dendera, by Hathor, the rebels with forth from who who came Lord-of-All of the the him, repels / Herakhty, daughter his heart[on theday]whichis of Re<withherheat,whofills theenemy herwords, who burns is/on herplace; theEye of Re<,pre-eminent ofappearances, The UniqueOne,2 fixed.' flourishing whileburning the whilechasing herfather, is protecting in theLand ofAtum, awayhisenemies, her one who is the of is the Wbr. She /through strength, goddess powerful flaming (nsrt), great body ofApopis.' theslaughtering whobeholds
21. No. I I: Dendera,v, 66, 9-67, IO; pi. 369 (surveyofwall); 370 (details); Mariette, Denderah, De n. C'. C. cit. cf. op. Quoted IIn Vries, i6; Porter-Moss, 22, 29-30 by Top. Bibl. vI, (Paris, 1871),

childof Horus the Behdetite, the greatgod ... [lacu/na] ... beautiful, sweet (r; wr),thefirst-born

Hathor and Harsomtus. Unnamed Kingbefore Title:missing. the divine 'Take foryourself of the rebelsof yourfather. Its iris(df),its Formula: eye(ntrt) I it before to is battered in order so thatYour I heart, (tsts). bring you appeaseyour pupil(im) with what ka.'3 herself / approaches your enjoys Majesty theson of Rec([notinscribed]). ([notinscribed])I, King:'The KingofUpperand LowerEgypt oftheEyeofRe<, thedivine in /whostabs(wnp) Longlivethegoodgod,thefoster-child eye(ntrt) the club of in order to hit the ball whofetches who strikes Wbr, (ini) (ht) bik(-wood) (skr) (hmwy), a merry whomakes before andmusic-making ither, dancing /justas shelikes (hwi)herenemies thesonofRe<([notinscribed])l.' of thelordofstrength, follow (There legends protection.) theEye ofRe<,ladyofheaven, Hathor: 'Wordsspoken themighty by Hathor, ladyofDendera, in theDenderanome(t; rrt)-that in the Land of one,pre-eminent is, theuraeus, /pre-eminent therebels as theflaming I giveyouyourdivine Atum-whopunishes goddess (nsrt): eyes(ntrty), the over one their divine nature r)4 prevailing (ntrty polluted (rb).5 May youstrike /yourenemies with victory (nht)!' your thechild,the son of Hathor, IHarsomtus: 'Wordsspoken the greatand big one byIjarsomtus,

84 (41-2).

of the Two Lands, who slays the enemies of her fatherRe(; she is the lady-of-all, the mistress who in of all heaven It is the the One on thehead gods, punishes7 /Apopis (?).8 Unique (hn[wt?])

sonoftheuraeus-goddess in Dendera:I giveyouyour ofloveliness, theyouthful eyes(4hty), they in evil their without in their sound itself interior.'6 /assembling (snbti) place, being toHathor: 'The QueenofUpperand LowerEgypt, theEyeofRe(,themistress referring Legend

thegreat theEye ofRc'. oftheHorizon-dweller, one,ladyofDendera, Hathor,

forthe meaning,cf. Wb. v, 46I, 13. Read [hrw]dmdyt; 2 Wet(as a name of the uraeus): see Wb. I, 279, I. 3 lit. 'your majestyis turquoise-bright m hsfn k._t, withwhat approachesyourka'. Mfk hm-t 4 To take r as indicating comparisonafterntrihardlysuits the context.For this peculiar meaningof ntri r ;h ('misery, ntrti pain') and VII, 266, 6-7 (similarly);Dendera,iII, 83, (not in Wb.), cf. Edfu, Iv, 136, 3: ntrt In the same line is Edfu, III, 195, 4htir hbi; vII, 139, 12-13: wd4t('eye') wdcti,/ snbtsnbti,ntrtntrtir Ah. In Edfu,IV, 292, 7 and Philae, 11,217, I-2 wdrty-ky wd;ti r nfni snbtir mnt('illness, suffering'). 6: wd4ty'ky are freefromfury'.All fromscenes of offering the wd/t-eye. means rather'your two wdf.t-eyes 5 For rbin this sense, compare Wb. i, 174, I4 (as an indicationof the crocodile). For a snake rb,see Ddhr 6 N dw/ ddmd m kb.sn. Statue, 66. 7 Read sswn 2 and in Mariette,Denderah, , 22, (as on the photograph , not wn,as in the printedtext. s n 8 probablythe word ts't of Wb. v, 407, 19-20. ]=,;
12-13; IV, 96, i (sim.). Compare moreover Edfu, iv, 137, 1-3: ntr t ntrtir / ;h, sbrktsb4ktir iht nb dw, /;ht ('eye')

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I32 ducedin fig. 3).

J. F. BORGHOUTS
Unnamed before Hathor and 7hy. king Title theball(km). Words andformula: 'Hit[ting] foryourself the iris(dfd)of Wbr spoken:/take is tor]n !' ladyofDendera [which up.' Be praised,
King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt the son of Re ([uninscribed]), ([uninscribed])l, as a boy(s;), a youngster (id), a child enjoyshimself

22. No. 12: Dendera,VI, I34, 2-I3; pl. 562 (generalsurveyof wall); 563 (details; here repro-

13

Ti : xL.L

f67 6 ^

"-/ g
44t 3

, fi v '^^
,a J-l 3 ~2 10

) /) v~ , lwho 7 (WA /

112

11 1

g A X /J
|

has taken (ti) the club (ht) of b;k(-wood)/ the ball(hm)in hishand,who with together (hnr) thegreat Hathor:'Words one, byHathor, spoken

<.w \ g/ // rl
14

(i

\\

/ v-^ 'J /

! /\\ \\

ofDendera, ofheaven, theEyeofRe, lady lady

\ \

cameintobeinglongago deDendara, Le Temple andDaumas, FIG. 3. Chassinat /as theone who first nhb), as his livingeye(rnht) vi, pi. 563 (no. 12, 22). on the -and she came forth (while) R<. .. [lacuna] ..5 slaughter-block, againstyourenemies.'

ofall thegods, whofirst cameforth mistress [from] Nun for the first(?) his [bod]y(?),2 [out / of] the time(?),3 the Eye of Rec whichilluminates Two Lands with her rays since(?) the child4 (m-hnw opened his eye withinthe lotus-flower on to your earth:I give you the rebel,[fallen]

the noblechildof the Eye of thegreat 'Wordsspoken one,the son of Hathor, by Ihy,6 .hy: at whosesight of thegods and of beautiful the ornaments, / appearance bright Re<, foster-child, in their remain that place.' eyes(;hty) your you rejoice:I grant themistress thenoblelady, 'The QueenofUpperand LowerEgypt, toHathor: referring Legend ofthegoddesses, ofthegods,theelectrum thegold(nbw) ofloveliness, sweet offace, beautiful (drm) thegreat to see her,7 himself turns theEnnead./Everybody Hathor, thelapislazuliamong one, of of heaven!' the of thelady Dendera, Eye Re<,lady toinformation kindly supplied 23. Nos. 13-I5: Dendera, According byProfessor unpublished. arein theinterior ofthetemple: No. 13: 'au troisieme de la paroi twoofthem registre Daumas,8
1

Restoreprobably[]

.x, compareEdfu,I, 62, 8 (no. 5) and vI, 3I3, 7 (no. 9).

? Compare Edfu,VI, 313, 14 (no. 9): s;'t Rr pri m ,; Dendera,Iv, 93 4 3 Re<. (?);read sp [t]py(D-])? nsn,'to rage'? /pri im'f. 5sg I6-I7 (no. io): s't nb-r-dr 6 as the of the his like his is the scene in pupil ce represented being wdit-eye, by explained preset T/hy's motherHathor(see above, p. 128 n. 7) and Harsomtus(no. I ) or Horus the Behdetite (no. 17), e.g. Dendera restore[i

2 Pri m hf.t f/;

( ) pw, Cn.tzu Edfu,VI, 3 8, 1I : rn(~) hrnbr m'-s. On theotherhand, in Dendera,Iv, 169, 2, it is said: rn.t (xc ?) n ptri's,withthe same ambiguousspelling;or does rnhere mean 'to be kind' (cf. Wb. I, I90, I ), so that the latterpassage mightbe translated'it is the kind one, being kind to the one who looks at her(ptr Habu I, pl. 27, col. 3 (now Kitchen,Ramesside Inscriptions, sy)'? Perhaps a readingCntw of Jg in Medinet noun rnwt,'beauty',the lattersupposed by J. Wilson unattested v, 2I, Ix) would explainaway the otherwise (SAOC 12, 22 n. I5a): hr'sncntiitn hr.sn,'theirfaces are turnedaway,the sun being(thus) near to them'? 8 In a letter, Daumas forthe extensiveinformation indebtedto Professor dated 2 July1970. I am greatly givento me.

II, I67, 2; VI, IO, 7. 7 but probably'to turn as 'to be beautiful', (oneself)'is meant; compare (o - ) hrnbr mi's. rnis written

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I33

de la paroiestde la sallehypostyle ouest de la salle F' de Chassinat'; No. I4: 'au deuxiemeregistre G' de Chassinat'. No. 5: 'exterieur du derniertableau', corresfacade ouest, quatriemeregistre froma photograph pondingto no. i6. Here translated (see pl. XXXIX, I).' The emperorAugustusbeforeIhy,Hathor,and Horus of Behdet. the MightyEye,3 in order thatlife Title andformula:/12 'Hittingthe ball (hm)forhis mother, be to him.' may given 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,lord of the Two Lands (Ruler of Rulers,whom King: // beloved of Ptah and Ptah has selected)l, the son of Re<,lord of diadems(Caesar, livingeternally, // in his hand, appeasing who has taken(tpi)the club (ht) of bik(-wood)(and) the ball (hmwy) Isis)l, // the Eye of Re in her land(?).4 // Words spoken: I have come to you, 0 Gold of the gods, Eye of of in the Land of Atum. I have brought Re<,pre-eminent you the ball (hm),the divine eye (ntrt)5
of Atum.' front Thy:// My 'Thy,the greatone, the son of Hathor. //I have accepted your performance (irw-k).6 heartrejoicesby it; and glad is the heartof my motherbecause of seeingit'. Hathor: // 'Words spokenby Hathor,the greatone, lady of Dendera, the Eye of Re(, // lady of the of the goddesses,the rightiris(df) of the iris(-pair[?])7 of the Sound Eye, // heaven,mistress ofherfather, ofthegreatbeetle( ?),8theprotectress sheltering eye-which-bestows-brightness (sbikt) withher rays.' //... [lacuna] . . . him-whose-character-is-bad the greatgod, the lord of heaven,the Horusof Behdet://'Wordsspokenby Horus the Behdetite, lord of Dendera (Int),9 //him of the dappled plumage, who came forthfromthe horizon,the hs opponents(rkywf).// of appearance.He is Re<,who kills// beautifuldisc of// gold, flourishing Words spoken: be welcome in peace, (you) hero(pry-c)in his ( ?)1Owork,power(shm)who over(?),I" because you have cut up Apopis (and) the powers(shmm) Wbr. I have acceptedyourexploit enemiesof the Sound Eye with ... (?) .. .I2 I have given you valour amongthe living(and) the of the greatgod foryourarms.' strength 24. No. i6: Dendera, partlypublished in Brugsch, ThesaurusInscriptionum Aegyptiacarum, vi (Leipzig, I8gII/Graz, 19682), I397-8. Quoted by C. De Vries, op. cit. 30, note 6. Brugschis and Moss (vI, 76).I4 rather vague abouttheexactplace ofthescene'3and so is the Top. Bibl.ofPorter of the scene-it is on the 'exsent me a photograph Daumas-who kindly Accordingto Professor to no. 15. See pl. XXXIX, 2. tableau'. Corresponding de la fa9adeest,4e registre, dernier terieur The EmperorAugustusbeforeThy, Hathor,and Harsomtus. ball Words the Title: // spoken:' 'Hitting (hm).
forwhichI am indebtedto Professor from two photographs I This and thenextscene(no. I6) are translated verticalcolumn)is Daumas. However,theirsmall size and the factthatthe right part of no. 15 (utmostright immaculate not allow an translation. did always partlyovershadowed, 2 // indicatesa new line or column in the original(so farunpublished)text. 3 Wsrt,determined by the eye (Wb. I, 363, 17). 6 4 One expectssome word for'rage', 'fury', seems to give ,. but the photograph
7 5 See p. 128 n. 4.

