Sie sind auf Seite 1von 179

i:

~
:'
I.
t

t<,
BIOPAC lAB EXPERIMENT
If
~ ~ .
~ ,
..
~ -
,r
The SIOPAC Student Lab
Data Acquisition and Analysis System
INTRODUCTION
,
The BIOPAC Student Lab is a computer-based data
acquisition and analysis system that consists of hard-
wareandsoftware.Hardwarecomponentsincludeelec-
trodes, input transducers, connecting cables, and the
MP30 data acquisition unit, a signalconditionershown
in Figure 1.1. Software in this system consists of the
BIOPAC Student Lab programs installed on the
Macintoshor PC computer. BIOPAC programs are sets
of instructions the CPU can refer to (as the computer
sets itself up to function in each lesson or physiology
experiment) regarding data acquisition, data analysis,
and data storage. Elements of a computer-based data
acquisition/analysis system are discussed in more detail
in Chapter2.
Biopac Student Lab Software
".
Biopac Student LabHardware
\
\ M1'30ACLjIJ1S
\.
FIGURE 1.1 Software and hardware
components ofthe BIOPACStudentLab
::ourtesyof BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
"'
The BIOPACStudentLab (BSL)isdesigned for use
on both desktop and laptop versions of the Macintosh
and PC computers running OS and Windows respec-
tively. System requirements depend on the computer,
the version of its operating system, and whether com-
munication is via serial or USB ports. Ifneeded, your
instructor can contact BIOPAC Systems, Inc. for rec-
ommendations on optimizing performance of the sys-
tem you are using. Generally speaking, more memory
and a faster operating system will allow BSL to per-
~
~ .
form better. ,.

Hardware and software differences between
Macintosh and Windows PC versions of the BSL are
f
negligible.Allthe screenshotsused in this textare taken
,.
f
from a PC running Windows XP and BSLV3.7, but if
r
you are using the Macintosh OS, the graphics in your I
software package are almost identical to those on the
f
I
PC version.
~
,f'
In the experiments to follow, hardwarewill change
f;
from lesson to lesson, and you will be given specific
t
instructions regarding the placement of sensors and
~
how to connect them to the MP30. BIOPAC Student
Lab softwarewill alwayscheck to see thatyou have the
f
f
..
proper sensors connected andthat theconnections and
J'
sensors are working properly before beginning data
~
acquisitionfor the specified lesson or experiment. t,
.f,
It isassumed thatthe reader knows howto operate
t
the Macintosh computer or the PC with Windows and
J
,.

thatthe BIOPAC StudentLabsoftwarehas been proper-


i'
lyinstalled. Knowledge and experienceconcerning how
Ii
t
to use the mouse; how to click; how to drag; how to
select buttons; how to use pull-down menus; and how to
!
locate, open, close, and name files are prerequisite to
using the BIOPAC Student Lab. If you are not familiar
with the basic operations of the computer to be used,
please ask your laboratory instructor for assistance.
TheBIOPAC Student Lab 1
Before you begin actual experimentation, it will be
usefultolearnsomebasicsabouthowtheBIOPACsoft-
waredisplaysdataandhelpsyouperformdataanalysis.
A data file containingsample electrocardiogram (ECG)
andpulsedatahas beenstoredin the "BIOPACStudent
Lab" folder. You will open this file and use it to learn
about the BSL Data window, analytical tools, and the
Journalwindow.
Experimental Objectives
1. To become familiarwiththeformatof datadisplay
in the BIOPAC Student Lab datawindow.
2. To learnhowto position datawithinthe datawin-
dowby usingsoftwaretoolsandpull-downmenus.
3. To learn how to select and use the correct meas-
urement tools for extracting information from the
data.
4. Tolearnhowto use the journalto record measure-
ments andwrite notes.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTAND SUPPLIES
Computersystem: See Table 1.1
BIOPACStudentLabSoftware
,j
'"
TABLE 1.1 Required equipmentand supplies
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Starting the BIOPAC Student LabProgram
1. Turn on your computer and locate the "BIOP_,\C
Student Lab" program folder. Ifthe folder cannot
be found, contactyourlab instructor.
PC: Use the Windows "Start menu to locate the
Programs" folder (Figure 1.2). Double-click on the
, ArcSoit:3<lftv-JareSulte
G5meChannei
':J totervrdec.... "inDVD4
IntervideoXseck
Multl-channel 50Ulld Manager
Nelsc<;peJ,Q
:;; 'VordPerfedProducnvnv rack ,
@Bacrup
lZJ Acrobat: Reader5.0
1;'
S
,
, .:&i IntelliMo>_'erDemo
..&}
G!I MicrosoFt gccess

MluosoftOlJtlook
I@Microsoftcowerpomt

ml MU;;lc5l;ore
octlcokt coress
t ,,," Remote
t.9 Software Offer5
WindowsMedl1\Player
:j. wrdowsreessencer
FIGURE 1.2
Windows For BiopacStudentLab & BSLPRO v3.7.0
os Requires Windows 98SE, 2000 Pro, Me,XP
Port USB
Hard Disk Requires 100 MB to store thesoftware and on-line manuals; additional 100 MB recommended for data
storage
RAM 128 MB recommended
Processor 486 or better; speed: 200 MHz
Monitor Color monitor recommended
Macintosh For Biopac StudentLab v3.0.7 & BSL PRO v3.6.6
OS
Port
Hard Disk
RAM
Processor
Monitor
Requires Macintosh System 8,6-9,2,2 (no OSXsupport)
USB
Requires 128 fVlB to store the softwareand on-line manuals; additional 100 MB recommended for data
storage
128 MB recommended
PowerPC 601 (or higher)
Color monitor recommended
DiskSpace:
With any program, you willneed diskspace to store your data files, Although BIOPAC saves filesina format as compact as pos-
sible, it isnot uncommon for some users to generate datafileson the orderof several dozen megabytes, If you are planning to
acquiredata for long periods (more than a few hours) and/orare sampling at relativelyfast rates (more than 1,000samples pee
second), you should have as much available diskspace as possible (or have access to a removablestorage device), See your ..
BIOPAC Software Guide for hints on working with large files,
2 BIOPAC LabExperiment 1
I
----
I
'"
t
,
bkjP.-\C Student Lab icon (or BSL.EXE). BSL Opening the Data Files
,
,
,
srouidlaunch.
.\L-\C:Double-clickon the "BIOPACStudentLab"
iolder to openit, thendouble-clickon the BIOPAC
Student Lab icon (Figure 1.3). BSLshould launch.
1 \X'henyou first start up the software, it will check
to see if the MP30 is properly connected to the
computer and turned on. Ifthe computer is not
properly connected to the MP30 or the MP30 is
off, a pop-uphardwaremessagewill appear. In this
introduction to the BIOPAC Student Lab, hard-
ware for dataacquisitionwill not be required.
PC:Forthis introductoryexercise,click OK (Figure
1.4). This will allow you to analyze saved data
using software only. A lesson menushould appear.
MAC: Select No hardware, then click OK (Figure
1.5). This will allow you to analyze saved data
using software only. A lesson menushould appear.
0 8iDpac .....
6items, 15.SBGBavailable

BiopacStudentLab

t\ ...
DataFiles
EJ
ReadMe BSL& FRO_lvI
I 4 I
FIGURE 1.3
D
.::,
BSL-Vars
Cl
Lessons

Startup
I;;
I"Ii:
FIGURE 1,4
Connect
Ican'tfindtilehardware. Please makesure all cables
are connectedand poweris011, thenselectaport.
Choose'No hardware'for analysisonly.
..i,Q1F
m
Mi......
Checkthe'Donot ask me again'option if you willonly be
usingthis computertorAnalysis. Ifyou wish to usethe
hardwareinthefutureyouwillneedto reinstall
the prouram.
:J Donot askme again
[ Quit I(1 . J
0k
FIGURE 1.5
1. Scroll down the lesson menu to "Review Saved
Data"; select it and click OK. A window resem-
bling Figure 1.6 should appear.
2. Select and open the "Sample Data" folder. A win-
dowresembling Figure 1.7 shouldappear.
3. Open "Sample Data-L07." The monitor screen
shouldcontain a data window and a Journal win-
dowas labeled in Figure 1.8.
File name:

Cancel,J
FIGURE 1.6
Filename:
Cancel
FIGURE 1.7
.-


JC=


,,",,'"
I"""""",.
""
al
w
a
ow
ii!:iil!il.illl.II!IIIH{11
,
Dal
Wind
db'l>",,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,, ,,,,,
n'l
M' '::
"'1'1'
."""
""-ro" roo ' [rrr,t
I"""
Wind
FIGURE 1.8
TheBIOPAC StudentLab 3

.1
I,--
.,
I .
i
I'
!'
I ";
j,
i
I
1

, ->;
I ."
j.
It.
Each time you run a BIOPAC Lesson or experi-
ment,the acquireddatawill be automaticallysavedto a
file with your name or initials on it for identification.
You will locate and open your data file for analysis by
enteringthe "ReviewSaved Data" folder andfollowing
the procedureas previously outlined.
Data Viewing Tools
The pieces that make up the data viewing tools are
shownin Figure 1.9.
The Data window contains two series of recorded
waveforms: an electrocardiogram (ECC), representing
electricalactivity of the heart (each of the largestspikes
represents one heartbeat), anda simultaneouslyrecord-
ed pressure pulse tracing from the same person. At the
left of each record is a label identifying the recorded
data,in this case "FCC" and "Pulse." These labels will
changewhen other kinds of data (FMC, EEC, etc.) are
recorded.
On the right-hand side of the screen is a vertical
area with numbersthatreflect the amplitude (height) of
the waveformor signal. Usuallynumbersexpress ampli-
tude in terms of volts ormillivolts (1 volt = 1000milli-
volts), as is the case with the ECG and pulse records.
\XThen other kinds of data are recorded, the vertical
scale units may change, such as when recording heart
rate (beats per minute-BPM) or temperature (OF).
We can describe a waveform as being above or
belowsome reference, orbaseline. Usually the baseline
is around zero, and waveforms above the baseline are
designated as positive and waveforms below the base-
line are negative. Positivewaveformspointupwardand
negative waveforms point downward with respect to
Channel Boxes (Data Analysis Mode Only) andActive Channel Label
Lesson Display Buttons (Can Varyfrom Lesson to Lesson)
MarkerTools
,i,
Channel Number
Measurement Box
MeasurementValue

Horizontal Scroll Box Selection Tool
I-Beam Tool
Zoom Tool-----'
FIGURE 1.9
4 .. BIOPAC LabExperiment 1
the zero baseline. Notice on the voltage scales
ECG and pulse records that voltage values above zero
are positive andvoltage values belowzero are neganve
Channel Boxes (Showing/Hiding A Channel)
The channel boxes are in the upper left portion of the
data window. They enable you to hide channels from
view, so as to concentrate on or print outonly specific
waveforms at a given time. Note that a disabled chan-
nel issimply hidden from view and can beturned back
on at any time.
To turna channel's waveform display on or off:
1. Activate the selection tool (arrow) in the lower
rightcornerof the Datawindow by clicking on it.
2. For a Macintosh, hold down the Option key and
click on the channel box. For a PC, holddown the
Ctr! (control) key and click on the channel box.
3. Thechannel boxdisplays an "X" when thatchan-
nel isturned off.
4. Holddownthe appropriatekey (Option or CTRL)
andclick on the channel box withthe "X" to turn
thatchannel back on.
Try turning off and on Channel 1 (ECC) and
Channel40 pulse. Dependingon the speed ofyourcom-
puter, it may take some time to update the screen after
hiding a channel.
Ifyou are confused about which channel number
corresponds to whichwaveform, you can use the label
to the right of the channel boxes to assist you. The
channel box that is active is the channel that contains
the displayed label.
The active channel contains the waveform data
being used to make measurements orperform calcula-
tions. To activate anotherchannel, simply use the selec-
tion tool and click on the channel number box. You
could also click anywhere in the channel display or on
the channel label to the left of the channel display. As
soon as a channel is activated, the channel label will
appear to the right of the channel number box. The
label to the right of the channel boxes should corre-
spond to the label to the left of each channel's display
region. Ifyou arc using a color monitor, you will note
that the color of the channel button matches the color
of the channel's waveform. The channel that is active
has its label displayed in the color of the channel's
waveform.Click anywherein each channel andobserve
the changein the channelbox,channellabel, andchan-
nel window.
Data Analysis Tools
After recording data in the experiments to follow, we
will wantto knowspecific thingsaboutthe data on the
i
;
I
'
I
I
example,we maywantto knowthe interval to be enlarged so as to make some analyses easier to
:: ::::-::: .rom one wave peak to another wave peak, or perform. For example:
,'.: r:,a:-' wantto know the amplitude (height or depth)
1. Select the zoomtool bvclicking on its iconto high-
-: .l particular wave. We could make direct measure-
light it.
r:'C'nts rrorn a printed copy of the screen and read time

-':J!:Rj
2. Movethe cursortothe ECGchannelwindow.Note
"' rrorn the time baror voltagefromtheverticalscale, but "''11
that the cursorchanges traman arrowto a magni-
Ineasier, faster method is to use the data analysis tools

i]
fying glass.
represented by three icons in the lower right corner of
3. Position the cursor just above the waveform at
t<1
the screen (see Figure 1.9). Fromleft to right, the icons

approximately 12.80 seconds (Figure 1.11). Hold
represent the selection tool, the I-beam tool, and the
It' 1
t' -,
down the mouse button and drag the cursor down-
zoom tool. To select any of these tools, simplyclick the
.'-'.j
wardand to the right sothatthe selectedareaincludes t-,
mouse on the desired icon and its appearance will If'!
.. approximatelysixspikes tothe rightofthe centerver-
change to indicate it is active. Each tool displays a dif-
tical dottedline (Figure 1.12). Release the mousebut-
.>
,.' ,
ferent mousecursorwhen it is active.
.'1
j
ton. Your screen shouldresemble Figure 1.13.
fi'l
1
'1 Selection Tool p",'
.
" j
1
The arrowicononthe left isthe selection tool. Thistool Ov,rlop
....
,j
is usedfor selecting waveforms, scrollingthroughdata,
'I
andperformingotherselectingfunctions. All othercur-
sors default to this mode when the cursors are moved
"I
I
outside the grapharea (recordingchannels).
Justto the rightof theselectiontooliconis the icon i/r.!
for the I-beam tool. Thistoolisusedto selectan areaof
'I
a waveform to be used for measurement (amplitude,
,I'
timeinterval,etc.).Whenthistoolisselected, the cursor
changes from an arrow to an I-beam when it is placed
overthe graph area.
FIGURE1.11
I)
1. Click on theI-beam tool icon to activate it.

=
2. Move the cursor to either recording channel win-
r
dow (ECG orpulse) and position the cursor at 32
'"
seconds.
3. Hold down the mouse button and drag the cursor
to the 64-secondmark, thenrelease the mouse but-
ton. The selected area is darkened and the wave-
forms withinthe selectedareaare differentin color
to make themmore visible (Figure 1.10).
4. With the cursor in the recording window, click the
mouse buttononce to deselect the area.
ZoomTool
FIGURE1.12
Theicon on the right of the I-beamsymbol is a magni-
fying glass, which' represents an enlargement tool, or
zoom tool. Thistoolisusedto selectan areaof thedata
1
.. l5i:i

'''.
File te.,,,,,, DI<pIay L ------=:J 'G

CT]I __ i

FIGURE1.10 FIGURE1.13
"

.,

...
''' .. '
J
'.
'."..
,
t
t:
t
TheBIOPAC Student Lab 5
4. Ifyou selected the wrongpartofthe recordto mag-
nify, pull down the Display menu and choose
"Zoomprevious."Thisselectionshould returnyou
to the previous tracing (Figure 1.12). Try again to
select the correct area as shown in Figure 1.12. If
you are unsuccessful, ask your laboratory instruc-
torfor assistance.
,
5. Select the l-beamtool by placing thecursor on the
appropriate icon and clicking once to highlight it.
Positionthel-Beam on the first highestwave inthe
ECGchannel (wave A in Figure 1.14), depress the
mouse button, and drag the I-bearn to the next
highest wave on the right (wave Bin Figure 1.14).
Then release the mouse button. The selected area
should appeardarkened.
Channel Measurement Box
I
1
1. Immediately on top ofthe ECG recording channel
are measurement boxes (Figure 1.9). In the ECG
and pulse window there are four groups of meas-
urement boxes. In each group, the first box indi-
cates the recording channel selected (in this case,
I
channel40). Thesecondboxcontainsafunctionor
measurement to be taken (in this case, none), and
the third boxcontains a measurementvalue.
2. Click on the first channel boxat the left and select
Channel 1 by highlighting thenclickingon it.
1
3. Move the cursor to the adjacentfunction boxand
selectdeltaT (.:IT) fromthe listoffunctions (Figure
1.15). A number representing the interval of time
1
of the selected area appears. In the example, ==
I
0.7 seconds, which represents the interval of time
betweenheartheats (Figure 1.16).
4. Move the cursor to the rightto the third measure-
ment box, depress the mouse button, and select
Channel 1.Release the mouse button.
5. Move the cursor to the adjacent function box,
depressthe mousebuttonandselect BPM fromthe
list of functions (Figure 1.15). Release the mouse
button.Anumberrepresentingheartrate(beats per
minute) appears next to the function box. The
heart rate shown was calculated by the computer
using the formula BPM == 60 seconds-r- seconds
for the selected area (Figure 1.14).
6. Move the cursor to anywhere within the selected
area and click themouse buttononce. The selected
area will be reduced to a single vertical line.
Position the I-beam just to the left of the peak of
wave A and drag the cursor just to the right of
wave Asoas to select asmall area thatincludesthe
peak of wave A (Figure 1.17).
7..Move the cursor to the first measurement box for
Channell, depress the mouse button, and select
FIGURE 1.15

-F'
1'00
I
I':: '.-
1420
t
". -!)5[\
-aco l<W "'''''
FIGURE 1.16
IJEl

. I"
-'-, !
_;!o.-
FIGURE 1.17
FIGURE 1.14
6 BIOPAC LabExperiment1
- - --
I

,
- ] "':
[7"_
r>.

FIGURE 1.18
" ii -
@J liJ:"''G
lS<oI.,;no,el.,,d
.' :..::::::J 'L,J
FIGURE 1.19
max from the list of functions (Figure 1.18).

Release the mouse button. A number should
appear to the right of the selected function, as
shown in Figure 1.19. This number represents the
maximumvalue for amplitude of the largestwave-
form within the selected area. The largest single
waveinthe selectedareaisA,thereforethe number
(0.61090mV) represents the amplitude (in milli-
volts) of wave A.
8. If the peakofthe waveform isabovethe zero base-
line, the maximumvalue will be positive. However,
if the peak of the waveform is inverted and below
the zero baseline, select min from the list of func-
tions. Movethe cursor to the secondmeasurement
box for Channel 1, and select minfrom the list of
functions. A number (-0.15247mV) appearsto the
right of the selected function. This number repre-
sents the minimum value (i.e., largest negative
number) of the largestnegativewaveform (wave B)
in the selectedarea (Figure 1.20).
As you have noticed, there are several other func-
tions listed in the menu of the function box. A brief
description ofeach function is given in Table 1.2, and
applications will be explained and used in experiments
to follow.

_..-_.- _. ---

r1--- ---
'I J'

,
"I

'
,1,1/ .
',41; 1:'0 ';nJ El ,40 "13'3
FIGURE 1.20
Scrolling
Horizontal Scroll (Displaying Earlier/Later Data)
Youcan move fromearlierto laterdataor vice-versa by
usingthe horizontal scroll bar. In ourexample,the hor-
izontal scale represents time in seconds. If the entire
waveform is being displayed, the scroll bar will dim,
and it will not allow changes. If, however, we have
zoomed or changedthe horizontalscale, suchthatonly
a portionofthe waveform isin view, thenthe scroll bar
will be active.
To move to different locations in the record, you
caneitherclick andholddownthe mouse buttonon the
horizontal scroll box to "drag" it left or right, or you
may click on the arrows on eitherend of the scroll bar.
This is a standard Windows style (both Mac and PC)
scroll bar. Notethatsince the horizontalscale applies to
allchannelsin view, itwill moveevery waveformsimul-
taneously.
1. Asshownin Figure 1.20,datacollectedfrom 12.40
secondsto about16.00secondsisdisplayed.To see
datacollected at 20 or 21 seconds, placethe cursor
on the horizontalscroll box anddragitto the right.
Notice howthe numbers for time change andhow
the record moves from right to left.
2. Return the scroll box toward the left of the scroll
barso thatthe beginning of the record is indicated
by time 12.40 seconds. Note the selected area
remains selected as you scroll to otherparts of the
record.
Vertical Scroll (Adjusting the Position
of the Waveform)
A similar scroll bar can be found next to the vertical
scale. This isthe uertical scroll bar, and it allows you to
move a specific waveform either up or down. Like the
horizontal scroll bar, to move up or down, you can
eitherclick andholddownthe mousebuttonon the ver-
tical scroll boxto drag it up or down. or vou may click
The BIOPAC Student Lab II 7
-------------------------
TABLE 1.2 Table of measurementdefinitions
Measurement
Tool Definition
area Theareameasurement issimilarto the integral measurement exceptthat insteadof usingzeroasabaselinefor
integration astraight line isdrawn between the endpointsof the selectedareaasthe baseline.
BPM TheBeatsPerMinutemeasurement first calculatesthe differencein time between the first and lastselected
points and then dividesthis valueinto 60 seconds/minute to extrapolate BPM.Thisissimplythe resultyou
would obtain if you took ((1/M)*60)for aselectedarea.
Note: Inorder to get an accurate BPMvalue,you must selectan areawiththe I-beamcursorthat represents
one complete beat-to-beat interval. Onceway to do this isto selectan areathat goesfrom the peakof one
cycle'sRwave to the peakof the next cycle's Rwave (R-R interval).
TheBPMmeasurement simply usesthe start andend points of the selectedareaasameasurement for one
beat. If morethan one beat isselected,it ill not calculate the average(mean) BPMinthe selectedarea.
The~ (delta amplitude) measurement computes the difference inamplitude between the lastpoint and the
first pointof the areaselectedbythe I-beam tool. It isparticularly usefulfor taking ECG measurementsbecause
the baselinedoesnot haveto beatzero to obtain accurate, quick measurements.
AS The~ (delta samples)measurement isthe difference in samplepoints between the end and beginning of the
areaselectedbythe I-beamtool.
AT The~ T(delta time) measurement isthe difference intime between the end and beginning of the areaselect-
ed bythe I-beamtool.
Freq TheFrequency measurement converts the time segment of the selectedareato frequency in cycles/sec. The
Freqmeasurement computes the frequency in Hzbetween the endpoints of the selectedrange. Thisisdone by
computing the reciprocalof the ~ T in that range. It will not calculated the correct frequency if the areaselected
bythe I-beamtool contains more than onecycle.

!
1
Note: Thismeasurement appliesto allchannelssinceit iscalculated from the horizontal time scale.
TheJ(integral) measurement computes the integral valueof the data samplesbetween the endpoints of the
selectedrange.Thisisessentiallya running summation of the data.
max Themaximum measurement finds the maximum amplitudevaluewithin the areaselectedbythe I-beam tool
(including the endpoints).
mean Themean measurement computes the mean amplitudevalueor averageof the data samplesbetween the
endpoints of the selectedareaand displaysthe averagevalue.
min Theminimum measurement finds the minimumamplitudevaluewithin the areaselectedbythe I-beamtool
(including endpoints)
none Selectingnone turns off the measurement channel and no resultisprovided.
p-p Thep-p(peak-to-peak)finds the maximum value in the deselectedareaand subtractsthe minimumvalue
found in the selectedarea.P-P showsthe difference between the maximum amplitudevalue in the selected
range and the minimumamplitude valueinthe selectedrange.
Samples TheSamplesmeasurement shows the exactsample numberof the selectedwaveform atthe cursor position
Sincethe BIOPAC Student Labhandlesthe sampling rateautomatically, this measurement isof little use.
Slope Theslopemeasurement usesthe endpoints of the selectedareato determinethe difference in magnitude
i
,.
divided bythe time interval. Theslopemeasurement returns the unstandardized regressioncoefficient, which
i ~
describesthe unitchange in Y(verticalaxisvalues)per unit change inX(horizontal axis).
~
'liI!
stddev Stddev (standard deviation) isa measureof the variability of data points. Thedata representamplitudes of
i'
, the brain rhythms. Theadvantage of the stddev measurement isthat extreme valuesorartifacts do not unduly
'!'
influence the measurement. Thestddev measurement computes the standard deviation valueof the data sam-
1i "
,,' plesbetween the endpoints of the selectedrange.
Time TheTime measurement showsthe exacttime of the selectedwaveform at the cursorposition. Ifarangeof
valuesisselectedthen the measurement will indicate the time at the lastposition of the cursor.
Value TheValue measurement displaysthe amplitudevalue for the channel at the pointselectedbythe I-beamcur-
sor.Ifasinglepoint isselected,the value isfor that point; if anareaisselected,the valueisthe endpointof the
selectedarea.
t
8 BIOPAC LabExperiment 1
J
I
'Xi the arrows on eitherend of the scroll bar. Thechan-
::1e1 thatit moves isthe one shown by the active channel
box, To move to a differentchannel,click on the corre-
, sponding channel boxusing the cursor.
1. Activate Channel 1 (ECG) byclickingon the chan-
nel box.
2. Place the cursoron the verticalscrollboxandslow-
ly drag the boxup and down. Notehowthe verti-
cal position of the waveform changes. Return the
ECGrecord to the center of the channelwindow.
3. Activate Channel 40 (pulse) and use the vertical
scroll to centerthe pulse recordin the channelwin-
dow.
4. Note the selected area is maintained as the wave-
form positions are adjusted. Deselect the area by
clicking within the channel window and activate
the selectiontool.
Display Menu
The Display menu (Figure 1.21) contains tools for
adjusting the data display. To use any of these options,
click and hold down the mouse button on the Display
menu, drag down to the desired selection, and then
release the mouse button.
Autoscale Waveforms
Autoscale waveforms from the Display menu is a very

handytool that performs a "best fit" to each channel's
vertical scale. That is, it will adjust the scale and mid-
pointofeachchannel'sverticalscale suchthatthe wave-
form fills approximately two-thirds of the available
area. Figure 1.22 shows an ECG waveform before and
after the use of Autoscalewaveforms.
Autoscale Horizontal
Autoscale horizontal from the Display menu is a quick
wayto fit the entirewaveformwithinthe datawindow.
Thatis, it will adjust the horizontal scale such thatthe
left-mostportionof the screen isthe startof the record-
ing and the right-most portionis the end of the record-
ing. Thetime per division settingwill notnecessarilybe
nice even numbers. Figure 1.23 shows an ECG wave-
form before and after the use of Autoscale horizontal.
.. ,1L.e.. ssons "

Autoscale\'/v'aveforrns
AutoscaleHorizontal
,
FIGURE 1.21

FIGURE 1.22a BeforeAutoscaleWaveforms
-===:'----.J .[']
---- --- '----

FIGURE 1.22b AfterAutoscaleWaveforms
.1[']
,_._--------------
-,,--,- 'JQ 1

FIGURE 1.23a BeforeAutoscale Horizontal
FIGURE 1.23b AfterAutoscale Horizontal

If'.
if



j,;.

,t-
l'
,.
..

I
.,

;f,,,

-of

t
The BIOPACStudent Lab 9

TIP: One way to make sure the complete data file is
displayed on the screen is to select Autoscale horizontal
and then select Autoscale waveforms. This is very handy
if you have lost track of where you are in the data due
to manual scale changes, zooming, and so on.
Zoom Previous
Selecting zoom previous from the Display menu takes
you back to the scale settings (both horizontal and ver-
tical) established prior to the last zoom selection. The
zoom previous function will only go back one zoom
function. You cannot select it three times to go back
three zooms.
lesson-Specific Display Buttons
When you are in the Review Saved Data mode and
depending on the lesson data you are viewing, there are
lesson-specific display buttons that may appear. In this
sample an Overlap-Split button is present. Other, more
specialized, lesson display buttons may appear depend-
ing on the lesson, and their operation will be discussed
in the appropriate lessons.
Overlap/Split
The Overlap and Split buttons allow you to toggle the
display style between an oscilloscope and a chart
recorder. Simply click on the desired button to activate
the type of display.
Overlap: The oscilloscope style interface allows the
waveforms to "overlap" each other, which can be very
useful when comparing different waveforms from one
channel with one another (Figure 1.24). The overlap-
ping waveforms can be distinguished by color.
Note that by use of the vertical scroll bars each
waveform can be moved with respect to the others for
precise alignment. This is accomplished by clicking the
appropriate channel box and using the vertical scroll
bar to adjust the waveform position.
Split: The chart recorder style display has each
channel's waveform "split" to its own region in the
Display window. This is the default display mode for
the mOPAe Student Lab.
"-
Markers
The markers are used to reference important locations
in the data. The lessons specify when to place markers
during the recording, but the user may wish to add
additional markers during the recording. The marker
bar (window) is where marker labels are typed. Entering
text is like using a standard word processor. The specif-
ic elements of markers are shown in Figure 1.25.
The append markers are the diamonds that reside
within the marker region. To insert a marker while the
data is being recorded, you must depress the Esc key on
a Macintosh or the F9 key on the PC, You may then
type in text in the marker label bar, which will be linked
to that marker. The text is shown in the left portion of
the marker bar region.
The marker that is colored is the active marker for
which the marker text shown applies. You may change
the active marker by using the marker tools in the right
portion of the marker region (see Figure 1.25).
l.
FIGURE 1.24b III AfterOverlap
Marker
Tools
----------------"
FIGURE 1.24a BeforeOverlap FIGURE 1.2.5

10 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 1


l
1
I
)
(: ,':K:1: on the left pointing marker tool will move
::--c ::13.[;';er that was placed prior to the current active
:-::,"::"c: onlv if one exists).
Clicking on the right pointing marker tool will

:1:O\e to the marker that was placed after the current
active marker (again, only if one exists).
Clicking on the downward pointing marker tool
generates a pop-up menu as shown in Figure 1.26. To
choose any of the menu items, simply scroll to the
desired option and release the mouse button when it is
highlighted. The marker menu allows you to Find cer-
tain markers, Clear the current active marker or Clear
all markers, send a summary of all markers to the
Journal, show specific appended markers, or set prefer-
ences for marker labels.
All marker labels are listed under show on the
menu, and you may go to a particular marker by choos-
ing its label (Figure 1.27). Moving to different markers
using this menu may not seem very relevant for our
sample data, but when a lot of data has been recorded,
it can be a very useful tool.
You may add markers to your data after it has been
recorded simply by clicking below the marker text box
using the selection tool. This new marker, a yellow
inverted triangle called an Event marker, will then
become the current active marker, and you may type in
the marker text (Figure 1.28).
When you print out the waveform(s), the marker
text will appear above the appropriate marker, and a
<
""'

Find,"
Clear
Summary to Journal
>
Show E
Preferences
FIGURE 1.26
II
-...,
FIGURE 1.27
Find",
Clear
Summar\' to Journal
dashed vertical line will appear through the data to
indicate the marker's precise point in time. Ifthe data is
compressed, the markers and/or marker text may over-
lap and/or be hidden. Adjust the time scale to expand
the marker display as necessary.
The Journal
The Review Saved Data mode incorporates a journal
feature so you can type notes or copy measurements
from previously saved data. You can also copy the data
directly to the Journal. The Journal is not editable dur-
ing recording. The Journal needs to be the active win-
dow for its options to come up. When in the Review
Saved Data mode, click anywhere in the Journal win-
dow to activate it. The active Journal window will con-
tain a blinking cursor line similar to the cursor for
typing text using a standard word processor. Position
the cursor where you want text to be added.
Formatting Journal Entries
Options can be set to change the way measurements are
pasted into the Journal. To access the Option menu, pull
down the File menu, and select Journal Preferences
(Figure 1.29). Open Journal Preferences and several
options will appear (Figure 1.30).
Marker Text Event Marker
FIGURE 1.28
Edit Display Lessons
Save Changes
COP'iToFloPP'iorNet',.-mrk
Print,, , Ctrl+P
Printer Setup,, .
DisplayPreferences
About BiopacStudentLab" .
FIGURE 1.29
The BIOPACStudent Lab 11
---------------
Meas-wemerrts: Optrom:
I;; lncludemeesureroentname
I;; Ir.cludemeasurementunits
i;j I channelnumbers
;;;j Put each measurement on aseperete line
'v./aveDataPasleOpliom
;';;j Includetimevalues
Cancel
FIGURE1.30
1. For purposes of this introductory lesson, click in
the box next to each "measurementpaste" option
so that all are selected. When you paste measure-
ments in the nextfew steps, you caneasilyidentify
each optionexpression.
2. Click in the "Include time values" box of the
"Waveformdatapaste options."
3. Click OKto accept the optionchanges.
Pasting aPop-Up Measurement
When you use the Paste measurement function, all the
pop-up measurements showing a value will be written
to the journal.Ifyou do notwantthesemeasurements,
be sure toselect the measurement optionnone.
To paste a pop-upmeasurementinto the journal:
1. Select the channelyou wantto measure byclicking
on it with the Selection tool or use the cursor to
pick the correct channel number in the boxes just
left of each of the pop-up measurements.
2. Choose the appropriatepop-upmeasurement (e.g.,
delta T, Max).
3. Use the l-bearn selection tool to select the portion
of the wave you are interested in. The pop-up
measurementvalueswill updateinstantly.Thepop-
up measurements always operate on the selected
area you have chosen with the I-beam tool. For
instance, if you choose delta T, you will find the
time from the beginningto the end of the selection
area.Ifyou choosemax,youwill get the maximum
value of the largest wave in the selected area.
4. Click on the Journal window and place the cursor
where you want the measurements pasted.
5. Pull downthe Editmenu andselect Pastemeasure-
ment. Alternatively, youcan use the fast keystroke
commandshown in Figure 1.31.
6. Click on Pastemeasurementtoenterthe datain the
journal (Figure 1.32).
-
FIGURE1.31
"0
FIGURE1.32
Pasting Wave Data
When you use the Paste Wave Data function, all the
points thatmake up the data in the selected wave area
will be written to the journal. Keep in mind that it is
very easy to puta lot of data intothe journalusing this
command. Ifyou select one secondof a wave thatwas
sampled at 200 Hz, you will get 200 numbers written
into the journal.
To paste wave data into the journal:
1. Select the channel you wish to measure by clicking
on it using the arrowtool, or use thecursorto pick
the correctchannelin the channel boxesjustleft of
each of the pop-up measurements.
2. Use the l-bearn selection tool to select the portion
ofthe wave youare interested in.
3. Pull down the Edit menu and scroll down to
"journal"; thenscroll right to PasteWave Data.
OtherJournal Features
Time and DateStamps
The Journal is also equipped with stamps for the time
and date. It's always a good idea to stamp the journal
with the time and date.
12 II BIOPAC LabExperiment 1
1
I
i
"..
.i
Tr;e "rime stamp" isthe clock buttonat the top left
.,- :ic Journal window. When you click on the clock
.cori, the current time (according to your computer's
svstern clock) will be entered in the Journal at the cur-

sor point.
The "datestamp"isthe calendarbuttonto the right
ofthe time stamp.Whenyou click on the calendaricon,
the current date (according to your computer's system
calendar will be entered in the Journal at the cursor
point.
Text Entry
Itispossible to write anythingyou wantdirectly in the
Journal.Justclick on the Journal windowandplace the
cursorat the pointyou wish to begin typing.Togo back
to the graph, click on the graph window.
Saving the Journal
To save the Journal, click on the Journal window and
move to the Filemenu; thenselect SaveChanges. When
saving the Journal, the programcreates a standardtext
file using the existing file name and location. Ifyou
change the Journal entries (new file name, new date,
time, etc.), move to the File menu, select, and click on
SaveChanges again.
Printing
,
You control how the data is presented on the printed
page by controlling how it is displayed on the screen
prior to selecting Print. All of the options relating to
printing the data files apply to the waveforms as they
are displayed in the Datawindow.
The printeronly works with the data shown in the
Datawindow, which often isnot the complete data file.
If you have zoomed, changed the scale, or hidden a
channel, only the portion of the data displayed in the
channel window will be printed. This is actually very
useful, becauseoftentimesyou may only wantto display
a portionof the data.
When you chooseFile> Print,you will be prompt-
ed to choose which items to print (Figure 1.33). Select
the item andclick OK to print.
Ifyou want to print the entire data file, you must
first place it in the Data window before selecting the
Printoption.
1. Click the mouseinanyportionof the Datawindow
to make it active.
2. Pull down the Displaymenu and choose Autoscale
horizontal.
3. Pull down the Displaymenuandchoose Autoscale
waveforms.