I havehit(skr) itinfront ofyourperson. You aretheuraeus ... (?)... theliving eyeofthe AT(i)k.

lem in text no. I6 (see p. 134 n. i). 8 9 A; read hpr wr? For R = h, see Fairman, ASAE

as a dual. There is a similar nt (= n) df n wd;t. The second dfis perhapsto be interpreted probDf wnmy

6 See p. 128 n. I2.

Read imy.. ., the compoundperhapsdenotingan instrument (imy-rk?)or wnm> wm. .. (wmt-ib). 13 Ibid., p. I397: 'an eineranderenStelle derselbenWand' (= 'siidlicheAuBenmauer'(?),p. 1397). 14 'Scenes from east side, see p. 75), exact positionunknown.' thiswall (= exterior,
12

10 Read m wnwt-for m kt'f?

9 For thiswriting, see Fairman,op. cit. 252-3 (no. XV).

43 (I943), 252-3 (no. 227).


I' Readfiy-r-k?

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I34

J. F. BORGHOUTS

Formula: // 'Take foryourself of Nik, whichis these irises(dfdnn) of Wbr,the divineeye (nLtrt) tornup (nsd)!' 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,lord of the Two Lands (Autocrator)l, the son King: // // of Re<,lordofdiadems(Caesar, livingeternally, belovedofPtahand Isis)j. [Above King: // 'Nekhbet, the White One of Nekhen']. // Words spoken: I have come to you, protectress (ndtt)of the Winged Disc (rpy),the leader (ssmt),the livingeye (rnht). .. [lacuna] . . . I have broughtto you the ball of W;mmty, which I have hacked up (sfL)exactly before (hm), the eye-which-bestows-brightness you. You are the iris(dfd) ofI the iris(dfd) of the Sound Eye, the divineeye (ntrt)of Herakhty.' in the place of the snake(?),2 the son of Ref himself, 7hy://'Wordsspokenby Thy, pre-eminent the righteye of his mother(?)3.. . the greatone, lady of Dendera.'4 Re, // Hathor: // 'Words spoken by Hathor,the greatone, Lady of Dendera, the eye of Re(, // lady of heaven, mistressof the gods, great of strength, //when she has drivenaway (dr-n's)him-whosecharacter-is-bad the rebels// withher spells,5 the mighty (dw-kd),when she has wardedoff(hsf.n-s) one (wsrt),punitiveof front,6 who originatedat first, the who goddess // spreads fire-spreading fireon the enemies(ntstyw).'7 IHarsomtus: //'Words spoken by Harsomtus,the lord of Hj-dit,8 the great god who sojourns in // foremost one of Hwt . . ., the divinesnake,who shines// as the eye of Dendera, Re( himself, as gold, foremost one of the Dendera nome (tUrrt).// Words spoken: be welcome Rec, who glitters in peace, greatgod9 of the Golden One, who does the wish ofthe eye of Re<! I have acceptedyour act of strength of (phty.k),10 you being powerfulover Nik, because you have cut up the mrt-eye the rebel.II I make your body strongin drivingaway him, who trespassesyour path; the rebels are no more.' The EmperorTrajan beforeHathor and Horus the Behdetite. Title andformula:missing. King: 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt,lord of the Two Lands (Autocrator, Caesar)j, the son of Re<, lord of diadems (Trajan, Augustus,livingeternally)l: / [all] protection, [lifeand proshim is behind as in I Re( have to come (Words spoken:) perity] you, 0 Noble (behind) eternity. in ruler . .. . . I the of have takenIz club / Lady (spst) Dendera, [lacuna] .; (ht) b;k(-wood) and I fetched the ball with I have (hmmw) myhands. have hit(skr)the Evil One (nbd)'3... [lacuna]4 ...;
been omittedafterthe first I Twt dfdnt (= n) dfdn wdvt;has wnmy dfd? The paralleltextno. 15 llas df, Or does the genitiveconnectionpoint to a superlative and wnmy. meaning: 'the iris of iris(es)'? Dfd n dfdis also foundin Dendera,II, 48, 5-6; III, 138, 8; iv, 252, 5; 267, 8-9. Nowhere is the second dfd written as a 2 Read , s;-t ? dual or plural. 3 I diffidently read iri mrmwtf.
4 In does not say anything. Or is he the one who pronouncesthe formulam n'k, 'take foryourfact,7Ihy 6 tHsft-hnt; 5 See p. 128 n. I0. see p. 129 n. 7 forparallels. self. . .' etc.? 7 For this word, see Blackmanand n. Misc. Greg.(Rome, I941), 415 58 (spellingas here: n. 34). Fairman,

25. No. 17: Dendera Mammisi,I75,

2-II;

pl. 49, a (details); 68 (general survey).

Read [-], compare Dendera,vi, 134, 5 (no. 12) and Dendera = no. I5. I3 In some of the Coffin a denomination of Apopis, see vII [I099] 4I4C = BD Texts, nbdis almostcertainly 130, Budge 284, 6; J. Zandee, Death as an Enemy, 208, expresseshimself cautiously('the nbdplays a part like Apophis') and gives some otherinstances.See also BD 39, I6, Naville, ii, o09 (only Lb, othermanuscripts and P. Ryerson,28, 32; 28, 35 (T. Allen, The EgyptianBook of the Dead [Chicago, I960], 122, different) BD 20); 125, Budge 286, 13; Socle Behague [6] g, ii (B, C5). Cf. the nbd nb nrw,'the evil one, lord of pi. smoothsnakes' in CT III, 394 1. 14 The text '; thefirst wordmaybe ph , 'tosplit with as itsobject gives^ open', hr, 'face', (cf.Wb.I, 542,
I2

8 Wb. III, 220, Io; Gauthier, Dict. iv, I64-5. 9 M ; or 'Ihy. IO See p. I28 n. I2.

" See p. 128 n. 4.

'r

12),

but the last word seems to be a name.

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THE EVIL

EYE OF APOPIS

i35

I havehit(skr)foryoutheball arenon-existent. I haveerased /hisname;hiscompanions (smewf) brood I have shot his I have the / victim, (?),2 I haveblindedhis eye!' slaughtered (?)I (hmm), of mistress theEye ofRe<,ladyofheaven, Hathor:'Wordsspoken ladyofDendera, byHathor, offace, beautiful whose ba is powerful,4 thepo[werful all thegods, thesovereigness, (?)]3 goddess, beloved in be welcome the of appearance sweetof loveliness, /splendid peace,my among gods: You aretheimageoftheclubofhisfather. son,imageoftheLivingOne (snnn rnhy), protector athim-and themember ... [lacuna... ba]ll,6 bearer I whokillshisenemies youshoot (hry-ht),5 is slaughtered (m et).' (ct)ofhe-whose-character-is-debased7 thefalcon thegreat the Horus 'Words Horus Behdetite, god,lordofheaven, ofBehdet: spoken by the / forth comes ofdappled sun-beetle sun-beetle, horizon, [who great from(?)]8 plumage, [great] with the two heavens who separates of [his]fat[her, one of the sanctuary theforemost his] (?)9 whencoming whowardsoff theenemyl0 (imyiif).' wings, de Philae (Paris,1893-5 [= MMF 13], 8I, with Le Temple 26. No. I8: Philae= G. Benedite, ofwall).In thetranslation text and given survey pl. 29 (general hieroglyphic ('tableauX') printed Mentioned belowthe linesare rearranged. Top. Bibl. vi, 246 (382-3) and by by Porter-Moss,
C. De Vries,op. cit. 30 n. 17.

that of heart tomake inorder hiseyes(ptrty'fy) glad(with)I3 enemy your (tsts);I havecutout(ptpt) father.' your the LordoftheTwo Lands (Autocrator), King:'(81, xo)The KingofUpperandLowerEgypt, of the is in Sound the House of Re The son son of Re<,lordof diadems (Caesar)l, (Caesar)j.
2

(8i, 13) Its pupil (im)I" in him (imf) is battered eye (wd?t)Iz of Apopis in his slaughter-block.

The Emperor before Sakhmet. Augustus appears thesound takefor Title the ball andFormula: yourself spoken: '(8I, 12) Hitting (hm[?]).II Words

'(as for)Apopis, his mwshallnotbe', whereperhapsthewaterof the Nile is meant rcp(p)n wn mw'f(-_,), done to he is readyto drink?).In our passage, one expectssome mutilation Or which he swims? which (in Apopis. 3 The text nextin a'normal' s bhWt) to be readws... ? But wsrfollows ,; arethetwosignsfollowing gives = b(), see Blackman, JEA 31 (i945), 63n. 27; Fairman,ASAE 43 (943), 225 (no. I7oa). cL~ . For For 6 = s, see e.g. DenderaMammisi, 97, 13 (iti'n-s); i45, 5 (dryns);175, 9 (hs); Urk.viII, I42, line 5 (spd-ti). thanns'tor g (W I ). This would . The first sign is probablyto be read hr (T 28) rather 5s b im'k n 0 'club-bearer',forwhich Wb. (Inr, 395, 12) cites Philae (1175) bringus to the god's name or epithethry-ht, and since the latterpassage Photo 879 and Urk. vIIi, 2g. In both instancesit is an epithetof a warrior-god holy form[tit] of the Golden uses (like ours) the word ?bw,'image' ('the King..., image of [the?] hry-ht, to Montu'), it may be supposed thatin the presentpassage the club [miwd]-he is similar Horus, who fetches whose special weapon is a club. One might some warrior-god as a mythicalhry-ht, the king is represented thinkof Month or of one of the formsof Horus, forinstanceHorus of Letopolis (see my The Magical Texts of PapyrusLeiden I 348, 20I-2). 6 Perhaps read wn [skr'k h]mm, 'when [you hit the ba]ll' ? 7 Hs-kd, a name like dw-kd;see Wb. II, 399, 19 (Seth). = pri m, see Fairman, BIFAO 43 (1945), 129. v8 m S ;h't. Perhaps restore[r'] or [] in which dnl or dmlt, For similarexpressions 9 Perhaps restore[wpi t;wy]m dnhwy;fy? 'wing', is used, see
4

determinative. is basedon thefirst I 4'#1V; thetranslation shed Cf. also Edfu,VIII, 121, hisseed'?A meaning'blood' formwis unattested. .;or 'I have T

I6:

spelling.

Edfu, Iv, 229, 16-230,

precede in all these parallelpassages,thereis no room in the presenttext. " o VD t;(r), see Wb. v, 233, 4-7. As a name of Apopis in Edfu,IV, 27, 6. 1O I3 I2 See Insert (m); compareEdfu,III, 348, Io (no. 6): szrrhnwt m hfty's. p. 128 n. 4.

i; 3I3, 2; VI, 103, 8; VIII, 37, 4-5. For the words rhmor chm fpsy,'noble falcon' which

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I36
he attacks(8i, to his wish.'

J. F. BORGHOUTS
his enemies(hrww.f), while makinga slaughter (rd) with the enemyaccording

whilemaking a massacre thechildren bullwhen of Bdst.He is likea strong Apopis, (h4yt) among
I2)

whilecutting Eye' as a leader(py-r)2in (8I, I I) theplace ofbattle,3 up (wdr)Wbr,whileslaughtering4

outherheatagainst (krht), (8i, 6) thenobleladywhostands up whilesmashing (?)7and sending therebels ofherfather.' Here translated froma photograph 27. No. I9: Philae, Hathor Temple, unpublished. as a skr-hkm-scene inPorter-Moss,Top.Bibl. vi, 251 (9); quoted (pl. XXXIX, 3).8 Not mentioned op. cit.30 n. i8. by C. De Vries, The Emperor before lioness-headed Tefnut. Augustus (ng)to theground(?).'10
the eye (irt) of Title andformula:// 'Hittingthe ball (hm).Words spoken: //(take foryourself)9 is smashed Apopis whichis crushed(npd) beforeyou; the iris(df4) of him-whose-character-is-bad

to Sakhmet:'(8i, 15) Sakhmet,the strongone (wsrt),is in Bigeh in her form Legendreferring when (8i, i6) as the Eye of Horus, theliving[eye(rfnt).. .] while [spreading fire(?)]withtheflame she goes round,while scorching the rebelswiththe heat of her mouth. She is the primevalsnake

therebels whilethefire breaks out against them in a quickleap.'6

of the burningflame, of the House of Flame, who burns mistress one, mistress Bigeh,the flaming him-whose-character-is-evil withherflaming the eye,5 great(8I, 15) flaming goddess,who scorches

Sakhmet: of thefire in the greatone, mistress '(8i, I3) Wordsspokenby (8i, I4) Sakhmet,

I Also in 87, i2; for DecreeL. 6, rt. 59; T. 2, rt. 42; C. I, 38, compareperhaps Oracular Amuletic pr wd4t, cited below, p. I45 n. 9; or is pr herepi, the article?There is also a hwt-wd4Ft: Philae, I, 50, 9; 105, 5 (Thoth in the hwt-wd;t;a parallel passage in Edfu,viii, 136, 9, gives s.t-Rr); 115, 3; Edfu,v, I86, 4; VII, 326, 7; P. Jumilhac, 7, 3; 19, II; I9, vignette;Kom Ombo,no. 463. 2 Not in the Wb., but cf. I, 159, 5 (as a title). Trywithr as its object occurs in Metternich Stela, 5I (tUi.sn n-i r), translated by A. Klasens (A Magical Statue Base, 52) as 'theyled me'; on pp. 70-I otherconclusive examples are adduced forthis meaning(esp. Urk. vi, 135, ii = smh,'to lead', in I35, io). The passage is misunderstood [Copenhagen,1956], 42) read bF, by C. Sander-Hansen,who (Die Texte der Metternichstele 'to renderservice',and interprets the sign of the arm as the pause-sign(followedby H. Brunner,Hierogly[Wiesbaden,I965] pL. 27, left).For the substantive ty-r in our text,whichI have transphischeChrestomathie lated 'leader', see also Edfu, III, 43, I5; io6, 8 (pty-'wy); 132, 6; I35, i8; 243, II; V, I51, 14; 169, 8; vi, 184, 7; 184, 8; 184, 9; 278, I2 (preceded by m); 297, 17 (sim.); 304, II; vII, 73, II; io6, 7; 143, 5; 149, 9; de Kalabchah, 143, 3 (precededby m). Fairman, I54, 8; i62, 3; I64, 13; VIII, I43, 8; H. Gauthier,Le Temple ASAE 43 (I943), 220, reads tmn-r (Wb. v, 367) on the basis of Edfu,vi, 297, 17, wherem precedes,supposing them(which ftm-r mtr-r> (by metathesis) (cf. also the same in BIFAO 43 [I945], 112). Though evenwithout in the few instancesmightbe the m of identity) the sign of the phallus may have the value mtp (cf. Wb. ii, to read tp,a value likewiseowned by the phallus-sign. I75, 5), I prefer 3 R-drt is translated ZAS 77 (1942), 5 (no. 3). Bothquote so also H. Junker, by Wb.(II, 399,7) as 'battle, fight';

me are Philae, I, 29, 17; Edfu, v, 15I, I4; I69, 9; 296, i6; VIi, I57, IO; VIII, 27, 12; I43,
4

wherethewordis determined is(morearm.Whenthedeterminative manorthestriking examples bythestriking be inclinedto render'battlefield'. So also E. Winterin Philae, I (Der groBe over) ET3,as here,one would rather theverbhb,'to treadon', as in Edfu,v, I5I, I4. Examplesknownto Pylon),29 n. 7. This is especiallyclearafter
~ handwritten Wb. I, 404, 7 = Belegstellen, (dm,or mds?)r*pp. pages, 51, rightcolumn,gives Til; j The printedtextgives Q|; probablyemend to , , wnmyt's.
II; Dendera, v, 70, 2.

5
6

6, 6 (A. Massart, MDAIK


7

M tp zh(;)h; P. Geneva MAH the Wb. (v, 291, 12) quotes only Edfu, I, 74, 12. Add moreover
15 [I957],
pl. 33).

15274,

rt.

you in thatname of hers, ((fire))'. 8 This I owe to the kindnessof Professor Derchain. Wb. citesfromPhilae (I I43) Photo 95. photograph 9 Perhaps to be supplied,afterthe analogyof the otherformulations in the scenes. = r tU rather than Wb. ( ) imisn; givesa lacuna after Belegstellen, II, 505 (right) ng ti. 11,348, I9 1O Perhaps

'she smashes may be C-o. Cf. P. Bremner-Rhind, 25, 8-9: sds tnmrn^s pfy/n sd4t, ?)'; the determinative

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PLATE XXXIX

Prof. Courtesy

I. Dendera (no. 15, 23) 23) I. Dendera (no. F5,Daumas F

Dendera(no. I6, 24) Prof.F. Daumas Courtesy


2.

of Hathor (no. 19, 27) 3. Philae,temple Prof.Ph. Derchain Courtesy THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I37

ofUpper andLower lord oftheTwoLands(Autocrator), son the 'TheKing // // King: Egypt, of Rec, lord oftheTwo Lands(Caesar, of beloved ofPtahand Isis).' [Legends living eternally, behind king]. protection her flame.' through shr) Apopis
'Wordsspoken thedaughter of Rc, ladyof theabaton, whoslays // // Tefnut: byTefnut, (sir=

of a ritualscene in a Ptolemaictempleis of primary 28. That the environment forits deeperunderstanding has been pointedout severaltimes.' In this importance smaller units can be in their viewed is in the whattheir function way, proper setting; less clear.2 The Ritualof Hitting the Ball is often scenes,is often greatmass of ritual foundin scenesconcerned withkilling theoryx,3 the or the torcrocodile, Apopis(or and the of of a On the other toise), offering pieces hand,it maybe slaughtered enemy. found'to correspond' is found faceto facewith-scenesofoffering to-i.e., sometimes the wd?t-eye or the wnsb-symbol In 15 of the 19 examplesof our (the 'clepsydra').4 the or beneficiaries can be identified. In 13 cases thisis Hathor,in rite, beneficiary cases and once Tefnut occurs. Hathor be Sakhmet, 3 may accompanied by Harsomtus theking (nos. 11, i6), Ihy(nos. 12, 15, i6) or Horus theBehdetite (nos. 15, I7). Often wearsthedoublecrownor the atef-crown, sometimes the doubleplumesin an elaboratedform (see Tables 2-3). That the beneficiaries are Hathor,Sakhmet, or Tefnut,means that the ritewas enactedbefore thosegoddesses who are hypostases ofthedivineeye.The kingmockoftheeyewhichis thesource ingly playsa gamewiththeeyeofthegreatest opponent oflight, and the of the That most serious with life, order, eye conflict, sun-god. possible is brought to victory the a which catastrophic consequences, ball, by kingby hitting standsfortheeyeofApopis-but eventhiseyeis indicated with whichalso serve terms forthedivineeye,viz. wd4t, and sb.kt.5 If one looksfor a comparable mrt, ntrt, instance, one mightthinkof the Ptolemaicscenes of offering the mnit-collar, whichis often comparedto the testiclesof Seth.6An additionalreason for Hathor's prominence thebeneficiaries which wouldbestsuittheplayfulness among maybe herowncharacter, of the ritualgame. The earliest of the examples (nos. I-4) have no legendswhichexplainthemeaning in but no. the ritual is moreover stressed fact that rite, I (Deir el-Bahari) aspect bythe thekingis assisted two ball The not a sacral is, however, by act, 'prophets'. game only butalso a child-game. The king'amuseshimself as a child'.7 No reference to thegame or to theriteoutsidethisgroupof Egyptian textsis known to me.8
I Derchain, CdE 37 (I962), 31; id. Rites 6gyptiens,I (Brussels, I962), 23 ff. 38; id. RdE 15 (1963), i2. 2 Cf. E. Winter, Untersuchungen zu den dgyptischen der griechisch-r6mischen Zeit (Vienna, Tempelreliefs 3 Dealt withby Derchain, Ritesegyptiens, I. 1968), i5.
4

For the connection withthe eye whichis clear,but stilluninvestigated, see H. Junker, Die Onurislegende (Vienna, 1917), 147 ff.A studyof thisritehas been envisagedby Derchain,op. cit. 27 n. 3. 5 See p. 128 n. 4. 6 Some examples: Edfu, III, I85, I-2; 282, 8; IV, 255, I3; 383, 3; v, 76, 12; vII, 320, I2; Philae, II, 321, I; 7 See p. 125 n. 4. 4; 22; etc. 8 In Edfu, iv, 27, 6, it is said about the king: 'You are the one who thrusts (wdi) his stick(ht) in orderto is put (hwi sdbw)beforethe trr-snake', but it is farfromcertainthatthis refers slay Wbr,so thatobstruction

to theenactment ofa skr-.hm;-rite.