1
I

I
itf!lJl5 to ;i;t .. ce
I
:PrintJournal
OK Canc:el
J
FIGURE 1.33
4. Pull down the File menu and choose Print> Print
graph, then click Print.
Your actualPrintwindowwill dependon the print-
er andthe operatingsystem you are using. Ifnecessary,
ask yourlaboratoryinstructor for assistance.
Importing Journal Files
The Journal file (measurements, wave data, or com-
ments) can beimportedintoawordprocessingprogram
or any application thataccepts TEXTor ASCIIfiles.
To place the file into a word processing document,
justopen the saved Journal data directly into the word
processmgprogram.
To place the file into a spreadsheet, it is usually a
good idea to remove any extraneous comments so you
have rows and/orcolumns of numbers.
Saving the Data
In experiments to follow, you will record experimental
data that will be stored in a data file in a folder with
yournameon it.Journaltextwill bestored in the same
folder. At the beginning of the experiment, instructions
will be given regarding creation of your personal data
andJournal files, how to retrieve informationfrom the
files,how to printthe information,andhowto copy the
filesto a diskette.
Practice
Atthis time, you are encouragedto exploreandpractice
using the various analytical features of the BIOPAC
StudentLab byanalyzingthe waveformdatainchannel
40 (pulse) of the Sample Data-L07file.
The BIOPACStudent Lab 13
t
J
.1
1. Displaythe entireSampleData-L07filein the Data
window by selecting Autoscale waveform, then
Autoscale horizontal from the Displaymenu.
2. Activate the Zoomtoolandselect an areacontain-
ing the first six spikes of the ECG record.
3. Activate the Selection tool. Your Data window
shouldresemble Figure 1.34.
Select the appropriate channel number, data analy-
sis tool (selection, I-beam, or zoom), and measurement
function to determine each of the following in the des-
ignatedareaof Figure 1.35. Recordyourmeasurements
in the Journalandthe report.
1. Maximum amplitude of wave A, wave B, wave C,
and wave D.
2. Frequency, measuredbetweenwaveAandwave D.
3. Minimumand maximumamplitude betweenwave
A andwave D.
4. The interval of time between wave C andwaveD.
5. Theinterval of time between wave Aandwave B.
14 BIOPAC LabExperiment1
B-
FIGURE1.34
When finished, close the Sample Data-L07 file,
close the BIOPAC Student Lab program, and turn off
the computer.

I
[
BIOPAC THE BIOPACSTUDENT LAB
1 DATA ACQUISiTION ANDANALYSIS SYSTEM
DATA REPORT
""-"arne: _
LabSection: Date:
1. PracticeMeasurements (include correctunits)
(a) Maximumamplitude: wave A
wave B
wave C
wave D _
(b) Frequency of waveforms measured betweenwaveA and wave D
(c) Minimum and maximumamplitude betweenwaveA and wave D:
Minimumamplitude _
Maximum arnplitudej _
(d) Interval of time betweenwave C and wave D
(e) Interval of time betweenwave A and wave B
2. Briefly describe the function of each of the following data analysis tools:
(a) selection tool _
(b) I-beam tool
(c) zoom tool
3. List two sequentialsteps for insertinga markerlabel (text) while data is being recorded.
(a)
(b)
4. You have lost track ofwhere you are in the data due to zooming, scrolling, and so on. List two sequential
steps to makesure thecomplete data file is displayed onthe screen.
(a)
(b)
5. Whichmeasurementboxfunction is thecorrectone to select for determining:
___(a) thedifference in amplitude betweenthe lastpointand the first pointof the area selected by
the I-beam tool.
___(b) the difference between the maximum value in the selected range and the minimumvalue in the
selected range.
___(c) the amplitude value for the channelatthe pointselected by theI-beam tool.
___(d) the maximum amplitude value within the area selected by the I-beamtool.
BIOPACLab Experiment 1 15
I
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
,
II
Principles of Electromyography I:
Fundamentals of Motor Unit Recruitment
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The human body has three kinds of muscle tissue-
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
Each kind of muscle tissue differs from the other two in
their location, their microscopic structure, their control
by nervous and endocrine systems, and how they per-
form specific tasks to maintain homeostasis.
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Smooth muscle is located in the walls of hollow internal
organs such as blood vessels, the stomach, intestines,
" and the airways of the lungs. Smooth muscle cells have
a single nucleus and are generally spindle shaped rather
than cylindrically shaped (Figure 2.1). Their cytoplasm
has a non-striated, or smooth, appearance, and they are
frequently connected to form cords or sheets. Smooth
muscle cells are supplied with nerve fibers of the auto-
nomic nervous system. Thus, smooth muscle action is
involuntary. Smooth muscle contractions are slow and
powerful. Contraction of smooth muscle changes the
internal diameter or volume of hollow organs and is
thereby used to regulate the passage of material through
the stomach and intestines, the pressure and flow of
blood through blood vessels, and the flow of air
through the airways of lungs.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Cardiac muscle forms the middle layer of the heart wall
called the myocardium. Cardiac muscle cells are short,
cylindrical cells, each having a single nucleus and a
cytoplasm marked by alternating light and dark bands
called striations. Striated cardiac muscle cells are joined
together in series at junctions characterized by low elec-
trical resistance bridges that allow electrical impulses to

rapidly spread from cell to cell. Thus, cardiac muscle
cells function together as a unit when stimulated to con-
tract. Cardiac muscle tissue includes a pacemaker sys-
tem that initiates the heartbeat and coordinates
contraction of cardiac muscle in parts of the heart.
Control of the heartbeat is by way of several hormones
that alter frequency and strength of the contractions
and by way of the autonomic nervous system that inner-
vates the heart with involuntary motor fibers.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Skeletal muscle, as its name suggests, is usually attached
to the skeleton, although some skeletal muscles are
attached to other kinds of connective tissue.
Contraction and shortening of skeletal muscle produces
movement, such as when extending the leg in walking
or flexing the forearm when lifting an object. Skeletal
muscle tissue makes up most of the human body's mass
and can also produce significant heat, when needed, by
way of special contractions that characterize shivering.
Regardless of kind, the primary function of muscle
tissue is to convert chemical energy into mechanical
work. and in doing so, the muscle contracts and physi-
cally shortens. In this chapter, we will investigate some
aspects of neuromuscular control involving the somatic
motor system and its control of skeletal muscles. In
other chapters, we will study physiologic phenomena
associated with other kinds of muscle, such as electro-
physiology of the heart.
Human skeletal muscle consists of hundreds of
individual cylindrically shaped cells, called muscle
fibers, bound together by connective tissue. In the body,
skeletal muscles are stimulated to contract by somatic
motor nerves, which carry signals in the form of nerve
impulses from the brain or spinal cord to the skeletal
Principles of Electromyography I: Fundamentals of Motor Unit Recruitment 17

Nonstriated Smooth Muscle
Unmyelinated Autonomic Motor Fibers
Involuntary Control
Purkinje Fibers
Involuntary Control
Striated Ventricular Cardiac Muscle
/7:
Myeli
Motor
Volunt
() -
c--
1-
r-
- i---
'I
-

I)
-- - -
- -- f-4
I--
i--
- - I---
[

--
4
-
i-- c)
--
-
'--f-
-f--
I-- -
[J-
f--
- c---


-
-
:-11
- -
- -I-- I--
I-- - -
- -
,.....
- 1- -
Striated Skeletal Muscle Fibers
FIGURE 2.1
muscles (Figure 2.2). Nerve cells that innervate skeletal
muscle are called somatic motor neurons. They are
located in the gray matter of the spinal cord and brain.
Axons, or nerve fibers, which are long, cylindrical
extensions of the neurons, leave the spinal cord or brain
via spinal or cranial nerves and are distributed to appro-
priate skeletal muscles in the form of a peripheral nerve,
a cable-like collection of individual nerve fibers. Upon
reaching the muscle, each nerve fiber branches and
innervates several individual muscle fibers.
Although a single motor neuron can innervate sev-
eral muscle fibers, each muscle fiber is innervated by
only one motor neuron. The combination of a single
motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it controls is
called a motor unit (Figure 2.2). The size of a motor
unit is determined by the number of muscle fibers sup-
plied by a single nerve fiber. A motor unit of size six
means one nerve fiber supplies six muscle fibers, 25
means one nerve fiber supplies 25 muscle fibers, and so
forth. When a somatic motor neuron is activated, all of
the muscle fibers it innervates respond to the neuron's
impulses by generating their own electric signals that
nated Somatic
Neuron
ary Control
lead to a collective contraction of the activated muscle
fibers.
The size of the motor unit arrangement (e.g., 10,
50, or 3,000) of a skeletal muscle varies depending on
its function (flexion, extension, etc.) and location in the
body. The smaller the number of muscle fibers inner-
vated by a single nerve fiber, the greater the number of
neurons needed for control of the muscle and the
greater the degree of control the brain has over the
extent of shortening. For example, muscles that move
the fingers have very small motor units to allow for
precise control, as when operating a computer key-
board. Muscles that maintain posture of the spine have
very large motor units beca use precise control over the
extent of shortening is not necessary. The difference in
the size of the area in the motor cortex of the cerebrum
required for control of the fingers versus the size of the
area required for control of postural muscles of the
trunk can be seen in Figure 2.3.
Smooth, controlled movements of the body, such as
walking, swimming, or jogging, are produced by grad-
ed contractions of skeletal muscle. Grading means
changing the strength of muscle contraction or the

18 II BIOPAC Lab Experiment 2
....
l
--------
I
-
Spinal Cord
Posterior PosteriorRoot
\'ot:J' U-,I! '\UT1:J2r is 3
,
Anterior
Four
Alpha Motor Neurons
(Lower Motor Neurons)

FIGURE 2.2
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
extentofshorteningin proportionto the loadplacedon
the muscle. Skeletal muscles are thus able to reach to
different loads accordingly. For example, the effort of
muscles used in walkingon levelgroundislessthanthe
effortthose samemuscles expend in climbing stairs.
Physiologically, the degree ofskeletal muscle con-
"'
tractionis controlled by:
1. activating a desired numberofmotor units within
the muscle and
2. controllingthe frequency of motorneuronimpuls-
es in each motorunit.
The strength of skeletal muscle contraction is
directlyproportionalto the numberofmotorunits that
are simultaneously active. When an increase in the
strength of a muscle's contraction is necessary to per-
form a task, the brain increases the numberof simulta-
neously active motor units within the muscle. This
process is known as motorunitrecruitment.
Restingskeletalmuscles in vivo exhibit a phenom-
enon known as tonus, a slightstate of constanttension
that serves to maintain the muscle in a state of readi-
ness. Tonusisdue to the alternateperiodicactivationof
a small number of motor units within the muscle by
motorcentersin the brain and spinal cord.
When a motor unit is activated, the component
muscle fibers generate and conduct their own electric
,
impulses, which ultimately result in contraction of the
fibers. Althoughthe electricimpulsegeneratedandcon-
ducted by each fiber is very weak (less than 100
many fibers conducting simultaneously induce voltage
differences in the overlying skin that are large enough
to bedetected byapairof surfaceelectrodes.Thedetec-
tion, amplification, and recording of changes in skin
voltage produced by underlying skeletal muscle
traction iscalledelectromyography.Therecordingthus
obtained is called an electromyogram (EMG). In this
chapter, we will record electromyograms from forearm
skeletal muscles that clench the fist and correlate
increase in grip strengthwithmotorunitrecruitment.
Experimental Objectives
1. To observe and record skeletal muscle
reflected by a basallevel of electrical activityasso-
ciatedwith the muscle in a resting state.
2. Torecordmaximumgripstrengthfor rightand left
hands and compare differences between male and
female.
3. To observe, record, and correlate
recruitmentwith increased power of skeletalmus-
cle contraction.
4. To listen to EMG "sounds" and correlate sound
intensitywithmotor unitrecruitment.
Principlesof Electromyography I Fundamentals of MotorUnit Recruitment 19
V),
con-
an
tonus as
motor unit
~
:J
(JJ
(JJ
u::
ro
'6
.z
'5>
c
-3
Primary Somatic Motor Cortex
Precentral Gyrus
Cerebrum Right Hemisphere
Frontal Lobe
c-
Cerebellum ~
Medulla
Oblongata
Spina Com ;:f
FIGURE 2.3
From Basic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001 by Richard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission of Kendall/Hunt
Publishing Company.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
Computer system: Macintosh-minimum 68020,
System 7, 4 MB RAM; or PC running
Windows 95, 4 MB RAM
BIOPAC Student Lab Software 3.70
BIOPAC MP 30 data acquisition unit with AC100A
transformer
BIOPAC SS2L electrode lead cables
BIOPAC GEL1 electrode gel and ELPAD
BIOPAC EL503 disposable vinyl electrodes
BIOPAC OUT1 headphones
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Surface Recording Electrodes
The disposable electrodes used by the BIOPAC Student
Lab are standard disposable electrodes and are widely
used in clinical, research, and teaching applications.
20 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 2
Although they sound complex, electrodes are very sim-
ple devices that consist of a small piece of metal
designed to make indirect contact with the skin and a
larger adhesive plastic disk. Each electrode is about 1
inch in diameter and is sticky on one side so it will
adhere to skin. If you look closely at the electrode, you
can see that there is a small piece of plastic mesh filled
with a gel. Gel conducts electricity better than skin and
is more flexible than the metal part of the electrode; this
allows the subject'S skin to flex and change shape some-
what without losing the electrical connection with the
metal part of the electrode. These electrodes come in
strips of ten, and you should not remove an electrode
from the backing until you are ready to use it. The pur-
pose of an electrode is to act as a "connector" between
the SS2L cable and the subject's skin, where electric sig-
nals are easiest to detect. Electrodes have no moving
parts, so there is nothing you have to do to get an elec-
trode to "work," although the key to working with
electrodes is making sure that everything is connected
properly.
l
I
I
I; :':-'. el-cnode is able to make a good connection
:tc suoject's skin, the signals that appear on the
Student Lab will be relatively accurate,
,
However,ifan electrodeisnotadheringwell to the skin,
[hen the signal plotted on the screen can appear
"fuzzy." Some refer to this as "noise," and although it
is always present to some degree, it is desirable to
reduce it as much as possible.
There are several things you cando to reducenoise
when electrodes are connected. A common problem is
that something on the surface of the skin is coming
betweenthe electrodeandthe skin.Forinstance,ifthere
istoo muchhairbetweenthe outerlayerof skin andthe
electrode, then you may notbe able to sense the electri-
cal activity taking place below the surface of the skin.
Since in this experimentwe do notrecommend shaving
the arm for the sake of getting a good signal, the best
you can do is to try to place the electrodes where there
is the leastamountof hair.
Onewayyou can improve electrode connections is
to gentlyrubthe areawherethe electrodeisto be placed
with an ELPAD electrode pad (included with the
BIOPAC Student Lab). The ELPAD abrades the skin,
removing a thin layer of dead skin from the skin's sur-
face. Since dead skin does not conduct electricity very
well, this improves the connection between the elec-
trodeandthe skin.
Itis also a good idea to attach the electrodes a few
minutes before you are going to use them. The best
results are achieved by putting the electrodes in place
about5 minutes before you begin recording data. This
"'
gives the electrodes time to establish contact with the
surface of the skin.
SS2L
Electrode
Lead
Att'7ching electrodes: To attach an electrode, peel
the elecrrode trorn lCS backing and place it on the area
indicatedin the lesson. Youmay wantto squeezea drop
or two of electrode gel onto either the surface of the
skin or onto the electrode to help ensure that the elec-
trode will make good electrical contact with the skin.
Once it is in place, press down firrnlv on the electrode
withtwo fingers and rock the electrode back and forth
for a few seconds. Thiswill ensure thatit isadheringto
the skin as much as possible. \'\'ith the electrode in
place, attach the electrode lead from the SS2L to the
snap connectoron top of the electrode. Each colorlead
isdifferent,so it isimportantthatyou attacheachcable
to the appropriate electrodesite.
Removing electrodes: Once you have finished
recording data, disconnect the lead, peel the electrode
off the skin, and dispose of the electrode.
Set Up
1. Turn on your computer. The desktop should
appear on the monitor. Ifit does not appear, then
ask the laboratoryinstructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
powerswitch is on the rearpanel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LED does not
lightup whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
to make surethe ACIOOA transformer(whichsup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. Select a subject for electromyography. Using a cot-
ton ball or paper towel soaked in alcohol, or an
ELPAD, and cleanse the skin on the medial aspect
ofthe anteriorforearm (Figure 2.4)wherethe EMG
Disposable
Electrodes
FIGURE 2.4
, Courtesy ofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
Principlesof Electromyography I:Fundamentals of MotorUnit Recruitment 21
I
,-
. --;
electrodes will be attached. For the first recording
segment, select the subject's dominant forearm
(generally the right forearm if the subject is right-
handedor the leftforearmifthe subjectisleft-hand-
ed) and attachthe electrodesas shown.This will be
Forearm 1. Use the subject's other forearm for the
secondrecording segment. This will beForearm2.
4. Plug the electrode assembly (SS2L)into Channel3.
Attach the color-coded electrode leads to the sub-
ject according to Figure 2.4. The subject is to he
seated at the laboratory bench with the selected
forearm resting on the table top and the palmfac-
ing upward.
5. Locate the "BIOPACStudent Lab" folder, open it,
and start the BTOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt (Figure 2.5) will appear asking you to
choose a lesson. ChooseLesson 1 ("LOI-EMG-l")
by clicking on it to highlight it, then click OK.
6. Aprompt(Figure 2.6)shouldappearaskingyou to
"Please type in yourfilename." The programdoes
this so thatit can store all the data files you create
in one place-making it easier for you to retrieve
data later.
FIGURE2.5
Please type in your tile name.
,
OK
Youcanenteryourreal name,anickname. :.-::
name of your group ifyou are working with
students. However, the BIOPAC Studentlab
waredoes notallowfor duplicatenames,soif
are alot ofotherstudentsusing yourcomputer 3.[,-::
you try to log on as "John," for example,there is.:.
good chance the BIOPAC Student Lab software
will ask you to use a different name. The be<
approach isto select and type in a unique identi.i-
er, such as the subject's nickname or student lD
number, your full name, or some combination or
your name and otherletters and/or numbers (e.g..
"JohnF" or "John3"). It is a good idea to use the
same log-on name for each lesson. Whichever log-
on name you choose, be sure to write it down so
that you can keep track of where your data is
stored.
Once you enter your name and choose OK, the
BTOPAC Student Lab software creates a folder
inside the "Data Files" folder, which is inside the
"BIOPAC Student Lab" folder on your computer.
This is where all your data will be stored. If you
choose the same file name for other lessons, they
will also be stored in this folder. However, if you
try to use the same filenamewhenyou repeata les-
son or if someone else tries to choose the same
name,the programwill insist thatyou chooseadif-
ferent name. The files inside your folder can be
moved, copied, duplicated, and deleted just like
any other files. If you wish, you can copy them to
a diskette as a backupor in case you wantto view
themlater. Check withyourinstructoror lab assis-
tantfor more informationon howto do this.
7. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 2.7
will be displayed. Check to ensure the proper
placement of electrodes and electrode leads and
make certain that the electrode assembly is
plugged into Channel 3. This concludes the set-up
procedures.
FIGURE2.6 FIGURE2.7
22 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 2
_____________________---':1
I.
:: ..;:ec:::!"::;"
-",-=-: "<:-'a; ctenrh
\
FIGURE2.8
~ ..,
~ ~ . ------
" -j
1
FIGURE2.10
inant forearm), and segment 2 data will be recorded
from Forearm 2. In order to work efficiently, read this
entire section so you will know what to do before
recording.
Checkthe last line of the Journaland notethe total
FIGURE2.9
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
~
1. Click on Calibrate. This will start the calibration
recording.
2. A dialog box pops up when you click on the
Calibrate button, telling you to wait about 2 sec-
onds, clench the fist as hard as possible, then
release (Figure 2.8).
3. When ready, click OK and performthe calibration
procedureas given previously. Thecalibrationpro-
cedure will last 8 seconds and stop automatically,
so let it run its course. At the end of the 8-second
calibration recording, the screen should resemble
Figure 2.9.
4. Ifyour calibration recording did not begin with a
zero baseline (subject clenched fist before waiting 2
seconds), you need to repeat calibration to obtain a
reading similar to Figure 2.9, Ifnecessary, click on
Redo Calibration to repeat the calibration proce-
dure.
EXPERIMENTALPROTOCOL
AND DATAACQUISITION
You will record two segments of data per subject: seg-
,
ment1 data will berecordedfrom Forearm 1 (the dom-
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recording segment as soon as possible so you do not
waste recording time (time is memory).
Segment1:DominantForearm
1. When you beginto record, thesubjectwill repeata
cycle of clench-release-wait-holdingthe clenchfor
2 seconds andwaiting for 2 secondsafterreleasing
before beginningthe nextcycle. Thesubjectshould
try to increase clench strength in equal increments
suchthatthe fourth clench is the maximum clench
force. In this partof the experiment,we will record
an increase in the number of active grip muscle
motor units (motor unit recruitment) as grip force
increases.
2. When ready, click on Record. The subject can
begin the clench-release-waitcycles.
3. After the fourth clench (maximum clench) is
released, click on Suspend. The recording should
halt, giving you time to review the data and pre-
pare for the next recording segment. Ifall went
well, your data shouldresemble Figure 2.10.
4. Thedata would be different if (1)theSuspend but-
ton was pressed prematurelyor (2)the instructions
were not followed. Ifthe data is not similar to the
data in Figure 2.10, click Redo and repeat steps 2
and 3. Note thatonce you click on Redo, the data
you have justrecorded will be erased.
Segment2: Non-DominantForearm
1. Attach three new electrodes to the subject's oppo-
site (non-dominant) forearm. Again, referto Figure
2.4for proper placementof electrodes.
Principlesof Electromyography I:Fundamentals of MotorUnit Recruitment 23
2. When you resume recording, a marker labeled
"Forearm 2" will automatically be inserted in the
marker bar. The subject will repeat a cycle of
c1ench-release-wait-holding the clench for 2 sec-
onds and waiting for 2 seconds after releasing
before beginningthe nextcycle. The subjectshould
try to increase clench strength in equal increments
such thatthe fourth clenchis the maximumclench
force.
3. When ready, click on Resume. The subject can
begin the clench-release-wait cycles.
4. After the fourth clench (maximum clench) is
released, click on Suspend. Ifall went well, your
datashould look similarto Figure 2.11.
5. Ifthe data are not similar, click Redo and repeat
steps 3 and 4. Note that once you click on Redo,
the data you just recorded for segment 2 will be
erased.
6. Click on Stop. When you click on Stop, a dialog
boxcomes up asking if you are finished with both
forearm recordings (Figure 2.12). Clicking "Yes"
will endthe data recordingsegment andautomati-
cally save the data. Clicking "No" will bring you
back to the "Resume" or "Stop" options.
-- 0J -
----- ----------------- --------------'----"1
FIGURE2.11
I
7. If you are finished with both forearm recordings
and you want to listen to the EMGsignal, click on
Yes.
Listeningto the EMG Signal
Listening to the EMGcan be a valuable tool in detect-
ing muscle abnormalities; it is performed here for gen-
eral interest. Listening to the EMG signal is optional,
and the screen data will not be saved for lateranalysis.
Whenlisteningto the EMGsignal,itispossiblethat
the volume through the headphones may be very loud
due to system feedback. The volume cannot be adjust-
ed, so you may have to position the headphones slight-
lyoff the ear to reduce the sound.
1. Plug the OUTI headphoneset intothe outputport
in the back ofthe MP30. The subject puts on the
headphones.
2. When ready, click on Listen. Experiment by chang-
ing the clenchforce as you watchthe screen and lis-
ten. Note the increase in sound intensity as grip
strengthincreases.
3. When finished listening, click Stop. If others in
yourlab groupwouldlike to hearthe EMGsignal,
switchthe headphones from the subjectto the new
person and click Redo.
4. Whenfinishedlistening,click Done.Apop-upwin-
dow with six options will appear (Figure 2.13).
Makeyourchoice andcontinue as directed.
Ifchoosingthe Recordfrom anothersubjectoption,
'-
attachnew electrodesasper the set-upproceduresgiven
earlier in this chapter and repeat the steps outlined in
the calibrationsection and the data recordingsection.
Remember: Each person will need to use a unique
file name.
Ifyou have finished data recording, select Analyze
current data file. Your complete data file (Forearm 1
Analyzecurrent datafile
Analyze another data file
Record Il,notherLesson
Copyto Floppyor

OK
FIGURE2.13
FIGURE2.12
24 BIOPAC LabExperiment2
.::.-::2 J:""J-:: Forearm 2 data) is displayed and should
:-esfI7".::Cle Figure 2.14.
Irvou chooseQuit,theBSLprogramwill close,and
YOU wil! have to reopenit andselectReviewsaveddata
'I
from rhe "lessons" menu in orderto locate anddisplay
vour data file.
DATA ANALYSIS
1. The first marker indicates the beginning of
Forearm 1 data, and the second marker indicates
the beginning of Forearm 2 data. Click on the
markersandmarkertoolsto becomemorefamiliar
withtheiruse. Ifnecessary, reviewChapter1infor-
mationconcerningmarkers.
2. Note the channel number (CH) designations: (CH
3 displays standardEMGdataandCH40displays
the integrated EMGdata. As youcantell fromthe
record in CH3, the standard EMGwaveforms are
centeredaroundzeroandcontainbothpositiveand
negative deflections. The baseline activity between
EMGclusters represents tonus.

!
CD !____ __ .1";'
3]'n""'",,_____ I';" __ I..
E"!e:

1.. !.L'cfij
'00
#; .. ..-
o "" "-----1 0>1}
. "1 .'00
i
[gTI1!iiJ
.
-2.00
o.
ow
1:;0 '!
I." .
"
Lesson 1- Electromyograph',' \EMG) I
Fill)name1M Example.Lut
TIJ<),d<ry,JW,..29,2003
090632PM
FIGURE2.14
====U:J

... "'" rc<"'L.......
CilC mc;:::n;.:,:J"V
I1EI


FIGURE2.15
,
To assess the amountof workdoneby a muscle (or
a group of muscles, in this experiment), it is often
useful to pIor the integrated EMG, which is the
envelope of the standard waveform. This is also
known as contour-following and is similar to tak-
ing the absolute value of the EMGsignal. An inte-
gratedEMGsignal isalways greater thanzero and
appears to "trace" an imaginary upper edge (or
contour)of the standardL\lGsignal. In thisexper-
iment, the BIOPAC Student Lab calculates and
plots an integrated EMG as the raw EMG data is
being received. Calculations performed while the
data is being recorded are sometimesreferred to as
"real-time" calculations, since the results are dis-
played as datais beingcollected.
3. Noticethatthe integratedEMGtraceisdifferentin
color from the standardEMG. You may superim-
posetheintegratedEMGon the standardEMGby
clickingon the Overlapbutton.Yourscreenshould
resemble Figure 2.15. Click on the Split button to
restore the split-screen display.
4. Use the zoom tool to select data from Forearm 1
for optimalviewing. Select thefirst fourclustersof
standardEMG (Figure 2.16).
5. Set up the measurement boxes as follows (refer to
Chapter 1 if necessary):
Channel Measurement
CH3 min
CH3 max
CH3 p-p
CH40 mean
Recall:
min displays the rrurumum value in the selected
area.
max displays the maximum value in the selected
area.
im,-:]

0'10l1oI>
m:::-:::;::;;----::-: Wll "'","' __ .';,
]".'8
TIiJ-
- ...... '.1 .s. ....
"

If
t

If
FIGURE2.16

iI
,\,>
Ij>
..


..
"'.1
I
L
Principlesof Electromyography I:Fundamentalsof MotorUnit Recruitment 25
I

I""
I ---- -,1"
I
I,,,
FIGURE 2.17
p-p findsthe maximumvalueinthe selectedarea and
subtracts the minimumvalue inthe selected area.
mean displays the average value in the selected
area.
The "selected area" is the area selected by the 1-
beamtool (includingthe endpoints).
6. Using the l-bearn tool, select an area enclosing the
first EMG cluster (Figure 2.17).
7. Record the measurementvalues in the Journal and
in the report.
8. Repeatsteps 7and 8on eachsuccessive EMGclus-
ter for Forearm 1.
9. Scroll to the Forearm 2 EMG clusters and repeat
steps 7and 8.
10. Scroll back to the Forearm 1 EMG clusters and
examine the baseline activity between the clusters.
The baseline electrical activity in a resting muscle
reflects tonus. Scroll to the Forearm 2 EMGclus-
ters and comparetonuslevelswith Forearm1. Are
the levels about the same? Record observations in
the Journal andin the report.
11. Youmay savethe datato adiskette, save notesthat
are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
12. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.
,
26 BIOPAC LabExperiment 2

I

",
BIOPAC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY I:
2 FUNDAMENTALS OF MOTOR UNITRECRUITMENT

DATA REPORT

Lab Section:
Date: _
I. DATA ANDCALCULATIONS
Subject Profile
Name _ Height _

Age _ Weight _


__.... .J
,'
Gender: Male / Female
-..... ...!.. -
.
E
A. EMG Measurements
r::
...

Cluster# Forearm 1(Dominant) Forearm 2
.-
Min (CH3) Max(CH3) p-p (CH3) Mean(CH40) Min (CH3) Max(CH3) p-p (CH3) Mean(CH40) ...
"-"
it. '.'
Ii}-
1
j"
2

II>
=
li.....

""- 3
r,
4

i
l'
'*'
Note: "Clusters" are the EMG bursts associated with each clench.
,,-
B.Calculation
f"
'."
fI
Use the mean measurement from the table above to compute the percentage increase in EMG activity record-
t
ed between the weakest clench and the strongest clench of Forearm 1.
[
ii'
Mean (strongest clench) - Mean (weakest clench) 100 0/'
C I 1
a cu anon: M ( k I h) x = /0 increase
wea est c enc
t

ean
Answer: %
i
f
II. QUESTIONS
t
J
rI
f-
1. Examine the record between EMG bursts associated with each clench.
,11-


a. Does there appear to be any difference (increase in baseline activity) in tonus between the two
if
forearms' grip muscles? f
f

__Yes __ No

f
b. Would you expect to see a difference? Explain.
;:
E J

BIOPAC Lab Experiment 2 27
,jill
2. Comparethe meanmeasurementfor the rightandleft maximumclenchEMGcluster. Are the:"the same
different?
Same Different
Which one suggests the greaterclench strength?
__Right Left Neither
3. Whatfactors in additionto gendercontribute to observed differences in grip strength?
4. Explain the source of signals detected by the EMGelectrodes.
5. Whatdoes the term "motorunit recruitment" mean?
6. Howwas motor unit recruitmentdemonstratedin this exercise?
7. Define skeletal muscle tonus.
8. Define electromyography.
28 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 2
:1
---------------------------"'
I
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
II
"'
Principles of Electromyography II:
Motor Unit Recruitment and Fatigue
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The primary function of skeletal muscle is to convert
chemical energy into heat and mechanical work (Figure
3.1). The heat produced by active skeletal muscle con-
tributes to the body'sabilityto regulateits core temper-
ature. The performance of mechanical work causes
movementof the skeleton, as when walking or lifting a
weight.
Mechanicalworkin thephysicalsense refers to the
application of a force that results in movement of an
object. In otherwords, mechanicalwork is the product
ofthe magnitude of the applied force (F)times the dis-
"' tance (D)overwhichthe force wasapplied (W == Fx D).
Skeletal muscle performs mechanical work when it
shortens as itcontracts, therebymovingan object. This
kind of contraction is called isotonic contraction.
Monosaccharides
Amino Acids
Glycerol
FattyAcids
1
oxidation. CO + H +
EnergySubstrate + 02
2 20
Oxygen Carbon Water
Dioxide
Phosphorylation
ATP ADP + Pi +
Adenosine Adenosine Inorganic
Triphosphate Diphosphate Phosphate
1Dephosphorylation. ADP + p. +
I
FIGURE 3.1 The release and useofenergyin skeletal muscle
)
Skeletal muscle can contract (develop internal tension
or force) without physically shortening. This kind of
contraction is ca lied isometric contraction, and it does
not result in the performance of mechanical work
because there is no shortening (D == zero). However,
chemical energyis convertedinto heatduring isometric
contraction.
Physiologically,skeletalmuscleisstimulatedto con-
tract when the brain or spinal cord activates motor
units of themuscle (Figure 3.2). A discussion of motor
units and their control was presented in Chapter 2.
Most human skeletal muscles are composed of hun-
dreds of motor units. When a skeletal muscle is called
on to perform mechanical work, the number of motor
unitsin the muscle activatedbythe brainis proportion-
al to the amountof work to be done by the muscle; the
greaterthe amount of work to be done, the greaterthe
Thermal Energy
(Heat)
E<
Chemical Energy
E/
E<
Heat
Contraction of
Skeletal Muscle
Principlesof Electromyography II:MotorUnit Recruitment and Fatigue 29
Spinal Cord
Posterior
Posterior Root
Molar Unit Number IS 3
Four
Alpha Motor Neurons
(Lower Motor Neurons)
o
FIGURE 3.2 An example of four motor units
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
number of motor units activated. Thus, more motor
units are simultaneously active when a skeletal muscle
lifts 20 kg thanwhenthe samemuscle lifts 5 kg.
The brain determines the number of active motor
units required for a muscle to perform a given task by
utilizing sensory information from stretch receptors in
the muscle and associated tendons and joint capsules.
Forexample,as partof the processof liftingabucketof
water from the ground, the brain first activates several
motorunits in the requisite skeletal muscles. If sensory
information returning from the muscles indicates the
muscles are contracting but not developing adequate
power to lift the bucket, the brain activates additional
motor units until the sensory information indicates the
bucketis beinglifted. Appropriately, this stepwise acti-
vation of motor units up to a number adequate to per-
forma designated taskiscalled motorunitrecruitment.
Once you have lifted a light object, the brain recruits
approximatelythe same number of motor units tokeep
the object up butcycles between different motor units.
The muscle fibers consume stored energy available in
the muscle and generate a force by contracting. As the
muscle fibers depletethis fuel source, moreenergy must
he created in order to continue contracting. When the
brain recruits different motor units, formerly active
motorunits canrelax andreplenish their fuel sources.
Skeletalmusclesperformingacutemaximalworkor
chronicsubmaximalworkof a repetitivenatureeventu-
ally fatigue. Fatigue is caused by a reversible depletion
of the muscle's fuel supply. If themuscle uses adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) faster than it can be generated by
cellularmetabolism,fatigue occurs. Duringcontraction,
skeletal muscle cells convert chemical energy into ther-
mal and mechanicalenergy and,in the process,produce
chemical waste products. Normally, the wasteproducts
are removed from themuscle by the circulatory system
as the blood brings nutrients to the muscle for energy
transformation. If certain waste products (metabolites)
are notremoved at an adequaterate, they will accumu-
late and chemically interfere with the contractile
process, thereby hastening the onset of fatigue. Some
accumulated waste products also stimulate pain recep-
torsinsurroundingconnectivetissueandinducecramp-
ing of skeletal muscle, a general sign of inadequate
blood flow to the muscle.
In this lesson, we will examine motor unit recruit-
ment and skeletal muscle fatigue by combining elec-
tromyography with dynamometry. Dynamometry
meansthe measurementof power(dyno =power, meter
= measure). Power is defined as the amount of work
done per unitof time. The graphicrecordderived from
the use of a dynamometer is called a dynagram.
Experimentally, one way to measurethe powerofskele-
tal muscle contraction is by determining the rate at
which the muscle shortens when it performs a pre-
scribedamountof work, such as liftinga weight. In this
lesson, the power of contraction of grip muscles will be
t
30 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 3