D 141

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J. F. BORGHOUTS of the two eyes,one textconveysanother opposition. Apart fromthe opposition The ball,whichstandsfortheeyeofApopis,is hitawaywitha club said to be ofb.kis identified The b;k-tree wood,'moringa-wood'. byR. Caminoswiththemoringa-tree the exact Whatever of the olive-tree.' thinks C. De Vries while (following Gardiner), since it is forour argumentation, natureof the wood may be is of less importance is used, a for which reason fact that the is onlythe textual. b.k-staff purely Important which is thatit has sprung from theeyeofRe himself (Edfu,I, 62, 9 [no. 5]), an origin its divinecharacter.3 thusemphasizing is also ascribedto the b.k-oil,2 The Topographical ritual in the the ball used The material of 29. gameis unknown. and C. De calls it a 'clay-ball'4 our rite,sometimes when mentioning Bibliography, to as clay.5 referred is actually Vriesthinks thatin one oftheEdfuscenes,thematerial of a disc,piercedby a hole in This is notso. Round,clay-formed objectsin theform but theyseem to in themiddlehave indeedbeen foundin variousplaces the desert,6 withour riteseemsexcluded.Besides,a be of prehistoric originand any connection of the two of the function and if our interpretation would easilypulverize clay-ball in it could be caught, is correct,7 in no. i (Deir el-Bahari) assistants probably priestly therough whichindicate orderto be used anew.This is notcontradicted bytheterms be an to In order of or of theeye,iris, pupil Apopis.8 adequatereproduction handling roundlike been have indeed must the ritual of the latter, something substitute-object circle a has small ball the In no. our rather than a disc. a ball, I2 (Dendera, vi, pl. 562) in themiddle.Is thistheiris,or thepupil? of the ball, but it is a rather the material There may be another way to establish mustbe takenintoaccount of the worditself one. For this,the writings speculative but or hmmw, hmw, hmt, hm, hm;t, hm;, (see Table i). The wordmaybe transliterated
I38
Miscellanies R. Caminos, Late-Egyptian (Oxford,I954), 80; C. De Vries, op. cit. 32, withn. 21. For the is formsof the club (which generally except in no. i [Deir el-Bahari]where it has a wavy form), straight, the ball is carriedin see ibid. 3 I-2. When the actoris to the leftand the beneficiary, facinghim,to the right, 2 See p. 125 n. 6. the lefthand, the club in the rightone, and vice versa. 3 Dr. B. H. Stricker rituals of the in of one the carried the stick that remarks drivingthe calves king by and Blackman see head of a the end shows at one 949), Fairman, 39 ( JEA pl. 7 and Stricker, snake; (hwtbhsw), Nieuwe Reeks 33, 6]), circus van het romeinse Amsterdam, De oorsprong (Amsterdam,1970 [Verhandelingen pl. i and p. 7. The stickis used to drivethe calves whichtreadthe grain,and at the same timeto chase away is intendedto represent certain snakes, hidden in the field. If this snake-stick Apopis, the opposition(if character. intended)stick/calves, or stick/snakes,is of a whollydifferent 4 246 (no. I8). 5 Op. cit. 33. VI, I46 (ad our no. 5); I35 (97, i) (no. 6); 84 (no. ii); 6 See G. i (I95 ), 1er du Fouad de Bull. l'Inst. and Disks 'Perforated Heliopolis Desert, Pot-stands', Murray, more the to refers in Annual the The I95I, (no. p. 576 Bibliography, Egyptological I965) summary 157-60. decorated-of stone,copper,wood, horn,and ivory(none of clay) have been foundin the tomb of Hemaka; some of them,shortstickshad been put. See W. Emery, The Tombof Hemaka (Cairo, I938), 28. through witha stick(cf. Wb. I, 460, 12), best knownfrom Anotherritualball-gameis thatof hitting away bnnt-balls sur les monuments in the Karnak sanctuaryof king Taharqa; see J. Leclant, Recherches the representation diteethiopienne de la XXVe dynastie pp. 68-9 thdbains (Cairo, I965), vol. of plates,47, lower; text-volume, tablets(BIE 37 [session I954-5], thinksthis ritecan alreadybe foundon protodynastic ( I7). V. Vikentiev ritualwithspells in two unpublishedpapyri,viz. B.M. 1956, I46 and n. i). S. Schottconnectsthisparticular undAltertumszurdgyptischen see Beitrdge Bauforschung I0288 (2, i4ff.) and New York(MMA) 35921(26, i ff.), kunde,Io (Wiesbaden, 1970), 60. These spells seem partlyto be directedagainstSeth.
7 See p. 123 n. 4. 8 See p.
125

accessible illustrations in JEA I9 (I933),

pl. 20, i and 25 (I939),

pl. 9. Somewhat similar objects-some

n. 5.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS


TABLE I. The writingof the word for 'ball'

139

Sceneno. I
2

Publication Naville,Deir el B. iv, pi. Ioo 1S Luxor = Wb. Belegst.III, 93, 12 Luxor = Wb. Belegst.III, 93, 12 Edfu,I, 62, 5
Edfu, I, 62, 9 Edfu, III, 348, IO Edfu, Iv, I49,4 4 Gayet, MMF xv, fig. 213

o j.

3 4 5 5
6 7

7
8 9

8 8

Iv, I49, II Edfu, IV,305,6 Edfu, IV,305,8 Edfu, IV, 305, 13 Edfu,
Edfu,vi, 313, 6

L 1 o(?)0 vT
o

10

11 12
12

vI, 313,7 Edfu, Dendera, IV,193,9 Dendera, v, 67, I Dendera, VI,134,2


Dendera, VI, I34, 6

u Q0
u

I3-I4 I5 15 15 I6 i6 17 I7 18
I9

unknown Dendera, wo Dendera, unpublished Dendera, unpublished \\ Dendera, unpublished Dendera= Brugsch, Th. 1397 T Dendera= Brugsch, u-- Th. I398 Dendera vt Mammisi, 175,4 Dendera Mammisi, I75, 5 I 8 , 12 Benedite, Philae, I Philae t.),unpublished (Hathor

theplural needhardly be taken areespecially The Ptolemaic signs seriously. writings


For here,the determinatives of the ball and thoseof the plant(Gardiner interesting. M 2), wood-branch exclusive.Of the first (M 3), or tree(M 34) seem to be mutually there are Ptolemaic of the second there are io. The assumption I2 category examples,

in thePtolemaic is perhaps nottoofar-fetched that scenestheball seemsto be considered to consist ofa wood-species, which be orhmm. Thereis a hm-plantI hm may that which haveas yetnotbeendetermined. Nowit is typical as wellas a hmm-plantz thehmm-plant one of thewritings in connection between reminds a certain (which
I

Wb. III, 81, 2o-I.

Ibid. 95, IO.

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J. F. BORGHOUTS in a magicalspellin theNineteenthno. i7) and theeyeofHorus seemsto be implied with/ Seth for P. Leiden I 348, rt.4, 5-6.' Here it is said: 'Horus is fighting Dynasty 0 R(c, listen to Horus! whichGeb had created. theUnique Bush(bit wrt), a hmm-plant hishead...', That he haskeptsilent is becauseofGeb! (But)Horussuffers from (tmm.f) in aid of herson. The passageaboutthebush etc. In thenextpassage,Isis is invoked whereHorus' eyeis said to be dripping from in of be the understood light others, may a fight. Since in thisspellHorus a bush,2 becauseit has beenwoundedafter evidently in bush this for a are and Seth, both equal opponents, fighting specialmythological of in it. This would had hidden the that Seth Horus it is not context, eye improbable or damaging allusionsto Seth's robbing in the numerous be a new element mythical ofconnecting in theargumentation consists element The speculative theeyeofHorus.3 ofthewordfor'ball'. At thesametimeone withthePtolemaic thishmm-bush writings theparticular as a hiding when that the hmm-bush, object placefor serving argue might the was sacred forthispurpose. be wellfit robbedby Seth,might Perhaps tree-species itmaybe lessimporaboutthis;thatGeb had created is known to him,though nothing from him. Perhapsthe hmm-wood was tant,forall plantsand treesare said to spring and therefore it as a Sethian,i.e., inimical tree-species,4 by the Egyptians regarded of it which out an fabricate reason to with have served represents object good might of the sun-god'seye,who in the late periodwas often theeye ofApopis,theenemy hm.-or witha certain therewas also a connection put on a par withSeth.5Whether is not clear.4To return to our has a magicalconnotation, whichlikewise hm-plant, a further are nottoo unlikely, subtlety assumptions problem:ifthe above-mentioned the is between the would be revealed:on the mythical eye of the really fight plane, be borneout by might planetheconflict sun-godand thatofApopis,on thesymbolic and the the to hitit for the hmm-ball bkf-club the use of two different materials, eye an antithesis. away.They also form
140

face!'Part ontheother-afacesees(another) hrhr, 'One face7 r hr falls mmn Pyr.[228]228a: hrhr cf.Pyr.431a-b; CT vII,94rand98d.9 in CT vII, [885]98d.8 For hrr hr, ofthespellis alsofound
and 77 ff.(commentary). See my The Magical Textsof PapyrusLeidenI 348, I9 (translation) foundin Pyr. 133a, 695a, and BD I74, Budge The dnwor tnw-plant (Wb. v, 575, 5), stillunidentified, 3 Cf. J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Horus and Seth, 28 ff. 466, I0. 4 Cf. n. 117 of my commentary.
2

to the Textsthere are allusions in theanti-snake 30. Already spellsin thePyramid charmer. the of the in some countered of the snake, eye passagesby glance dangerous Relevant to thekingor to his tomb.6 a threat Such snakesform passagesare:

The evil eye of the snake in general

temple are laid: Edfu, iiI, io6, 9-10; IV, 352, I4.
7

of a Texts, II (Supplement), 76-8. Measures are also taken against harmfulsnakes when the foundations
8

s E.g. Edfu, I, 44I, II-i2; VII, 22, 9; 41, 8; 105, I5; 107, io; Urk. vi, 65, II (Apopis) and 12 (Seth). 6 Spells 226-44; 276-99; 375-401; 727-33. The last group is given and numbered by Faulkner, Pyramid

denotesthe glance. In this and otherpassages, hr,'face', evidently Cf. also Pyr. [226] 226b (end of a spell): bhfw pnr mi tw Rr, 'O snake, turn round-ReC sees you!' of an inimicalcharacter 9 In a friendly are, sense,hrr hr is foundin CT in [170] 39d. Similarexpressions ibh (r) ibh,P. Turin I993, vs. 4, 4 (Pleyte-Rossi,136, 4); r r r, ibhr ibh,P. ChesterBeattyVII, rt. forinstance, 7, 5; db r db / krhr kch,P. Med. London [45] 14, 6-7; cf. nn r nn,ibid. [43] 14, 3.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

14I

(n ggfn) NN!'

second instantof his seeing NN (sp snnwn mu-fNN), at the second instantof his looking at

him!/At the NN; NN did notgo against Pyr.[230]232a-c: 'He' is theonewhocameagainst

'A face is on yourface,20 you on Pyr. [234] 238a: hrhr-k hr(y) ritf,hi? hr(y) ts-k,imyn;wt-f, coil Come down 0 on in bush!'3 Cf. (?)! your yourback, you your [389], citedbelow. z imy ststi 'A face is on you,20 you in yourbushimyn;wt-f, !tpktf, Pyr. [240] 245a: hr hr-k you are laid down, 0 you in yourhole!' si tw r wr,'O evil-doer, si-ti,sitt, hr-k ir-ti, hfik, Pyr. [280] 421 a-b: ir-ti, (?),4 evildoer,creeper, behind of face the creeper!(Put) your you5-beware greatdoor!'6 nf, '(direct)the face to the road7-eye of NN, don't Pyr. [288] 429b: hr hrwit irtNN m dga'w look at him!' In Pyr. [297] 44od, the goddess Mafdetstrikes the snake's face and scratches its eyes. It is said thatits(the snake's) mother Nut sees him; in CT vII [885],95u, thisis coupledwith'the blind one snakesis well known guardsyou'. Here the blind god of Letopolis is meant,whose role in fighting in mythology.8 0 you in your hole! /Lay yourself Pyr. [389] 682 a-f: 'a face is on you (hr hr-k)2, down,90 god who is in it,IobeforeNN! /NN is the greatmaiden." /When NN looks (rm), he does not live; / whenthe face of NN fallson him, his (the snake's) head is not raised./ O sriw-snake, glide away; bush-inhabitant (imyn;wt), turnyourself!' Similarpassages are foundin Coffin Textsspells directedagainstthe rrk-snake: CT v [376], 39a: hr ir-ty wr, hkti .hrk,'The eyes of the great one'2 fall down; your view is obscured.'13
2

The snake. In this and othercases one mighttranslate 'on yourface', but probablybr hr-k is ellipticalforhrFr hr'k, 'a face falls down on you'. Cf. Sethe, Jbersetzung und Komm.I, 2o ('Ein Gesicht ist auf dir'); Faulkner, PyramidTexts,56 ('my eye is on you'); discussionin Klasens, A Magical Statue Base, 8I ('a face is on you'). 3 Cf. P. Turin 54003, rt. 9 (imynrytf).Comparableexpressions are CT Pyr. 245a (sim.); 679e (imynwwt); vii, 97t (tpybitf) and v, 39d; 4oh (imysmr.f). 4 For this word-not in Wb.-see Pyr. 668a; Io99ab (and E. Edel, Gr. 247); CT vII, 95c (nowhere Cf. also ir (determined[?] by the snake) in Neith, 4 = Pyr. I76Ic (Faulkner,Pyramid Texts, determined). as a suffix in I, 258). II, 15; but translated *f 5 Pyr. [380] 668b has: rd-k h'k, '(put) yourleg behind you!' 6 R wr is not determined in the fourextantOld-Kingdom versions(W [dual: ry wr(wy)], T, P, and N, r suggests 1055+6). The same phraseoccursin CTviI, 95Y; heretheideogram-stroke a substantive. following In Pyr. [553] I266c, in a spell forthe king's tomb,the door--r-is said to be sealed with two eyes which evil intruders, mustward off like snakes. Therefore, r may here mean 'door'. Cf. also Sethe, Oberevidently und Komm.II, I85. In [380] 668b, one finds, setzung however,s;w twwr wr,'beware of the twicegreat!' 7 Said to thesnake (= look down,not at theking-so also Sethe,op. cit.202) or to theking(keep to theroad, don't look sideways)?Cf. P. Mag. Harris,vs. i, 9-Io, cited below, p. 143. 8 See my The Magical Textsof PapyrusLeiden I 348, Excursus II. 9 Read s_ts tw,cf. Sethe, op. cit. III, 248 and Faulkner,PyramidTexts,I, I28. 1o 'm's; in the hole, tpAt. " Sethe,op. cit. III, 249, pointsto the hwnt wrtAryt-ib Iwnw (Pyr. 728a - 2002a); hereit mightbe Hathor, Mafdet.Cf. P. Bremner-Rhind, Nut, or perhapsrather 28, Io: 'you (Rec) have slainthem(thebroodofApopis) with the striking-power (m ft; or 'in the moment'?) of the great maiden (hwntwrt)'. In Dendera, I, 96, 6, hwntwrtmeans 'great lioness' (Wb. Ii, 56, 2) and this is exactlythe form(stf) in which Hathor kills Apopis. 12 Wr is here determined bearded man (A 40). In CT iv, I I7a two versionshave wrw(deterby the sitting mined in the same manner),'greatones', as againstnrww, 'smoothsnakes',of the thirdversion.For the substantivewr as a termfora snake-not in Wb.-see also Book of Caverns[3] 32, 7; 33, i; 33, 6; cf. [4] 42, I forwrd-ib). (wr [determined by the snake]-ib,incorrectly I3 .Hty, Wb. III, 35, 4.

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142 with face as a leopard.'2 your

J. F. BORGHOUTS

CTv [379], with human /youlookat me 43 a-b: 'You go out and youenter eyes(mirty rhyt);'

tspr, 'your ofyour b4ht'k white versa.' pupil (?)3is the eye (?)4-andvice

An obscure in a spell,directed therrk-snake, in CT vII [885],97e,runs:rpwt'k against passage

has already (44), Naville II, 403 = Budge 372, 14, 'lames with its eyes' (gb; m irty.fy) 66, a snake m,, 'seer', occurs.'2

It is surprising thatmagicalspells directed and snakeshave very against scorpions n. fewreferences to the eye of the latter 4 and 6). It would be (cf. above, p. II9 to knowwhether snake-charmers and howtheprofessional ancient interesting Egyptian did be that tookmeasures the of the so, might snake; they against glance dangerous from inferred someofthepassagescitedabove.Pending thepublication byS. Sauneron of a papyrusin the Brooklyn Museum whichmay prove to be a snake-charmer's the to such a personknownto me is on the Turin reference manual,5 only possible the glanceof the and does not mention Stela 48, and herethe textis hardly explicit snakeat all.6 and in shortdescriptions 3 I. The poweroftheglanceofthesnakeis also reflected the in specialnames.There is, forinstance, a snakenamedy (determined eye) in by Nt 720)8 = CT vii [885],95g,a snake Pyr. [285] 426b.7 In Pyr. [73I] (N 1055+65 is mentioned.9 In the Book of Caverns 'starer', [2] I, 5 a snake,calledNs.y, is iggw, who in BD I49, 9 The as htm 'whose are qualified eyes irty, destroying'.Io rrk-snake in Amduat beenmentioned [ii] 180,2." In DdhrStatue, ( 6), as wellas theptry-snake

The evileyeofother beings oftheeyeor glancein ancient thesnake Egypt parexcellence, Apopis.The evilcharacter the is This sometimes also attested withdemons, and human is,however, gods, beings.
2

32. All the materialpresentedso farbears on the malevolentglance of the snakeand

For therhyt, see 33.

is an often cited example of fury(Wb. I, 7, 13).


3

M ;bw in two versions;m s?bw in the thirdversion,all wordsdetermined by the skin(F 27). The leopard Perhapsrpwt, (Wb. III, 53, 21-4) and twt 'lady' or 'woman's statue'is hereused in the same way as hwnt

(ibid. v, 256, 13-I4). In Edfu, I, 394, o0, rpwt is the name of the wd4t-eye. 5 See Brooklyn Museum Annual 8 (I966-7),

4 The substantive b;ht-not in Wb.-is also foundin Hekanakhte Document [2] rt.3 and in P. Turin 54003, rt. 21; vs. 13. I have followedA. Roccati's proposal'bianco degli occhi'. 6

90-I;

(Wb. iv, 327, I4); cf. the verb sty (Wb. Iv, 332, 4-6). " See p. 12I n. 4. 12 E. Jelinkova-Reymond, Djed-Her-le-Sauveur, 29 and 34.

As an alternative to Piankoff's 'Nechai dont les yeux sont detruits' (p. I7). But perhapsthis qualification of the snake's eyespointsto the flames whichissue from them.This is probablythe case withthe beingstym 'who shootswithhis eyes,withoutbeing seen' in CT iv [335], 307 b-c = BD 17, Budge 63, 7 irt,n mwntw-f,
10

9 For the meaning, see E. Edel, ZAS

8 See Faulkner,PyramidTexts,iI (Supplement),78.

L. Keimer, Histoire des serpentsdans l'tgypte ancienne et moderne(Cairo, 1947), 22. 7 Wb. I, 36, I6; cf. also A. Roccati,Papiro ieratico n. 54003, 31 note d. 8i (1956), 17-i8.

See A. Erman, Denksteine aus der thebanischen Grdberstadt (Berlin,1911),

I02;

Io (I968-9),

III-I2.

I06;