"
bv a hand dynamometer equipped with an
.::,,"1':: transducer for recording"
The BIOPAC system will simultaneously record
.nree bands of information:
1. The force you exert on the transducer.
I The electric signal produced by the muscle during
contraction.
3. Theintegratedwaveform,whichisan indication of
the activity levels of the muscle.
Experimental Objectives
1. To determine the maximumgrip strengthfor right
and left hands and compare differences between
male and female.
2. To observe, record, and correlate motor unit
recruitment with increased power of skeletal mus-
cle contraction.
3. To record the force produced by grip muscles,
EMG,andintegratedEMGwhen inducingfatigue.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTANDSUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for mmimum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or
Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPACMP30dataacquisitionunitwithAClOOA

transformer
BIOPACserial/cable (CBLSERA)
BIOPAC electrode lead set (SS2L)
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (EL503), six
electrodes persubject
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
(ELPAD) or skin cleanser
BIOPAC SS25 handdynamometer
BIOPAC ourrheadphones
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Set Up
1. Turn on your computer. The desktop should
appearon themonitor.Ifitdoesnotappear, ask the
laboratoryinstructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicates poweron. Ifthe LED does not
light up whenthepowerswitchisturned on, make
sure the AC100A transformer is plugged into an
electrical outleton thewall or laboratory bench.
\
r
3. Select a subject for electromyography. Using a cot-
ton ball or paper towel and skin cleanser, or an
ELPAD, cleanse the skin on the medial aspect of
the anterior forearm .Figure 3.3) where the EMG
electrodeswill be attached. Select therightforearm
if the subject is right-handed or the left forearm if
the subject is left-handed. The dominant forearm
will be designated Forearm 1 and will be used for
the first recording segment. The other forearm
(Forearm 2) will be used for the second recording
segment. Attachtheelectrodes by peelingeachelec-
trode from its backing and placing it on the area
indicated. You may wantto squeeze a dropof elec-
trode gel onto the center of the electrode to help
ensure thatthe electrode will make good electrical
contact with the skin. Once it is in place, press
down firmly on the electrode with two fingers and
rock the electrode back and forth for a few sec-
onds.Thiswill ensurethatit isadheringtothe skin
as much as possible. With the electrode in place,
attachtheelectrodeleadfromtheSS2Lcableto the
snap connector (nipple) on top of the electrode.
The pinch connectors worklike a small clothespin
butwill onlyattachontothenippleof theelectrode
from one side ofthe connector. Each color lead is
different, so it is importantto attacheach cable to
the appropriateelectrodesite. Onceyouhavecom-
pleted the lesson, peel the electrode offofthe skin
and dispose of the electrode.
White Lead
(-)
tA'- BlackLead
(Ground)
;,,:"1li
f:


,
FIGURE3.3
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
'-, 1
!It
141'

PrinciplesofElectromyography II:MotorUnit Recruitment and Fatigue 31
1
-I
- ":., --J"'J
r'
.1
"I
"1
l
Headphones(BIOPACOUTI)
Plugs into backofMP30 unit

J

o
U
J ,-
..'+'

BIOPACSS2L
I!I
LM
plugs into CHanncl 3

BIOPAC SS25L
plugs into CHannel I
FIGURE 3.4
Courtesyof BIOPACSystems, Inc.
4. Plug theelectrode assembly (SS2L)into Channel3.
Attach the color-coded electrode leads to the sub-
ject according to Figure 3.3. The subject is to be
seated at the laboratory bench with the selected
forearm resting on the tabletop and palm facing
upward.
S.Plug the hand dynamometer (Figure 3.4) into
Channel 1. The subject is to grasp the hand
dynamometer,as shown in Figure 3.5.
6. Locate the "BIOPACStudent Lab" folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt (Figure 3.6) will appear asking you to
choosea lesson. ChooseLesson2 (L02-EMG-2) by
clicking on it to highlight it, thenclickingOK.
7. Aprompt(Figure 3.7) shouldappearaskingyou to
"Please type in you file name." The program does
this so that it canstore all the data files you create
in one place, making it easier for you to retrieve
data later on.
You can enter yourreal name, a nickname, orthe
name of your group ifyou are workingwith other
students. However, the BIOPAC Student Lab soft-
waredoes notallowfor duplicatenames,so ifthere
are a lot of otherstudentsusing yourcomputerand
you try to log on as "John," for example, thereisa
good chance the BIOPAC Student Lab software
will ask you to use a different name. The best
approach is to select and type in a unique identifi-
er, such as the subject's nickname or student ID
number, your full name, or some combination of
your name and other letters and/or numbers (like
"JohnF" or "John3"). Itis a good idea to use the
FIGURE 3.5
Courtesyof BIOPACSystems, Inc.
FIGURE 3.6
same log-on name for each Jesson. Whichever log-
on name you choose, be sure to write it down so
that you can keep track of where your data is
stored.
Once you enter your name and choose OK, the
mOPAC Student Lab software creates a folder
inside the "Data Files" folder, which is inside the
,
32 BIOPAC LabExperiment3
L

,
I,
the: same file name for other lessons, they
,
\'.1.; also be stored in this folder. However, if you
trycouse the same filenamewhenyou repeata les-
son or if someone else tries to choose the same
name, the programwill insistthatyou choosea dif-
ferent name. The files inside your folder can be
moved, copied, duplicated, and deleted just like
any other files. Ifyou wish, you can copy them to
a diskette as a backupor in case you wantto view
them later. Checkwithyourinstructoror lab assis-
tantfor more information on howto do this.
8. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 3.8
will bedisplayed. Checkto ensurethe properplace-
ment of electrodes and electrode leads. Make sure
the electrode assembly is plugged into Channel 3
and the dynamometer assembly is plugged into
ChannelLThis concludes the set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attentionto the calibrationprocedure.
1. Click on Calibrate. A pop-up window will tell you
to remove any grip force fromthe handdynamome-
,
,'L',,"- '-rude:nr Lab" folder on your computer.
T, -, '.'.hc:re: all your data will be stored. Ifyou
Pleasetype inyour filename.
I.MExarnple
OK
FIGURE 3.7
.E'":

,-,-
---_._--,,----_.,----
,
FIGURE 3.8
ter, Todo so. the subjectsetsthe handdynamometer
down. Handsmustberemovedfromthe transducer
tomakesure there isno force on the transducer.This
establishes a zero-force on the transducer. This
establishes a zero-force calibration before you con-
tinue the calibration sequence. Click OK.
2. The subject now grasps the BIOPAC hand
dynamometer with the hand as close to the dyna-
gripcrossbaras possible withoutactually touching
the crossbar (Figure 3.S). \XThen ready, click OK.
IMPORTANT: The subject needs to hold the
dynamometer in the same position for all measure-
ments from each arm, so note the grip position
with respect to the crossbar for the first segment
and try to repeatit for the othersegments.
3. Pop-upwindows will promptas follows:
(a) "Remove any grip force from the hand
dynamometer." Click OK.
(b) "Subject should pick up the hand dynamome-
ter and place his/her hand in the proper grip
position. " Click OK.
(c ) Recorder clicks on OK, then subject should
wait two seconds, then clench the hand
dynamometer as hard as possible, then relax
clench.
The calibration procedure will last 8 seconds
and stop automatically, so let it runits course.
4. At the end of the 8-second calibration recording,
the screen shouldresembleFigure3.9.Thesignalin
the force channel should increase and you should
see a correspondingincrease in the EMGsignal on
the bottomchannel.
Ifyour calibration recording did not begin with
a zero baseline (subject clenched before waiting 2
seconds),you needto repeatcalibrationto obtaina
reading similarto Figure 3.9.
--------- .----- --.--..
YJCIJ .e
_.-'
-- .._---
!'OC
.
,.
"'- __,00
""
soc
_._ .. --", .._- - '000 ';
Iii;,; -Lv
I'"'
.------;-;;'-- -- .- ,"' __
- - -- -------- -_._--
I
r
FIGURE 3.9
c

<,-
;::.--;;
'l<'-.J ,.
"
=
t
liI:'r"
t,
.,.,
':",. ... ;'
I
. "".
. ..
"'"
I
t
..
.
f'

1lI!'"
r
_,to':
t:... .......1.:.'.;
- .;!

.. ...
i
.
<, -'r
'-'l
I'
S'
"
'f-
."
11'
Principlesof ElectromyographyII:MotorUnit Recruitment and Fatigue 33
-
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
You will record two segments oneachforearm:
1. Segment 1records motorunitrecruitment.
2. Segment2 records fatigue.
In orderto workefficiently, read this entire section
so you will knowwhatto do before recording.
Checkthelastline of the Journaland notethe total
amount of time available for the recording. Stop each
recording segment as soon as possible so you do not
waste recording time (time is memory).
Based on your calibrated grip force, the software
determines the optimal grid display and force incre-
ments. Check the Journal and use the indicated incre-
:j,;.
ment when directed to increase force throughout the
recording. Thegrid display is set as follows:
Force Calibration Assigned Increment
0-25 kg 5 kg
25-50 kg 10 kg
750 kg 20 kg
Segment 1- Forearm 1
1. Click on Record. After you click on record, the
screen will change to display only the hand
dynamometer channel. A grid using your assigned
increment as a division scale wiJl appear so that
you can visually review the force level. You will
beginto record data.
2. Repeata cycle of dench-release-wait,withthe sub-
ject holding the clench for 2 seconds and waiting
for 2 seconds after release before beginning the
next cycle. Begin with the assigned increment of
force (5, 10, or 20 kg) and increase each subse-
quentclench by the assigned increment untilmaxi-
mumclenchforce isobtained. Forexample,ifyour
maximum clench force during calibration was 25
kg, your assigned increment of force is 5 kg and

FIGURE 3.10
yourrecorded2-secondclenches should
lyreflect 5-10-15-20-25 kg of grip force.
3. Click on Suspend. The recording should halt. "T'
ing youtime to reviewthe dataandprepare for r:-.c
nextrecordingsegmentof Forearm 1.
4. Ifall went well, your data should look similar te
Figure3.10.Theimportantaspectfor youto check
for is multiple peaks in your data (indicating the
clench cycles). The data shown is from a subject
who has experience with the dynamometer and
was able to maintain an even force throughoutthe
clench. Your data may be correcteven if the peaks
are notas smooth as those shown.
The datawould be incorrect if
(a) the Suspend button was pressed prematurely,
or
(b) the instructions were notfollowed.
5. Click on Redoifyourdatawasincorrectandrepeat
steps 1-3. Note that once you press on Redo, the
datayou have just recorded will be erased.
Segment2- Forearm 1
When you click on Resume, a marker labeled
"Continued clench at maximum force" will automati-
cally be inserted and the recording will continue from
thepointit left off.
1. Havethe subjectface the monitorscreen.
2. Click on Resumeand ask the subjectto clench the
dynamometer with maximum force and maintain
the clench. Notethevalue of the maximum clench
force. As the subject tries to maintain the maxi-
mumclenchforce, forearmmuscleswill fatigueand
the clench force will decrease.
3. When the maximum clench force displayed on the
screen has decreased bv more than 50%, click on
Suspend. The time to fatigue to 50% of maximal
clench force will vary greatly amongindividuals.
4. Ifall went well, your data should look similar to
Figure3.11.Notethatthepeakfoundimmediately
_
I, G
1"
I
lC'---------.---------------
'
FIGURE 3.11
34 BIOPACLab Experiment 3
,
1
I
the start of segment 2 represents the
:;u:-:imal clench force. This example shows the
pcinr of fatigue to 50% maximalclench force cap-
rured on the same screen, but in your data maxi-
mum clench force may scroll outof view.You may
use the horizontal (time) scroll bar to view your
entire recording.
The datawould be Incorrect if:
(a) you didn'trecordtothepointof50%maximal
clenchforce,
(b) the Suspendbutton was pressed prematurely,
or
(c) the instructions were notfollowed.
5. If the data is incorrect, click Redo and have the
subject rest so the arm muscles recover and the
fatigue data will be meaningful. When ready,
repeat steps 1-3. Note that once you press Redo,
the datayou have just recorded will be erased.
6. Click on Suspend to temporarily stop data record-
ing. An instruction windowwill appearasking the
subject to connectto electrodes on Forearm 2, the
non-dominantforearm (Figure 3.12).
Segment 1- Forearm 2
,
1. Refer to Figure 3.3 for correct placement of elec-
trodeson Forearm2 and for correctconnectionsof
the color-coded leads. After placement of the elec-
trodes and attachment of the leads, prepare to
repeat recording segments 1 and 2 for the non-
dominant forearm. Explain the procedure to the
subject before recording.
2. Askthe subjectto repeataseries ofclench(hold for
2 secondsj-release-wait (for 2 seconds) cycles,
beginningwith5 kg of force andincreasingby5kg
increments for each cycle until maximum clench
force is obtained. Click Resume when ready to
record, and Suspendwhen finished.
Segment2- Forearm 2
1. For this recording segment, the subject istoclench
the hand dynamometer as hard as possible and
holdthe clench until the measuredforce reduces by
50% of the initial (maximal) force.
I Whenthe subject has rested briefly andis ready to
record, click on Resume. When the maximal grip

f=IGURE 3.12
force has been reduced (byfatigue) to 50% of the
initial value, click on Suspend.
3. To redo the last section (erase the current data),
click on Redo. Ifvou are finished with the data
recording, click on Stop. A message window will
appear asking vou to confirm you are finished
recording (Figure 3.13)
ListeningtotheEMGSignal
Listening to the EMGIs optional. Listeningto the EMG
can be a valuable tool in detecting muscle abnormali-
ties; it isperformed here for general interest only.
Whenlisteningto the EMGsignal, itispossiblethat
the volume through the headphones may be very loud
due to system feedback. The volume cannot be adjust-
ed, so you may have to position the headphones slight-
lyoff the ear to reduce the sound.
1. Plug the OUTlheadphoneset into the outputport
in the back of the MP30. The subject puts on the
headphones.Youwill hearthe EMGsignal through
the headphones as it is being displayed on the
screen. The screen will display threechannels: CH
1, Force; CH 3, EMG; and CH 40, Integrated
EMG. The data on the screen will not be saved.
Thesignal will rununtil you press Stop.
2. Whenready, click on Listen. Experiment bychang-
ingthe clench force asyou watchthe screenand lis-
ten. Note the increase in sound intensity as more
motorunitsare recruitedto make the grip stronger.
3. When finished listening, click Stop. If others in
yourlab groupwouldlike to hearthe EMGsignal,
switchthe headphonesfrom the subjectto the new
personandclick Redo.
4. When finished recording, click Done. A pop-up
windowwithsix optionswill appear (Figure 3.14).
Makeyourchoice andcontinue as directed.
If choosing the "Record from another subject"
option, attach new electrodes as per the set-up
proceduresandrepeatthe steps outlinedin the cal-
ibrationsection and the datarecordingsection.
REMEMBER: Each person will need to use a
unique filename.
5. Remove the electrode cable pinch connectors and
peel off the electrodes. Throw out the electrodes
(BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the
Are you linished \"fithbothto-corm recordings' Pressing 'Yes'will
automaticallysevethe fileandyou willnot beabletoredo.
FIGURE 3.13
Principlesof Electromyography II:Motor Unit Recruitment and Fatigue 35
:=
OKiJ
'\
FIGURE3.14
FIGURE3.15
electrode gel residue from the skin using soap and
water. The electrodes may leave a slight ring on the
skin for a few hours, which isquitenormal.
DATA ANALYSIS
1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode from the
Lessons menu and choose the correct file, then
open the file. For the first part of the analysis,
choosedatafrom"Forearm1"(the dominantfore-
arm), as shown in Figure 3.15.
2. The first data segment (Segment 1 - Forearm 1) is
the recording after the first marker. The second
data segment (Segment 2 - Forearm 1) is the
recording after the second marker. Note the chan-
nel number(CH) designations: CH 1,Force; CH3,
StandardEMG; and CH 40, IntegratedEMG.
3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows (refer to
Chapter 1 ifnecessary):
fD ',-c;c,C-"w.,.'
l][J]E2!
'[0="==,,=----:-
f- - - '--- - __

FIGURE3.16
Channel Measurement
CH 1 mean
CH3
CH40
p-p
mean
Recall:
mean displays
area.
the average value in the selected
p-p finds the maximum value in the selected area
andsubtractsthe minimumvalue inthe select-
ed area.
The "selected area" is the area selected by the T-
beamtool (including endpoints).
4. Using the I-beamtool,select an areaon the plateau
phase of the first clench (Figure 3.16). Record the
measurement values in Table 3.1 in the report.
5. Repeat step 4 on the plateau of each successive
clench in segment 1of the Forearm 1data.
6. Examine the second recording segment. Segment2
begins after the second marker and represents the
repeatedmaximumclench (Figure 3.16).Setup the
measurement boxes as follows:
Channel Measurement
CH1 Value
CH40 DeltaT
Recall:
Value displays the amplitude value for the channel
at the point selected by the I-beam cursor. Ifa
singlepointisselected,the value isfor thatpoint.
Ifan area isselected,the value isthe endpointof
the selected area.
Delta Tdisplays the amountof time inthe selected
segment (the difference in time betweenthe end-
points of the selectedarea).
7. Use the I-beam tool to select a point of maximal
clench force immediately followingthe startofseg-
ment 2. The point selected should represent the
36 BIOPAC LabExperiment3
,
I
'.'.. -----.2::f
FIGURE 3.17
maximal clench force at the start of segment 2 as
shownin Figure 3.17.
8. Calculate50%of the maximumclenchforce meas-
uredin step 7. Enterthe resulthere: kg. You
will need this numberto completethe nextstep.
9. Beginningwiththe l-beamcursor positionedonthe
plateau of maximal clench (Figure 3.17), drag the
cursor to the right while looking at the "value"
measurement box. Stop dragging the cursor when
it reaches a clench plateau closest to the 50% of
maximum clench value calculated in step 8. The
,
FIGURE 3.18
selected area should resemble the selected area in
Figure 3.18. It represents the area from maximum
clench strength to 50% of maximum clench
strength.
Note the time to fatigue, measured by the delta
T function (CH 40). Record the time to fatigue in
Table 3.2 in the report.
10. You may save the datato adiskette,save notes that
are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
11. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.

:71

- ' ..".,
-."
'"
.-.
-"'.
.,
.
I."
'l'-
fiF
.-
,;

:;
..
r
"
f;
:'
t
'*'
,It"
"
I
"
t
It
f
r
f
t
"
.,
f'
t;
"..
,
.

t


..

k
t
Principlesof ElectromyographyII:MotorUnit Recruitmentand Fatigue 37
<!II
I
,
i
:
'*
f.
, .
t
,.

t'

..
fi
'"

..
if
..
,.

.jI.
'i!

l
I
BIOPAC PRINCIPLES OFELECTROMYOGRAPHY II:
3 MOTORUNITRECRUITMENTAND FATIGUE
DATA REPORT
.:\"ame: _
Lab Section:
Date: _
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
Subject Profile:
Age:
Gender: Male I
DominantForearm:
Name:
Female
Right I Left
_
Height:
Weight:
A. MotorUnitRecruitment
CompleteTable 3.1 using segment 1 datafrom each forearm. (Note: You may notneed six peaksto reach max-
imum.)
TABLE 3.1
,
Forearm 1(Dominant) Forearm 2
Force at Raw EMG ! Integ. EMG Force at RawEMG Integ.EMG
Force Peak (CH 1) (CH3) I (CH40) Peak (CH1) (CH3) (CH40)
Peak # Assn Incr MEAN (kg) P- P(mV) MEAN (mV) MEAN (kg) P- P(mV) MEAN(mV)
1 kg
2 kg
3 kg
4 kg
5 kg
6 kg
I
B.Fatigue
CompleteTable 3.2 using segment 2 data fromeachforearm.
-,
t
TABLE 3.2

Forearm 2
50% Max Timeto Maximum
50% Max l
Timeto
Clench Force Fatigue Clench Force Clench Force Fatigue
Calculate CH40 !'iT CH1Value Calculate CH40 AT
kg sec kg kg sec

..
Forearm 1(Dominant)
I
I
l
"
f Maximum
Clench Force i
!jr
,.

CH 1Value
'f
If

..
kg
!j.

BIOPACLab Experiment3 II 39
'.
-11
II

"'r
r
.i
-----------------------------
;
94
II. QUESTIONS
1. Using maximum clench force to compare, by what percentage is the dominant forearm stronger than the
non-dominantforearm? Show yourcalculations.
2. Aprimaryfunction of muscle isto _
3. Explain the relation betweenmotorunit sizeand abilityof the brainandspinalcordtoexertprecise control
over the contraction of skeletalmuscle.
4. Nametwo physiologic mechanisms thatgovern the strengthof a skeletalmuscle contraction:
5. Define skeletalmuscle fatigue andgive twocauses. _
6. Define "motorunitrecruitment."
7. When holding an object motionless at arm's length, does the numberof activated motor units remain con-
stant? Are the same motorunits used for the duration of holdingthe object?
,
40 BIOPACLab Experiment 3
I

..
..
8. Explain why a larger area of the motor cortex of the cerebrum is required to control muscles of the fingers
..
than muscles of the thorax.
..
..
..
..
9. What is electromyography?
..
.;a
..


.l
10. Suggest two reasons why the skeletal muscles of the dominant forearm are stronger and fatigue more slow-
ly than muscles of the non-dominant forearm.
,;


J






I
I
I
,
BIOPAC Lab Experiment3 41
I:
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
""
Principles ofElectroencephalography I:
Alpha, Beta,Delta, andTheta Rhythms
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The brainisencased by the cranium, bones of the skull
that immediately cover and protect brain surfaces. A
thin cover of skin, called the scalp, covers most of the
cranium. Thelargestpartof the brain, locatedimmedi-
ately beneaththe cranium,isthe cerebrum(Figure 4.1).
The cerebrum is divided into hemispheres and each
hemisphere is divided into frontal, parietal, temporal,
and occipital lobes. The outer cell layers of the cere-
"'
brum form the cerebral cortex-the "gray matter" of
the brain often referred to in popular literature. The
cerebral cortex contains billions of nerve cells (neu-
rons), manyofwhichare functionallyconnectedto each
otherandconnectedto otherpartsof the brain.
Functions of the cerebral cortex include abstract
thought,reasoning, memory,voluntaryandinvoluntary
controlof skeletal muscle, and the recognition and dif-
ferentiation of somatic, visceral, and special sensory
,
FIGURE4.1 The major portions ofthe brain: The cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem


Principles of Electroencephalography I: Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Theta Rhythms 43

"";1
.' -\.'ij:

*'
, 'i
;j
ELk
r-
I'
!
stimuli. Specific regions of the cerebral cortex (Figure
4.2) process or generate various kinds of information.
For example, the frontal lobe generates nerve signals
that voluntarily control skeletal muscle contractions
such as in walking or riding a bicycle. The occipital lobe
processes visual (sight) information, and the temporal
lobe processes auditory (hearing) information.
Cutaneous pain and temperature information and other
somatosensory information is processed in the parietal
lobe. Electrical activity in the form of nerve impulses
being sent and received to and from cortical neurons is
always present, even during sleep or other states when
the level of consciousness is reduced. In a legal sense as
well as a medical or biological sense, absence of electri-
cal activity in the human cerebral cortex signifies death.
Sensory Areas -- _______
Involvedwith
Cutaneous and
OtherSenses
Understanding
Speech,
UsingWords
ParietalLobe
General -t+--r---I----....l
Interpretive
Area
Occipital -+'---
Lobe
Combining
VisualImages,
Visual Recognition
ofObjects
Visual Area
Cerebellum ---
In 1929, an Austrian physician named Hans Burger
discovered that electrodes placed on the scalp could
detect various patterns of electrical activity and that this
detected electrical activity was not due simply to arti-
facts of scalp musculature. Burger recorded the patterns
of electrical activity and called the record an electroen-
cephalogram (electro == electric, encephala == brain, gram
== record). Soon after Burger's discovery, scientists began
to study these "brain waves," and the detection, ampli-
fication, recording, and interpretation of the patterns of
electrical activity associated with functioning of the
cerebral cortex became known as electroencephalogra-
phy. The hardware used to record such patterns is called
an electroencephalograph, and the record obtained
from its use is called an electroencephalogram, or EEG.
---------Central Fissure
MotorAreas Involvedwiththe
Control ofVoluntaryMuscles
Concentration,
ProblemSolving,
Planning
FrontalLobe
\ Auditory Area
_____+---+--+- Lateral Fissure
--f-------.r-+-""&-- MotorSpeech
Area(Broca's
Area)(inleftlobe)
-- TemporalLobe
InterpretationofSensory
Experiences, Memory of
VisualandAuditory Patterns
--f----- Brain Stem
FIGURE 4.2 Some motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex
From BasicHuman Physiologyby Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001 by Richard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission ofKendall/Hunt
PublishingCompany.
44 BIOPAC LabExperiment4

}-,j.:\'. the EEG is still medically useful recording
b ain tuncrion. In medical and basic research, the
.:: of particularbrain waves with sleep phases,
e.notional states, psychological profiles, and types of
.nental activities is ongoing.
EEGsignalsare recordedasaseriesofcomplexwave-
forms. Basicknowledgerewardingwaveformterminology
and analysis is useful and therefore is reviewed here to
assist you as you record, examine,and analyze an EEG.
Two fundamental characteristics of a regular,
repeatingwaveformare its amplitude andits frequency.
Amplitude refers to the "height" or "depth" of a
waveform as measured from a reference pointcalled the
baseline.Amplitudevalues abovethe baselineare consid-
ered positive (+), and this partof the waveform appears
as a "hill" or "peak." Amplitudevalues below the base-
lineare considerednegative (-),and this partofthe wave-
form appearsas a "trough"or "valley" (Figure 4.3).The
amplitude of an electricalwaveformmaybemeasuredin
volts (V),millivolts (mV), or microvolts
Frequency refers to the number of times a wave-
form repeats itself in a given interval of time, such as
one second or one minute. A waveform repeatingitself
60 times in one second has a frequency of 60 cycles per
second (cps) or 60 hertz (Hz). One hertz equals one
cycle per second.
Frequency is measured by counting the number of
peaksor troughs (butnotboth) within one second(cps)
or one minute (cpm).
...,
A waveform with a constant interval of time
between peaksiscalledperiodic.Awaveformwithvari-
2 Hz
4Hz
16Hz
.000 0.200
ahle intervals of rime berween peaks IS termed nonperi-
odic. The waveforms shewn in Figure 4.3 are periodic
sine waves.
Waveforms m.r, have amplitudes but dif-
fer in frequencies, as showi: in Fizure 4.3 or they may
have identical frequencies bm in amplitudes. A
complex waveform results when rwo or more wave-
forms, each with different 'lmr1i,'.d"s .ind frequencies,
are addedtogether. Figure4.4 shew.s the complexwave-
form thatrepresents the sumatthe .2 Hz. 4 Hz, and 16
Hz sine waves shownin Figure4.3. If we were to math-
ematicallyremove (by waveform subtraction) the 2 Hz
and 4 Hz waveforms, we would be left with a 16 Hz
waveform as shown in Figure 4.3. Similarlv, when an
EEG is analyzed, dominant waveforms or rhythms are
separatedfrom the rest of the record so as to makethe
examination easier.
Foursimple periodic rhythms recorded in the EEG
are alpha, beta, delta, and theta (Table 4.1). These
rhythms are identified by frequency (Hz, or cps) and
amplitude. Theamplitudes recorded by scalp electrodes
are in the range of microvolts (uV, or 111,000,000 of a
volt). The amplitude measurements shown in Table 4.1
are thosevalues reportedfor clinicalsettings; in a class-
room setting, the amplitudes may be muchlower.
Alpha Rhythm
In general, the alpha rhythm is the prominent EEG
wave patternof an adultwhoisawake but relaxed with
eyes closed. Each region of the brainhas a characteris-
6.0<l0000
4.00000o

-2,00000 :>
-4.00000
-6.00000_
4.000000
2.000000
2
y \ {--"IV'"ov { \ I \ 1 Q.OE+ooo .:@
( ) , r
-2.00000
-4,00000
-6.00000
4.000000
2.00000o
, I I , I 1 I I I \ I TT'r I \ / \ I \ I I , \ I I, I \ I \ I \ j o.oE+OOO ..g
-2.00000
-4.00000
-6.00000
0.400 0.700 0.900
seconds
,
FIGURE 4.3 Waveforms with identical amplitudes but different frequencies
Courtesy of BIOPAC Systems. Inc.
Principles of Electroencephalography I: Alpha. Beta, Delta. and Theta Rhythms II 45
-------
4
1. :......
J
's
:1
I'
I
,
1
I'
!
0.900 ().QOO 0.200 MOO 0.700
Seconds
fiGURE 4.4 1.1 A complexwaveform representing thesum of2 Hz+4 Hz +16Hzwaveforms
Courtesy ofBIOPAC Systems, Inc.
TABLE4.1
Rhythm Frequencies (Hz) Amplitudes ~ V
Alpha 8-13 20-200
Beta 13-30 5-10
Delta 1-5 20-200
Theta 4-8 10
tic alpharhythm, butalphawavesof the greatestampli-
tudeare recordedfromthe occipital andparietalregions
of the cerebralcortex.Resultsfromvariousstudiesindi-
cated that:
1. Females tend to have higher mean frequencies of
alpha waves than males.
2. Alpha wave amplitudes are likely to be higher in
"outgoing subjects.
3. Alpha wave amplitudes vary with the subject's
attention to mental tasks performed with the eyes
closed.
In general, amplitudes of alpha waves diminish
whensubjectsopen theireyesandare attentiveto exter-
nal stimuli,althoughsome subjectstrainedin relaxation
techniques can maintain high alpha amplitudes even
with their eyes open.
Beta Rhythm
When the eyes are open and the individual becomes
alert and attentive to external stimuli or exerts con-
46 BIOPAC Lab Experiment4
scious mental effort such as when performing mental
computations, the alpha rhythm is replaced by the
lower, fasterbetarhythm.Thistransformationisknown
as desynchronization of the alpha rhythm and repre-
sents arousal of the cortex to a state of alertness.
Paradoxically, beta rhythms also occur during deep
sleep, that is, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when
the eyes rapidly move hack and forth beneath closed
eyelids. The beta rhythm is best recorded from precen-
tral regions of the frontal cortex. Figure 4.5 illustrates
various patterns of the EEG associated with the awake
state. Notice thatthe amplitudes of betawavestend to
be lowerthanthoseof alpha waves. Thisdoes notmean
thatthere is less electrical activity; rather, it means that
the "positive"and"negative"waveformsare startingto
offsetoneanotherso thatthe sum ofthe electricalactiv-
ity isless.
Delta Rhythm and Theta Rhythm
Delta and theta rhythms are low-frequency EEG pat-
terns associated with drowsiness and sleep in the nor-
mal adult. As a person becomes drowsy, the alpha
rhythm is gradually replaced by the lower-frequency
theta rhythm. As sleep deepens, the slow-wave delta
rhythm becomes dominant. Periodically during slow-
wave sleep, the delta rhythm is interrupted by episodes
ofparadoxical sleep duringwhichthe subjectappearsto
be asleep but has an EEG pattern similar to the beta
rhythm of an alertindividual.
During episodes of paradoxical sleep, twitching of
muscles in the face and limbs and rapid eye movements
I


Recordingsfrom the Frontal Lobes

Recordings from theTemporal Lobes


Recordingsfrom the Occipital Lobes
FIGURE 4.5 EEG patternsassociated with each
lobe of thecerebrum in theawakestate
"'
behind closed lids occur. As a result, paradoxical sleep
is also referred to as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
Standard EEG Electrode Positions
Electrode positions have been named according to the
brain region belowthat areaof thescalp: frontal, pari-
etal, temporal, andoccipital.Therearetwo basic meth-
ods of electrode placementwhenrecordingthe EEG. In
a monopolar recording, an active electrode is placed
over the cortical region of interest and a "reference"
electrode is attached to the earlobe or a more distant
partof the body. In a bipolar recording, the voltagedif-
ference between two electrodes placed over thecortical
region of interest is measured with respect to a third
"reference" electrode. Bipolar recording of the EEG is
morelocalized. Figure4.6 illustratesstandardandcom-
monly employed electrode positions.