B. Gunn,YEA 3 (1916),

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I43

rolein everyday butit is also attested with 'real' evileyewhichplaysan important life, in v Thus a demon with an evil is mentioned CT in nether world. the glance beings citedin 5): 'You shallnotsee me withyoureyes/ by meansof [454],324 c-i (partly whichyou see from / and look at the evilyourknees.' / Turn yourfacebackwards doersof Shu /who comeafter yourhead,in orderto cut off you/in orderto chopoff So the demonsof Shu will yourneck/ as an orderof him-who-turns-with-his-eye.' evil the whose threatens the demon maybe glance speaker2-Shu himself overpower In P. Leiden 1348,rt.7, 3, a demon section. in thepossession oftheevileye,see thenext is a as 'bad of face'.This entailsthe meaningof endangering patient qualified dw-hr, is afforded hr in suchpassages, butbecauseprotection bytheeyeof Re( (rt.6, 6; 7, 7), as a reference to the evil glance,not to the we are probablyrightin takingdw-hr In an earlier oftheface.3 a smh-demon is passagein thatsame papyrus, repulsiveness ofthewordis unknown, mentioned butit is determined by (rt.2, 3); theexactmeaning in thata verbwithsimilar theeye(D 6) andthere is somechance found Urk. is meaning vi, 133, 5.4 In P. Mag. Harris,vs. i, 9-IO it is said to a wolf: 'Don't put yourface shouldyouputyour face!Don't /putyour facetomy (hr)onme-but onthedesert-cattle other isolated path-but on another (path)shouldyou put you face!'5 There are many to demons with a piercing eventrying tohidetheir face.7 glance,6 passageswithallusions thegodswhoseeyeis feared, Sethseemsto be themostprominent. 33. Among Yet, from thepassagesin whichhis eyeor his manner is mentioned, of looking one cannot thathe possessesthe 'evil eye' in its usual sense of a permanent dread, alwaysinfer terrible for humanpersons;Seth'seyeis bentuponevilamong thegods,as mayappear the following from theNeshmet-bark, the earliest passages.In the RitualofProtecting versionof whichdatesfrom the Ramessideperiod,8 it is said: hrhrhrk,m nw r hIt, the bad worm, I-5, itis said abouta demon:'He is likeSeth,thedisturber, /the snake, the one who comeswitha furious the waterin whosemouth face,/ his eyes / is fire, marked to do /great I inorder an irreverent mischief...' This fits rather (?) withdeceit, than an evil glance. In Urk. vi, 133, 5-6, Seth's look and intention are likewise
J. Zandee, who has commentedon the passage in NederlandsTheologisch Wageningen7 Tijdschrift, who has eyes in his knees(ibid. n. I). (953), 195, pointsto the god Hormerti 2 See p. 118 n. I. 3 Cf. dwdw-hr and dwdw-tp, said of Apopis ( 5). 4 Srh or smh, see n. 29 of the commentary of my The Magical TextsofPapyrusLeidenI 348. 5 H. Lange, Der magische PapyrusHarris (Copenhagen, 1927), 85. For the terrible glance of the wolf in the Harris passage, cf. Amemenope, 12, 18-19. 6 Cf. for instancethe demons who are mds irty,'piercingof eyes', in Edfu, I, i66, i6; 176, I2; I89, 9 'Que mon (guardiansof Osiris); P. Leiden T 32, 6, 9 (OMRO 37 [1956], 56); J. Lieblein, Le Livre egyptien nomfleurisse' (Leipzig, 1895), iv, I4; LXVIII, 5, etc. 7 See n. 436 of the commentary of my The Magical TextsofPapyrusLeidenI 348. 8 Theban Tomb no. 7 (Ramose), included in the recent editionby J.-Cl. Goyon, 'Textes mythologiques I. la barque du dieu', Kemi 19 (1970), 23-65. Le Livre de proteger 9 J.-C1.Goyon, op. cit. 29, 6-8 = [152], 6-8. In P. Turin 1993, vs. II, 8-9 (not in Pleyte-Rossi)a demon dd-kssmw),after (Seth?) is addressedas follows:'or will you relate(certain)matters (m-ri-pw you have raised have uncovered have gone out,have looked(mf'-nk), and smelled(hmnwn yourself, yourself, k) to thedetriment of the life,well-beingand sanityof Osiris . . .'
10 E. Chassinat, 'Les papyrus magiques 3237 et 3239 du Louvre', Rec. Trav. I4 (I893),
"

'Fall down on your face don't look at the corpse' (of Osiris).9 In P. Louvre 3239,o1

iw irty.fy inh n (= m) grg; so also a parallel in the Hibis Temple.

10-I7.

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an (anonymous)divine eye are Similar names mentioning ;ht-'mn-(m)-ipt-irw.'4


See note 4 on page 143. G. Posener, Ostracahieratiques litteraires de Deir El Medineh,II, 2 (Cairo, 1952 [DFIFAO I8]), pl. 48. 3 In the latter is formed to not 'hand', but 'testiclesof Horus', so thatan antithesis text,Gardinerrestores the blindingofthe eye of Seth. This is followedby H. Te Velde, who (Seth, God of Confusion [Leiden, 1967], 57 n. 3) arrivesat the conclusionthatin thispassage 'the symbolshave changedowners'.The solutionmaybe simpler. 4 For the occurrence to the eye of Apopis, see above, p. 128 n. 4. of the termwditwithreference s Ibid., rt. I I, 7: dfrirthdtbrcti in thisway, one might of the words is correct m ht-f. If the arrangement refer to Seth's in Could this his translate red of the white eatingthe seed of belly'. 'being eye, (eye?) rising Horus which,when called up, left his ear as a disc (P. Chester BeattyI, rt. I2, i ff.)? Perhaps a similar rednessis ascribedto the Sethianman: ir s dSr[. .] in rt. II, 5. Or is he red-haired? Accordingto Posener the the 'red means evil 8I n. 2) eye. (JEA 35 [1949], eye' always 6 For a discussion,see Gardiner,Ancient I (Oxford,I947'), 98* ff. EgyptianOnomastica, Document 7 P. ChesterBeattyIII, rt. II, 3 and 11, 8 (cf. H. Te Velde, Seth, 112); cf. also Hekanakhte [10o] are associated; vs. 8. Perhaps also in CT v, 129b,wherecertainparts of the boat and the hps of the nb rhyt forthe hps of Seth, see H. Te Velde, op. cit. 86 ff.Gardiner(HieraticPapyri in the BritishMuseum,IIIrd Series, I [London, 1935], 20 n. 4) cites an earlieropinionof V. Loret about Seth and his associationwiththe but I have been unable to tracethis. rhyt, 8 Unless one takes Seth's exampleof the power of standingvis-a-visApopis in the sun-boatas an indirect his eye (see i). Cf. moreover MedinetHabu, 11,pl. 82, col. 36 (= now K. Kitchen,Ramesside Inscriptions, v, 63, 13-I4): iwf m-s;n mi Sth hr si pi sbi (determined by the snake), 'he is afterus like Seth seeing the enemy'. 9 For these,see M. Guentch-Ogloeff, BIFAO 40 (1941), II7-33. 'Noms propresimprecatoires', 10 H. in Demotic, I (Gluickstadt, Personennamen, 1935),42, I I; 42, 12; also frequently Ranke,Die dgyptischen cf. W. Spiegelberg, 'Der Name Inaros in agyptischen Texten', Rec. Trav. 28 (I906), I97-20I.
2

the proper name irt-n(t)-Hr-irw.Io Similar names attestthe power of the eye of Amin: or of Amenemope: irty-7mn-irw1"and iht-Imn-rw,I2 of Amen-Re<: irt-Jmn-rC-irw'I3

J. F. BORGHOUTS I44 characterized by the wordgrg: 'you have glanced(?)' at the god's mother / while her a in service a deceitful manner.' On the other the of hand, promising eye Seth is bad in Edfu,II, 206, 14; 207, 13; 208, i, and in Ostracon Deir spokenof as something el Medineh I213,2 rt.6-7, the eye of Seth occursin a threat:'and I shall cut off the hand of Horus, and I shall blindthe eye / of Seth'; partof thisalso in P. Chester V, vs. 6, 2-3.3 In Urk.vi, 137, 3, Seth is menaced:'Your eyes(wdatyky Beatty !)4 are ofthe Sethianman in blinded, yourarmsare broken.'It is a pitythatthedescription P. Chester 'redofeye'5 and themanIII is so lacunose;butSethis calleddsrirt, Beatty a of itself stock to the species originally non-Egyptian people6whichis belongs rhyt, one oftherhyt-like sometimes withSeth.7This reminds associated eyeswithwhicha in demonis credited cited The in the Coffin-Texts 30. eyeof Seth is always passage irreverent or malevolent, and, as far as the evidencegoes, nowhereused to avert influences.8 This is notthe case withotherdivineeyesto be feared;many dangerous of themoccurin proper tendto protect its owneragainst and they names,9 (r==,ir=) forceappearsfrom 'them',i.e., the enemies.That the eye of Horus has a destructive

Ibid. 3, io. Especiallywas Amun of Napata renownedforhis fierce glance: in BD I63 suppl., 10, Pleyte, nb widtybsi dfd,'the bull, the he called is pi. kr pr bzprr I-2) 413, Chapitressupplementaires, 56 (= Budge beetle,lord of the wd; t-eyes,fierceof iris'; perhaps cf. also P. Brooklyn47.2I8.156, 5, 5 (S. Sauneron,Le de Brooklyn illustre [New York, 1970], pl. v; p. 28, note nn). Papyrusmagique
12
13 14

11 H.

Ranke, op. cit. I, 42, 14.

H. Ranke, op. cit. I, 42, 9.

Ibid. 3,

I.

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I45 rnht-rwI and the manynames containing the wdrt-eye, wherethe verb st4is used:2 In P. Turin vs. a demon st;-tt-wdjt.4 finds himself with i25 st-wdtt,3 4, I993, provided the name wd4t-r.k. More evidence comes, however,fromthe Oracular Amuletic afforded the wd4t-eye,7 Decrees.6 Here protection is often 'duringone's whole against is 'controlled' The ominouswd_t-eye who is lifetime'. (sip)8 by the 'baboon' (irnw)9 Butnext in somewaywith'theplaceofthewd4t-eye'.IO tothebaboon,there connected is who'controls'(again the in also mention ofan 'ape' (gyf) and one instance sip) wd4t-eye,II withits place.12 This maybe an accidental forelsewhere the is also connected error, mound or connected with a or controls is So the two (ilt, iyt).'3 sanctuary 'ape', gyf, but their is a to a certain The baboon are interchangeable identity problem. degree,
I

THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

H. Ranke, op. cit. I, 62, 25, readingrcn irtr'w, 'es lebt das Auge gegen sie (?)'. with Interesting Names. The Evil Eye in Egypt',(PSBA 38 [1916], See Gardiner,'A Shawabti-figure
Ibid. I, 323, 5.

129-30), 3 H.
4

W. Spiegelberg, Ranke, op. cit. I, 322, 26, readingstp-irt, following op. cit. 15I.

I30;

W. Spiegelberg, 'Der b6se Blick im altAgyptischenGlauben', (ZAS

59 [1924], I49-54),

152.

L. I, rt. II; L. 6, vs. I4; L. 7, 16; T. i,-rt. 68; T. 2, rt. 75-6; T. 3, rt. 36; P. 2, rt. 24; P. 3, rt. 25; C. I, in which irtis undeteris > or 0. It is onlyfoundin the formirtwd4t, 29; Ph., D, 12. The determinative see vol. I, 2 n. 9 (II). One must reckonwith the possibility that mined; fora discussionof the expression,
7

s Pleyte-Rossi,Papyrusde Turin,136, I2. 6 I. E. S. Edwards, HieraticPapyri in theBritish Museum,IVth Series: OracularAmuleticDecrees of the Late New Kingdom,2 vols. (London, 1960).

withthe evil eye at all. irtwdrtis some particular eye-diseaseand has no connection which elsewheremostlymeans 'to inspect',see Edwards, op. cit. I, 54-5 8 For a discussionof this term, 'to avail n. 49, who translates 'assign'. I have rendered'to control'(whichmayimplythe sense of assigning), over' (cf. Wb. Iv, 35, i6).
T. rt. -3;T. rt. 2, rt 4-2;. 3, 55-6; C.., 37-8. In T. i, the determinative is again . In T. 2 and

If my assumptionthatthe gyfis anotherformof Thoth (see below, p. 146 n. 2) is right,the sanctuariesor mounds could be those assigned by Thoth to different gods-while theywould be protectedby different whichThoth made according/to demons. In Edfu,vi, I81, Io-II thereis mentionof a 'copy of the writing a summingup (Ssr) of the mounds(irwt)of the primevaltimes, thesayingofthesages (d4isw)of the Mht-wrt, mentioned it is called' (the same book is quoted in Edfu,vi, 326, 1-2). 'Gods of the mounds' are, forinstance, local numina) and in P. B.M. 10569 (R. and othertypically in BD 141/2, Budge 3I9, 12 (among field-gods the iLtsis Faulkner, An AncientEgyptianBook of Hours [Oxford,1958]), 14, i8. The materialconcerning aspect of the mounds forthe common Egyptianwas probablycaused by the demons veryrich. The fearful cf.my TheMagical TextsofPapyru sacredplaces likemoundsand sanctuaries (fora fewreferences, defending the wdrt-eye would be comparableto a certaindegreewith Leiden I 348, 54 n. 48). In thisway, controlling of popular imagination. the evil powersin sacred places-all againstthe background controlling

in T. I, rt. 101-2; P. 2, rt. i8; P. 3, rt. 29-30, but 'mound' in T. 2, rt. 41; C. I, 36; Ch. 8i and Ph., D, 4.

C. i the wordwditis, remarkably enough,determined by the articlepi. This may be forpr, 'house' and since On the otherhand, thisis actuallyfoundin L. 6, rt. 59 (see n. 12, below) Edwards translates pr accordingly. or masculinein Late Egyptian(and earlier), 'boat' (fem.: Wb. I, 234, certainnouns may be feminine e.g. fR6, Letters, 46, 6); rt, 'plot' (masc.: P. Valenay I, vs. 3; P. Anastasi v, 27, 4; Late i5; masc.: Late Ramesside Administrative i I, I; I I, 3); iwrt, Ramesside (masc. in Ramesside Documents, 8I, I i-or rather Letters, 'gravity' words in the dual are sometimestreatedas masculines,e.g. irt, 'eye', infinitive?). Thirdly,certainfeminine 'Une in Late Ramesside 1I, I and i, 3, as well as drt, 'hand', in Horus and Seth, I I, 7 (cf. B. Stricker, Letters, all these involve AcOr could examples meconnue', 21-5). Though cross-reference, 15 [1937], they orthographie ? pr wd;t: 'the pair of wdrt-eyes' perhapsserveto supporta thirdpossibility-to translate 10 St n wd4t, P. 3, rt. 30; Ch. 82. " T. 3, rt. 54-5; but after withthe same function. this,the irnwfollows, 12 Pf gyf n t; s't n pr wd;t,L. 6, rt. 59. If pr = pr, 'house' (and not the articlepr, as often;see above, n. 9), one may comparethe pr wd4t (and zwt wdft)cited above, p. 136 n. i. 13 For a discussion see Edwards,op. cit. I, 54-5 n. 49. 'Sanctuary'seemsto have been meant ofthisdifficulty,

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146

J. F. BORGHOUTS

for.2 mightbe Thoth,' whichleaves his colleagueunaccounted They can hardlybe identicalwiththe 'two baboons' (zirnw), Khons-wn-nhnw namely ('who is youthful') and Khonsp;-iri-shrw the destination') to theright and to who are sitting ('who fixes the leftof Khons-in-Thebes-Neferhotpe.3 As has been seen,in CT v, 324f(see 32) theevileyeoftheexecutioners of Shu is mentioned. The eye of Shu himself occursin BD I54, Budge 40I, I0: 'I shall not because of the of Shu.' perish eye On thesouthwall of thesanctuary of Taharqa at Karnak4 thereis a representation of the fourgods Dedwen, Sopdu, Sobk, and Horus beinglifted on a tst,'knot',by a and theDivine Votaress.5 Each of themis accompanied that priest by a legendsaying hisslaughter and with about the two 'he makes (rdt.f) brings misery eyes(?)'. (iryf snw) The absenceof a suffix which is at in least clear the pronoun publishedcopiesof the is noticeable, and thiscastssome doubtsupon themeaning texts6 of the lastwords.7 Translators but at is in least adduced this sense by H. hesitate,8 generally Sopdu Bonnet.9 Less specific is a passagein theso-calledIsrael stelawherethe protection of is assured the of the of after all 'the of is by Egypt power eye gods: eye(irt) every god her(Egypt's)robber.It is she who shallcarry of her the end enemies.'I away theevileyecouldbe afforded 34. Protection against byseveral gods. Some ofthem also 'assign'theevil eye. In P. Anastasi to Thoth: 'O III, rt. 5, 4, it is said in a hymn and I shallnotfear to a theeye' (irt)." According Thoth,you shallbe mycompanion, stelaintheMusee Guimetl2 affords Sakhmet herprotection the From evil against eye.13 as well as Amfn,I5 propernamesit appearsalso thatNeith'kills'(hdb)the evil eye,I4
So Edwards, op. cit. I, 54 n. 49. Could thegyfbe anotherformof Thoth? This mightappear froma singlepassage in P. B.M. 10569 (R. Faulkner,op. cit.), where(in 22, 4) Thoth is called irnw gyf,'the baboon and ape'. Icnwand gyfare named nextto each otherin an incomprehensible spell in Ddhr Statue,91. In the Demotic Mythusvom Sonnenauge the texthe occursas (ed. W. Spiegelberg,I917), 22, I2, thegyfis perhapsthe son of Thoth, whilethroughout of Thoth himself a personification (as pi smn wnsn kwfor simply pi kwf). 3 L. I, rt. 2 ff.; L. 6, rt. 63 ff.;T. i, rt. 54 ff.;T. 2, vs. 86 ff.;P. 3, rt. 90 ff.See G. Posener,'Recherches sur le dieu Khonsu (suite)', pp. 401-7 in Annuairedu Collegede France 68 (1968-9). 4 See Porter-Moss, Top. Bibl. II2 (1972), 220 (15). 5 See recently surles monuments thibains de la XXVe dynastie diteSthiopienne J. Leclant,Recherches (Cairo, I965), vol. of plates: 48, text-volume: 69-70, withbibliography. 6 E. Prisse d'Avennes,Monuments egyptiens..., etc. (Paris, I847), pl. 32, I (reproducedin J. Leclant, op. in W. von Bissing,Denkmaler Text (Munich, 1914), Ioo cit.); partlyon a photograph dgyptischer Skulptur,
I
2

(P. II3).
7

m ryf snw

28 (1906), 200, note I3 (Coptic eiat).


8

.9

or 0 , (twoversions)

twoversions);butcf.W. Spiegelberg, Rec. Trav. (theother


(1921),

9 H. Bonnet, Reallexikon,I22: 'Sopdu macht Schade mit seinen beiden Augen', following R. Lanzone, Dizionariodi mitologia egizia (Turin, 1881-5), I, 1054, and n, pl. 358. 10 Israel Stela, Cairo version(CCG 34025), 13; see now K. Kitchen,Ramesside Inscriptions,IV, I6, 2-3. see R. Caminos,Late-Egyptian IX Gardiner, Late-Egyptian Miscellanies, 25, I6; forcomment Miscellanies, 91, with earlierliterature. 12 A. Moret, Cataloguedu Musee Guimet, pl. 64 (no. 72) = Annalesdu Musee Guimet, 32 (Paris, 1909). 13 For the of the difficult in lines ZAS 59 (I924), 153; S. Schott,ZAS 67 reading question,see Spiegelberg,
(I931), 14 Io9 n. 9. Spiegelberg, op. cit. I52.

C. Sander-Hansen, Das Gottesweibdes Amun (Copenhagen, I940), 27.

No translation of the words in questionis given by H. Gauthier,Rev. egyptol. 2, 1-2

30 or by

Is Spiegelberg, Rec. Trav. 17 (I895),

94.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS

I47

and Khons.' In DenderaMammisi, saves fromthe evil eye. 250, I, 7hy-Harsomtus Both thesegods appearin theritualof hitting the ball. The eye of R&cwhichrescues in P. Leiden I 348 has alreadybeen mentioned ( 32). Carefulsearchmightreveal moreallusions to such protectors.2

seemsto be an anonymous in itself, evilpower whether itderives from or gods,demons, humanbeings.Sometimes as in P. AnastasiIII, rt. 5, 4 ( 34) or in onlyirtis found, nameslikeirt-irw, or t(y)-irt-irw,6 irty-r-t;i.7 Allusions to humanpersons who 'possess'theevileye,arerare.8 they Perhaps belong to the Sethianspecies,a sub-category of whichwere perhapsthe rhyt (see 33). In P. Mag. Harris, vs. 2, 7, themouthis closedof 'all men,evil of face'(pi bin-hr drw)'.9 The irtbint, in Sarpot, andintheStory Armour however, 2, 3810o ofthe ofInaros,17,i81" the expression irtbintbe understood on a naos from Saftel Henne.I3 the of dead can be This feared. another Again, eye persons appearsfrom passagein P. Leiden I 348, where(in rt. I3, 7-9) thespeakersays: 'I go out /in the night, I go out in the darkness. I findHorus before me (and Seth (?)) to the right I of me; am with a mission of the Oh dead ones (charged) greatgods! [I] keep you in (mtyw), check(k.h[.i] tn),[I] cut off/ a hand, (I) blind(k;mn(.i)) an eye, (I) close a mouthrefersratherto a glance of scorn than to the actual 'evil eye'.12 In the same way can

35. The evil eye, mostly found as irt bint3as in the proper name st-irt-bint,4

In the BerlinTablet 23308, Sakhmet, Thoth, Isis, Nephthys, Horus, and Horus-imy-snwt (?) are invoked. Some of these gods are knownas protectors in general(Thoth as magician,Sakhmetas the arrow-shooting it is somewhatdoubtful whether the whole group is a companyof special protectors goddess), and therefore againstthe evil eye (cf. G. Posener,YEA 35 [I949], 8i n. 6). Only of Horus-imy-snwt (?) is it said that'he blinds your(= the enemies') eyes'. 3 Oracular Amuletic Decrees: L. I, rt. 29; L. 5, vs. 17-18; L. 6, rt. 69; T. I, rt. 92-3; T. 2, vs. 9o; P. 3, vs. 2; NY, rt. 44-5; Ch. 32-3. Next to this,one findsoftenthe termkdmor ktm followed (sometimes by bin), determinedby the eye. For a discussion,see Edwards, op. cit. I, 3-4 n. 21: 'glance', 'threat', 'vision'? 4 Ranke,Personennamen,I, 323, i. For the name rhr-mrr-irt-bint (I, 70, 23), see Spiegelberg, ZAS 59 (1924), 138; 153: 'the just one standsup (against)the evil eye'?
2 6

See p. I46 n. I4.

Ibid. I, 42, I7. From the Oracular Amuletic Decrees: irtrmtin L. 2, rt. 83; vs. 28. 9 H. Lange, Der magische to restore the damagedpassage in Oracular PapyrusHarris,93; 97. It is tempting DecreesL. 2, rt. 83, in a similarmanner:(82) . .. iw'i (r) Id/(83) Amuletic s r irtrmt p? bi[n-hr dr.w]. und Amazonen(Vienna, 1962), 28-9. IO A. Volten, Agypter "I E. Bresciani,Der Kampfum denPanzer des Inaros (Papyrus Krall, Vienna, I964), 8i; 123. 12 A. Volten,op. cit. 74.
7

5 Ranke, op. cit. I, 42, 10; II, 266, 7. Ibid. I, 354, I. Or always tv-irt-irw, the y forming part of irt(cf. above, p. 146 n. 7)?