Analysis of the EEG involves determination of the


dominant frequency or rhythm measurement of the
amplitudes of different frequencies, calculations of the
percentage of time that each frequency is present, and
consideration of waveform. synchronism, and topo-
graphical distribution. Detailed analysis of the EEG is
beyond the scope of this experiment, Instead, you will
record an EEG using the bipolar method and perform
some simple experiments and observations,
EXPERIMENTALOBJECTIVES
1. To record an EEG from an awake. resting subject
witheyes open andeyes closed.
2. To identify and examine alpha, beta, delta, and
theta components of the EEG complex.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTAND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for rnimmum system
requirements for a PC runningWindows
or Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPACMP30dataacquisitionunitwithAClOOA
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USBIMSerial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPACelectrode leadset (SS2L)
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (ELS03), 3
electrodes persubject
Elastic headband or cap for holding electrodes
againstthescalp
Cotor lab table and pillow
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
(ELPAD) or skincleanser
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Set Up
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
onthe monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratory instructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanel indicatespoweron. IftheLED does not
light up whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
to makesure the ACIOOA transformer(whichsup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. Select a subject for electroencephalography. Have
the subject assume a relaxing position. A supine
positionwiththe headrestingcomfortablybuttilt-
ed to one side isrecommended.Thebest recordings
Principlesof ElectroencephalographyI:Alpha, Beta,Delta, and Theta Rhythms 47
Lateral Anterior
R.O.
0
~ R.P." L.P.
RP. .::
0
RT RF L.F.
o 0 0
-r>
....-.. .--.....
"J>
~
,'1
~ ~
L.E. R.E.
'1
~ i
/
)
L.P. R.P.
L.F. R.F.
0 0
L.a. R.O.
L.P. R.P.
0 0
I
LT RT
L.E. R.E.
EEG Standard Electrode Positions
t.o. R.O
R= Right L= Left
F=Frontal P=Parietal
T=Temporal a =Occipital
E= Ear
0 0
Posterior Superior
FIGURE 4.6 II EEG Standard electrode positions
occur when the subject is relaxed throughout the
session. Read the section that follows carefully
before attachingelectrodesto thesubject. Electrode
adhesion to the scalp is crucial for obtaining a
meaningful EEG recording.
Hints for ObtainingOptimalData
(a) As much as possible, move the hairawayfrom
the electrode adhesion area. Otherwise, the
hairwill pullthe electrodes up andawayfrom
the scalp.
(b) Apply pressure to the electrodes for about 1
minute after the initialplacement.
(c) Subject should try to remain still because
blinking and other movement will affect the
,'I" recording of all four rhythms.
"" .
."0'
(d) Despite your best efforts, electrode adhesion
J
maynothestrongenoughto record data.Ifso,
try another subject or different electrode
placement.
Guidelines for Electrode Placement
(a) The placement of the scalpelectrodescan vary
(within limits) depending on your instructor's
\
or the subject's preference. A suggested elec-
trodeplacement is shownin Figure 4.7.
(b) Keep the electrodes on one side (right or left)
of the head.
(c) Thethird electrodeisthe groundelectrodeand
isconnectedto the earlobe.Althoughthe adhe-
sive collar islarger than the earlobe, it can be
folded under the ear for proper adhesion.
Alternately,the groundelectrodecanbe placed
on the facial skin behind the earlobe.
4. Attachthe electrodesto the subject, thenattachthe
electrode leads to the electrodes, following the
colorcodein Figure4.7. Plug the electrodelead set
(5521) into Channel 1. Thepinch connectors work
like a small clothespin butonly latchontothe nip-
ple of theelectrodefrom one side of the connector.
Drape the electrode cables over the head so that
they are notpulling on the electrodes.
5. Place an elastic headband on the subject's head to
press the electrodes against the scalp with a con-
stant pressure. The subject should not hold elec-
trodes againstscalp.
,
48 BIOPAC LabExperiment4
1
I
Plugs into Channel 1
-c ce CH, CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Busy Power
MODELMP30

-
SS2L Electrode Lead Set
RED
Lead
WHITE-
Lead
f \ ""
y


Lead I
(Ground) /
j-_J
Ouit
L01-EI",!C,-'1
liJ2-EI,,'1':'-2
L04-EEG-2
FIGURE 4.7
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
"'
Ideally, the room should be reasonably quiet to
help the subjectmentallyrelax. This5-rninureperi-
od is also important to give the electrodes time to
establish contactwith the surface of the skin.
6. Locate the "BIOPAC Student Lab" folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab A
7.
create
8.
will
Calibration
The
,
and is critical
1. Click on Calibrate.Awarningwill popup request-
ing that you check the electrode attachments
(Figure 4.11).
2. Click OK. This will begin the calibration proce-
dure. The mOPAe: Student Labwill begin record-
ing data and use it to calculateoptimalsettingsfor
FIGURE4.10
Principles ofElectroencephalographyIIAlpha, Beta, Delta, and Theta Rhythms III 49
program.
prompt will appear (Figure 4.8) asking you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 3 ("L03-EEG-1")
by clicking on it to highlight it, then click on OK.
Aprompt(Figure 4.9) should appearaskingyou to
"please type in your file name." By doing so, you
enable the computer to store all the data files you
in one place, making it easier for you to
retrieve data lateron.
After you log on, a windowsimilarto Figure 4.10
be displayed. Check to make sure the elec-
trodes and electrode leads are secure and the elec-
trode assembly is plugged into Channel 1. This
concludesthe set-up procedures.
calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
inrernal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
for optimum performance. Pay dose
..mentionto the calibrationprocedure.
iLD5-ECG-1
,LOti-EC:C;;-2
lLo7-ECC.;:gp--1
j-..r.".".
iLD:::-Res:p-'1

ILD9,PoIV-1
iUD-EGG-'1
jLll-Reac1-'l
'U4-8iolbli-1

iL16-Bp-1
:L17-H"i-l
1Re\fievv
FIGURE4.8
Pleasetypeinyour filename,
I.M,
t"
FIGURE4.9
11
-
.:
r:M;rra- .. - i
c:::::::2=::J
I I

"['2'''''
,
.a,
FIGURE4.11


1-- .'.
ace ,00
-,----------
'c'
_.--.. ---.-
,00
",:;"
:th,'
'''',,-<c,'
(;,A
:'=OC
,
:,oc,
"="

FIGURE4.12
the subject. The calibration procedure will stop
automatically after 15 seconds. At the end of the
calibration recording, your screen should resemble
Figure 4.12.
3. Ifthe data recording shows any large spikes, then
you must do the calibration again. Click on Redo
Calibration and repeat the entire calibration
sequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
You will record the "raw EEG" while the subject is
relaxed with eyes closed, eyes opened, and eyes closed
again. The recording should last about 30 seconds.
After recording the "raw EEG" signal, you will then
extract the four brain rhythms: alpha, beta, delta, and
theta.
In order to workefficiently, read this entire section
before starting to record. Here are some hints for
obtaining optimal data:
1. Good electrode contact is essential to rmmmize
"noise" and increasesignal amplitude.
50 BIOPAC LabExperiment4
FIGURE4.13
2. The subject should lie still and especially try to
keep facial muscles still.
3. During the "eyes open" segment, subject should
not blink.
4. The subject should try relaxation techniques, such
as concentrating on breathing slowly or relaxing
muscles.
Decide who, among those students in your lab
group, will be director and who will be recorder. The
director will give verbal commands to the subject, and
the recorder will insert markers and marker labels at
appropriatetimes during data recording.
To insertmarkers, use the Esc Key (Mac) or F9 key
(PC). Type in marker text (labels) after data recording
has stopped.
1. Click on Record and follow the procedures below:
(a) Time 0-10 seconds: Subject relaxes, eyes
closed.
(b) Time 10-20 seconds: Subject relaxes, eyes
open. The subject shouldnot blink duringthis
recording interval. Insert marker and marker
label "eyes open" at the beginning of this
recordinginterval (lO-second mark).
(c) Time 20-30 seconds: Subject relaxes, eyes
closed. Insert marker and marker label "eyes
closed" at the beginningof this recordinterval
(20-second mark).
2. At the conclusion of the 30-second recording seg-
ment, your data should resemble Figure 4.13. If
you feel you made a mistake in the recording, or
there are large spikes in your data (indicating the
subject may have blinked or moved), you should
redo the recording. You can redo the recording by
clicking on Redo and repeating step 1. Note that
once you click on Redo, the data you have just
recorded will be erased.
3. Ifyour data looks OK, click on the frequency but-
tons in the following sequence: alpha, beta, delta,
theta. When you click each button, the program
1
I
'"'

,

.-..------.------,,"
.cc
,-
OW '",-"
FIGURE 4.14
Record from another subject
Analyze current datafile
Analyze another datafile
RecordAnother Lesson
Copyto FloppyorNetwork
OK
FIGURE 4.15
will compute and display the specific frequency
bands listed in Table 4.1.
4. Look at the alpha frequency band. Your data
should look similar to Figure 4.14, which shows a
decrease in amplitude during the "eyes open" seg-
ment. Ifyour data recording does not show any
change, it is possible that the electrodes were not
properlyattached tothe skin or the recordingpro-
cedure was not properly followed. If this is the
case, redo the recording by clicking on Redo and
repeating steps 1, 2, and 3.
5. Ifyour data looks similar to Figure 4.14, click on
Doneand a pop-upwindow (Figure 4.15) with six
options will appear. Makeyour choice and contin-
ue as directed. If choosing the "Record from
anothersubject" option:
(a) Attach electrodes per the set-up procedures
given previouslyand continuethe entire lesson
from the calibration section through the Data
Recording section.
(b) Note that each person will need to use a
unique file name.
6. Remove the electrode cable pinch connectors, and
peel off the electrodes. Throw out the electrodes
(BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the
electrode gel residue from the skin using soap and
- 'I--=-
FIGURE 4.16
water. Theelectrodesmay leave a slight ring on the
skinfor a few hours, which is quite normal.
DATA ANALYSIS
1. Enter the "Review Saved Data" mode from the
Lessons menu, choose the correctfile, and openit.
The datawindowshould be similar to Figure 4.16.
2. Notethefollowing Channelnumber(CH) designa-
tions:
CHI = rawEEG
CH2 = alpha rhythm
CH3 =beta rhythm
CH4 = delta rhythm
CH5 = theta rhythm
3. Set up the measurementboxes as follows:
CH2 = stddev
CH3 = stddev
CH4 = stddev
CH5 = stddev
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
marker region in the data windowand each meas-
urementhas three sections: channelnumber, meas-
urementtype, and result. The first twosections are
pull-downmenusthatarc activated when you click
OIl them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
stddev:Standarddeviationisa measureof the vari-
ability of data points. The data represent
amplitudes of the brain rhythms. The advan-
tage of the "stddev" measurement is that
extreme values or artifacts do not unduly
influence the measurement.
Freq: The frequency measurement converts the
timesegmentof the selectedarea to frequency
in cycles/sec.
None: Nomeasurement tool has been selected.
The "selected area" is the area selected by the 1-
beam tool (including the endpoints).
'1
......,ij



Principles of ElectroencephalographyI:Alpha, Beta,Delta,andThetaRhythms lIIE 51


':i
""!
:,.4

--.
'.- I
"1 .'.

i
-"!'
jI
..
it
.t
._------------
FIGURE4.17
-c-err: ",,-:,-,1
u--eme : ',1l ,]r,l, ,II]'
,.-, r" lei -.-; --', "
"-'J1'-,'r'1
fiGURE 4.18
4. Use the I-beam tool to select the area from time 0
to the first marker (Figure 4.17). Record the stan-
dard deviation data in Table 4.2 ofthe report.
5. Repeat step 4 for the second and third recording
segments (Figures 4.18 and4.19).
6. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH2 = freq
CH3 = none
CH4 = none
CH5 = none
7. Use the zoom tool to zoom in on a 3- to 4-second
section of data between time 0 and the first mark-
er (Figure 4.20).
8. Use the l-beam tool to select an area that represents
one cyclein the alphawave (Figure 4.21). Recordthe
frequency measurementinTable 4.3 of the report.
9. Repeat step 8 for two otheralpha wave cycles.
10. Repeatsteps8and9 for onecycle ofthe betawave.
Noteit isnotnecessaryto changethechannelnum-
berwhenmeasuringtime-dependentvariables such
as frequency because the software recognizes the
beginning and the end ofthe selected area regard-
less of channel. However, it is necessary to select a
wave in the channel containing the waveform for
which you are determining frequency.
FIGURE 4.19
FIGURE 4.20
1-- "
. '1coo ,
.... -, 'J\.I\, j,).(}J :;

FIGURE 4.21
11. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for one cycle of the delta
wave.
12. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for one cycle of the theta
wave.
13. You maysavethedatato adiskette,save notesthat
are in theJournal, or printthe datafile.
14. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthecomputer.
52 II BIOPAC Lab Experiment 4
I
II. QUESTIONS
1. List anddefine twocharacteristics of regular, periodicwaveforms. _
,
+..
..
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 4 53
i ~ c .
..~ ; . . ~
BIOPAC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY I:
4 ALPHA, BETA,DELTA,ANDTHETA RHYTHMS
"
DATA REPORT
Name: _
Lab Section: Date: _
I.DATA ANI) CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name: _ Height:
Age: Weight:
Gender: Male / Female
A. EEG amplitudes: Alpha, Beta, Delta,Theta
I.'
TABLE 4.2
"'
I
Rhythm Channel EyesClosed EyesOpen EyesClosed
I I I
Alpha CH 2
I I I
Beta CH 3
Delta CH 4
Theta CH 5
B.EEG frequencies: Alpha, Beta, Delta,Theta
TABLE 4.3
Mean Cycle2 Cycle3 Rhythm Channel Cycle 1
CH 1 Alpha
CH 2 Beta
Delta CH 3
Theta CH 4
-
2. Examine the alpha and beta waveforms for change between the "eyes closed" state and the "eyes open"
state.
a) Does desynchronization of the alpha rhythm occurwhenthe eyes are open? _
b) Does the beta rhythm becomemorepronouncedin the "eyes open" state?
3. The amplitudemeasurements (stddev) are indicativeof howmuch alpha activityisoccurringin thesubject.
However, the amplitudevalues for betado nottrulyreflect the amountof mentalactivityoccurringwiththe
eyes open. Explain.
4. Can two waveforms have identical frequency but different amplitude, or identical amplitude but different
frequency? Drawan example of each case as supportfor youranswer.
5. Whatmentalstateisassociated witheach of the following rhythms?
a) Alpha rhythm
b)Beta rhythm
c) Delta rhythm
d) Theta rhythm
6. Define REM sleep. Whyisit called "paradoxicalsleep"? _
54 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 4
\.
I
I
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
...
II
1
Principles of ElectroencephalographyII:
Occipital Lobe Alpha Rhythms
PHYSIOLOGICALCONCEPTS
AsnotedinBIOPAeLab Experiment4, the cerebrumis
divided intohemispheres and each hemisphere isdivid-
ed into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes
(Figure 5.1). Each lobe has functions that are unique,
but each lobe also shares functions with other lobes,
andindeed,the otherpartsofthe brain.For example,as
a child, we may see (occipital lobe) a flame and touch
(frontal lobe) it to see whatit is like, experiencingheat
and pain (parietal lobe), and remembering (temporal
)
lobe) not to repeatthe experience. These functions and
many others, such as reasoning and abstract thought,
occur in the cerebral cortex, the thin covering of gray
matterforming the surfaceof the cerebrum.
Electrical activity in the cerebral cortex is continu-
ous from formation of the cerebrum in utero to death.
As demonstrated in the preceding chapter, electrical
activity of the cerebral cortex can be detected and
recorded using scalp electrodes and an electroen-
cephalograph.The recordobtained,called an electroen-
cephalogram (EEG), is complex and variable between
subjects, although under certain conditions, the EEG
exhibits simpler, rhythmic activity.
,
Your EEG changes as you grow. The development
of EEG israpid withnewborns. As neural development
proceeds, the EEG recorded from the posterior regions
ofthe brainof an infantof 3-4monthsbegins to resem-
ble EEGs recorded from the posterior region of adults.
The difference is that the 3-4-month-old infants have
EEGs in the frequency range of 3-4Hz, whereas adults
tend to have average frequencies of 10 Hz. Bythe time
the infant is one year old, the posterior region EEG is
approximately 6 Hz; by three years it is 8 Hz; and by
puberty(13-14years old) the average frequency issim-
ilar to adults at 10 Hz.
The alpha rhythm is one of the similar patterns of
the EEG. The alpha rhythm is characterized by a fre-
quencyof 8-13Hz and amplitudesof 20-20011V. Each
region of the brain has a characteristic frequency of
alpha rhythm. Alpha waves of the greatest amplitude
tend to be recorded from the occipital and parietal
regions of the cerebralcortex.
The EEG isvariable, dependingon the mentalstate
of an individual, and the frequency and amplitude of
alpha rhythms within an individual change. In general,
the alpharhythmisthe prominentEEG wave patternof
a relaxed, inattentive state in an adultwith eyesclosed;
however, specific conditions can influence the alpha
rhythm, for example:
1. Hyperventilation: Breathing abnormally quickly
and deeply causes carbon dioxide levels of the
blood and cerebrospinal fluid to fall and pHlevels
to rise. These effects increase electrical activity of
cortical nerve cells, often increasing amplitude of
the alphawaves.
2. Gender: Females tend to have higher mean fre-
quencies of alpha waves than males, although the
differences are small.
..... I,
3. Memory: Frequency may affect the speed of
j/'
"remembering" and may be approximately 1 Hz
f
higher during memory tests for high-scoring sub- iI!o
ill'
jects thanfor subjects whoscored lower.
It
4. Personality: Amplitudes tend to be higher in sub-
t
t
if
jects who are extroverted.
~
5. Mental stress: Amplitudes vary with the difficulty l!'
i ~ .
of mental tasks performed with the eyesclosed.
i
~
6. Visualattention:Amplitudesofalphawaves dimin-
w
ish when subjects opentheireyes and are attentive
:1'
~
to external stimuli. Thus, instead of getting the
~
wavelike synchronized pattern of alpha waves,
~
I I ~
desynchronization occurs.
,
I
I'
Principles of Electroencephalography II:Occipital LobeAlpha Rhythms 55
~
.--
------- -
Sensory Areas -----____
.----------Central Fissure
Involvedwith
Cutaneous and
___-- MotorAreas Involvedwiththe
OtherSenses
ControlofVoluntaryMuscles
Understanding ~ ~
Speech,
Concentration,
UsingWords
ProblemSolving,
Planning
ParietalLobe-------".L----,f-----+-
FrontalLobe
lr-'"""""-=","""-+- Auditory Area
~ LateralFissure
General ---:H-+-+------..L
Interpretive
Area
_---:/-_--,."--.c:>'<'1--_ Motor Speech
Area(Broca's
Occipital -1-''---- Area)(inleftlobe)
Lobe
Combining -Jll--+--"
VisualImages,
JisualRecognition
---7'--------- TemporalLobe
ofObjects
Interpretation ofSensory
Visual Area Experiences, Memory of
VisualandAuditory Patterns
Cerebellum ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
-+----- BrainStem
FIGURE 5.1
From Basic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright2001 by Richard Pflanzer, Reprinted by permission ofKendalllHunt
PublishingCompany.
7. Time of day:Amplitudesincreasewhensubjectsare a) relaxed witheyesclosed;
less alert and tend to be higher from 1:30-4:30 b) performingmentalarithmeticwitheyesclosed;
p.m. c) hyperventilating (breathing quickly and
deeply) witheyesclosed;
In this chapter, you will record the EEG and alpha
d) relaxed witheyesopen.
rhythm under several conditions. At the same time, the
2. Toexaminedifferences inthe levelofalpharhythm
root-mean-squared of the alpha rhythm (alpha-rms)
activityduringmentalarithmeticandhyperventila-
and an "alpha thermometer" will be displayed. Alpha-
tion compared to the control condition of eyes
rms and the "alpha thermometer" are visual indices of
closed and relaxed.
the activity levelsof the alpha rhythm.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTANDSUPPLIES
EXPERIMENTALOBJEcrlVES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for minimum system
1. To record an EEG from an awake, resting subject
requirements for a PC running Windows Or
underthe followingconditions:
, Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
56 BIOPAC LabExperiment 5
I
Lli
!
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
,
BIOPAC MP30 dataacquisitionunitwithACI00A
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPAC electrode lead set (SS2L)
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (EL503), 3
electrodes persubject
Elastic headband or cap for holding electrodes
against the scalp
Cotor lab table andpillow
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
(ELPAD)or skin cleanser
Elastic headband or cap for holding electrodes
against the scalp
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Set Up
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratoryinstructorfor assistance.
,
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
powerswitch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LED does not
light upwhenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
to makesure the AC100Atransformer (whichsup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. Select a subject for electroencephalography. Have
the subject assume a relaxing position. A supine
positionwiththe head restingcomfortably but tilt-
ed to one side isrecommended.The best recordings
occur when the subject is relaxed throughout the
session. Read the section below carefully before
attachingelectrodes to the subject. Electrodeadhe-
sion to the scalp is crucial for obtaining a mean-
ingful EEG recording.
Hintsfor ObtainingOptimalData
(a) Asmuchas possible, move the hairawayfrom
the electrode adhesion area. Otherwise, the
hairwill pull the electrodes up and awayfrom
the scalp.
(b) Apply pressure to the electrodes forabout 1
minute afterthe initial placement.
(c) Subject should try to remain still because
blinking and other movement will affect the
recording of the EEG.
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows), (d) Despite your best efforts, electrode adhesion
may notbestrongenoughtorecorddata:ifso,
try anothersubjector differentelectrodeplace-
ment.
Guidelines for Electrode Placement
(a) The placementof the scalp electrodescan vary
(within limits) depending on your instructor's
or the subject's preference. A suggested elec-
trodeplacementisshownin Figure 5.2.
(b) Keep the electrodes on oneside (right or left)
of the head.
(c) The thirdelectrodeisthe ground electrodeand
isconnectedtothe earlobe.Althoughthe adhe-
sive collar is larger than the earlobe, it can be
folded under the ear for proper adhesion.
Alternately, the groundelectrodecanbeplaced
on the facial skin behind the earlobe.
4. Attachthe electrodesto the subject,thenattachthe
electrode leads to the electrodes, following the
colorcodein Figure 5.2.Plug the electrodelead set
(SS21)into Channel 1.The pinchconnectors work
like a smallclothespin, butonlylatchontothe nip-
ple of the electrodefrom one side of the connector.
Drape the electrode cables over the head so that
they are notpullingon the electrodes.
Plugs into Channel 1
CH 4 BusyPower CH 3 CH 2 CH 1
~ ~ ~ o o
MODEL MP30
RED
Lead
t
WHITE
~
Lead
j,
<i.
BLACK-----I---
\ \:
" \
~
.
Lead I ~
"

~
f
(Ground)
It
~
FIGURE 5.2
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
PrinciplesofElectroencephalography II:Occipital LobeAlpha Rhythms 57
===-... -f
I
l
-
5. Place all elastic headband on the subject's head to
press the electrodes against the scalp with a con--
stant pressure, Subject should not hold electrodes
against scalp.
Ideally, the room should be to
help the subjectmentallyrelax, This5-111inute peri-
od is also important to give the electrodes time to
establishcontactwiththesurface of theskin.
'.
6. Locate the "BIorAeStudent Lab" folder, open it,
and start the morAe Srudenr Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 5.3) asking you to
."" choosea lesson. Choose L04-EEG-2 clickingon
'c1t
it tohighlight it, then clicking on OK.
..
'*
cit.
..
7. Aprompt(figure 5.4) shouldappearaskingyou to
"please type in your file name." By doing so, you
..

enable the computer to store all the data files you


" create in one place, making it easier for you to
;'.
..
retrieve data later on.
,'it
.j
8. After you Jog on, a window similar to Figure 5.5
'* ;$
will be displayed. Check to make sure the elec-
t trodes and electrode leads are secure and the elec-
.

4;
:
it
'i
'it
,.
,,,.

f
'L06-E()-2
LG7-ECGS.F'-1
"1

L'iO-E()G-"l

fL'14-8icfI:'f:;-'1
L"15-,.!2.,ercl-"1
L'1c;-8p-1
L17-Hs-'1
F.:E:\lie\I"o/ Saved Data
FIGURE 53
I,1,,1, E<ample
FIGURE5.4
, 58 BIOP4C LahFxperirnent 5
\
',I

trade assembly is plugged into Channel 1. T--:,
concludes the set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardwares
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attentionto the calibrationprocedure.
1. Click on Calibrate. Awarningwill popup request-
ing thatyou check the electrode attachments.
2. Click OK. This will begin the calibration proce-
dure. The mOPAC Student Lab will begin record-
ing data and use it to calculate optimalsettings for
the subject. The calibration procedure will stop
automatically after 15 seconds. At the end of the
calibration recording, your screen should resemble
Figure 5.6.
3. Ifthe data recording shows any large spikes, then
you must do the calibration again. Click on Redo
Calibration and repeat the entire calibration
sequence.
- -------- ---,----------------,-
I
I
I
I
- ,_ L
_ ", ':
FiGURE 5.5
- --- -- ---- -----------------i
FIGURE 5.6
I
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
Prepare for the recordingandhave the subjectlie down
and relax with eyes closed. Decide who, among those
-- students in your lab group, will the director and who
will berecorder.Thedirectorwill giveverbalcommands
to the subject: the recorder will insert markers and
marker labels at appropriate times in the data record.
To insert markers, use the Esc key (Mac) or F9 key
(PC). Type in marker text after data recording has
stopped.
You will record the subjectin four conditions:
Segment1: Relaxed witheyes closed.
Segment2: Performingmental mathwith eyes
closed.
Segment3: Recovering from hyperventilation
witheyes closed.
Segment4: Relaxed witheyes open
The subject will perform tasks in the intervals
between recordings.
In order to workefficiently, read this entire section
so you will know what to do for each recording seg-
ment.
Thesubject should remain in a supine position and
continue to relax while you review the lesson.
Check the lastline of the Journal andnotethe total
)
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentassoonaspossibleso you do notuse
an excessive amountof time (time ismemory).
Hintsfor Obtaining Optimal Data
1. It is importantthatyou payattentionto the specif-
icinstructions for eachrecording segment.
2. Good electrode contact is essential to minimize
noise and increase signal amplitude.
3. The subject should lie still and should not blink
during the "eyes open" segment. Best results are
obtained ifthe eyes remainstill at all times.
4. The subject should not talk during any of the
recording segments and should not verbalize
answers to the mental arithmetic.
5. Thealphasignal will be increasedduringthe relax-
ationsegmentifthe subjectconcentrateson breath-
ing slowly and/orrelaxing muscles.
,
6. For the mental math segment, the director should
prepare by comingup witha math problem before
recording begins. The math problem should be
challenging but not too difficult (e.g., take the
number 2 and double it, double again, double
again, divide by 3, multiply by 15, divide by 7,
multiply by 12). The point is to make the subject
reallvworktoget the answer, notto stumpthe sub-
ject or cause the subjectto gi\e up. Themathprob-
lem should require a minimum of 20 seconds.
7. Beforethe i"eC01'ei"Y trom bvpenentilationsegment,
the subjectshould breathe quicklyand deeply for 2
minutes, as if he or she had]ust finished exercising
and needed air. The subject should not be hyper-
ventilating during the actual recording.
Segment 1
1. Click on Record and have the subject continue to
relaxwitheyesclosed. Recordfor 10 seconds, then
click on Suspend. Note that during data recording
the graph window will resize and the "Input val-
ues" window will appear on the right side of the
graph window. The "Input values" window dis-
playsthe alpha-rrnsvalueina thermometer-likebar
displayandcanbe used as avisual aid to determine
fluctuations in alpha-rrns activity. The bar is dis-
played only when data is being recorded and does
notshowin the ReviewSaved Datamode.
2. Review the data recording on the screen. It should
look similar to Figure 5.7. The data would be
incorrect if:
(a) TheSuspend buttonwas pressed prematurely.
(b) An electrode peeled up, causing a large base-




line drift, spike, orloss of signal.
r..
(c) The subject did not follow the proper proce-
i
"i
'-
dure.
(d) The subject had toomuchEMGartifact.
Ifyour data recording is incorrect, redo the
'1
recording by clicking on Redo and repeating
segment 1. Note that once you press Redo the

data you havejustrecordedwillbe erased.
1

!

Segment 2
II
:1
1. The director should verbally give the subject a set ,I
of mentalmathproblemswhile the subjectremains
" ;;

if 'I
t, 1
II<
i'!' Ii
.. .. ii.i .. ..
-k

i!!!!3l]
-
. '!" I!
.. ,,',L,;;,;;:'..... 1- 'I t';E'", .. '., .. -,'mo,.," " i.
1"'''''"''''1''' _ __ , ,---=--:::J '.0 i .'1 'f, 'ft
__._-

I'r
-':I;
I
,!
ij

I
II
I
i:J[?_I":'-_

'ij

I
I

ij
ii
FIGURE 5.7 i
j
l
'I
Principles of Electroencephalography II:OccipitalLobeAlpha Rhythms 59
,!
..... '-.-.....
relaxed with eyes closed. As soon as the problems
have been given,the recorderclickson Resumeand
the subject silently begins to solve the problems.
2. Recordfor 20 seconds (seconds 11-30), thenclick
on Suspend. Review the data on the screen. It
shouldresembleFigure 5.8. If thedata isincorrect,
click on Redo and repeat the previous step. Note
that once you press Redo the data you have just
recorded will be erased.
Segment 3
1. The director advises the subject to hyperventilate
for 2 minutes while the subject remains in the
supine positionwith eyes closed.
WARNING
Hyperventilation can make the subject dizzy and
light-headed. Stop the procedure if the subject
starts to feel sick ordizzy.
2. At the end of the2-minutehyperventilation period
(or as soon as stopped for sickness or dizziness),
dick on Resume. It is important that you resume
recording as quickly as possible after the subject
has hyperventilated; however, it is also important
__.. _... ..
',On "(1) 10(J ,"',1 :) ,,;,:, :uo .e 0(,
JL..E0.=:J
E:"",",.='- " __ _ _'
FIGURE 5.8
FIGURE 5.9
that you do not click Resume while the
hyperventilating or you will capture E.\lG
3. Record for 10 seconds (seconds 31-401 while
subject is recovering from hyperventilation. T::e
subject should be in a relaxed state with e:.eo
closed. At the end of the la-secondrecording sec-
ment, click on Suspend.
4. If all went well, your data should resemble Figure
5.9. If it does not,clickRedoandrepeatsegmenr 3.
Segment 4
1. The director should advise the student to open his
or hereyes and remain relaxed andlying down.
2. Click on Resume and record for 10 seconds (sec-
onds41-50), thenclick on Suspend.
3. Review the data recording to make sure it is very
similar to Figure 5.10. If the data recording is not
correct, click on Redo andrepeatsegment4. If the
data recording is OK, click on Done. A pop-up
window message will ask you to confirm you are
finished recording.
4. A pop-up window with six options will appear.
Make your choice and continue as directed. If
choosing the "Record from another subject"
option:
(a) Attach electrodes per the set-up instructions
and repeat theentire lesson.
(b) Note that each person will need to use a
unique [ile name.
5. Remove the electrode cable pinch connectors and
peel offthe electrodes. Throw out the electrodes
(BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the
electrode gel residue from the skin, using soap and
water. Theelectrodesmayleave a slightringon the
skinfor a few hours, which is quite normal.
FIGURE 5.10
60 II BIOPAC Lab Experiment 5
I
i

i! .


,
',,"",'J', ,
; ',1," '.SJ):;
rrtr ,'''';;-]n,,",,. j<.QJ ,C"
Record measurement box values in Table 5.1 and
Table 5.2 in the repon.
5. Repeat step 4 for data segments 2. 3, and 4 (Figures
5.13,5.14, and 5.15 .
6. Use the zoom tool to a small section of the
first data segment so that YOU can easily measure
for frequency of the alpha waves ,CH 40).
FIGURE 5.12
FIGURE 5.13
FIGURE 5.14
Ic--""",---,,,,,m.,
'G
o ===:::J,.. G

.......-
-,,' ", , ' '. ,,'
.... -----t;
t
' ,':,', r --.."""." ....J
1
, , ,
I
'),t /" ';';--"i r') '/
-':00 :1300 W))
.. - .
'oW .00 "1 rlQ

"", ... :m.1,

Principles of Electroencephalography II: Occipital Lobe Alpha Rhythms 61
1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode from the
Lessons menu, choose the correct file, and open it.
The data window should be similar to Figure 5.11.
2. Note the following Channel number (CH) designa-
tions:
CHl =raw EEG
CH40 =alpha rhythm
CH41 =alpha-rrns
3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CHl =stddev
CH40 = stddev
CH41 = mean
CH40 =freq
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
marker region in the data window and each meas-
urement has three sections: channel number, meas-
urement type, and result. The first two sections are
pull-down menus that are activated when you click
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
stddev: Standard deviation will be higher if there is
a lot of activity and lower if there is less. The
advantage of the "stddev" measurement is
that extreme values or artifacts do not unduly
influence the measurement.
mean: This box displays the average value in the
selected area.
[req: This measurement converts the time segment
of the selected area to frequency in cycles per
second.
NOTE: The "freq" measurement applies to all
channels since it is calculated from the horizontal
time scale.
The "selected area" is the area selected by the 1-
beam tool (including the endpoints).
4. Use the l-bearn tool to select the first data segment
(Figure 5.12) from time 0 to the first marker.
DATA ANALYSIS
F" cd!:WI>.-t'o'''''''

.. ,,,. , ,
':00'
FIGURE 5.11

, ,
-..
\
--
1

..
-

[iJ:: -'1""'.:]
SJEJEJ
'p;;;;;:-"..,.". ,------ .
I I
FIGURE5.15 FIGURE5.16
7. Usethe I-beamtool to selectan area from one peak 8. Youmay savethe datato adiskette,savenotes that
to the next in CH 40 (Figure 5.16). Record the are in the Journal, or printthe datafile.
measurement boxvalue for frequency of the alpha 9. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
rhythm in the report. downthe computer.
62 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 5
I
BIOPAC PRINCIPLES OFELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY II:
-j 5 OCCIPITAL LOBE ALPHARHYTHMS
DATAREPORT
Name: _
Lab Section: Date: _
I.DATAAND CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile:
Name: _
Height:
Age: Weight:
Gender: Male I Female
A. CompleteTable 5.1 with amplitudes of the recorded data in the controlandexperimentalconditions.
TABLE 5.1
Raw EEG Alpha Alpha-rms
Segment Condition (CH1stddev) (CH40 stddev) (CH41 mean)
1 Eyes closed (control)
-
I
2 Eyes closed, performing mental math
3 Eyes closed, hyperventilation recovery
4 Eyes open
)
B. Whatisthe frequency of an alpha rhythmfrom segmentI data? Hz
C. Complete Tahle 5.2 with the meanvalues of the alpha-rms channel from Table 5.1. The "controlmean" is
the mean alpha-rms from data in segment 1. You will need to calculate the difference between the experi-
mental mean and the control mean. Summarize whether the experimental meanwas larger (+), smaller (-),
or the same (=) as the control mean.
TABLE 5.2
Segment
Experimental
condition
Experimental
mean (EM)
Control
mean (CM)
Difference
(EM- CM)
Summary
(+, -,or =)
2 Performing mental math
3 Hyperventilation recovery
Eyes open
I
4




"'-11
'd
,

i,'i
7."1.


"


"',
.
!";
BIOPAC Lab Experiment5 63
j
t1


,,-
II. QUESTIONS
1. Refer to Table 5.1. When was the general amplitude of the EEG highest? _
2. Refer to Table 5.1. When were the alpha wave levels highest?
3. Refer to Table 5.1. How do your results compare with the information presented in the introduction to this
mOPAe lab experiment?
4. Did the subject need to concentrate during the math problems? Ycs No__
How would the level of concentration required affect the data? _
5. Which conditions produced the lowest alpha activity? _
\.
64 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 5
j
,
I:,
~
,
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The human heart (Figure 6.1) is a biological pump. It
receives blood from veins and pumps it into arteries.
The receiving chambers are the right atrium and the left
atrium and the pumping chambers are the right ventri-
cle and the left ventricle. In accordance with its function
as a pump, the dominant tissue of the heart is cardiac
muscle tissue, called the myocardium (myo - muscle,
cardia - heart). Regular, rhythmic, alternate contrac-
tions of the atrial myocardium followed by the ventric-
"'
SA Node
Right Atrium
Internodal Pathways
AV Node
Right Bundle Branch -
Right Ventricle
Purkinje Fibers --
BtOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
II
Principles ofElectrocardiography I:
Elements ofthe Electrocardiogram (ECG)
\\1 . .."
I \ \ "II
'Ii, /\, 1\11 \
,
FIGURE 6.1 Anterior view of human heart
ular myocardium are called heartbeats, or cardiac
cycles.
The human heartbeat is myogenic (my a - muscle,
gene - origin), that is, the signal for the heart to beat
comes from within the heart itself and not from an
external source such as a nerve cell. Although the heart
is supplied with motor nerves that can influence either
the rate of contraction or the strength of contraction,
the extrinsic nerves play no role in the genesis of the
heartbeat. If the extrinsic nerves (sympathetic and
parasympathetic) were cut, or even if the heart were to
- Left Atrium
- Bundle of His
Left Bundle Branch
Interventricular Septum
Left Ventricle
1-
t,l
;1
II, ,I
fl
f , 'I
t 1 I
~ 'I
~ 'I
:r 'j
t' ,I
r 1
itl
if I
~ i
t I
,I
I 'I
It '\
t
t ii
"
Principles of Electrocardiography I: Elements of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) 65
I'
t '
l
t
--, --- -- .. _-'-. _ - = _ . ~ - ~ . :j::
.,...
i
be removed from the body, it would continue to beat
rhythmically as long as it was supplied with oxygen and
vital nutrients, had wastes removed, and its normal tem-
perature maintained. Thus, the heart possesses the
unique ability to initiate and undergo a cardiac cycle or
heartbeat by itself without any stimulation from the rest
of the body. This property of cardiac muscle is called
inherent rhythmicity or automaticity.
The control and coordination of cardiac muscle's
:.i
inherent rhythmicity is dependent on a specialized sys-
..
tem of conductive tissue within the heart. Before each

contraction of the heart can occur, an electric current



ell must first pass through the myocardial fibers. The con-
l'
duction system of the heart is responsible for generating ,iff

,); these electric currents a nd conveying them in an order-
j,
ly sequence to all parts of the heart. The conduction sys-
..

tem, or pacemaker system, consists of the following
eli'
J' areas of specialized conducting tissue: the sinoatrial
:ij:

(SA) node, internodal and interatrial pathways, the atri-

oventricular (AV) node, the bundle of His, right and left

bundle branches, and the Purkinje fiber network.

.!J
(Figure 6.1 illustrates each of the components of the
'. ..
pacemaker system.)
'\
The sinoatrial (SA) node is located near the junction
,)It
of the right atrium and superior vena cava. The electric
,t
impulse that initiates each contraction of the heart nor-
I
mally originates from this node. The SA node, without
'.
neural or endocrine stimulation, spontaneously depo-
larizes at a rate of more than 80 times per minute.
Normally, its frequency of depolarization is between 60
and 80 times per minute because of vagal inhibition.
Because the SA node discharges electric impulses at a
higher frequency than does any other part of the con-
duction system, it paces the electrical and mechanical
activities of the entire heart. Therefore, the SA node is
commonly called the pacemaker.
Once an impulse has been initiated by the SA node,
it is transmitted through both atria along the internodal
and interatrial pathways, stimulating atrial muscle to
contract. The impulse also spreads to another special-
ized area of the conduction system-the atrioventricular
(AV) node-which is pan of the junctional tissue
between the right atrium and ventricle. The AV node,
driven by the rate of the SA nodal firing, relays the elec-
tric impulse toward the ventricles after a slight delay.
The delay allows the atria time to contract before exci-
tation of the ventricles occurs. The delay also helps pro-
tect the ventricles from rapid atrial impulses.
After passing through the AV node, the impulse is
carried to the ventricles through the bundle of His, a
common bundle of specialized conductive fibers lying
along the upper part of the interventricular septum. The
bundle of His runs down within the upper interventric-
ular septum and branches into a right and left bundle.
The right bundle branch carries the impulse to the
ventricle; the left bundle branch carries the impulse :':1
the left ventricle. Each bundle branch further subdivides
into numerous small conducting fibers called Purkinje
fibers, which relay the electric impulse directly to veri-
tricular muscle, stimulating the ventricles to contract.
Note that any of the cells of the conduction system
may act as pacemaker cells, but atrial and ventricular
muscle cells do not normally do so. In a case of damage
to the SA node, for example, the AV node may take over
as the primary pacemaker for the ventricles, although
the intrinsic rate of firing of the AV node (40-60 cycles
per minute) is less than the normal firing rate of the SA
node (80-100 cycles per minute).
In summary, the contraction of cardiac muscle is
associated with an electric impulse initiated at the sinoa-
trial node, which sweeps over the conduction path of
the heart, preceding the mechanical change in the mus-
cle. In each normal cardiac cycle, the electrical events
follow a sequence: (1) depolarization and repolarization
of the sinoatrial (SA) node; (2) depolarization and repo-
larization of atrial muscle; (3) depolarization and repo-
larization of the atrioventricular (AV) node and bundle;
(4) depolarization and repolariza tion of the Purkinje
network; (5) depolarization and repolarizarion of ven-
tricular muscle.
The electric current associated with the cardiac
cycle may be detected at the surface of the body, ampli-
fied, and recorded as a time record of the electrical
events occurring during each cardiac cycle. Thus, heart
rate can be accurately determined, and abnormalities of
rhythm and conduction can be identified. The electricaI
and mechanical device that records the electrical activi-
ty of each cardiac cycle is called an electrocardiograph.
The study of electrocardiograph applications and the
interpretation of electrocardiograms (the records made
by an electrocardiograph) is called electrocardiography.
The electric current associated with and generated
during the cardiac cycle is detected by placing a positive
electrode and a negative electrode on selected areas of
the skin surface and recording the electric current
changes occurring between the electrodes as the heart
beats. The particular arrangements of two electrodes,
one positive and the other negative, with respect to a
third electrode, the ground electrode, is called a lead.
There are 15 leads: 3 standard bipolar limb leads (I, II,
III), 6 precordial unipolar chest leads (VI V2 V3 V4
Vs. V6)' 3 augmented unipolar limb leads 'aVR:
a and 3 bipolar chest leads (CR, CL, CF).
The most commonly employed leads are the bipolar
limb leads. In this chapter we will examine elements of
the electrocardiogram by recording lead II. The stan-
dard bipolar limb leads (Figure 6.2) used in electrocar-
66 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 6
---- --

GND
_ EI

FIGURE 6.2 The standard bipolar limbleads
diography by convention, with the right leg electrode
serving as ground, are as follows:
lead I =rightarm (-)to left arm (+)
lead II =right arm (-)to left leg (+)
lead III =left arm (-)to left leg (+)
Fordiagnosticworkin cardiology, otherleads have
been developed to broaden the scope and utility of the
electrocardiograph. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of
the chest leads (V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 and V6) is obtained
\
by uniting the standard electrodes to a single neg-
ative pole called a commonterminal (CT). Achestelec-
trode is attached to the positive pole and moved
through six standard positions on the chest surface
(Figure 6.3). The chest leads provide additional infor-
mation relative to the detection and location of an
abnormalityin the conductionsystem of the heartor in
cardiacmuscle.
Recording from the unipolar limb leads (aVJ:i aVR
aVL) involves uniting two of the standard limb'
trodes to a negative pole (CT) and the remaining stan-
dard limb electrode to a positive pole (Figure 6.4). The
unipolarlimb leads are as follows:
aVF = left arm and rightarm (-)to left leg (+)
aVR =left arm and left leg (-)to rightarm (+)
aVL =rightarm and left leg (-)to left arm (+)
Additional leads are the bipolar chest leads (CR,
CL, CF), obtained by making the chest electrode posi-
tive andone ofthe limb electrodesnegative(Figure 6.5).
The bipolarchestleads are as follows:
CR =chest lead (+)torightarm (-)
CL = chest lead (+) to left arm (-)
, CF =chest lead (+)to left leg(-)

.;
GND
The electrocardiographrecords electricalactivityof
the hearton agrid containing 1millimetersquares. The
horizontal lines representamplitudein fractions of mil-
livolts (mV)andthe vertical lines representtime in frac-
tions of seconds. The standard recording speed is 25
mmlsec andthe sensitivityof the recorderisadjustedso
thata 1mV inputresults in a recordedwave amplitude
of 10 mm. Thus, 1 millimeter of amplitude (vertical) is
0.1 mV and 1 millimeter of time (horizontal) is 1/25
sec., or0.04 second.
Figure 6.6 is a normal electrocardiogram (ECG),
associated with a single cardiac cycle, as recorded from
lead II.
The following phases of the ECG complex may be
recognized.
1. Theisoelectric line (baseline) isthe pointof depar-
ture for the P,Q, R, S,and T waves.
2. The P wave represents the depolarization of atrial
muscle as a wave of negativityspreads from the SA
nodetowardthe ventricles.Itisnormallyuprightin
all three standard limh leads.
3. The P-R interval ismeasuredfrom the beginningof
the Pwaveto the beginningof the QRS complex;it
representsthe intervalbetweenthe activationofthe
SAnode and the AVnode. An abnormal lengthen-
ing of the P-R interval suggests interference with
conduction to the ventricles.
4. TheP-R segment ismeasuredfromthe end of the P
wave tothe beginning of the QRS complex; it rep-
resents the interval between atrial depolarization
andventriculardepolarization.AlthoughAVnodal
delay anddepolarization of the AVnode, AVbun-
dle, and Purkinje network occur
ment, no externalpotentials are recorded.
Principles of Electrocardiography I:Elements of the Electrocardiogram (ECG)
-
67
during this seg-
-
Unipolar
+
Chest
e ~
CT=Central
Terminal
FIGURE 6.3 The unipolarchest leads.CTisnegative,V
1
- V
6
are positive.
FIGURE 6.4 The augmented unipolarlimb leads
68 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 6
I
'1

;,
;.

I


[!]

:-\.
Electrocardiograph

,
r

H
P-R
Interval

T
P
Segment
1/
Isoelectric



S
Segme,nt
Q-T Interval
, I I

15

1.0


<>.
<'

0
i;f
+
0.5

I
, I I I I I I
, o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (Second) -------..---J
GND
==0--
FIGURE 6.6 Waveforms, intervals, and segments oflead II
,
5. The QRS complex represents the spread of excita- ing of the duration of the QRS complex suggests
tion through the ventricular myocardium, resulting interference with the spread of excitation through
in depolarization of ventricular muscle. ventricular muscle, as may occur in Purkinie failure
Repolarization of atrial muscle also occurs during or myocardial infarction.
this phase of the ECG. The record is complex; its 6. The S-T segment represents the interval between
shape, amplitude, and direction depend on the the end of the S wave and the beginning of the T
position of the heart in the chest, its size relative to wave, the period during which the ventricles are
body mass, and the time relationship between right more or less uniformly excited. Normally, it indi-
and left ventricular activity. An abnormal lengthen- cates an isoelectric state. Its position and shape are
:
Principles of Electrocardiography I:Elements of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) 69
'J
1
'k
"
iiIiIIIIIIiII!l
"

GND
-\
.

GND
.J
,
-: '--------


-
GND
.
FIGURE 6.5 The bipolarchest leads
-
-
~ --
importantin the diagnosis ofabnormalities of ven- BIOPAC electrode lead set (SS2L)
tricular repolarization.
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (ELS03 I. -,
7. The T wave represents the restoration of ventricu-
electrodes per subject
lar myocardium to the resting or excitable state.
Cotor lab tableandpillow
8. The Q- T interval is measured from the beginning
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave; it
(ELPAD)or skin cleanser
represents the time of electrical systole when the
ventricular beat is generated. It varies with the
heart rate.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Values within normal ranges for the duration and
Set Up
voltage of the different phases of the ECG complex as
seen in lead IIare indicated in Table 6.1.
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratoryinstructor for assistance.
EXPERIMENTALOBJECTIVES
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
1. To becomefamiliar with the electrocardiograph as power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
a primarytoolfor evaluatingelectricalevents with- frontpanelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LEDdoes not
in the heart. light up whenthe powerswitch isturned on, check
2. To correlate electrical events as displayed on the to makesure the AClOOA transformer (which sup-
electrocardiogram with the mechanical events that plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
occur during the cardiaccycle. trical outleton the laboratory hench.
3. To observe changes in the electrocardiogram asso- 3. The subject must remove all clothing, jewelry, and
ciated with breathing, body position, exercise, other accessories from the areas of electrode place-
body size, and age. ment (Figure 6.7). With the subject resting com-
4. To anticipate the nature of changes in the electro- fortably in a supine position on the laboratory
cardiogramassociated withpathologyof the heart. table, usea cotton ball or papertowel andcleanser
(or an ELPAD) to cleanse the skin on the anterior
aspect of the right and left wrists and the medial
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTAND SUPPLIES
aspect of the right and left ankles where the ECG
Computer: See Table 1.1 for minimum system
electrodeswill beplaced. Attachthe electrodesand
requirements for a PC running Windows or the coloredelectrodeleads to the subject as shown
Macintosh running OS 8.6-9.2.2 in Figure 6.7 and plug the SS2Lelectrode lead set
into channel2 of the MP30. The pinch connectors
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
work like a small clothespin, but only latch onto
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
the nipple of the electrodefromone sideof the con-
BIOPAeMP30data acquisition unitwithAClOOA
nector. Position the electrode cables such that they
transformer
are notpullingon the electrodes. Connectthe elec-
BIOPAC USBlW Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
trode cable dip (where the cable meets the three
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
individual colored wires) to a convenient location
(can be on the subject's clothes). This will relieve
f
I
cable strain.
I
I
TABLE 6.1 4. Locate the "BIOPAC StudentLab" folder, openit,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
Amplitude
prompt will appear (Figure 6.8) asking you to
Ij
Phase Duration (second) (millivolt)
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 5 ("LOS-FCG-l")
PWave 0.06-0.11 < 0.25 byclicking on it to highlightit, thenclicking OK.
1
5. Aprompt(Figure 6.9) shouldappearaskingyou to
. ~
P-R Interval 0.12-0.20
"Please type i ~ your file name." Enter a unique
P-R Segment 0.08
I
identifier so that you can locate and retrieve your
QRS Complex < 0.12 0.8-1.2
data for analysis afterdatarecording.
SoT Segment 0.12
6. After you log on, a windowsimilarto Figure 6.1()
Q-TInterval 0.36-0.44 will appear. Check to makesure the electrodes and
TWave o16 <05
70 BIOPAC LabExperiment6
I
Plugs into Channel 2
, Eecn-ue Check CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Busy

MODEL MP30
'-
----235
.......... I

SS2L Electrode Lead Set

l

Right Leg
BLACK Lead
(Ground)
FIGURE 6.7

electrode leads are secure and the electrode assem--
bly is plugged into Channel 2. This concludes the
set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay dose
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
1. Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulled up, you will notget a
good ECGsignal. Thesubjectmust be relaxed and
as still as possibleduringthe calibrationprocedure.
The electrocardiograph is very sensitive to small
changes in voltage caused by contraction of skele-
tal muscles, so the subject's arms and legs need to
be relaxed so that the muscle (EMG) signal does
notcorruptthe ECGsignal.
,
2. Click on Calibrate. The calibration procedure will
begin and then stop automatically after 8 seconds.
At the end of the calibration recording, the screen
should resemble Figure 6.11. There should be a
=,
-J -\
...'_-,o..-c-i _--_
u._.-.:==


LOY-EC(;8J'-'i
LOi::-F.:e::::p-'1

l!}3-F'cl!"/-1
-L1
Lll-R'e'"ct-l
L'1 4-Biofbh>1
:U5-,t..ero-"1
LI E;-Bp-I
U7-H::>'1
':::,::l"/Ad[;'Sit:'.i
s.s
Pit?.:,;::::=- tvpe InYOlW filename
.I.M.E>:,,;mple

.-
6. o
reg'.' Jar, periodic ECCw;Iveform with a relatively
flat baseline.
3. Ifthe datarecordingshows anyjitteror large base-
line drafts, you should redo the calibration by
clicking on the Redo Calibration button and
reoeatina entire calibrationsequence.
:1
Principles of Electrocardiography I: [Iernents of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) a1.i1 71
-:"Ii
" .
-
... - - - -
,.
lie<l<>t>lot<"'""
000 '00
Ii
!
!
I

ov
000 L
T
Q;<;
'00 '00

FIGURE6.11
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATAACQUISITION
Preparefor the recordingandhave the subjectlie down
and relax with eyes closed. Decide who, among those
students in your lab group, will the director and who
will berecorder. Thedirectorwill giveverbalcommands
to the subject and the recorderwill insert markers and
marker labels at appropriate times in thedata record.
Lead II ECG will be recorded from the subject in
four conditions orrecordingsegments:
Segment 1: At rest, lying down.
Segment2: Immediatelyaftersitting up.
Segment3: At rest, breathingdeeply.
Segment4: Immediatelyafterlightexercise.
In order to workefficiently, read this entire section
so you will know what to do for each recording seg-
ment.
Thesubjectshouldremainin a supinepositionand
continue to relax while youreview the lesson.
Check the lastline of the Journal andnote the total
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonaspossibleso you do notuse
anexcessive amountof time (time is memory).
Hintsfor Obtaining Optimal Data
1. Thesubjectshould nottalk or laughduring anyof
the recording segments.
2 The subject should be in a relaxed state for each
recording segment and in the position noted for
each segment.
3. When the subject is asked to sit up, he or she
should do so in a chair, with arms relaxed on the
armrest (if available) or with arms relaxed at the
side if sitting on the edge ofa bench or table.
4. For recording segment2, click on Resume as soon
as possibleafterthe subjectsits up in orderto cap-
?
C"::': __


i'!-

'00
o.w
,-
'00
1,1,1++H+H+H+
f \ I ,I, ' .
-c.so
'00 am c.'" ,c>:
,," '00 '00 '00 '000 "00 1 00 13m "00 He "00 Hi) raoo
,
<Q.'"
'''I,llilS:;
#
cjckonDone
FIGURE6.12
ture the heart rate variation, but do not click on
Resumewhilethe subjectisin the process ofsitting
up or there will be excessive motionartifact.
S. Thesubjectshould be asstill as possible duringthe
recording segment. The electrocardiograph is very
sensitiveto smallchangesin voltagecaused byCOIl-
traction of skeletal muscles, and the subject's arms
and legs need to be relaxed so that the muscle
(EMG) signal does notcorruptthe ECG signal.
Segment 1
1. Click on Record, and record data for 20 seconds,
thenclick on "Suspend" at the 20-second mark.
2. Ifall went well, your data should look similar to
Figure 6.12. Thedata would be incorrectif:
(a) Thesuspendbuttonwas pressedprematurely.
(b) An electrode peeled up, causing a large base-
line drift,spike, orloss of signal.
(c) The subject has too much muscle (EMG) arti-
fact.
In this case, you should redo the recording by
clicking on Redo and repeating step 1. Note
that once you press Redo, the data you have
justrecordedwillbe erased.
Segment 2
1. In order to capture the heart rate varration, It IS
important that you click on Resume to continue
recording as quickly as possible after the subject
sits up. However, it is also important that you do
not click on Resume while the subject is in the
process of sitting up or you will capture motion
artifact.
2. Have the subject sit up quickly. Click onResume.
Record for 20 seconds. The recording will contin-
ue from the point where it last stopped, and a
marker labeled "sitting up" will automatically
72 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 6
I
l:;- when Resume is pressed. Click on Segment4
Suspend at the end of the 20-secondrecordingseg-
1. Disconnect the electrode :eJos:donot remove the
rr.enr at the 40-second mark).
electrodes) andhave the move toasafe area
_'. ltall went well, your data should resemble Figure
andperforman exerciseth.ir \I.'il: elevate his or her
6.13. The data would be incorrect for the reasons
heart rate fairly rapidh .. push-ups, jumping
given in step 2 of the instructions for segment 1. If
jacks, etc.) ..
it is incorrect, redo the recording by clicking on
2. Immediately after the exercise. have the subject
Redo and repeating step 2. Note that once you
assume asitting position as in recordingsegment2
press Redo,the data you have just recordedwill be
l, and reconnect the electrode leads'RA. = white, LL
erased.
= red, and RL = black).
J
Click on Resume.Therecordingwill continuefrom to
Segment3
'f
the point where it last stopped, and a marker
1. Click on Resume.Therecordingwill continuefrom labeled "afterexercise" will automaticallycomeup
the point where it last stopped, and a marker when you click Resume.
labeled" 5 deep breaths" will automatically come 3. Recordthe post-exerciseECG for 60 seconds, then
up whenResume ispressed. click on Suspend at the 120-second mark. Ifall
2. Record for 20 seconds andhave the subjecttake in wentwell, your data should resemble Figure 6.15.
5 deep breaths during recording. The 5 deep The data would be incorrect for reasons given in
breathing cycles should be deeper and slower than step 2 of the instructions for segment 1.
normal breathing at rest and should follow one Notethat the baseline may drift. This isfairly nor-
another. During this time, the person who is the mal, and unless it is excessive, it does not necessi-
recordershould inserta markerat the beginning of tate redoing the recording. If incorrect, you should
an inhale and insert another marker at the corre-
sponding exhale. The recorder should label these
markers "inhale" and "exhale."
__ ] :----;;G;;;--::.J
3. At the end of the 20-secondrecordingsegment(60-

second mark), click on Suspend. Ifall went well,

your data should resemble Figure 6.14. Note that
deep breathing may produce a baseline drift. This
is normal and does not necessitate redoing the
recording. Thedata would be incorrect for reasons
given in step 2 of the instructions for segment 1.If
it is incorrect, redo the recording by clicking on
Redo and repeating step 2. Note that once you
press Redo, the segmentdata you have just record-
ed will be erased.
C>'J>""


-

,=--


1'__-3
[j]
_ _ ,. __
-

', .. ----==:=--..
,
+

FIGURE 6.13
t
i ,

'< ;,,1
FIGURE 6.14
FIGURE 6.15
Principles ofElectrocardiography I: Elements ofthe Electrocardiogram (ECG) 73

L
._,. - .... --'- - -
U
redo the recordingby clicking on Redoandrepeat-
ing steps 1-3. Note that once you press Redo, the
segment data you have just recorded will be erased.
4. Click onDone. Apop-upwindowwithsix options
will appear. Make your choice arid continue as
directed. If choosing the "Record from another
subject" option:
(a) Attach electrodes per the set up instructions
andrepeat theentire lesson.
(b) Note that each person will need to use a
unique file name.
5. Remove the electrode cable pinch connectors and
peel off the electrodes. Throw out the electrodes
(BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the
electrodegel residue from the skin, using soap and
water. Theelectrodes mayleave a slightring on the
skinfor a few hours, whichis quite normal.
II DATA ANALYSIS
1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode from the
Lessons menu,choose the correctfile, andopenit.
Thedata windowshould be similartoFigure 6,16.
Notethe channelnumber(CH) designations: CH2
::: ECGleadII.
J' 2. Use thezoom tool to enlarge four successive beats
from segment J data (Figure 6.17a,b). Note that
you may turn Grids OJ\' and OFF by choosing
Display: Preferences from the File menu.
3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH2 =delta T
CH2 =BPM
CH2 ::: value
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
markerregion in the Datawindowandeach meas-
urementhas three sections: channel number; meas-
urement type, andresult. Thefirst twosectionsare
pull-downmenus thatareactivated whenyou click
-------
_... . .J
"C='C'.. --c-c-,'--cC'C -O(,-----:'j%<,.-:'l----- -- -------"---.--..---
e."-'
FIGURE6.16
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
delta T: The "delta time" measurement is the dif-
ference in time between the end and the begin-
ning of the selected area.
BPM: The beatsper minute measurementfirst cal-
culates the difference in time between the end
and the beginning ofthe area selected by the 1-
beam tool (just like delta T), and then divides
thisvalue into 60 seconds/minute.
value: The value measurement displays the ampli-
tude value for the channel at the point selected
by the l-bearncursor.
4. Use the l-bearn tool to select the area between two
successive R waves.Tryto go from Rvwavepeakto
Rvwave peak as precisely as possible (Figure 6.1R).
5. Repeatstep4fortwootherR-R intervalsin the cur-
rentwaveformdisplay. Record data in Table 6.2.
6. Using the time scroll bar, look at segment 1 data
andexamineleadIIfor regularityof rhythm.Mark
the distance between two R waves, and compare
this R-R interval to other R-R intervals in lead II.
Is there a slowing-down-speeding-up rhythm that
appearsto be correlatedwiththe respiratorycycle?
---- - ----- -"---- -----,-----,._-------
FIGURE6.17a
FIGURE6,17b
74 BIOPACLdb Experiment 6
I'
I

[iJ'--_"''!'....J
,-

FIGURE 6.18
Thisiscommonlyandnormallyseen in youngpeo-
ple and is known as sinus arrhythmia.
Temporary minor increases and decreases in
heart rate associated with the resting respiratory
cycle reflect heart rate adjustments made by sys-
temic arterial and systemic venous pressure recep-
tor (baroreceptor) reflexes in response to the
cycling of intrathoracicpressure.
When inspiratory muscles contract, pressure
within the thorax (intrathoracic pressure) decreas-
es, allowing thoracic veins to slightly expand
(Figure 6.19a). This causes a momentary drop in
venous pressure, venous return, cardiac output,
and systemic arterial blood pressure. The carotid
sinus reflex normally decreases heart rate in
responseto a rise in carotidarterial bloodpressure.
However, the momentarydrop in systemic arterial
blood pressure during inspiration reduces the fre-
quency of carotid baroreceptor firing, causing a
momentaryincrease in heartrate.
When inspiratory muscles relax, resting expira-
tion passively occurs. During early resting expira-
tion, intrathoracic pressure increases causing
compressionofthoracicveins, momentarilyincreas-
ing venous pressure and venous return (Figure
6.19b). In response, systemic venous baroreceptors
reflexively increase heart rate. However, the slight
increase in heart rate is temporary because it
increasescardiacoutputandsystemicarterial blood
pressure, which increases carotid baroreceptor fir-
ing causingheartrate to decrease.
The range for the normal resting heart rate is
60-100 beats per minute. Heart rates above 100
beats per minute are known as tachycardias, and
those below 60 beats per minute are known as
bradycardias. Under resting conditions, the heart
rate is usually 70-90 beats per minute. The condi-
tioned athlete may have a resting heart rate of
46-60 beats per minute due to a more efficient
.
Inpiration
I Intrathoracic Pressure, .
I
I i Venous -
I
FIGURE 6.19a Effectsoftheresting respiratory
cycle on heartrate
Remainderof Expiration
FIGURE 6.19b Effects oftheresting respiratory
cycle on heartrate
heartpumpinga largerstrokevolumewitha corre-
sponding decrease in rate.
7. Use the time scroll bar to inspect for the presence
of regularly occurring P-QRS- T complexes during
segment 1. Examine the P waves. Are they present
or absent-s-visible in somecases, butabsentin oth-
ers? Normal P waves are small, smoothly con-
toured upright waves in all three limb leads; they
indicate an SA node pacemaker. P waves that are
peaked, toothed, upside down, absent, or in other
ways different from the normal waveform may
indicate that some other area (instead of the SA
node) is in commandas the pacemaker. Variations
of P wave shape also occur in some types of
arrhythmias (irregular rhythms) .
Principles of Electrocardiography I:Elements of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) 75 1
f
'11
t
-it..-tJ
-- .-rI
!
Examinelead II relative to the QRS complex. Is
each Pwave followed by or related to a QRS com-
plex? In some arrhythmias, P waves are not fol-
lowed by QRS complexes for each cycle.Ifthe AV
node or the AV bundle is damaged, the ventricle
may fail to respond to every depolarization of the
SA node, resulting in heart block (AV block). In
complete heart block, the ventricular beats are
totallyunrelatedto atrialbeats.Inincompleteheart
block, the ventricle responds to every second or
third atrial beat (i.e., 2:1 or 3:1 heart block).
8. Choose an ECG complex near the 10-second
recording mark from segment 1 data. Use the 1-
beam tool to select, and then use delta T to deter-
mine the duration of the following:
P-wave duration
P-R interval
QRS interval (Figure 6.20)
Q-Tinterval
T-wave duration
End of T wave to beginningof nextR wave
Recordthe datainthe reportinTables 6.3 and6.4.
9. Repeatstep 8 for two otherECG complexes in the
currentwaveform display.
10. Normally the P-R interval does not exceed 0.20
second. A prolonged P-R interval indicates an
abnormal delay in the spread of the impulse from
the SAnode to andthrough the AVnode. Ifthe P-
R interval exceeds 0.21 second, AV block exists
and beats will be dropped.
Examine the QRS complexes to determine
whetherthe conduction of the impulsethroughthe
ventriclesisnormal.Prolongationofthe QRS inter-
val beyond0.09 secondgenerallyindicatesa defect
or delay in the conduction of the impulse through
the ventricles (e.g., Purkinje failure). Examine the
shape of all QRS complexes for lead II. Are they
uniform?
'';].-
-----------------2.-----'1
FIGURE 6.20
76 BIOPAC LabExperiment6
Examine the S-Tsegment. Itspositionshould be
horizontal along the isoelectric line or slightly
ascending. Its duration is normally 0.12 second.
The position and shape of the S-T segment are
importantinthe diagnosis of abnormalitiesof ven-
tricularrepolarization,butitisbeyondthe scope of
this book to present an analysis.
11. Using the same P-QRS-T complex as in step 8, use
the I-beam tool and the value function to measure
the following amplitudes: Pwave (Figure 6.21), Q
wave, R wave, S wave, and T wave. Compare
measured values with normal values. Record data
in Table 6.3 in the report.
To determine waveform amplitude (+ is above
the isoelectric line, - is below the isoelectric line),
positionthe I-beamcursoron the peakofthe wave-
form, click once, and read the valuemeasurement.
12. Scroll or use the marker buttonsto display segment
2 data. Measure heart rate (BPM) and R-R delta T
atthe beginning, atthe middle, and atthe end ofseg-
ment 2. Recordthe datainTable 6.5 inthe report.
13. Repeatstep 12 measurementsfor datainrecording
segment3. Make measurements duringinspiration
andduringexpiration.Recordthe measurementsin
Table 6.h inthe report.
14 Scroll or usethe markerbuttonsto displaysegment
4 data. Make the following measurements at the
beginning,middle, andend of segment4:
(a) Q-T interval (approximatesthe period of ven-
tricularsystole).
(b) End ofT wave tosubsequentR wave (approx-
imates the period of ventriculardiastole).
Record the measurements in Table 6.7 in the
report.
15. Youmay savethe datato a diskette, savenotesthat
are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
16. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.
, CD(:2iOcC'''>''''1
IIJ=
!DC-""=J
,I

',..----'-.
.
,.. eec oW 00
'00
="-";0 '" '""
LJ'S
-'
eso
----'\,;
o.

-'ow
'""

-''-------'
i
I
------J
",,".
ric::'i'o:D
'.TI!.....jii ... c...:J ...
[',:,.,,;oo..... n
-
..-
nc ow 'N W, 'W
..
Lesson5. E!8ctro,:ardr,:,gra"t (ECG) I
vaename I hi
Sallm:J3j' 2rOJ
1(\,S,'SPM
FIGURE 6.21
I'
BIOPAC
6
"'
Name:
Lab Section:
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY I:
ELEMENTS OF THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG)
DATA REPORT
Date:
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name:
Age:
Gender: Male / Female
_
_
Height:
Weight:
A. Segment 1data: supine, resting
tJ
..
,
I
t

!
~
f
I
f
I
_
_
..

_
!
!'
"
:!,
_ ir
Measurement Channel Cardiac Cycle 1 Cardiac Cycle 2 Cardiac Cycle3 Mean Range
Delta T (R-R) 2
BPM 2
TABLE 6.2
,
.1
'
t"
~
I
"'"
TABLE 6.3
"
ECGComponent
Duration (sec) Amplitude(mV)
Cycle1 Cycle2 Cycle3 Mean Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle3 Mean
P wave
P-R interval
P-R segment
QR5 complex
Q-T interval
5-T segment
Twave
1
!
.,
TABLE 6.4
I'
l
t
Ventricular Readings (seconds) Cycle 1 Cycle2 Cycle3 Mean
Q-T interval (corresponds to ventricular systole)
End of T wave to subsequent R wave (corresponds to ventricular diastole)
~
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 6 77
B. Segment2data: sitting up
TABLE 6.5
Heartrate
Delta T
I
Channel
2
I
-
Cycle 1 Cycle2 Cycle 3 Mean
--
BPM 2
I

C.Segment3data:deep breathingatrest
TABLE 6.6
Rhythm Channel Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle3 Mean
-
Inspiration
Expiration
D. Segment4 data: post-exercise
TABLE 6.7
Readings(seconds)
\ Q-Tinterval (corresponds to ventricularsystole)
Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Mean
IEndof Twave to subsequent Rwave (corresponds toventricular diastole)
--
II. QUESTIONS
J. What components of a single ECG complex change between resting and exercise states? For example, do
amplitudes increase or decrease? Do intervals become longer or shorter? Are therenochangesatall?
78 II BIOPACLab Experiment6
I
Is hearr rare higher when the subject is sitting than it is when the subject is supine? Give a physiologic rea-
son tor vour observation.
,
~
3. Did you observe heart rate to vary with inspiration and expiration during deep breathing at rest? Explain
your observation in terms of baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate.
4. How does the ratio between the durations of ventricular systole and ventricular diastole change from rest-
ing to exercise states? (Tables 6.4 and 6.7)
5. What changes in lead II ECG would you expect to see associated with the following conditions:
a. 2:1 heart block
b. Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) _
c. Increased AV node delay
d. Bradycardia _
~
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 6 79
~ L L .-...... _ . _ ~ . _ : ~ _
l
I
I
t
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
,
..
Principles ofElectrocardiography II:
The Bipolar LimbLeads and
the Frontal PlaneQRS Axis
~ 0-'\
-\'1 ~
\ \ \: '\\
~ h I \\ I \
PHYSIOLOGICALCONCEPTS
The origm of the modern electrocardiograph can be
traced to Willem Einthoven, a Dutch physician who
developed a "string galvanometer" in 1901 that could
record the electrical activity of the heart. Although it
was notthe first suchrecorder, it was a breakthroughin
thatit was accurate enough to allowanybodyto dupli-
cate the results on the same patient. His work estab-
lished a standard configuration for recording the ECG
. ~ and won him the Nobel Prize in 1924. Since that time,
the ECGhas becomea very powerfultoolin diagnosing
disorders of the heart. It should be notedthat the clini-
cal interpretationof the ECGis quiteempirical in prac-
SANode
RightAtrium
Internodal Pathways
AVNode
RightBundleBranchS
RightVentricle
Purkinje Fibers p
tice andhas evolvedfroma longhistoryof reference to
and correlationwithknowncardiac disorders.
Each cardiaccycle, orheartbeat, beginswitha bio-
electric impulse generated by the sinoatrial (SA) node,
the pacemaker of the heart. The bioelectric impulse
travels as a waveofdepolarizationfollowed by a wave
of repolarization. The impulse spreads from the SA
nodethroughoutthe atria stimulatingatrial muscles to
contract. Depolarization of the atria is recorded as the
P wave of the electrocardiogram. The impulse spread-
ing through the right atrium reaches the atriouentricu-
lar (AV) node, where impulse conduction is much
slower, thereby delaying conduction of the impulse to
the ventricles so that the atria have time to complete
LeftAtrium
BundleofHis
LeftBundle Branch
Interventricular Septum
LeftVentricle
!,
'I
t
;t_
t
!
'.
k
~
~
;t
't
,I,'
,I,
I ~
L ~
~
f
~
~
f
t
11
+
I,
it
t
t
I-
~
r

, FIGURE 7.1 The pacemakersystem


Principles ofElectrocardiography II:The Bipolar Limb Leadsand the Frontal PlaneQRSAxis 81
"
their contraction. After AV node delay, the impulse is
rapidly conducted down the AV bundle, bundle
branches, and Purkinje fibers, which stimulate ventric-
ular muscles to contract. Depolarization of the ventri-
cles is recorded as the QRS complex of the
electrocardiogram. Repolarization of the ventricles is
recorded as the T wave.
Because the current spreads along specialized path-
ways (Figure 7.1) and depolarizes parts of the heart in
sequence and in three dimensions, the net direction
(axis) of depolarization changes from moment to
moment, The amplitude (size) of the bioelectric signal
generated during the cardiac cycle is proportional to the
amount of tissue being depolarized. The ventricles make
up the majority of the heart mass, and therefore the
largest potential difference, the QRS complex, reflects
depolarization of the ventricles. Furthermore, since the
left ventricle is larger than the right, more of the QRS
complex reflects the depolarization of the left ventricle.
The body contains fluids with ions that allow for
electric conduction. This makes it possible to measure
electrical activity in and around the heart from the sur-
face of the skin (assuming we can make good electrical
contact with the body using electrodes) and also allows
the legs and arms to act as simple extensions of points
in the torso. Measurements from the leg approximate
those occurring in the groin, and measurements from
the arms approximate those from the corresponding
shoulder (Figure 7.2).
FIGURE 7.2 Einthoven's triangle
It is desirable to place the electrodes on the ankles
and wrists for convenience to the subject undergoing the
EeG evaluation. In order for the electrocardiograph to
work properly, a ground reference point on the body is
required. This ground is obtained from an electrode
placed on the right leg above the ankle.
The electrocardiogram is a record of the overall
spread of electric current through the heart as a function
of time in the cardiac cycle. The direction of polarity (+
or -) of the waveforms obtained depends upon the loca-
tion of the recording electrodes on the surface of the
body and whether the electrical activity is directed
toward or away from the surface electrode. In general, if
a wave of depolarization is approaching a positive elec-
trode, a positive voltage will be seen by that electrode
relative to a grounded reference electrode. If the wave of
depolarization is traveling toward a negative electrode, a
negative voltage will be seen. The opposite is true for
repolarization (i.e., repolarization waves approaching a
positive electrode produce negative voltages).
The term "lead" is defined as a spatial arrangement
of two surface electrodes on the body. One lead is
labeled + and the other -. The electrode placement
defines the recording direction of the lead, which is
called the lead axis or angle. The axis is determined by
the direction when going from the negative to positive
electrode. The electrocardiograph computes the voltage
difference (magnitude) between the positive and nega-
tive electrodes and displays the changes in voltage dif-
ference with time.
The standard bipolar limb leads are:
lead I = right arm (-), left arm (+)
lead II = right arm (-), left leg (+)
lead III =left arm (-), left leg (+)
The three standard bipolar limb leads may be used
to construct an equilateral triangle, called Einthoven's
triangle, at the center of which lies the heart (Figure
7.2). Each side of the triangle represents one of the
bipolar limb leads, and each lead forms a 60 angle with
the two opposite leads. Einthoven's Law mathematical-
ly relates the standard bipolar limb leads as follows:
Lead I + Lead III = Lead II. Therefore, if any two leads
are known at a given time, the third lead can be deter-
mined mathematically.
At any given moment during the cardiac cycle (dur-
ing the QRS complex, for example), the net electrical
activity seen by a lead may be represented by a vector.
A vector is an entity represented by an arrow that has
both magnitude and direction. The vector for a particu-
lar lead is plotted on the axis for that lead, with the
arrowhead pointing in the positive direction. The length
of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the net
voltage or electrical force recorded from the lead.
82 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 7
I
J

-.3 shows another way to relate each bipo-

.ead that makes up Einthoven's triangle. By


:: .ead I through the center of the heart and mov-

::1; the axes oflead IIandleadIIIhorizontallyuntilthey

.nrersect lead I at the center of the heart, a vectorgraph


"'
can be constructed. The vectorgraph makes it a little

easier to visualize an electrical axis ofthe heart.