I3

io (readingbin(t),as againstRoeder's Hr). Sometimesa passage in Amenemope as (8, 4) is interpreted a reference to the evil eye, but such a sense can only be obtained afteremendation:iw('f) nhmcnhm irtf, 'while (he) takes life away with his eye'; thus, for instance,H. Lange, Das Weisheitsbuch des Amenemope F. Ll. Griffith, YEA 12 (1926), 204. As it stands, (Copenhagen, 1925), 48; 50-I and somewhatdifferently 'while lifehas been taken away fromhis eye.' Thus has the passage been nhmseems to be a passive sdmrf: translatedby I. Grumach, Untersuchungen des Amenope zur Lebenslehre (Munich, 1972), 56; very recently de Amenemope different proposals in A. Marzal, La enseinanza (Madrid, I965), I02. Perhaps compare a late of the lifelessglance of the man in the Amenemopepassage is expressed: propername in whichthe contrary rnhm irty,'life(is) in the eyes' (H. Ranke, op. cit. II, 270, 27).
io09,

G. Roeder, Naos (Leipzig, I914, CCG),

pl. 19, upper register, left, cited by S. Schott, ZAS

67 (1931),

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148

J. F. BORGHOUTS

I am Horus-Seth!'Protection the 'eye of a dead one' is givenin some of the against OracularAmuletic Decrees.I theevileyecouldbe obtained 36. In actualpractice, protection against bybeseechin 34, as in theThoth-hymn. It is mentioned ingthevarious gods mentioned among the variousformsof protection in the Oracular Amuletic Decrees. given by gods theevileyearereferred to in themagicalP. Brooklyn Spellsagainst 47.2I8.138 (SaitePersianperiod)2and in severalPtolemaictempleinscriptions,3 but onlyone certain theBerlinwoodentablet23308.4 On this known, exampleof such a spellis at present seven are pictured, which may have served as a counter-force.5 wd;t-eyes tablet, this a is to extent the of themanywdht-eyes wornas amulets; Perhaps large meaning rolledup and wornas amulets, which theyare also foundon some magicalpapyri, often consist ofnearly on are also doors, only'vignettes'.6 They prominent sarcophagi, falsedoors,stelae,tomb-walls, and modelboats; they have served as 'lookpartly may outs' forthe deceased,but an apotropaic function can hardlybe denied to them.7 the with ladanum to Painting eyes (ibr) is, according a passagein Edfu,II, 43, 9-10, a meansof scaring enemies'whentheylookat you withan evil intention' twk (mlmsn m dw).8For superstitious the hieratic of was sometimes the drawn reasons, sign eye withred ink.9 Postscript Noattempt hasbeen made totrace ofthe survivals rite called skr Dr.B. H. possible particular hmn. for whose readiness to readcritically this article the author feels most Stricker, through grateful, makes the remark. there is nosurvival inwestern ofthis ritual but traditions, following Evidently, there be a ofitina Persian ceremonial called 'ballandstick', the may trace game, giiy-u-cawgdn, same as the modern Thefifteenth-century of Herat had a 'Arifi devoted treatise to pologame. poet
the mystical meaningof thisgame,whichwas of a royaland sacral character.
2 Col. X+II, I, see J.-Cl. Goyon,JEA 57 (1971), 55 n. 5. , . 50; 76-; P. 4, 23. Edfu,III, 351, 9; VI, 263, 5; 300, 6-7. 4 See n. 5 below. In OstraconDeir El Medineh io62 (G. Posener,DFIFAO i [Cairo, I938], pi. 34) there is often mention oftheeyesofthepatient whichshouldnot be maltreated by a dead person,but thespell is rather a sortof headache-spellthan one forthe protection of the eyes. It is the 'beginningof a book of wardingoff

I L.

e.g. in P. Leiden I 354 (C. Leemans, Monumens, pl. 169) and in some papyrifoundat Deir el Medineh (B. Bruyere,Rapportsur les fouillesde Deir El Medineh,annees1948 a i95I [Cairo, 1953 [FIFAO 26], 72, nos. 2 and 3]; P. Deir El Medineh 36, 5 [S. Sauneron,Kfmi20 (1970), pl. i]). Cf. also the group of threewd4teyes among othermagicalsigns in P. Leiden i 348, rt. 13, 3. 7 For a shortsurveyof objects on which wdrt-eyes may be found,see W. Hayes, Royal Sarcophagiof the XVIII Dynasty(Princeton,I935), 64 n. 12; cf. also A. Hermann, Die Stelen der thebanischen Felsgradber on bows or on model funerary boats and oars (Gliickstadt,I940), 54-5 (especiallyon stelae). The wd4t-eyes are also foundin the illustrated 'MythologicalPapyri'. Cf. also Blackman,'The Ka-House and the Serdab',
6

the stroke (skr) of a dead male or dead female' (rt. 2).

5 S. Schott, ZAS

67 (193I),

I09-10.

(JEA

(1946), 32-3.

see the light of the day or the visitorsto the chapel. Hermann, quoting interalia Pyr. I266c (see above, of an apotropaicfunction in some cases; so too J.Capart,'Les yeuxmagiques', CdE 21, p. 141 n. 6) also thinks

3 [19I6],

250-4), 252-4, who adduces inscriptional evidence for the eyes enabling the deceased to

8 Prescriptions with ointments are groupedtogether in H. Grapow, Grundrifi againstdemoniacinfluences der Medizin der altenAgypter, v (Berlin, 1958), 448-52. Amongthese,theheadingofP. Med. Berlin[99] 8, 8 'an anointment used in orderto annihilate an enemy,in orderto dispel (ibid. 450) is particularly interesting: an inimicalbeing(hrwy)when comingat a man witha fierceface(m Fsw hr).' 9 See G. Posener,JEA 35 (I949), 8o-i.

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THE EVIL EYE OF APOPIS


TABLE of the scenes: nos. I-9 2. The environment
No. Temple I Deir elBahari
2

I49
Environment

Luxor

Publication Actor BeneficiaryLocation Hathor-+ Shrine ofHathor, III+Naville,DeB, Tuthmosis with jtf-crown; Entrance hall, Iv, p. 4; pl. eastern wall twopriests oo00 Hathor*- RoomG (Gayet), III-MMF, Amenophis Gayet, eastendnorth xv,pl. 68 (no. withfwty-plumes wall,2ndreg.= 74), fig.213 Nelson, KP, sect. .. Cf. Wb., III Amenophis Sakhmet no. 298 Nelson, KP, sect. D, roomII, no. 206 (westwall), opp. no. 4 Nelson,KP, sect. D, roomII, no. 218 (eastwall), opp. no. 3 Exterior of Sancwestwall tuary,
G, room 13,

Below(3rdreg.):killing on oryx;thisis bordered left byoffering clepsydra to Mut no. 4 Opposite

Luxor

Belegst. IIi, 93, 12

Luxor

Belegst. III, 93, 12

.. Cf. Wb.,

III Amenophis

Sakhmet

no. 3 Opposite

Edfu

E. i, 62,

5-13; pl. I6

Edfu

E. III, 348, 10-14; pl. 82

Edfu

E. IV, 149, 4-150, 2; X, I, pl. 87 E. Iv, 305,


I, pl. 93

Edfu

6-306,4; X,

Edfu

E. VI, 313, 6-17; X, 2, pl. I5I

On eastwall,samereg., there is a sceneofkilling on same oryx (notexactly axisas no. 5) Hathor+- Library, north Opp. (south)wall,exactly PtolemyVII-* with double crown sceneofkilling wall,lowerreg., facing: bordered on left crocodile; thisis bordered on right byentrance bykilling hipp. Other wallshavesimilar scenes killing Ext. west To the VIIHathor-> ofnaos, left:killing tortoise. Ptolemy corr.on eastwall: with doublecrown wall,4thsect., 4th Exactly no. 8 ('back-to-back' reg.,2nd scene opleft from position) Hathor<- Ext. ofnaos,east To theright: torVII-+ Ptolemy killing with doublecrown wall,4thsect., 4th toise;corr. ('back-toreg.,2ndscene back') to no. 7. from right of XI+- with Hathor-- Outerwall,inner To theright: Ptolemy offering chosenpiecesofenemy face,eastwall, plumes 2nd sect.,3rdreg., to Mnhyt on right corer IV-with Ptolemy
double crown

Hathor->

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150

J. F. BORGHOUTS
TABLE3. The environment of the scenes: nos. 10-I9

No. Temple
10 Dendera

Publication
D. Iv, 193, 9-194, 2; pl. 301

Actor Unnamed king-with itf-crown

BeneficiaryLocation Hathor<- New year's court, eastwall,2nd reg., on corner Hathor--; Harsomtus<-

11

Dendera

D. v, 66,

9-o0; pl. 369

Unnamed king-*
with jtf-crown

Environment Bordered on right by crocodile. killing Opposite on westwall: killing oryx this is bordered (on corner); on left tortoise bykilling East cryptno. 2, Bordered on right by scenes roomB, eastwall, killing oryx;other in samereg.areinter on left corner alia and offering clepsydra crocodile. Exactly killing
opposite (west wall): off. adwdit-eye;this is further

12

Dendera

Unnamed king-> D. VI, 134, pi. 562, with/tf-crown upper;563


2-13;

and joinedbysim.killing scenes offering no. 2, Bordered on left Hathor+-; Westcrypt byscene roomB, eastwall, ofputting choicepieces .hy+ofenemy 2nd from left to fire; on left scenes alia (inter bysimilar killing offering clepsydra, (west tortoise). Opposite This wall): off. wdJt-eye. is bordered on right by enemies to fire; on left by killing oryx ?
puttingchoice pieces of

13 14

Dendera Dendera

.. ..

15

Dendera

with Augustus-+
ttf-crown

x6

Dendera

Thes. 1397-8 (partly)

Brugsch,

Augustus- with

doublecrown

17 i8

Dend. Mamm. 175, 2- I; pl. 68 Philae, Benedite, Isis temple Philae, 8I; pl. 29

Dendera Mammisi

Trajan-+ with

white crown between plumes with Augustus-.


double crown

G', eastwall,2nd reg. Ext. westfacade, Unknown. But corresp.to i.hy+; no. 16 ('back-to-back' Hathor+-; 4threg.,last Horusof section opposition) Behdet+Ext. east facade, To theright: sceneof yI.y-+; 4th reg., last rebels. Corr.to no. Hathor-+; killing Harsomsection 15 ('back-to-back' oppositus-+ likenos. 7-8) tion, Ennead room, Bordered on right Hathor<-; by Horus of east wall, 4th reg., sceneofkilling enemies
Behdet*Ist sc. fromleft with staff Sakhmet<Exteriorof naos, east wall, 2nd (mid) reg., mid scene Outer hall, facade, left Below (pl. 29), inferior reg. ('ist'), sc. IX: offering of slaughteredenemies to Isis (p. 86) Right part of facade: corr. scene of offering clepsydra to Sakhmet(cf. Top. Bibl. VI, p. 248, 2 [plan])

~?

Room F', west wall, 3rd reg. Hypostyleroom

I9

Hathor temple

Philae,

Augustus-+ with double crown

Tefnut<-

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