The mean axis of the total depolarization of the

atria is called the mean P axis. The mean axis oftotal

ventricular depolarization iscalledthe mean QRS axis,


and the mean axis of total ventricular repolarization is

called the mean T axis. Each of these axes in the two


.-
dimensions of the frontal plane can be calculated from
the six limb leads (I, II, III, aVR aVL aVF)'
Clinically, the mean QRS 'is more important
01
than the other two axes because the QRS complex is
caused by ventricular depolarization and it represents
01
the majorityof the electrical activityoccurringduring a
,
cardiaccycle.
In normal persons, the mean QRS axis is between
..
-30and+90 (Figure7.4).Themeasuredvalueisinflu-
..
encedbytheleads selectedfor plottingthe vector. When
thestandardbipolarlimbleads are used, the mean QRS
..
axis is often between 0 and +90. A mean QRS axis
..
between +90 and +180 indicates right axis deviation
(RAD).Rightaxis deviationoccurs,for example,in per-
..
sonswithrightventricularhypertrophy(over-sizedright
..
ventricle). A mean QRS axis between -30 and -90
indicatesleft axis deviation (LAD). Aleft axis deviation
..
,

is found in patients with left anterior blockage in the


..
conductionsystem of the ventricle.
A determination of the mean QRS axis in the
frontal plane can be accomplished using 2-lead, 3-lead,

4-lead, or 6-lead methods. We will use a simple two-


lead method.

r?



<$'0-

.s


+ -1800 0
0
Lead I
+


+

"
60
0
t

a
FIGURE 7.3 11\ Rearrangementofthesides of
Einthoven'striangletoform avectorgraph


.....
y.
To define the 711::.T :'l::cisely, you would
need to define it in r.iree (X, Y, and Z
planes). Thisisdone in l-: .:sing 3 standardized
set oftwelveleads. Three ur:;1;:-,e :e.'c1s are the ones pre-
viouslydefinedandallow the eie-::""k.d clxisto becalcu-
latedin the frontal plane. For this chapter, we will only
be interested in the frontal plane ax.s,
Onewayto approximate the mean QRS axis in the
frontal plane is to plot the magnitude or the R wave
from leadI andleadIII (Figure 7.5).
1. Drawa perpendicularlinefromthe ends ofthe lead
IandleadIIIvectors (rightangles to the axis of the
lead).
2. Determine the point of intersection of these two
perpendicularlines.
3. Draw a new vector from point 0,0 to the point of
intersection.
The direction (in degrees) of this resulting vector
approximates the mean QRS axis. The length (mV) of
this vector approximatesthe mean QRS potential.
A more accurate method of approximating the
meanelectricalaxis isto algebraicallyaddtheQ, R, and
Spotentials for each lead instead of using just the mag-
nitude of the R wave to plot the lead vectors. This
methodwill be discussed later.
Clinically, using sophisticated equipment, vector-
cardiographyinvolves the continuousrecordingof elec-
trical activity of the heart and plotting of electrical
vectors in two and even three dimensions. It allows a
continuous display of the depolarization-repolarization
process as it sweepsoverthe heartand is used to reveal
abnormalities of the conduction process. In this experi-
ment, we will focus on the determination of the mean
QRS axis and mean QRS potential of the ventricles.
11\ EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To record ECG from standard bipolar limb leads I
and III when the subject is supine, sitting, and
breathing deeply while sitting.
2. To observe an application of Einthoven's Law.
3. To determine the mean QRS axis of the ventricles
using vectors derived from the amplitude and
polarity of the QRS complex in two of the three
bipolar limb leads.
4. To determine the mean QRS potential of the ven-
tricles.
5. To observe howfactors such as the position of the
heart in the chestinfluence the mean QRS axis.
I
,
a Principles ofElectrocardiography II:TheBipolar Limb Leads and the Frontal PlaneQRS Axis 11\ 83
,

.r" _ __:.:'.:'!'_
-120"
FIGURE7.4 Normal, rightaxisdeviation(RAD)
and leftaxis deviation(LAD) zones ofthe
vectorgraph
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTAND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for minimum system
requirements for a PC runningWindows
or a Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPAC MP30dataacquisition unit withAC100A
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPAC electrodelead set (SS2L),quantityof two
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (EL503), six
electrodes persubject
Cotor lab table andpillow
Protractor
Two different-colored pens or pencils
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
(ELPAD)or skin cleanser
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
SetUp
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratoryinstructorfor assistance.
Q S
Lead III
R
r
+0.6mV
p 1 T
Q S
Lead I
2 1.5
+-mV--
FIGURE7.5 Approximation ofthemean QRS
axis in thefrontal plane
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
powerswitch is on the rearpanel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LED does not
light up whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
to makesure the AC100Atransformer (which sup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outleton the laboratory bench.
3. The subject must remove all clothing, jewelry, and
otheraccessories from the areas of electrodeplace-
ment (Figure 7.6). With the subject resting com-
fortably in a supine position on the laboratory
table, use a cotton ball or paper towel soaked in
alcohol (or an ELPAD) to cleanse the skin on the
anterior aspect of the right and left ankles where
the ECGelectrodes will be placed. Attach the elec-
trodesand the coloredelectrodeleads to thesubject
as shownin Figure 7.6. Notethatfor the two elec-
trodes on the right ankle and the left wrist, lead I
should go to the upper of the two electrodes. Plug
the SS2Lelectrode lead set for lead I into Channel
1of the MP30and plug the SS2Lelectrodelead set
84 BIOPACLab Experiment 7

." FIGURE 7.6 Electrocardiograph leads Iand III
for lead III into Channel 3 of the MP30. Position
the electrode cables such thatthey are notpulling
on the electrodes. Connect the electrode cable clip
(where the cable meets the three individualcolored
wires) to a convenientlocation (can beon the sub-
ject's clothes). This will relieve cable strain.
Notethatthe subjectshouldnotbein contactwith
nearbymetalobjects (faucets, pipes, etc.)
4. Locate the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 7.7) asking you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 6 ("L06-ECG-2")
by clickingon it to highlight it, then click OK.
5. Apromptshouldappearaskingyou to "Pleasetype
in yourfilename." Enterauniqueidentifiersothat
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
afterdata recording.
6. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 7.8
will appear. Check to make sure the electrodesand
electrode leads are secure, the colored leads are
,
[1-
SS2L/
Electrode Lead
....... v i>
fi--- ..__.,.... ..,- -''--'

,L02.EMG-2
!L03-EEG-1
IL04-EEG-2
II .,
;L07-ECG&P-1
iL08-Resp--l
!L09-Polv-1
IL10-EOG-1
1
\L13-Lung-2
iL14-Biofbk-1
lL15-Aero-1
jL16-Bp-1
IL17-Hs-1
!ReviewSaved Data
FIGURE 7.7

1
!

Principles of ElectrocardiographyII:The Bipolar Limb Leadsand the Frontal PlaneQRS Axis 85
.c......
,"".
.... - ."----'_. "-
f., 'we
1 ~ ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 -
I I
~ I
-----------------------1.
I
I
i ~
FIGURE7.8
clipped to the proper electrode, and the electrode
assembliesare pluggedintothe correctchannelson
the MP30. Thisconcludesthe set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
1. Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulledup, you will notget a
good ECGsignal. The subject must be relaxed and
as still as possibleduringthe calibrationprocedure.
The electrocardiograph is very sensitive to small
changes in voltage caused by contraction of skele-
tal muscles, so the subject's arms and legs need to
be relaxed so that the muscle (EMG) signal does
notcorruptthe ECGsignal.
2. Click on Calibrate. Thecalibration procedure will
begin and then stop automatically after 8 seconds.
At the end of the calibration recording, the screen
should resemble Figure 7.9. There should be a reg-
ular, periodic ECGwaveform with a relatively flat
baseline.
3. Ifthe datarecordingshowsany jitteror large base-
line drafts, you should redo the calibration by
clicking on the Redo Calibration button and
repeating the entirecalibration sequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
Preparefor the recordingandhave the subjectliedown
and relax with eyes closed. Decide who, among those
studentsinyourlab group,will bethe director, andwho
will berecorder.Thedirectorwill giveverbalcommands
FIGURE7.9
to the subject. The recorder will insert markers and
marker labels at appropriate times in the datarecord.
In orderto work efficiently, read this entire section
so you will know what to do for each recording seg-
ment. The subject should remain in a supine position
and continueto relaxwhile you reviewthe lesson.
Checkthe lastline of the Journal and notethe total
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possibleso you do notuse
an excessive amountof time (time ismemory).
You will record two segments of data:
Segment 1: Subject supine, resting (20 seconds)
Segment2: (1) Subject sitting, at rest (10 seconds);
(2) subject sitting, breathing deeply (10 sec-
onds).
To minimize muscle (EMG) corruption of the ECG
signal and baseline drift:
1. Thesubject should nottalk or laugh during any of
the recordingsegments.
2. When lying downorsitting up, the subject should
be completelyrelaxed.
3. When sitting up, the subject's arms should be sup-
portedon an armrestor resting at the side.
4. Therecordingshould be suspended before the sub-
ject prepares for the next recordingsegment.
5. The subject should breathe normally during the
recording, unless otherwise directed, to minimize
EMGfrom the chestarea.
6. Makesure the electrodes do notpeel up.
Segment1
1. Click on Record,andrecordSegment 1data as the
subject continues to be supine in a relaxed state.
Recordthe data for 20 seconds.
86 BIOPAC LabExperiment7
I
r j- -
I I
i r
'-
, [ .- .. ,-"
--,
FIGURE 7.10
2. Click on Suspend. A marker will automatically
mark the end of segment 1 data. If all went well,
yourdata shouldlooksimilar to Figure 7.10.
3. If your data recording does not resemble Figure
7.10,your data may be incorrect. Notethata little
baseline drift whenthe subject breathes in and out
isnormal anddoes notindicateincorrectdata. The
data would be incorrectif:
a) The Suspend button was pressed prematurely.
b) An electrode peeled up, causing a large base-
line drift,spike, or loss of signal.
c) The subject has too much muscle (EMG) arti-
"
fact.
In this case, you should redo the recording by
clicking on Redo and repeating Steps 1 and 2.
Note that once you press Redo, the data you
havejustrecordedwillbe erased.
Segment 2
1. Havethe subjectsit up with arms relaxed. Click on
Resumeassoonaspossiblealterthe subjectsits up.
Do notclick on Resume while the subject is in the
process of sitting up or there will be excessive
motion artifact.
2. After about 10 seconds of recording, ask the sub-
ject to increase the depth of breathing by about70
percent. The subject should not breathe in too
deeply as thatwillcauseexcessiveEMGor baseline
drift.
Insertmarkers (for a Mac, use the Esckey; for a
PC, use the F9 key) at the beginning of an inhale
and at the beginning of an exhale. Record deep
breathingdata for about20 seconds.
3. Click on Suspend. Your data should resemble
Figure 7.11. If the data recording is incorrect (for
the same reasons mentioned in Step 3 of the
Segment 1 instructions), you will need to repeat

2
FIGURE 7.11
,.!1.nalyze another data file
F.:ecorcl another Lesson
Copy to Flopp'y' or Netv/orh

Ok
FIGURE 7.12
Segment 2 data recording by clicking on Redo.
Before clickingon Redo, have the subjectassume a
resting supine position for about 5 minutes. Note
that once you press Redo, the data you have just
recorded willbe erased.
4. If the data recording looks correct, click on Done.
After you select Done, a pop-up window asking
you to confirm youare finished recordingfrom the
current subject will appear. Click Yes. Another
pop-up window with six options will appear
(Figure 7.12). Make your choice and continue as
directed. If choosing the "Record from another
subject" option:
a) Note that each person will need to lise a
uniquelife name.
b) Attach electrodes per Step 3 of the set-up
instructions and repeat the calibration and
data acquisition for the new subject.
Remove the electrode cable pinch connectors and
peel off the electrodes. Throw out the electrodes
Principles of Electrocardiography II: The Bipolar Limb Leads and the Frontal Plane QRS Axis II 87
.L"....
(BIOPAC electrodes are not reusable). Wash the elec-
trode gel residue from the skin using soap and water.
Theelectrodes may leave a slight ring on the skin for a
few hours, whichis quite normal.
DATA ANALYSIS
1. When you clicked on Done in the last step of the
data recording, and then clicked on Analyze cur-
rent data file (Figure 7.12), you automatically
entered the ReviewSavedData mode, butonlyfor
the last subject. If you have data from only one
subject, continue withStep 2. Otherwise, enter the
Review Saved Data mode from the Lessons menu,
choosethe correctfile, and openit. The Data win-
dowshould resemble Figure 7.13.
Note that after clicking on Done to terminate
data recording, the software automatically calcu-
lated lead II from leads I and III using Einthoveri's
law. The calculated lead II is now displayed with
leadsI and III in the Review Saved Datamode.
2. Note the following channel number (CH) designa-
tions:
CH1 = lead I
CH3 =lead III
CH40 = lead II (calculated)
3. Set up your displaywindowfor optimal viewing of
lead I and lead III. To hide a channel, click on the
channel box and hold down the option key on a
Mac or the Ctrl (control) key on a PC, This will
toggle between hiding and showing the data. You
also have the option of showing grids on the
screen. Turn on or turnoff grids from the "display
Preferences" option under the File menu. Hide
Channel 40; display Channel 1 and Channel 3.
4. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH 1 = max
CH3 = max
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
markerregion in the Datawindowandeachmeas-
urementhas three sections: channel number, meas-
urement box (containing several types of
measurements), and the measurement result, or
value. The first two sections are pull-down menus
that are activated when you click on them. The
measurement type used in this part of the experi-
ment, called max, provides the maximum ampli-
tude value within the area selected by the l-beam
tool (including the endpoints).
5. Use the zoom tool to focus on three of the ECG
complexes in the recording of segment 1 data
(Figure 7.14).
6. Use the l-bearn tool to select the QRS interval
(Figure 7.15). Record the R-wave amplitude (max
measurement) valuesfor leadIandleadIII in Table
7.1 in the report.
7. Insert a marker at the R-wave peak to indicate
wherethe QRS measurementwastaken(for aMac,
use the Esc key; for a PC, use theF9 key). To place
a markerafterthe data has been recorded, click in
the marker region (the region above the top chan-
FIGURE 7.14
FIGURE 7.13 FIGURE7.15
\.
88 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 7
nell. Place the markerdirectlyabove the selected R
wave. An arrowshould appear. Type in "supine."
8. ScrolltoSegment2andrepeatSteps 6and7on one
, of the ECG complexes prior to deep breathing.
Type in "sitting" next to the inserted marker
(Figure 7.16).
9. Repeat Step 6 for a cardiac cycle in Segment 2 -
"inhale" (Figure 7.17) and for a cardiac cycle in
Segment2 - "exhale" (Figure 7.18).
10. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH 1 = delta
CH3 =delta
Thedelta amplitude (11) measurementcomputesthe
difference in amplitudebetween the first pointand
the last pointof the selected area. It is particularly
useful for taking ECG measurements because the
baseline does not have to be at zero to obtain
quick, accuratemeasurements.
NOTE:Makesureyou pay attention to the polar-
ity of the delta measurement as it is based on the
result of the first point minus the lastpoint. Thus,
ifthe pointat the startof the selectedarea islarger
thanthe last pointin the selectedarea, the polarity
will be positive. Ifthe reverse is true, the polarity
will be negative.
11. Scroll back to Segment 1 data and the marker
labeled "Supine." This was the same QRS region
you used the first time you did Step 6. Note that
j
Flo
rri6k:j ;;,L,.. In ...... ""] lTlL..S'i"....'Z..- __ .l
"' [jJmJIIJ "
".. , :::=JO)
I ,- , ----
0.00 c
L.
: .20 :1<"0 'HO :i1;JJ 25.20 XAD Z'i60 164:) 16.m l6.OO
-cc ".I'III";
FIGURE 7.16
');L."",.o:< .own.coY
::1.'1'8
,-----
.._., 000 \ '

'rTOO

' .___.___,.' ,r.____,Ioro \
-
3460 J48Q ssco :;,::;:0 :054(1
.j ___.____.. '
,
FIGURE 7.17
insteadof scrolling, vou can usethe markertoolsat
the far right of the marker bar co go to different
markers (Figure 7.19).
12. Use the I-beam tool to select an area from baseline
(isoelectric line) to peak (+ or - i of the wave and
recordthe amplitudes (11) of the Q, R, andSwaves
individually for both lead I and lead III. A sample
measurement of Q-wave amplitude is shown in
Figure 7.20. Record measurement values in Table
7.2 in the report.
13. You may savethe datatoadiskette, save notesthat
are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
14. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.
.0'<'600"".'
[1J[
,
0.00
:l5.6'J ;00
FIGURE 7.18
[DC=:J
I""".. __
,
I, ....1-
)i if . ",w.<o_ 'I.
i E
!,Ill L..l
.. ':::
,-,,1,00 '
"1M FW $,00 oasc 3i'F! ll20 oH.L' VS01ltTilti
j
FIGURE 7.19
![jl ,H' I'M"., LDc:':.,-;:-,] ooa- , CCC",..J.J
moo -;OW 1100

,.
FIGURE 7.20
Principles of Electrocardiography II:TheBipolarLimbLeads andtheFrontal Plane QRS Axis 89
- ,

BIOPAC
7
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY II: THE BIPOLAR LIMB
LEADS AND THE FRONTAL PLANE QRS AXIS
Name:
Lab Section:
DATA REPORT
Date:
_
_
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name: Height:
Age: Weight:
Gender: Male / Female
A. Mean QRS Axis and Mean QRS Potential Approximations using R-wave amplitudes.
_
_

TABLE 7.1
R-Wave Amplitudes (mV)
Condition Lead I (Ch 1) Max Lead III (Ch 3) Max
Lying down (Supine)
Sitting Up
Inhale
Exhale
One way to approximate the mean QRS axis in the frontal plane is to plotthe magnitude of the R-wave from
lead Iand lead III.
1. Start at 0,0 on the vectorgraph (Figure 7.21) and place a dot at the amplitude value of the R-wave (from
Table 7.1) on the lead I axis.
2. Startat 0,0 on the vectorgraphandplace a dotat the amplitude value of the R-wave on the leadIII axis.
3. Drawa line perpendicularto the lead axis throughthe doton lead I. Repeatfor lead III.
4. Determine the point of intersection of the two perpendicularlines.
5. Drawa newvector from point 0,0 to the pointof intersection.
The direction of the resulting vector (in degrees) approximates the mean QRS axis of the heart. The length of
this vector (subdivided into mV units identical to those of lead I or lead III) approximatesthe mean QRSpotential
of the ventricles.
Createtwoplotson each of the following graphs (Figures 7.21 and 7.22), using datafrom the Table 7.1. Use a
different colorpencil or pen for eachplot.

BIOPAC Lab Experiment 7 91
-

-

d
I-t-H-;'rl-I-t-I-H-H--+-t++++++++--t-J-+ 0Lead I
-
g
o
+-mV---
1.5 2
9'00
600
FIGURE 7.21 Vectorgraph: Lying down and sitting up
0,0 +-mV---
1.5 2
I-t-H-;/rl-I-t-I-t-I-H-H++++++++-t-J-+ 0Lead I
+- CP
co 0
q
FIGURE 7.22 Vectorgraph: Breathing in/breathing out
From the graph in Figure 7.21, find the following values:
Condition Mean QRS Axis Mean QRS Potential
Lying down
Sitting up
From the graph in Figure 7.22, find the following values:
Condition Mean QRS Axis Mean QRS Potential
Breathing in
Breathing out
92 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 7
0,0 -mV-
15 2
I I I I A I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 0Lead I
~ 10
0
<0
0
300
9'00
/
~
0 0
~ .... -I
~
,,0
<:i
a
CD
q 0
0
0
'2
,q,'lJ
':3'
q
~
9'0-
~
':'
-s-
FIGURE 7.23 Vectorgraph: Lying down
B. Mean QRS Axis and Mean QRS Potential Approximations using net QRS amplitudes.
TABLE 7.2
lying Down
lead I
Q
R
'"'
S
Net
lead III
Q
R
S
Net
Algebraically add the Q, R, and S potentials to obtain net potentials. Plot the net potentials in Figure 7.23.
From the graph in Figure 7.23, find the following values:
Condition Mean QRS Potential Mean QRS Axis
Lying down
II. QUESTIONS
1. Explain the difference between the mean QRS axis for the lying down data in Figure 7.23 and in Figure 7.21.
~
BIOPAC labExperiment7 93
..
~ ~ ~ ~ _

=
-mV--
1.5 2
"
a
c
f-t-t-+;I,-t--f-t-f-t-I-t-f-Hf-Hf-H'-+-I'-+-I--+-t+0Lead I
9'00
o
o
c
FIGURE 7.21 Vectorgraph: Lying downand sitting up
0,0 -mV--
-
FIGURE 7.22 Vectorgraph: Breathingin/breathingout
From the graph in Figure 7.21, find the following values:
Condition
Lying down
Sitting up
Mean QRS Axis Mean QRS Potential
From the graph in Figure 7.22, find the following values:
Condition
Breathing in
Breathing out
Mean QRS Axis Mean QRS Potential
92 BIOPAC LabExperiment7
2. Define Einthoven's law.
3. What factors affect the orientation of the mean QRS axis?
4. How did the amplitudes of lead I and lead III change between inhalation and exhalation? Did the mean QRS
axis and the mean QRS potential change?
5. What factors affect the amplitude of the R-wave recorded on the different leads?
6. Compare the mean QRS axis and the mean QRS potential obtained when:
(a) Using just the amplitude measurement of the R-wave versus net potentials
(b) Lying down versus sitting up
94 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 7
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
II
"'
Systemic Blood Pressure
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
Circulating blood provides a transportation and com-
munication system between the body's cells and serves
to maintain a relatively stable internal environment for
optimum cellular activity. Blood circulates because the
heart pumps it through a closed circuit of blood vessels
subdivided to form the pulmonary circulation and the
systemic circulation (Figure 8.1).
Blood flow through the heart and the blood vessels
is unidirectional. Blood flows into the left atrium from
four pulmonary veins (two from each lung) and into the
right atrium from two systemic veins (superior and infe-
rior vena cava). The right ventricle receives blood from
the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs by way of the
pulmonary arterial system. The left ventricle receives
blood from the left atrium and pumps it throughout the
body by way of the systemic arterial system.
Blood flow through the chambers of the heart is
unidirectional (vein atrium ventricle artery)
because of the action of four valves inside the heart that
normally prevent retrograde or backward flow during
the cardiac cycle (one heartbeat). The right atrioventric-
ular valve (tricuspid valve) and the left atrioventricular
valve (bicuspid or mitral valve) prevent the backward
flow of blood from the ventricles into the respective
atria (Figure 8.2). The pulmonary semilunar valve and
the aortic semilunar valve prevent the backward flow of
blood from arteries into the respective ventricles.
The left and right ventricles are the primary pump-
ing chambers of the heart. Contraction of the ventricles,
known as ventricular systole, causes the atrioventricular
valves to close and the semilunar valves to open.
Relaxation of the ventricles, known as uentricular dias-
tole, allows the atrioventricular valves to open and the
semilunar valves to close. When the atrioventricular

valves open, the ventricles fill with blood in preparation
for the next heartbeat.
As the heart works at pumping blood, the ventri-
cles relax and fill with blood, then contract and eject
blood, then repeat the cycle of filling and ejecting. Due
to the nature of the cardiac cycle, the ejection of blood
by the ventricles into the arteries is not continuous.
Therefore, both blood pressure and blood flow in the
arteries is pulsatile, increasing during ventricular sys-
tole and decreasing during ventricular diastole. Figure
8.3 represents a graphic recording of changes in sys-
temic arterial blood pressure measured directly by
inserting a small catheter into an artery and attaching
the catheter to a pressure measuring and recording
device. The changes in systemic pressure are measured
continuously from one heartbeat to the next.
Systolic pressure is the force of blood against the
walls of arteries during contraction of the ventricles. It
is usually recorded as the highest arterial pressure
reached during ventricular systole. Normal systolic
pressure for a resting adult is less than 120 mm Hg.
Diastolic pressure is the lowest arterial pressure
reached during relaxation or diastole of the ventricles.
It is recorded at the end of diastole, just before the ven-
tricle begins to contract and raise pressure. Normal
diastolic pressure for a resting adult is less than 80 mm
Hg.
Chronically elevated blood pressure (i.e., resting
blood pressure that remains high day after day) increas-
es the risk of cardiovascular disease. A systolic pressure
ranging from 120 to 139, or a diastolic pressure ranging
from 80 to 89 signifies prehypertension. A prehyperten-
sive person can take steps to prevent high blood pres-
sure by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Prehypertension can
lead to outright hypertension, or high blood pressure,
which begins at a systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg or a
Systemic Blood Pressure 95
!-

7
CIRCULATORYPATHWAY
Lungs
PAC PVC
HEART
PulmonaryArterial- - - - - - - PulmonaryVenous
RIGHT LEFT
Circulation Circulation
-!
RA
LA
2Receiving chambers
(atria)

2Pumpingchambers
LV
(ventricles)
RV
-
SAC SVC
SystemicVenous _
- - - - SystemicArterial
Circulation Circulation
Body
PULMONARYCIRCUIT
High Low
Pressure
Pulmonary
Aortic


----->= :;>------
"..---- < ?,----
<"'--------
- < /".------f
Semilunar
Valve
...---- !------f--FLOW-+----- '"-----....,
SYSTEMICCIRCUIT
;....-__....:.1....- __.1 ---.... Low
Pressure
: >
'---5
: /
< }---->
Semilunar
Valve
A AL c VL v
Pressure
FIGURE 8.1 Systemicand pulmonarycirculations
From Basic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001 by Richard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission ofKendall/Hunt
PublishingCompany.
96 BIOPAC LabExperiment 8
""'
FIGURE 8.2 Basicstructureofthe heart
CourtesyofBIOPAC Systems, Inc.
diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg. The severity of hyper-
tension falls intotwocategories: Stage 1 andStage 2.
Stage 1. This includes a systolic pressure ranging
from 140 to 159, or a diastolic pressure ranging
from 90 to 99.
Stage 2. This most severe hypertension includes a
systolic pressure of 160 or higher or a diastolic
pressure of 100orhigher.
The preceding values for normal and abnormal
blood pressure were derived from a revised national
classification system announced on May 14, 2003, in
the "7th Report by the Joint National Committee on
Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of
'"'
High Blood Pressure" and published in the Journal 0/
the American Medical Association in May 2003.
Hypertension contributes to atherosclerosis (hard-
ening of the arteries) and increases the work of the
heart. It can also leadto congestive heartfailure, blind-
ness, kidneydisease, andstroke.
Pulse pressure is the mathematical difference
between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. For
example,ifsystolicpressureis115mm Hg anddiastolic
pressure is 75 mm Hg, pulse pressure is 115- 75 = 40
mmHg.
Pulse pressureisdirectlyrelatedto stroke volume of
the heart and inversely related to heart rate and vascu-
lar resistance (the resistance to flow offered by blood
vessels). Forexample, when the volume of blood eject-
ed per beat (called stroke volume) increases at the
beginning of exercise, systolic pressure increases more
than diastolic pressure, resulting in an increase in pulse
pressure.
In the systemiccircuit (Figure 8.1), blood flows out
of the left ventricle into systemic arteries and then seri-
ally through arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins

150l Systolic Pressure
Pulse
f 0;8 T
E -,T\J 115 --",--,TI----7T----r ,- - - - -, --------
- /" t >. t >: _ !
(j) 100 \ I \ l,' ' \! ':l -! 10.. ,

Diastolic Pressure
2 50
Mean Arterial Pressure
t
1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0
FIGURE 8.3 Systemic arterial blood pressures
before returningto the heartto be pumpedthroughthe
pulmonarycircuit. Flowthroughaclosedcircuitsuchas
the systemic circuit is determined by the pressure ener-
gycausingthe flow, the resistanceto flow offered bythe
bloodvesselwalls (friction),andthe internalviscosityof
the blood. The relationship between flow (F), the pres-
sure (P) causing the flow, and the resistance (R) to the
flow isexpressedas follows:
F = PIR
Flow is expressed as liters/min., pressure is
expressed as mm Hg (torr), and resistance is expressed
as peripheralresistance units.Thepressure (P)isneither
systolic nor diastolic but rather a pressure in between
systolic and diastolic, called mean arterial pressure
(MAP). Meanarterialpressureconvertsapulsatilepres-
sure (systolic/diastolic) into a continuous pressure that
determines the average rate of blood flow from the
beginning of the circuit (left ventricle) to the endof the
circuit (rightatrium).
Duringthe cardiaccycle, orone heartbeat, the ven-
tricle spends moretime in diastole thanit spendsin sys-
tole. As a result, mean arterial pressure is not the
mathematical average of systolic and diastolic pressure
but rather an approximation of the geometric mean.
Meanarterial pressure can be calculated using either of
the following equations:
MAP= 1/3 Pulse Pressure + DiastolicPressure
or
MAP = (Systolic Pressure + 2 DiastolicPressure) + 3
Forexample, ifsystolicpressure is120mm Hg and
diastolic pressure is 60 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure
SystemicBlood Pressure 97

-
=
is 1/3(60) + 60 =80 mm Hg, or 120 + 2(60) + 3 =80
mmHg.
Methodsof direct measurementof systemicarterial
blood pressure are invasive and neither practical nor
convenientfor routine use;instead,indirectmethodsare
used to estimate systolic and diastolic pressures. The
auscultatory method (auscultate means to listen) is the
mostcommon indirect method. It involves the use of a
sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope or microphone
to listen to the sounds of blood flowing through a par-
tially compressed artery. The sounds were first
describedbyNikolaiKorotkoff(1874-1920),aRussian
physician.
Arterialpressureisdetermined by placing an inflat-
able rubber cuff attached to a pressure gauge around
the arm, inflating it to collapse the underlying artery,
and listening over the vessel below the cuff with a
stethoscopeor microphone (Figure 8.4). Soundiscreat-
ed by the turbulent flow of blood through the com-
pressed vessel. When cuff pressure exceeds systolic
arterial pressure, the artery is collapsed, blood flow
through it ceases, and no sound is produced. As cuff
pressure is slowly reduced, blood flow through the
arterybegins whencuff pressurefalls just belowsystolic
arterial pressure. At this point, a sharp tapping sound
(the first sound of Korotkoff) may be heard with the
stethoscope or microphone over the artery. The cuff
pressure, when this sound is first heard, istaken as an
approximation of systolic pressure. As cuff pressure is
further reduced, the sounds increase in intensity, then
suddenly become muffled (the second sound of
Korotkoff) at the levelof diastolic pressure, thendisap-
pearwithina heartbeator two. Sounds disappear when
the vessel is no longer compressed by the pressure cuff
and normal non-turbulent hlood flow resumes. Since it
iseasierto determine whenthe sound disappearsrather
thanwhenit becomesmuffled, and since only afew mil-
limeters of mercury pressure differential exist between
the two, the disappearance of sound iscommonly used
as an indicator of diastolic pressure.
Byconvention, bloodpressures determined by indi-
rect methods are expressed in the form of a ratio: sys-
tolicpressure/diastolicpressure.Forexample, ifsystolic
pressure was measured as 120 mm Hg and diastolic
pressure was measured as 60 mmHg, systemic arterial
bloodpressurewouldbeexpressedas 120/60,andpulse
pressurewouldbe60 mm Hg. Ifthe soundbecamemuf-
fled at 65 mm Hg and disappeared at 60 mm Hg, the
systemic arterial blood pressure would more accurately
be expressed as 120/65-60, butthis form of expression
isnotcommonlyused.
Generally, for indirect measurement of systemic
blood pressure (BP), the subject should be seated with
arm bared, supported, and at heart level. He or she
98 1310PAC LabExperiment8
Korot:ktlffSoonds
--+-"'r
Svstolic Pressure
I(firstsound)

(end of
60
20 4.0

2 I
braChial-e Slight blood flow
artery );(no sound
Arror-ycollapsed -
thr-ough artery-
first sounds heard
M less restrlctett- MNo arterial restriction -
nosounds
,l;i,
4
oudersound
FIGURE 8.4 Indirectmeasurementofblood
pressure
Courtesy ofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
shouldnothave smokedor chewedtobacco or ingested
caffeine within30 minutes and should be mentally and
physically at rest for at least 5 minutes prior to the
measurement. The cuff size should be correct for the
subject's arm. A correct brachial cuff encircles at least
80 percent of the arm and has a width equal to one-
thirdto one-halfthe lengthof the upper arm. Cuffs too
large give erroneous low readings and cuffs too small
give erroneous high readings. Pressure measurement
should be taken with a recently calihrated mercurial,
anaeroid, or electronic device.
The BIOPAC sphygmomanometer cuff is designed
for armswitha circumferencefrom 25.4ern (10 inches)
to 40.6 ern (16inches). This isthe standardadultrange,
andit ismarked on the cuff to makesureyou fall with-
init.Ifthis cuffdoes notfityoursubject,youshoulduse
another subjectfor this lesson so the readings are accu-
rate.
EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To use an auscultatory method for an indirect
determinationofsystemicarterialsystolicand dias-
tolic blood pressures and to correlate the appear-
ance and disappearanceofvascularsoundwithsys-
rolic and diastolicpressures, respectively.
" To measure, record, and compare systemic arterial
blood pressure in the right armandthe left armof

the same subject underidenticalconditions.
J. To measure, record, andcomparesystemic arterial
bloodpressuresin the same subject underdifferent
experimental conditions of rest and exercise.
4. To compute, record, and compare pulse pressure
and mean arterial pressure under different experi-
mentalconditions of rest and exercise.
5. To compute the pulse pressure wave velocity by
measuring the time between the R-wave of the
ECG and the first Korotkoff sound and the dis-
tance between the heartandthe brachialcuff.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTANDSUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for rmrnmum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
MacintoshrunningOS 8.6-9.2.2
'"
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPAC MP30data acquisitionunitwithAC100A
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPAC Blood Pressure Cuff(SS19L)
BIOPAC Stethoscope (SS30L)
BIOPAC electrode lead set (SS2L)
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (ELS03), 3
electrodespersubject
BIOPAC electrode gel (GELl) and abrasive pad
(ELPAD) or skincleanser
Rubbing alcohol and swab or alcohol preps (to
clean stethoscopeearpieces anddiaphragm)
Cot or lab tableand pillow
Awashablefeltpen (to markstethoscopeplacement
on the arm)
Tape measure or meterstick (for pulsespeedcalcu-
lation)
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Set Up
Selectthe followingpeoplefrom yourlaboratorygroup:
a subject, a recorder, and a director.
The subject must not have had or now have any
cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension,
stroke, cardiovascular degeneration, or disease correct-
"'
ed by cardiovascular surgery. If in doubt about your
suitability as a subject, please ask your instructor. The
subject must not have consumed caffeine, smoked, or
performed heavy exercise within one hour of the record-
ing. The subject must not look at the recording until
after the conclusion of the recording session.
The recorder is responsible for starting and stop-
ping the recordingandaddingmarkersto the recording.
The director should perform the measurementnor-
mally, without regard for the recording aspect, but
shouldcall outthe points of systolic and diastolic pres-
sure so that the Recorder can add markers to the data
recording.
1. Turnon the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. If it does notappear, ask the labo-
ratory instructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron. If the LED does not
light up whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
to makesure the AC1OOA transformer (which sup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. The subject must remove all clothing, jewelry, and
otheraccessories from the areas of electrodeplace-
ment (Figure 8.5). With the subject resting com-
fortablyin aseatedpositionat the laboratorytable,
use mild soap and water or an ELPAD to cleanse
andremovenonconductiveoilsanddeadcellsfrom
about2 inches of the skinon the anterioraspect of
the right wrist and the medial aspect of the right
and left ankles where the ECG electrodes will be
placed. Use the following procedure to attach the
electrodes and leads:
(a) Peel off an electrode using the tab (try not to
touch the adhesive). Place a small amount of
electrode gel on the electrode sponge pad and
attach the electrodeat the correctsite.
(b) Attach the colored electrode leads to the sub-
ject as shownin Figure 8.5.Thepinchconnec-
tors work like a small clothespin, but only
latchontothe nipple of the electrodefrom one
side of the connector. Position the electrode
cables such that they are not pulling on the
electrodes.
(c) Connect the electrode cable clip (where the
cablemeets the three individualcoloredwires)
to a convenient location (can be on the sub-
ject's clothes). This will relieve cable strain.
Plug the SS2Lelectrodelead setintoChannel4
of the MP30 (Figure 8.6).
(d) Plug the SS2Lelectrodelead setintoChannel4
of the MP30.
Systemic Blood Pressure 99
- ..

MP30 Unit
one on rightforearm ;/
(justabovewrist) 0
Blood PressureCuff(SSI9L)
plugs into CHannell

t
-
I \
, \ I
one on insiderightleg I \ ;1
(justaboveanklebone) I!

1
I I , : 8 ,) :' !
LJ
oue on iusideleft leg
Stethoscope(SS30L) ElectrodeLead Set(SS2L)
Gustaboveanklebone)
plugs into CHannel3 plugs into CHfinnel4
I )1 t: .). SS2L cable
1
\101\-11'30 FIGURE 8.6 Biopacsetupfor blood pressure
right forearm I.b / ( \
lesson
WHITE lead '! ( (
Courtesyof BIOPAC Systems, Inc.

! \
f
\ (1 (
.1 \ !
\. '\
right leg \!
leftleg
BLACKkad!
RED lead
(ground) L05-ECG-1
L06-ECG-2
LO?ECG&P-1
L08-Resp-1

IL02-EMG.2
!L03-EEG-1
L04-EEG-2
jL09-POly-1
FIGURE 8.5 Electrode placementand lead
connectionsfor lead" ECG
jL10-EOG-1
Courtesyof BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
iL11-React-1
jL12-Lung1
,L13-Lung.2
4. Plug the stethoscope (SS30L) into Channel 3 and
plugthe blood pressure cuff(SS19L) intoChannell.
5. Open the cuff valve and roll the cuff in on itself,
then press to flatten so as to remove all pressure
from the cuffand close the valve.
6. Before using the stethoscope, clean each earpiece
and the diaphragmwith rubbingalcohol and allow
L14-Biolbk-1
L15-/l.ero-1
L1?-Hs-1
ReviewSaved Data
it to thoroughlydry. FIGURE 8.7
7. Locate the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
Calibration
prompt will appear (Figure 8.7) asking you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 16 ("L16-Bp-1") The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
byclicking on it to highlight it, then clicking OK. internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
8. Apromptshouldappearasking youto "Pleasetype and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
inyourfilename."Enteraunique identifier so that attention to the calibration procedure.
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
1. Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
after data recording.
skin. Ifthey are being pulled up, youwill notget a
9. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 8.8
goodECG signal. The subjectmustberelaxedand
will appear. Check to makesure the electrodes and
asstillas possibleduringthe calibrationprocedure.
electrode leads are secure, the colored leads are
The electrocardiograph is very sensitive to small
clipped to the proper electrode, and the electrode
changes in voltage caused by contraction of skele-
assemblies are pluggedinto the correctchannelson
tal muscles, so the subject's arms and legs need to
the MP30. This concludes the set-up procedures.
be relaxed so that the muscle (EMG) signal does
100 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 8
g;;---n tlP-ma' ! Z2ll
u l
4,",]
BiopacStudentlab .
,

coo

l
FIGURE8.8
BiopacStudentLab
1n1late thecuff to100 mmHgaccording to thedial gauge, then click
onthe 'OK'button.
I
FIGURE8.9
1
OK
;J
Deflate the cuffto 40 mmHgaccordingtot-,e c:. 8, ca'... Je :;"'B'" : :.
onthe'OK'button
OK ;J
FIGURE8.10
...
cL i.,
After the calibration recordingbegins,taplightlyonthe
stethoscopediaphragmtwice.
='
_
,--_OK_;J
FIGURE8.11
f1eoo'd
40!m i
I:: ,
--.-------
;I
.-----w;-----
FIGURE8.12
Then, click on Redo and repeat the entire calibra-
tion procedure.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
Sphygmomanometer cuffpressures, vascular sounds of
Korotkoff, and Lead IIECGwill be recorded in a total
of eight segments. Three channels of data will be dis-
played during the recording and labeled as follows:
Pressure, Microphone, ECG. During each recording
segment,asthe subject'sbloodpressureismeasured,the
director will call outthe systolic and diastolic pressure
pointssothe recordercanadd markersto the recording.
The following data segments will be recorded from the
same subject:
Segments 1 and 2; left arm, subjectsitting up
Segments 3 and 4; rightarm, subjectsittingup
Segments 5 and 6; right arm, subjectlying down
notcorruptthe ECGsignal. NOTE:Thecuffisnot
on the subjectduringcalibration.
"
2. Click on Calibrate. A pop-up message will appear
(Figure 8.9). The directorshouldclose the valve on
the inflating bulb, inflate the cuff to 100 mm Hg
according to the dial gauge, and tell the recorder
thathe/she is ready.
3. Click on OK. A pop-up message will appear
(Figure 8.10). The directorshould use the pressure
release valve to deflate the cuffpressure to 40 mm
Hg, then close the valve to keep the cuff pressure
constantnear40 mmHg,and tell the recorderthat
he/she isready.
4. Click on OK. A pop-up message will appear
(Figure 8.11).Informthe directorthatafterthe cal-
ibration recording begins, he/she will be told to
lightly tap the stethoscope diaphragmtwice.
5. Click on OKto begin the calibrationrecordingand
tell the directorwhento lightly tap the diaphragm
twice. The calibration recording automatically
stops after 8 seconds. Your calibration recording
should resemble Figure 8.12.
,
6. Ifsimilar, proceed to Experimental Protocol and
DataAcquisition.Ifdifferent, makesure the inflat-
ing bulbvalve isfully closed (clockwise) andcheck
the hose connections on the cuffto makesurethey
are tight. Check the ECG electrodes to make sure
they have not peeled away from the skin and that
the leads are properly and securely connected.
Systemic Blood Pressure 101
..-
, - ..

'C
Segments 7and 8; right arm, post exercise, subject 5. Makecertainthe tubingand cables are notpinched
sitting up or tangled. Pinched sphygmomanometer tubing
1. Makesure all the air in the sphygmomanometer is
expelledandclose the pressurerelease valve.
2. Place the cuff on the subject's left arm so that the
"Artery" label sewn into the cuff is over the
brachial artery with the arrow on the label facing
down. Position the cuff so that the lower edge is
about2 inches above the elbow (Figure 8.13).The
cuffedge should be high enough to avoid covering
any partofthe stethoscopediaphragm.Thisavoids
extraneousnoise causedbythe cuffrubbingagainst
the stethoscope bell.
3. Wrap the cuff evenly and snugly around the sub-
ject's armandallowthe Velcroto holditin place.
A loose cuff cangive a false high reading because
of the increased pressure required to occlude the
brachial artery. After it issnugly in place,you may
inflate the cuff 10-20mm Hg so thatitwill stay in
place.
4. Position the pressure gauge so you can read the
face of the dial straighton. When read at an angle,
the apparentpositionof the gauge needle indicates
an incorrectpressure.Thereisastrapsewn intothe
cuff that allows the gauge to be clipped into it if
desired.
..
Cuff [ 5
1.5 2 -1....,. ....C)
I
Inches ...
I I t
-.....
Stethoscope
FIGURE8.13 Sphygmomanometer cuff and
stethoscope placement for indirect determination
of blood pressure
Courtesy of BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
can cause false pressure readings, and pinched
stethoscope tubing canreduce the loudness of the
Korotkoffsounds.
-
6. Position the subject's arm at heart level (Figure
8.14). The director may hold up the subject's arm
(the subject's arm may beheld in place beneaththe
director's axilla (armpit) by the director's arm), or
the subject may rest his/her arm on the lab table.
For the next step it is important that the laborato-
ry room be quiet. Otherwise, you may not be able
to hearthe Korotkoffsounds.
7. Inflate the cuff to 110 mm Hg and immediately
place the stethoscope diaphragm over the brachial
artery at the lower edge of the cuff and move it
aroundasyou listen to find the placewheresounds
are best heard. DO NOT MAINTAIN HIGH
CUFF PRESSURE FOR MORE THAN ONE
MINUTE. Apply a slight pressure to the stetho-
scope bell as you place the diaphragm on the skin
to listen. As soon as the optimum stethoscope
placement is found, hold the diaphragm in place
and release the cuff pressure. Use a washable felt
pen and trace a bit of the top and bottomedge of
the stethoscope bell to mark the spotfor succeed-
ing diaphragm placements.
8. If you do not hear Korotkoffsounds,waitat least
1 minute before re-inflating the cuff for another
determination. If, after the second determination,
vou still cannot hear Korotkoff sounds, ask your
iaboratoryinstructorfor assistance.
9. The following technique should be used to deter-
mine blood pressure in each of the eight recording
segments. Please note: It is important not to inflate
the cuff higher than needed, and it is important not
to leaue the cuff at pressures aboue systolic level for
more than 1 minute. An over-inflated cuff may
~ ~ ~ = : : : : = ~ ~ ~ ~ r \ Armat HeartLevel
FIGURE8.14 Proper position of the arm at
heart level for indirect determination of blood
pressure
Courtesy of BIOPACSystems, Inc.
102 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 8
.. -,2.sospasm. elevating blood pressure.
_1):1?ei occlusion of the brachialarteryalso ere-
j pain and venous congestion in the forearm,
2.is::1g blood pressure.
al Place the stethoscope bell in the correct posi-
"'
tion as determined in Step 7.
:bI Rapidly inflate the cuff to 160 mm Hg. Ifno
sound is heard, release cuff pressure at a rate
of 2 to 3 mm Hg per second. Call out to the
recorder when the Korotkoff sounds are first
heard (approximate systolic pressure) and
when the sounds completely disappear
(approximatediastolic pressure).
(c) Deflatethe cuffas rapidlyas possible afterthe
disappearance of sound.
Segment 1: left arm, sitting up
1. The director should prepare to properly determine
blood pressure using the subject's left arm and tell
the recorderwhen ready.
2. The director should inflate thecuffto 160mm Hg
andsay whenready.
3. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressure at a rate of 2 to 3 mm Hgper second and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recordershould insert a marker (PC = F9 key,
Mac =Esc key).
4. Therecordershouldcontinueto listen and call out
when the sounds completely disappear. The

recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
S. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible afterall sounds disappear.
6. The data should resemble Figure 8.15. The pres-
sure wave should be a decreasing slope and the
microphone channel should show the appearance
and disappearance of Korotkoffsounds. The ECG
recording should be reasonably clear of noise. If
correct, proceedto Segment2. Ifincorrect,click on
Redo.
Segment 2: left arm, sitting up
1. Click on Resume.
2. Thedirectorshould inflate the cuffto 160mm Hg
andsay when ready.
3. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressureat a rate of 2 to 3 mm Hgpersecond and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recordershould insert a marker (PC =F9 key,
Mac=Esc key).
4. The director should continue to listen and call out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
.-,"
:J@T] f . -----------------=:J .
te'", ":""",."'C,," .:..'.: ",.':c..:.--c,- ...'"" {"
r'"
--_._" ------_._--,
I'"" ;
H-1
FIGURE 8.15
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
5. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible after all sounds disappear.
6. Review the data. Ifcorrect, proceed to Segment 3.
Ifincorrect, click on Redo.
Segment 3: Right arm, sitting up
1. The director shouldswitch the cuffto the subject's
right arm, follow previously stated guidelines for
properly determining blood pressure, and tell the
recorder when ready.
2. Click on Resume.
3. The director should inflate thecuffto 160 mm Hg
and say when ready.
4. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressure at a rate of 2 to 3 mmHgper second and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recorder should insert a marker (PC =F9 key,
Mac= Esc key).
S. The director should continue to listen and call out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
6. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible after all sounds disappear.
7. Review the data. Ifcorrect, proceed to Segment4.
Ifincorrect,click on Redo.
Segment 4: Right arm, sitting up
1. Click on Resume.
2. The director should inflate the cuffto 160 mm Hg
and say whenready.
3. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressureata rate of 2 to 3 mm Hg persecond and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recorder should insert a marker (PC =F9 key,
Mac= Esc key).

Systemic Blood Pressure 103

-- ! ---
4. The director shouldcontinue to listen andcall out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
5. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possibleafterall sounds disappear.
6. Review the data. 1 correct, proceed to Segment S.
If incorrect, click on Redo.
Segment 5:Right arm, lyingdown
1. The subject should lie down in a supine position
andrelax.
2. Click on Resume.
3. The directorshould inflate the cuff to 160 mm Hg
and say whenready.
4. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressureat arateof 2 to 3mm Hg per second and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recorder shouldinserta marker (PC = F9 key,
Mac = Esckey).
S. The director should continue to listen and call out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
6. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible after all sounds disappear.
7. Review the data. If correct, proceed to Segment 6.
If incorrect, click on Redo.
Segment 6:Rightarm, lying down
1. Click on Resume.
2. The directorshould inflate the cuff to 160 mm Hg
and say whenready.
3. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressureat a rate of 2 to 3mm Hg per secondand
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
Therecordershould inserta marker (PC= F9 key,
Mac = Esckey).
4. The director shouldcontinue to listen and call out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
5. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible afterall sounds disappear.
6. Review the data. If correct, proceed to Segment 7.
If incorrect, click on Redo.
Segment 7:Right arm, afterexercise
1. Removethe sphygmomanometercufffrom the sub-
ject and disconnectthe electrodeleads.
2. The subjectshouldexercise to elevate heartrate to
a moderatelevelandthen sit downto recover. The
director should reattach the electrode leads (RA =
white, LL=red, RL =black).
3. The director should place the cuff on the subject's
right arm, follow previously stated guidelines for
properly determining blood pressure, and tell the
recorder when ready.
4. Click on Resume.
5. Thedirectorshould inflate the cuff to 160 mm Hg
and say whenready.
6. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressure at arate of2 to 3 mm Hg per secondand
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recorder should insert a marker (PC = F9 key,
Mac= Esckey).
7. The directorshould continue to listen andcall out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
8. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible afterall sounds disappear.
9. Review the data. If correct, proceed to Segment 8.
If incorrect, click on Redo.
Segment 8:Rightarm, afterexercise
1. If the subject's heartratehas declined significantly,
repeat exercise to elevate heart rate to a moderate
level, then have the subject sit down to recover
from the exercise.
2. The director shouldplace the cuff on the subject's
right arm, follow previously stated guidelines for
'\",.
properly determining blood pressure, and tell the
recorderwhenready.
3. Click on Resume.
4. Thedirector should inflate the cuff to 160 mm Hg
andsay whenready.
5. Click on OK. The director should release the cuff
pressureat a rate of 2 to 3mm Hg per second and
call out when the Korotkoff sounds first appear.
The recordershould inserta marker(PC = F9 key,
Mac= Esckey).
6. The director shouldcontinue to listen andcall out
when the sounds completely disappear. The
recorder should insert a marker and click on
Suspend.
7. The director should deflate the cuff as rapidly as
possible afterall soundsdisappear.
8. Review the data.If correct,click on Done.If incor-
rect, click on Redo.
9. After you click on Done,a pop-upmessage (Figure
8.16) will ask you to confirmthatyou are finished
with all recordings from the subject. Click Yes.
10. After you click Yes, a pop-up window with six
options will appear (Figure 8.17). Make your
104 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 8
choice and continue as directed. Remove the cuff. 3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
Remove the electrode leads and peel off the elec- CH 1 set to Value
trodes.Discardthe electrodesandwashanyresidue CH1 set to BPM
frorn the skin. The electrodes may leave a slight CH 1 set to delta T
ringonthe skinfor afew hours.Thisisnormaland Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
will disappear. markerregionin the Data window andeachmeas-
"
urementhas three sections: channel number, meas-
urement type, andresult. Thefirst two sections are
DATA ANALYSIS
pull-downmenusthatare activatedwhenyou click
1. When you clicked on Done in the last step of the
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
data recording, and then clicked on Analyze cur-
measurementboxes used in this experiment:
rent data file (Figure 8.17), you automatically delta T: The "delta time" measurement is the dif-
entered the Review SavedDatamode, butonlyfor
ference in time between the end and the begin-
the last subject. Ifyou have data from only one ningofthe selected area.
subject, continuewithStep 2. Otherwise, enter the
BPM: The beats per minute measurement calcu-
Review Saved Data mode from the Lessons menu, lates the difference in time between the end and
choosethe correctfile, and openit. The Datawin- the beginning of the area selected by the l-bearn
dowshould resemble Figure 8.18.
tool (just like delta T), and then divides this
2. Note the channelnumber (CH) designations:
value into 60 seconds/minute.
CH1 displays cuff pressure in mm Hg. value: The value measurement displays the ampli-
CH 3 displays microphone sounds in millivolts
tude value for the channel at the point selected
(mV) by the l-bearncursor.
CH4 displays ECG Lead II in millivolts (mV) 4. Use the zoom tool to set up your Display window
for optimal viewing of the first recording segment
(Figures 8.19a, 8.19b).
_0"'" . 5. Usingthe l-bearncursor,select thepointthatcorre-
Y!'_ ___ LL
-
sponds to the first marker (the audible systolic
- -
'-
.'.'-
"

,o. .. :l.j
.. ,_IJ, 'i]: r:n

. I
-8
:::::=;;::e::
'''
rsoc
I
,:1200 "000 ,",'00 l\2Lll r;;;-
, ii i
I,,"
ilIIJil' 000 'ii
,,-
FIGURE8.16
FIGURE8.18
What wouldYflIJ like to donow? III
Record from
ilnalyzeanother datafile
'Recordanother Lesson
CopytoFloppyorNetwork
Qutt
OK
J""
,
FIGURE8.17 FIGURE8.19a
Systemic Blood Pressure 105

FIGURE8.19b
FIGURE8.20
pressure point) (Figure 8.20). Record the value
measurementin Table 8.1 in thereport.
6. Usingthe l-bearncursor, selectthe pointthatcorre-
sponds to the first KorotkoH sound (systolic pres-
sure point) detected by the stethoscope
microphone. To help distinguish the Korotkoff
sound from other noise, you should note that the
propersoundappearsat a pointin time correspon-
dingto the T-wave ofthe ECGcycle. TheECGcan
be of great assistance in determining the beginning
and ending of Korotkoff sounds (Figure 8.21).
Record the value measurement in Table 8.1 in the
report.
7. UsingtheI-beamcursor,selectthepointthatcorre-
sponds to the second marker (the audible diastolic
pressure point) (Figure 8.22). Record the value
measurement in Table 8.2 in the report.
8. Usingthel-bearncursor,selectthepointthatcorre-
sponds to the end of the Korotkoff sounds (dias-
tolic pressure point) as detected by the stethoscope
microphone (FIgure 8.23). Record the ualue rneas-
uremem in Table 8.2 in the report.
9. Looking at the ECG complexes in the region
between systolic and diastolic pressure, select an
area from one R-wave to the next R-wave (Figure
8.24). Record the EPNl measurement in Table 8.3
inthe report.BPMchangesOIl a beat-by-beatcycle,
FIGURE8.21
-
FIGURE8.22
FIGURE8.23
so for the most accurate measurement you should
take BP:vI measurements on three successive R-R
intervals and find the average BPM. Repeat this
measurement on two successive R-waves and
record the BPM in Table 8.3.
10. Zoom in onone of theECGcomplexes in thetime
between systolic and diastolic pressure (Figures
8.2Sa,8.25b).
11. Using the l-beam cursor, select the area from the
peak of the R-wave to the beginning of the first
sound of Korotkoff detected by the stethoscope
microphone (Figure 8.26). Record the delta T
measurementin Table 8.5 in the report.
106 IIll!I BIOPAC LabExperiment8

if" 'Pi
lii
" Sp::tW
"*'"
,
.' r .-- " -, ._:=:::1 G
!
-_..
--- --- - ---+-_...... - ...,_... +_.. ..,-........-......... ........._..+..
1'00 'e
1.$00
I 4 I'"
------++h+++-+-+.. .+-r--t+-l--+-++t--=-++-+++l:,: '.
i ' .'C -:') .tt> s 8.00 Hi) tOll 1HlJ 1",0 JPXl lHO 20.S0 ce.oo
k--- .""<"'J' ,'.'
FIGURE 8.24
!i< Ed': ......., '.esiO<1<
c-ese !
j',IC::j.lI'!i:!'''''u" [i,.,......J
';;;;;""...,.>",
. .
.-,_.- .. --- - I,<;0( "
? :'OOOO
I'Joo
I,
I H!
I ,ffi
!++-H+++-H.+t--H-++-l--h+-H+++H++H--t
J
:: '
v. 1',00 .
QP'J T.OO ,..N <00 e,{j .00 11,20 ... 'om tl&1 :/tI.\Il,I ".00
fV!fdot p,,.,,...,. ,,..,,"""
,'....,10"

1!J[j][i]


---"---
- - ---
I I I
0.00.' 1M azo ow s sc
'"
I,)
1120
C,JL"'---J
......
lct.G
r=-' I-
i:;!
--'- ------"
-
;;00
1(>'J
'00
..j...++++++f-+++'j'-++I',: '.
".
1c,Q 1T0Il 2O.S(; 1:
FIGURE 8.25a FIGURE 8.26
"'
12. Pull down the Display menu and click on Zoom 14. Youmay savethe datato adiskette,save notesthat
Previous. Use the marker tools, or the horizontal are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
scrollbuttonto selectrecordeddatafrom Segment2. 15. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
13. Repeat Steps 4-12 for each recording segment to down the computer.
completethe laboratoryreportwithmeasurements
from all eight recordingsegments.

1--
""""---;-::1
----------
:drCl!r;!
"'<0 -

-
-.
-
---
I"" >

cco ,lit I Q
FIGURE 8.25b
.
-
Systemic Blood Pressure 107
- ,-
BIOPAC SYSTEMIC BLOODPRESSURE
8
"
DATAREPORT
.:\ame: _
Lab Section:
Date: _
I. DATAAND CALCULATIONS
Subject Profile: Name: _ Height: _
Age: _ Weight: _
Gender: Male / Female Time of day: _
A. SystolicMeasurements
Complete Table 8.1 with the systolic measurements from all eight data segments. Note the pressure measure-
ments at two different times: 1) the audible pressure point called out by the director and marked, and 2) the first
Korotkoff sound detected by the microphone but not marked. Calculate the L'l (difference) between the trials for
each condition, the trial average pressure, and the L'l between the marker and microphone pressure measurements
for each segment.
TABLE8.1
"
SystolicPressurein mm Hg (CH 1value)
~
Audible Pressure Microphone Detected
Average PressureB
(marked) Pressure(unmarked)
Minus
Average PressureA
A Condition Trial B
Left arm, sitting up 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
~ ~
Right arm, sitting up 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
~ ~
Right arm, lying down 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
~ ~
Right arm, after exercise 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
~ ~
~
BIOPACLab Experiment8 109
..-,. """"" - ""
--- ~ ~ - . t .
---,-,-
-----
--
--
B. Diastolic Measurements
Complete Table 8.2 with the diastolic measurements from all eight data segments. Note the pressure measure-
ments at two different times: 1) the audible pressure point called out by the director and marked when sound
disappeared, and 2) the disappearance of Korotkoff sound detected by the microphone but not marked.
Calculate the L'1 (difference) between the trials for each condition, the trial average pressure, and the L'1 between
the marker and microphone pressure measurements for each segment.
TABLE 8.2
Diastolic Pressure in mm Hg (CH 1 value)
L\
Audible Pressure Microphone Detected
Average Pressure A
(marked) Pressure (unmarked)
Minus
Average Pressure B
~
Trial Condition A B
Left arm, sitting up 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
I
L\
--
~
Right arm, sitting up
Average Pressure Average Pressure
~ I
I
L\ L\
Right arm, lying down 1
Average Pressure Average Pressure
2
e---
+
L\ L\
--------+--
Rightarm, afterexercise
Average Pressure Average Pressure
~ ~ t
L\
I L\ i
I
110 .. BIOPAC Lab Experiment8
I
l
ri'
\
Right arm, sitting up
Right arm, lying down
Right arm, after exercise
C.BPM Measurements
~ : - : ~ ~ ~ : ~ Table 8.3 with BPM measurementsfrom three cyclesof each of the eight data segments andcalculate
,
.r.e me an BP:-'lfor each segment.
TABLE 8.3
Condition
Left arm, sitting up
i
I
~
HeartRate (BPM)
--
Data Segment Cycle 1 Cycle2 Cycle3 Mean
-
1
2
3
4
--!--.
L--
5
6
7
8
--
I
)
I
f
t
t
D. PulsePressureand MeanArterial Pressure
Transfer the audible pressure averages from Table 8.1 (systolic) andTable 8.2 (diastolic) to Table 8.4 andthen
calculate the pulse pressures and mean arterial pressures.
~
I
Pulse Pressure = Systolic Pressure - DiastolicPressure
MAP = 1/3Pulse Pressure + Diastolic Pressure
or
MAP = (Systolic Pressure + 2 DiastolicPressure) '" 3
TABLE 8.4
Condition
Average
SystolicPressure
Average
DiastolicPressure MeanArterial Pressure PulsePressure
Left arm, sitting up
Right arm, sitting up
Right arm, lying down
=-J
Right arm, after exerose
"
BIOPACLabExperiment8 111
.- --.--
.- ~ ~ - _ - _. ! 4
I
- ----
E. Timing ofKorotkoffSounds
Complete Table 8.5 withthe delta T ~ T and calculate the meantime for eachcondition.
TABLE 8.5
Condition
Left arm, sitting up
Right arm, sitting up
Right arm, lying down
Right arm, after exercise
I
I
Time (sec)between R-wave MeanTime
Data Segment (sec) and FirstKorotkoff Sound ~ T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
F. Calculation of PulseWaveVelocity
1. Use a tape measure or meter stick to measure the distance, in centimeters, between the subject's sternum
(breastbone) and theright shoulder. Enterthe measurementin Table 8.6.
2. Measure the distance betweenthe shoulderandthe anteriorelbow. Enterthe measurementin Table 8.6.
3. Use Segment 1 data andtransferthe time betweentheR-wave and the first KorotkoffsoundfromTable 8.5
toTable 8.6.
4. Calculate the velocity of the pulse wave.
TABLE 8.6
Distance
Distance between the subject'ssternum and right shoulder cm
Distancebetween the subject's nght shoulder and anteriorelbow cm
Totaldistance between the subject'ssternum and anterior elbow cm
I Time
Time between R-waveand first Korotkoff sound sec
rVelocity Velocity =distance/time = cm/ sec cm/sec
112 BIOPAC Lab Experiment8
I
\

i!i
II. QUESTIONS
1, Gi\e three sources of errorin the indirectmethodof determiningsystemic arterial blood pressure:
~
d.
b.
c.
2. Use an equation thatrelates flow, pressure, andresistance todefine mean arterial pressure. _
3. Blood flow (liters per min.) through the pulmonary circuit equals blood flow through the systemic circuit
but pulmonary resistance to flow is five times less than systemic resistance to flow. Using the equation in
I
f
question 2, showthatmeanpulmonarypressure is five times lessthanmeansystemic pressure.
I
'
4. Define the first andsecondsounds of Korotkoff. Whichsoundis used to approximatesystolic pressure and
~
which soundis used to approximate diastolic pressure?
5. Why is mean arterial pressure not equal to (systolic pressure - diastolic pressure/2) + diastolic pressure?
(Hint: Does the heartspend as muchtimein systole as it does in diastole at normal resting heart rate?)
6. Explainthe difference in time betweenwhenthe stethoscopemicrophone detected the first Korotkoffsound
andwhen the directorfirst heard the sound.
"
BIOPACLab Experiment8 113
~ !JII!
'.
I
,
J
't.
,
,!r.
l ~ ~
1
I'
-'---
I
7. Does your systolic and/or diastolic pressure change as your heart rate increases? How is pulse pressure
affected?
8. Give one reason why blood pressure in the left arm may be different from blood pressure in the right arm
of a subject at rest. _
9. Name an artery other than the brachial that could be used for an indirect measurement of blood pressure.
114 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 8

BaUPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
-,
II
The Cardiac Cycle
and Heart Sounds
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The humancardiovascular system consists of the heart
and blood vessels arranged to form a double circula-
tion: the systemic circulation and the pulmonarycircu-
lation.Thecirculatorypatternresemblesa figure 8with
the heart locatedat the center (Figure 9.1).
The primary function of the heart is to receive
blood from the pulmonary veins and pump it into the
systemicarteries,andto receive bloodfromthe systemic
veins and pump it into the pulmonary arteries. The
~
CIRCULATORY
, ~
PAC
Pulmonary Arterial - - -
Circulation
SVC
SystemicVenous _
Circulation
,
i
oay
-
sequenceofelectricalandmechanicaleventsofthe heart
associated with receiving blood from the venous sys-
tems and pumping it outinto the arterial systems dur-
ing oneheartbeat isknown as the cardiac cycle.
The normal flow of blood through the heart and
bloodvessels isunidirectionalandisasfollows: left ven-
tricle-systemic arteries-systemic arterioles-capillaries-
systemic venules-systemicveins-rightatrium-rightven-
tricle-pulmonary arteries-pulmonary arterioles-pul-
monary capillaries-pulmonary venules-pulmonary
PATHWAY
,
PVC
- - - - PulmonaryVenous
Circulation
2Receivingchambers
(atria)
2Pumping chambers
(ventricles)
SAC
- - - - SystemicArterial
Circulation
.....j
-"lit
~
;I<t
"h;
,
I.
J
t
f
'if
t-
.j
Ij.
t
~
r : ~
t
4-
~ E
\
I
t,'
i
I
!.
I
The Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 115
~ ~
I
--- ~ ~
FIGURE 9.1 The systemic and pulmonarycirculation
"
From Basic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001 byRichard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission of Kendall/Hunt
Publishing Company.
.I!
veins-leftatrium-leftventricle(Figure 9.2). Blood flow-
ing through the left side of the heart is kept separate
from blood flowing through the right side of the heart
by the septa (walls) between the atria and between the
ventricles. The unidirectional flow of blood through
the right side of the heart and through the left side of
'
the heart is maintained by an atrioventricular valve
(right and left) and a semilunar valve (right and left).
On the left side of the heart, the atrioventricular valve
is called the mitral ualue, and the semilunar valve is
calledtheaortic ualue. Onthe rightside of the heartthe
atrioventricular valve is called the tricuspid ualue, and
the semilunar valve is called the pulmonary value
(Figure 9.3).
The atrioventricular valve and the semilunar valve
on each side of the heart open, and thenclose, passive-
ly during the cardiac cycle. Both the opening and the
closing are the result of the difference in pressure on
eachside of the valve and notthe result of muscles act-
ing directly on the valves to actively open and close
them.
Theatrioventricularvalve isa one-wayvalve open-
ing into the ventricle, allowing blood to flow from the
atriumintothe ventricle butnotin the reverse direction
(retrograde flow). The valve is open when ventricular
pressureislessthanatrialpressure,therebyallowingthe
ventricle to fill with blood. The valve is closed when
ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure,
thereby preventing the backward flow of blood.
The semilunar valve is a one-way valve opening
into the artery (pulmonary trunk or aorta) allowing
blood to flow out from the ventricle when ventricular
pressureisgreaterthanpressure in the artery. Thevalve
is closed when ventricular pressure is less than arterial
pressure, thereby preventing the backward flow of
blood.
Duringthe cardiaccycle, the semilunarvalves open
and close in unison, as do the atrioventricular valves.
The openingandclosingof the four cardiacvalves pro-
duce soundsthatmay beheardoverthe anteriorsurface
of the chest. Figure 9.4 depicts areas of the chestwhere
these sounds are heard best with the aid of a stetho-
scope or microphone.
PULMONARYCIRCUIT
High
Low
Pressure

'-----:3 >-----...".
---_..... < ...._----
'-----"
>
<
<:
>------"
Pulmonary
Semilunar
Valve
...
SYSTEMICCIRCUIT
High
Low
I--------- I
,"'---------..
Pressure
Pressure

V
:>;;;:=<: >
'---< -<------'
>
-------> ( >
Aortic
"r----__<
Semilunar
Valve
Pressure
A AL C VL V
Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins
FIGURE 9.2 The systemic and pulmonarycircuits
From Basic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001 byRichard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission ofKendall/Hunt
Publishing Company.
\.
J
116 BIOPAC LabExperiment 9

I
FIGURE 9.3 Frontal viewofthehuman heart
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems.Inc.
;-O'J[ major heart sounds are associated with the semilunar valves. These events produce the "lub"
~ ;'OI:1g and dosingof the valves andthe flow of blood of the characteristic .,lub-dub" heard with each
-,
: : t ~ m the heartduring the cardiaccycle: heartbeat when the stethoscope is placed on the
chestover the heart.
1. The first heartsoundoccursduringventricularsys-
2. The second heart sound occurs during ventricular
tole (contraction of ventricular muscle) and is
diastole (relaxation of ventricular muscle) and is
caused by closure of the atrioventricular valves
caused by closure of the semilunar valves and,
and, about.05 second or less later, opening of the
about .05 second or less later, opening of the atri-
oventricularvalves. This soundisthe "dub."
3. The third heart sound occurs during ventricular
diastole and is caused by turbulent blood flow
associated withrapidfilling of the ventriclesshort-
ly afteropeningof the atrioventricularvalves.
4. The fourth heart sound occurs during ventricular
diastole and is caused by turbulence associated
with the passage of blood from the atria into the
ventricles duringatrialsystole. This sound isheard
immediately before the ventricles begin to contract
andclose the atrioventricularvalve.
The first and second heart sounds are sharp and
J
i
'" ,
distinct, easily heard by the untrained but normal ear.
Thethirdandfourth soundshave a lowerintensityand
thusare muffled, lessdistinct, andrequire morecareful
listening.
I
,
JugularNotch
Clavicular Notch
I
First Rib
Costal Cartilage
Sternal Angle
.JI J L2 ' Il J,
I I I IIr:
Intercostal
Space
Sternum:
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid Process
A =Aortic
P =Pulmonic
T =Tricuspid
M =Mitral
~ FIGURE 9.4 Auscultatorypositionsforthecardiac valves
TheCardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 117
f
~ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ""-"""'f;c'!', , if
..... __ ..
:
veins-left atrium-left ventricle (Figure 9.2). Blood flow-
ing through the left side of the heart is kept separate
from blood flowing through the right side of the heart
by the septa (walls) between the atria and between the
ventricles. The unidirectional flow of blood through
the right side of the heart and through the left side of
the heart is maintained by an atrioventricular valve
(right and left) and a semilunar valve (right and left).
On the left side of the heart, the atrioventricular valve
is called the mitral valve, and the semilunar valve is
called the aortic valve. On the right side of the heart the
atrioventricular valve is called the tricuspid valve, and
the semilunar valve is called the pulmonary valve
(Figure 9.3).
The atrioventricular valve and the semilunar valve
on each side of the heart open, and then close, passive-
ly during the cardiac cycle. Both the opening and the
closing are the result of the difference in pressure on
each side of the valve and not the result of muscles act-
ing directly on the valves to actively open and close
them.
The atrioventricular valve is a one-way valve open-
ing into the ventricle, allowing blood to flow from the
atrium into the ventricle but not in the reverse direction
(retrograde flow). The valve is open when ventricular
pressure is less than atrial pressure, thereby allowing the
ventricle to fill with blood. The valve is closed when
ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure,
thereby preventing the backward flow of blood.
The semilunar valve is a one-way valve opening
into the artery (pulmonary trunk or aorta) allowing
blood to flow out from the ventricle when ventricular
pressure is greater than pressure in the artery. The valve
is closed when ventricular pressure is less than arterial
pressure, thereby preventing the backward flow of
blood.
During the cardiac cycle, the semilunar valves open
and close in unison, as do the atrioventricular valves.
The opening and closing of the four cardiac valves pro-
duce sounds that may be heard over the anterior surface
of the chest. Figure 9.4 depicts areas of the chest where
these sounds are heard best with the aid of a stetho-
scope or microphone.
PULMONARYCIRCUIT
High
Low
Pressure
Pulmonary
Semilunar
Valve
Aortic
Semilunar
Valve

------:3 >"------"
..... < }'------
? <:
"-----_..... < >'-------
...-----+-----1---
SYSTEMICCIRCUIT
I ."", ...;..
......
?,....-----..< >
-:? ::>

>
'r-----..<.
Pressure
Low
Pressure
A AL C VL V
Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins
FIGURE 9.2 The systemic and pulmonarycircuits
FromBasic Human Physiology by Richard Pflanzer. Copyright 2001byRichard Pflanzer. Reprinted by permission ofKendalllHunt
Publishing Company.
116 BIOPAC LabExperiment 9
--_ _--
Four major heart sounds are associated with the
opening andclosing ofthe valves andthe flow of blood
within the heart during the cardiaccycle:
~
1. The first heartsoundoccursduringventricularsys-
tole (contraction of ventricular muscle) and is
caused by closure of the atrioventricular valves
and, about .05 second or less later, opening of the
FIGURE 9.3 Frontalviewofthehuman heart
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
,
Sternum:
Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid Process
A = Aortic
P = Pulmonic
T = Tricuspid
M = Mitral
semilunar valves, These events produce the "lub"
of the characteristic "Iub-dub" heard with each
heartbeat when the stethoscope is placed on the
chestover the heart.
2. The second heart sound occurs during ventricular
diastole (relaxation of ventricular muscle) and is
caused by closure of the semilunar valves and,
about .05 second or less later, opening of the atri-
oventricularvalves. This sound is the "dub."
3. The third heart sound occurs during ventricular
diastole and is caused by turbulent blood flow
associatedwithrapid filling of the ventricles short-
lyafter opening of the atrioventricularvalves.
4. The fourth heart sound occurs during ventricular
diastole and is caused by turbulence associated
with the passage ofblood from the atria into the
ventricles duringatrialsystole. This soundis heard
immediately before the ventricles begin to contract
and close the atrioventricularvalve.
The first and second heart sounds are sharp and
distinct, easily heard by the untrained but normal ear.
The thirdandfourthsoundshave alowerintensityand
thusare muffled, less distinct, andrequire morecareful
listening.
JugularNotch
ClavicularNotch
Costal Cartilage
Intercostal
Space
1
Sternal Angle
First Rib
..JIJ l2 ' Il --'-
I I I I' r.
'" FIGURE 9.4 Auscultatorypositionsforthecardiacvalves
The Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 117
- ,_I
---,
~ ~ __: _ , _ - ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~
,
A heart murmur is an atypical sound usually pro-
duced by abnormal closure of a cardiac valve, narrow-
ing (stenosis) of the valvular orifice, or defects in the
atrial septum or ventricular septum. The fundamental
cause of the change in sound is increased turbulence.
Murmurs may be heard duringventricular systole (sys-
tolic murmurs) or during ventricular diastole (diastolic
murmurs). For example, ifthe mitralvalve fails to com-
pletelyclose therebyallowingretrogradeflow, asystolic
murmur may occur. On the other hand, if the aortic
valve is diseased and incompetent causing a murmur,
the sound will be heard duringventricular diastole.
The opening and closing of cardiac valves and the
sounds they produce are mechanical events ofthe car-

C
120
==
S
'-'
S
80
Q,l
r..
:::
<Il
<Il 40
Q,l
r..

0
AtrioventricularValves
SemilunarValves
Heart
Sounds
ECG
LeadII
118 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 9
FIGURE 9.5 Mechanical and electrical eventsofthecardiaccycle
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
..... _----
Atrial
-- ---
open closed
closed open
1
2
4
open
closed
-1.......__
diastole
4
closed
open
diac cycle. Theyare preceded by the electricalevents of
the cardiaccycle (Figure 9.5). The electrical events, and
thusthe heartbeat, begin witha signalgenerated by the
sinoauricular (SA)node,the heart'sprimarypacemaker.
As the signal spreads through atrial conduction paths
andatrialmuscle,the atriarespondby contracting(atri-
al systole). At this time, the ventricles are relaxing (ven-
tricular diastole) from the previous heartbeat, the
atrioventricular valves are open, and the semilunar
valves are closed. The ventricles are filling with blood,
preparing for the next ejection phase of the cardiac
cycle. Theatrioventricular (AV) nodepicks up the pace-
maker signal, and after a short delay, which allows the
atria to complete systole and enter diastole, sends the
1CardiacCycle ..
__I
o .1 .2 Time(seconds)
Note: Interval 0 - IsovolumetricContraction
Interval f} - IsovolumetricRelaxation

bundle, its branches,


j .<: :-.je to the ventricles stimulating
':- ventricular svstole), \'Vhen the vcntri-
"
c; ac:. ventricularpress ure increases a bove atrial
'"
: -e",:-eandtheatrioventricularvalvesclose (first heart
.. ': _;' , Yentricular pressure continues (0 increase, and
"::0':1 it exceeds arterial pressure, the semilunars open
.,:-.c blood is rapidly ejected into the pulmonary trunk
.'i_C aorta. The ventricles complete systole and enter
c.astole. As the ventricles relax, ventricular pressure
ralls below arterial pressure and the semilunar valves
close (second heart sound). When ventricular pressure
falls below atrial pressure, the atrioventricular valves
open andventricularfilling begins again. At thistime, a
period called diastasis, the atria and the ventricles are
simultaneously relaxed and awaiting the pacemaker to
signal the beginning of the next cardiac cycle.
In this lesson, we will use a microphone-equipped
stethoscope to record sounds of the cardiac cycle, pro-
ducing a record called a phonogram, while simultane-
ously recording Lead II electrocardiogram. We will
compare and correlate electrical events of the cardiac
cycle to mechanical events of the cardiac cycle. At this
point, the reader should review Chapter 6, ECG I, for
the meaning ofthe waveforms, time intervals, and seg-
ments ofLead II.
EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To listen to human heart sounds and qualitatively
describethemas to intensityorloudness,pitch,and
"'
duration.
2. To correlate the human heart sounds with the
opening and closing of cardiac valves during the
cardiac cycle and with systole and diastole of the
ventricles.
3. To determine the nature of the change in the rela-
tionship between electrical and mechanical events
ofthe cardiac cycle as the heartrate increases.
REQUIRED EQUIPMENTAND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for muumum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
mOPACMP30dataacquisition unitwithAC1OOA
transformer
mOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1MSerial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPACAmplified Stethoscope (SS30L)

1
l(
BIOP"\C electrode le.id ,0': SS2L
11
:i
BIOPAC disposable ViE\. e.ecrrodes (ELS03), three
I
electrodes per su b]ect
f
I
BIOPAC electrode gel \GELl ,md abrasive pad
;
I
(ELPAD) or skin cleanser


Rubbing alcohol and swab, or alcohol preps (to
clean stethoscope ear pieces and diaphragm)
Awashablefelt pen(to markstethoscopeplacement
on the arm)
f
[1\l EXPERIMEI\iTAl METHODS
t
I
I
j
Set Up
Selectthefollowingpeople from yourlaboratorygroup:
a subject, a recorder, anda director (optional).
This lesson is designed to teach the clinical detec-
tion ofheartsounds, whicharemonitored in four posi-
tions on the upper chest (between ribs two andsix).
,I
i
Normally, this involves oneperson (director) listen-
ing to the heart sounds of another individual (subject).
However, in a lab setting this may not be comfortable
It
or appropriate due to gender differences and personal
preference. In such cases, the subject may listen to
his/her ownheartsounds (by following the instructions
''I
for the "director").
J.
I

Whena subjectlistens to his/herownheartsounds,


it is imperativethattherightarmremainrelaxedso the
ECG is not corrupted with artifact. This means
that the subject should hold the stethoscope with the
left hand, which may be somewhat awkward but
functional.
A recorder is still required to run the lesson and
insertmarkers.
1. Turn onthe computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does not appear, ask the labo-
ratoryinstructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is onthe' rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron.IftheLED doesnot
lightup whenthe powerswitch isturnedon, check
I
to makesure the AC100Atransformer (whichsup-
plies power to the 1vlP30) is plugged into an elec-
1
trical outleton the laboratory bench.
I-
3. The subject must remove all clothing, jewelry, and
otheraccessories from the areas ofelectrodeplace-
ment (Figure 9.6). With the subject resting com-
fortabl-, in a seatedpositionat thelaboratorytable,
use mild soap and water or an ELPAD to cleanse
andremove nonconductiveoils anddeadcells from
about2 inches ofthe skin on the anterior aspectof
the right wrist and the medial aspect of the right
TheCardiacCycle and HeartSounds II 119

ij
and left ankles where the ECG electrodes will be
placed. Use the following procedure to attach the
electrodes andleads:
a) Peel off an electrode using the tab (try not to
touch the adhesive). Place a small amount of
electrode gel on the electrode sponge pad and
attachthe electrode at the correctsite.
b) Attach the colored electrode leads to the sub-
ject as shownin Figure 9.6. The pinchconnec-
tors work like a small clothespin, but only
latchontothe nipple of the electrodefromone
side of the connector. Position the electrode
cables such that they are not pulling on the
electrodes.
c) Connect the electrode cable clip (where the
cablemeets the three individualcolored wires)
I
I
l
.
oneon rightforearm'Z'!.}
(justabovewrist) /;7
'.J
ZW
J
( )I )
oneon insiderightleg \ f \ /
(justaboveanklebone) i i
lJ)J,
one on insideleftleg
(justaboveanklebone)
....\ SS2L cable
\10MP30
\
I
( () \
\\ (\ I
right leg I i
left leg
I
BLACK lead I
(ground) t':'",.J G

RED lead
FIGURE 9.6 Electrode positionsand lead
connectionsforlead IIECG
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
to a convenient location (can be on the sub-
ject's clothes). This will relieve cable strain.
4. Plug the SS2Lelectrode lead set into Channel 4 of
the MP30.
5. Plug the stethoscope (SS30L) into Channel 3
(Figure 9.7).
6. Before using the stethoscope, clean each earpiece
andthe diaphragmwithrubbingalcoholandallow
it to thoroughly dry.
7. Locate the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 9.8) asking you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 17 ("L17-Hs-1")
by clicking on it to highlight it, thenclickingOK.
8. Apromptshouldappearaskingyou to "Pleasetype
in yourfilename." Enteraunique identifier sothat
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
after data recording.
9. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 9.9
will appear. Checkto make sure the electrodes and
electrode leads are secure, the colored leads are
clipped to the proper electrode, and the electrode
assemblies are pluggedinto the correctchannelson
the MP30. This concludes the set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
MP30Unit
Stethoscope(SS30L)
plugsinto CHannel3
'I.
I
Electrode Lead Set(SS2L)
plugsinto CHannel4
FIGURE 9.7
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
\.
120 BIOPAC LabExperiment 9
I
I
l
-'!,.
Please(IwoseCllesson:
-=-' -::'
_:::-::'.!r3--2 q
...
_::'-==0-1
QUIT :
.:


_,:5-ECG-1
L':I6-ECG-2
LO,-ECG&P-I
:LOB-Resp-1
,LOS-Poly-1
:L10-EOG-1
:L11-React-1
IL12-lIJng-1
IL13-Lung-2
jL14-Biofbk-'J
L16-Bp-1
ReviewSaved Data
FIGURE9.8



'00 '00
'''''",",,0
.00

FIGURE9.9
Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulledup, you will notget agood
ECGsignal. The subjectmust be relaxed and as still as
possible during the calibration procedure. The electro-
cardiographisvery sensitiveto small changes in voltage
caused by contraction of skeletal muscles, so the sub-
ject's arms andlegs need to be relaxed so that the mus-
cle (EMG) signal does notcorruptthe ECGsignal.
1. Click on Calibrate.Apop-upmessage (Figure 9.10)
will appear asking you to tap lightly twice on the
stethoscope.
2. Click OK. After the recording begins, the director
shouldlightlytapthe stethoscopediaphragmtwice.
3. Wait until the end of the 8-second calibration
recording. Your calibration recording should
resemble Figure 9.11. The microphone recording

BiopacStudentlab
Afterthe calibration recording begins,tap flghtlyonthe
OK
stethoscopediaphragmtwice.
FIGURE9.10

"
I .----j."O'H=,-H
.scc
'W
0.11
i ,II; I 1 ,I '00'
I . I "I ' I I 1'1 "[ ,
'00 '00 ,,"_ .00
$
f
, FIGURE9.11
should have two clear spikes to indicate when it
was lightly tapped. The ECG wave should not
showany largespikes,jitter, or large baselinedrifts.
4. Ifyou need to redo the calibration, recheck your
I
connections, and click on the Redo Calibration
button,thenrepeatthe entirecalibrationsequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
Thefollowing data segments will be recorded:
Segment 1: Verbal description of sound intensity,
pitch, and duration heard for each of
the four cardiacvalves.
Segment 2: Simultaneous recording of heart
sounds 1and2 andLeadIIECGin the
resting subject.
,

Segment 3: Simultaneous recording of heart


sounds 1 and2 and Lead II ECGafter i
moderateexercise of the subject.
Segment1:Notesounds
1. Click on the Note Sounds button. A pop-up mes-
sage (Figure 9.12) will appear.
2. The subject should be sitting up and relaxed. The
director should place the stethoscope bell in the
The Cardiac Cycleand Heart Sounds 121
ff!'Il!'!Wi,i&. jS --..fJ
,>
f'"
.,/
and left ankles where the ECG electrodes will be
placed. Use the following procedure to attach the
electrodes andleads:
a) Peel off an electrode using the tab (try not to
touch the adhesive). Place a small amount of
electrode gel onthe electrode sponge pad and
attachthe electrodeat thecorrect site.
b) Attach the colored electrode leads to the sub-
ject as shownin Figure 9.6. Thepinchconnec-
tors work like a small clothespin, but only
latchontothe nippleof the electrodefromone
side of the connector. Position the electrode
cables such that they are not pulling on the
electrodes.
c) Connect the electrode cable clip (where the
cablemeets the three individualcoloredwires)
I
I
h
'
one on right /
(justabove wrist)

oneon insiderightleg \ J \ )
(justaboveanklebone) I \ I

one on insideleftleg
(justabove anklebone)
right forearm
WHITElead \

(I
l I
rightleg \ i left leg
BLACKlead ,', : \ RED lead
(ground) e
FIGURE 9.6 Electrode positions and lead
connectionsforlead II ECG
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
to a convenient location (can be on the sub-
ject's clothes). This will relieve cable strain.
4. Plugthe SS2L electrode lead set into Channel 4 of
the MP30.
5. Plug the stethoscope (SS30L) into Channel 3
(Figure 9.7).
6. Before using the stethoscope, clean each earpiece
andthe diaphragmwithrubbingalcoholandallow
it to thoroughlydry.
7. Locate the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 9.8) asking you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 17 ("L17-Hs-1")
by clickingonit to highlightit, thenclickingOK.
8. Apromptshouldappearaskingyouto "Pleasetype
in yourfile name." Entera unique identifier so that
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
afterdata recording.
9. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 9.9
will appear. Checkto make suretheelectrodes and
electrode leads are secure, the colored leads are
clipped to the proper electrode, and the electrode
assemblies are pluggedintothe correctchannelson
the MP30. Thisconcludes the set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
MP30 Unit
Stethoscope(SS30L)
plugs into CHannel3
'iV
I
ElectrodeLead Set (SS2L)
plugs into CHannel4
FIGURE 9.7
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems,Inc.
120 BIOPACLabExperiment 9
I
I
PleaseChoosea Lesson:
- .:
_
...
.: :'-c,:=,-I

I
"l...Cr4-EEG-2
.
L05-ECG-1

,L06-ECG-2
L07-cCG&P-1
L06-Resp-1
L09-Poly-1
'L1O-EOG-1
]L11-Reacl-1
iL12-Lung-1
lL13-Lung-2
L14-Biofbk-'l
IL15-Aero-1
!L16-Bp-1
I
dDeta
reViewSave
i
FIGURE9.8
,,-

j

.,-,---
--.
,
'00
.W
'"
,,,,,;nl<
-J
I
e c.,
v" '" 03/16/200',
FIGURE9.9
Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulledup, you will not getagood
ECG signal. The subject must be relaxed andas still as
possible during the calibration procedure. The electro-
cardiographisvery sensitiveto small changesin voltage
caused by contraction of skeletal muscles, so the sub-
ject's arms and legs need to be relaxed so thatthe mus-
cle (EMG) signal does notcorruptthe ECG signal.
1. Click on Calibrate.Apop-upmessage (Figure 9.10)
will appear asking you to tap lightly twice on the
stethoscope.
2. Click OK. After the recording begins, the director
shouldlightly tapthe stethoscopediaphragmtwice.
3. Wait until the end of the 8-second calibration
recording. Your calibration recording should
resemble Figure 9.11. The microphone recording

t
"'
.
Afterthe calibration recordingbepins.tap lightly onthe
OK
stethoscopediaphragmtv-ice.
FIGURE9.10
I,
- -
--
!
,v+..._.___

-
,,,,,,,,,,,.
-
I
,
J
FIGURE9.11
should have two clear spikes to indicate when it
was lightly tapped. The ECG wave should not
showany large spikes, jitter, or large baselinedrifts.
4. Ifyou need to redo the calibration, recheck your
I
connections, and click on the Redo Calibration
button, thenrepeatthe entirecalibrationsequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
The following datasegments will be recorded:
Segment 1: Verbal description of sound intensity,
pitch, and duration heard for each of
the four cardiac valves.
Segment 2: Simultaneous recording of heart
sounds1and2 andLead IIECG in the
resting subject.
Segment 3: Simultaneous recording of heart
sounds 1 and 2 andLead II ECGafter 1
moderate exercise of the subject.
Segment1:Notesounds
1. Click on the Note Sounds button. A pop-up mes-
sage (Figure 9.12) will appear.
2. The subject should be sitting up and relaxed. The
director should place the stethoscope bell in the
The Cardiac Cycleand Heart Sounds 121
"---- -- _._- --
dIliIIC
,;sa
Listen to soundsfrom the Aortic posttiou I.',l!..'In fig.). Clicf;:on
'Done',AFTER 1lS1errlrigtothesounds
FIGURE9.12
Notes for ft.ortic C,.!!.,I in
tvpedescriptionof s:oundherel
FIGURE9.13
Aortic position (Figure 9.41, which is 2.5" down
from the top of the sternum or hreastbone (just
below the Adam's apple) and 1.5" to the right,
between the ribs (feel the ribs with your fingers).
Listen to the sound as to its pitch, loudness, and
duration, and then tel] the recorder to click on
Done.
3. A pop-up window (Figure 9.13 titled "Notes for
Aorticposition" will appear. Thedirectordescribes
the sound as to its pitch, loudness, and duration,
and the recorder types in the description, then
clicks OK. A pop-up message "ill appear asking
the directorto listen to Pulmonic sound.
4. The director should place the stethoscope bell in
the Pulmonic position (Figure 9.4\, whichis nearly
on the same horizontalplane as the aortic position
about 1.5" to the left of the sternum between the
secondandthirdribs. Listen to the pitch, loudness.
and duration of the sound, and then tell the
recorder to click on Done.
5. A pop-upwindowtitled "Notesfen Pulmonicposi-
tion" will appear. The directordescribes the sound
as to its pitch, loudness, and duration, and the
recorder types in thedescription, thenciicks OK. A
pop-up message will appear asking the director to
listen to Tricuspid sound.
6. The director should place the stethoscope bell in
the Tricuspid position (Figure 9.4), which is just to
the rightofthetip of the sternum (xiphoid process)
immediately belowthe ribcage. listen to thepitch,
loudness, and duration of the sound and then tell
the recorder to click onDone.
7. A pop-upwindowtitled "Notesfor Tricuspid posi-
tion" will appear. The directordescribes thesound
as to its pitch, loudness. and duration, and the
122 BIOPAC Lao Experiment9
!F!GURIE 9.14
recordertypesin thedescription, thenclicksOK. _""-
pop-up message will appear asking the director
listen to Mitral sound.
8. The director should place the stethoscope bell i:1
the Mitral position (Figure 9.4), which is rougnl.
on the samehorizontal plane as the tricuspid posi-
tion to the left of the tip of the sternum (xiphoid
process) between the fifth and sixth ribs. Listen to
thepitch, loudness, anddurationof thesound, and
then tell the recorder to click onDone.
9. A pop-up window titled "Notes for Mitral posi-
tion" will appear. The director describes the sound
as to its pitch, loudness, and duration, and the
recorder types in the description, then clicks OK.
10. The text created for the valve sound descriptions
will automatically be saved in the Journal. A pop-
up message will ask "Would you like to re-enter
this text?" ClickNoto accept as is, orclick Yes to
revise.
Segment2: Heartsounds1and2,
leadIi ECG, subjectatrest
1. The director should decide which position is best
for listeningto heartsounds 1and2,markthe loca-
tion witha water-soluble markerpen,andplacethe
stethoscope bell in this position. Use thissameposi-
tion for Segment 3 post-exercise recording.
2. Click on Record. The subject should breathe nor-
mally for the first 20 seconds.
3. After 20 seconds, the director tells the subject to
begin a slow, deep inhalation, hold for onesecond.
then slowly exhale, followed by a resumption 0:
normal breathing. The recorder should inserr
labeled markers at the beginning of the slow, deep
inhale and at the beginning of the slow, deep
exhale.
4. ClickonSuspendaftertheslow, deep exhalationi.;
complete.
5. Your data should resemble Figure 9.14. The he,l-:
sounds should be clearly visible and the ECC
--
< ..:.:: :1,_,: have excessiH' drift or noise. Ifyour choice and continue as directed, Remove the elec-
'::.'.:.1 .s nor correct, click Redo to erase and re- trode leads and peel offthe electrodes. Discard the
Segment2 data.
electrodesandwash amresidue from theskin. The
electrodes may leave a slight ring on the skinfor a
--

Segment3: Heartsounds 1and 2, few hours. This is normal and will disappear.
Lead II ECG, afterexercise
1. Lnclip the electrodeleads from eachelectrode. The DATA ANALYSIS
subjectshouldexerciseto elevatetheheartrateto a
1. \Vhen you clicked on Done in the last step of the
moderate level. Exercises such as performingjump-
datarecording, andthenclickedonAnalyzecurrent
ing jacks, push-ups, running in place, or rapidly
data file (Figure 9.17), you automatically entered
stepping up anddown ona footstool will suffice.
the Review Saved Data mode, but only for the last
2. Afterexercise,thesubjectshouldsit downtorecov-
subject.IfyouhavedatafromonlyoneS11hject,con-
er, and the director should reconnect the leads to
tinue with Step 2. Otherwise, enter the Review
theelectrodes. Checkelectrodeadhesionandcheck

Saved Data mode from the Lessons menu, choose


leadcolorfor properconnection.
the correct file, and open it. The Data window
3. The director should place the stethoscope bell in

should resemble Figure 9.18.

the same chest position as marked in Segment 2 '1
2. Notethechannelnumber (CH) designations:
and signal the recorderwhenready.
CH 01 displays microphone sounds in millivolts
4. The recorder should click on Resume, record 20
(mV)
seconds of data,then click on Suspend. t
CH4 displays ECG LeadII in millivolts (mV)
5. Your data should resemble Figure 9.15. The heart
sounds should be clearly visible and the ECG
should not have excessive drift or noise. Ifyour
I
data is not correct, click Redo to erase and re-
I
record Segment3 data.Ifyourdataiscorrect,click
on Done.
6. After youclickon Done, a pop-up message (Figure
9.16)will ask you toconfirmthatyouare finished
with all recordings from the subject. Click Yes.
7. After you click Yes, a pop-up window with six
options will appear (Figure 9.17). Make your
""'
eM
I
EM,,," __._--='::J

FIGURE9.17

FIGURE9.15
FIGURE9.18
FIGURE9.16
TheCardiacCycleandHeartSounds 123

- -- -_..-
-----
----
I
r
....' 5 JA'
!'illll.i!lmi
-
-------------''--------- .i,_i
'...:.J

-
I
r----._]1-
1"-0----------_. .
r
FIGURE 9.22
FIGURE9.24


:J[j]

__..
---------
-----j
I
L

r
.'i
ti
1

.q
- ----- _
FIGURE 9.23 FIGURE9.25
9. Use the I-beam cursor to select an area from the

start of the second heart sound to the start of the
first heart sound of the next cardiac cycle (Figure
9.24). Record the delta T measurement in Ta ble
9.1.
10. Usingthe I-beamcursor, select an areathatencom-
passes the first heart sound (Figure 9.25). Record

-------1
:---,
1
r
,i,-
'!


,
i
-I
3

the p-p measurememin Table 9.1.
-
11. Use the I-beamcursorto select an area encompass-
ing the second heart sound (Figure 9.26). Record
the p-p measurementin Table 9.1.
12. Scroll to the marker denoting a slow, deep inhale
(Figure 9.27) and repeat the steps for data meas-
urements as follows:
a) Use the zoom toolto select an areacontaining
two complete cardiac cycles from Segment 2
dataafter the deep inhalation.
b) Using the I-beam cursor, select an area from
one R-wave to the next R-wave. Record the
BPM in Table 9.1 in the report.
c) Use the zoomtoolto selectan areaof onecom-
pletecardiaccycle.
d) Use the I-beam cursor to select an area from
the startof the R-wave to the first peak of the
first heartsound. Record the delta T measure-
mentin Table 9.1.
j
,
FIGURE9.26
L
i
=_0--"'. i'
-c-"",--,.-:-,-
fiGURE 9.27
""'
TheCardiacCycleand HeartSounds III '125
_.
_...- --,',---,,---...:.:-.,

-- ' "/)\('- - ~ ~ . ~ >
,
I
I-
~ ~
" .L'tI....:.J....::j
I
FIGURE 9.28
e) Use the I-beam cursor to select an area from
the startof the R-wave to thefirst peakofthe
second heart sound. Record the delta T meas-
urement in Table 9.1.
f) Use the I-beam cursor to select an area from
the startof the second heartsoundto the start
of the first heart sound of the next cardiac
cycle. Record the delta T measurement in
Table 9.1.
g) Using the l-beam cursor, select an area that
encompasses the first heartsound. Record the
p-p measurement in Table 9.1.
h) Use the I-beamcursorto select an areaencom-
passingthesecond heartsound. Record the p-
p measurement in Table 9.1.
FIGURE 9.29
13. Scroll to the marker denoting a slow, deep, exhale
(Figure 9.28) and repeat Steps 12a through 12h.
Record the measurements in the appropriate cells
of Table 9.1.
14. Scroll to the marker labeled "Second recording
with Subject recovering from moderate exer-
cise"(Figure 9.29) and repeat Steps 12a through
12h. Record the measurements in the appropriate
cells ofTable9.1.
15. You maysave the datato a diskette,save notesthat
are in the Journal, orprint the data file.
16. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.
126 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 9
BIOPAC THE CARDIAC CYCLE AND HEARTSOUNDS
9
~

DATA REPORT
~ a m e : ~ _
LabSection: Date:
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
Subject Profile: Name: _ Height: _
Age: Weight: _
Gender: Male / Female
A. HeartSound Measurements
CompleteTable 9.1 with Segment 2 and Segment3 data and complete the required calculations.
I
f
TABLE 9.1
Segment1 Segment2
I
Measurement CH# AtRest Inhalation Exhalation Post-Exercise
BPM CH3
M R-wave to 1stsound CH3
!'.TR-wave to 2nd sound CH3
!'.T1stto 2nd sound calculate
!'.T2nd sound to next 1st CH3
-- ~
p-p1stsound CH3
p-p2nd sound CH3
~
I
~
B. HeartSound Descriptions
Describe the sounds of each of the following heartvalves interms of intensity(loudness), pitch(frequency), and
duration (length). Beginwiththe aorticvalve andcompareotherstoit. Youmay pasteyourJournaldescriptions
here or re-write them.
Aortic " .
Pulmonic
lrricuspid __
Mitral ~ _
'"
BIOPACLabExperiment9 127
~ - --,.
~ 1'5"''-]-" 4iiC -"-
r
II. QUESTIONS
1. Refer to Table 9.1 and note whetherthe measured values increased, decreased, or did notchange from resting
value whenthe heartrate increased.
---- .-
I
Measured Value Increased Decreased No Change
I
BPM
I
liTRwaveto 1stsound
liTRwaveto 2ndsound
liT1stsoundto 2ndsound
liT2ndsound to next1stsound
p-p 1stsound
p-p 2nd sound
2. Relativeto the electrical andmechanicalevents of the cardiaccycle, whatdo each ofthe followingTable 9.1
measurementsrepresent?
BPM _
llTR wave to 1st sound ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __~ ~ __~ __~ ~ __~ ~ ~ ~ __~ ~ __~
IIT R wave to 2nd sound
llT1st soundto 2ndsound
IIT 2ndsoundto next 1st sound
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
p-p 1st sound
p-p 2nd sound
3. Briefly describe the cause of the turbulence associated with each of the four heartsounds:
1st sound
2ndsound _
128 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 9
I
L
~ d sound
~
4th sound
4. Define "systolicmurmur" andgive one example of a cause.
5. Define "diastolicmurmur" andgive one example of a cause.
6. Whichof the four heartsoundsis loudest? Give a reason.
I
I
7. Define "cardiaccycle." _
I
8. Does ventricularejectionoccurduringventriculardepolarizationor duringventricularrepolarization? Refer
~
to yourexperimentalrecord beforeyouanswer, and explain your answer.
9. Which cardiac valves close during ventricular systole? Which cardiac valves close during ventricular dias-
tole?
Systole:
Diastole: _
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 9 129
~ \ifZ5ii.. :"<: ~
""'
I
I
I
~ ..
ir
t
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
...
II
f
The Electrocardiogram and
the Peripheral Pressure Pulse
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
The principal function of the heart is to pump blood
throughout the body. Each heartbeat, called a cardiac
cycle, involves blood entering the heart from the venous
system and blood being pumped out into the arterial
systems. The cardiac cycle consists of a rhythmic
sequence of electrical events, recorded as the electrocar-
diogram (ECG), which initiate a rhythmic sequence of
mechanical events known as systole and diastole.
Systole is contraction of cardiac muscle, and diastole is
relaxation of cardiac muscle. Because the left ventricle
pumps blood to the systemic arterial circulation, pro-
" ducing a peripheral pressure pulse, this chapter will
focus on actions of the left ventricle.
During the cardiac cycle, the electrical activity of
the ventricles, as represented by the QRS complex of the
ECG, precedes the mechanical event of ventricular mus-
cle contraction (systole). Within the range of normal
resting heart rates, systole begins at the time of the R-
wave peak and ends at the end of the T wave. The T
wave, which represents repolarization of the ventricles,
Electrical
Activity
occurs during the time the ventricles are in systole .
Ventricular diastole, a period of relaxation of ventricu-
lar muscles, begins at the end of systole and lasts until
the next R-wave peak (Figure 10.1). Since each cardiac
cycle contains one period of ventricular systole immedi-
ately followed by one period of ventricular diastole, the
duration of one cardiac cycle, or heartbeat, can be
measured as the time between successive R waves.
Contraction of the ventricles (ventricular systole)
pushes a volume of blood (stroke volume) into arteries.
The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta and, by
way of branches of the aorta, throughout the rest of the
body. Each section of blood "bumps" the downstream
neighboring section of blood to facilitate blood flow.
The aorta and other arteries have elastic walls, which
ailow the arterial walls to expand slightly to receive
stroke volume, and then elastic recoil of the arteries
helps to continue "pushing" the blood through the rest
of the system while the ventricle is in diastole. The arte-
rial pressure throughout the cardiac cycle is the main
force for blood flow.
I
I
I
Ii'
I
I
i
e- p
R
aS
T
v
p
R
a S
Te-
Mechanical
r--- Systole --+ Diastole r--- Systole --I
Activity
FIGURE 10.1 Periods ofventricularsystole and ventriculardiastolecorrelated with lead IIECG
~
TheElectrocardiogramand the Peripheral Pressure Pulse 131
----- -- -- - .
;
----- ~
...
Thepumpingaction ofthe ventricles alsoinitiates a
pressure wave that is transmitted via the arterial walls.
The pressure increases with systole and decreases with
diastole. Thestiffness ofthe vessel walls helps transmit
the pressure wave. The stiffer the walls, the faster the
transmission ofthe pressurewave, butthemore workis
required bv the heart to move the same blood volume
because ofthe reduced elastic recoilforce in the arteria I
walls.
Note that the actual blood {lou: is slower than the
transmission or the pressure U'c71'e. The aorta has the
fastest biood flow in the body at approximately 40-50
cmls (approximately 1 mile per hour), whereas the
speed of thepressurewavecanbe muchfaster. Thetrav-
eling speed ofthe pressure wave from the heart to the
periphery is determined bv many interrelated factors,
including the heart's abilitv to contract strongly, blood
pressure, the relative elasricirv of the arteries, and the
diameters of systemic arteries and arterioles. Some of
these factorschangein response to bodypositions,sym-
patheticnervous system activirv, emotions, disease, and
so on. For example, the traveling speed ofthe pressure
wave has been shown to correlate with sympathetic
influence and systolic bloodpressure.
\\lhen the pressure wave is transmitted to the
periphery (e.g., to a fingertip), there is a pulse of
increased blood volume. The tissues andorganschange
in volume as blood vessels dilate or constrict and as
pulses of blood pass through the blood vessels during
each cardiaccycle. Changes in blood volume oforgans
maybe broughtaboutby the autonomicnervoussystem
acting on thecardiovascularsystem,environmentalfac-
tors (such as temperature), metabolic activity of an
organ, and a variety of other variables. For example,
temperature regulation involves controlling blood flow
to the skin. ';:\7hen heat needs to be conserved, blood
flow LO theskinisminimized,whereaswhenexcessheat
is being generated, the blood flow to the skin is
increased so 3S to conductheatto the bock surfacefor
j
dissipation.
Thestudyofbloodvolumechangeswithinan organ
1
ororganismby usingvolumedisplacementrechniques is
I known as plethysmography. Such changes in volume
j
[TI;]V be mechanically orphotoelectricallydetected, and
the signal may be transformed or transduced into an
electric current, amplified, and recorded as a time
record of volume change. The signal detection, condi-
tioning, and recording device is called a plethysmo-
graph, and the record of volume change versus time is
called a plethysmogram.
An example ofa transducer used in plerhysmogra-
phy isthetnezcelectric crystal familiar to amateurradio
enthusiasts as a componentofthe "crystal radio." The
piezoelectriccrystalis pressure-sensitive, emittinga fee-
ble electric signal when the structure of the crystal is
132 tI] BiOP,"'C lao Experiment 'i 0
deformed. Ifthecrystalistapedtothepalmarsurface ::
theindexfinger, changes in thebloodvolumeofthefi:-,-
ger associatedwitheach cardiaccycle mechanicallydi,-
tort the pressure-sensitive surface of the cryst ai.
resulting in the generation of an electric signal, whic':
canthenhe amplifiedandmechanically recorded.
Another kind of transducer used in plethysmogra-
phy operates by converting light energy to electrical
energyandthusiscalleda photoelectric transducer. The
photoelectric transducer works by shining a beam of
light through the skin and measuring the amount of
light that is reflected. Blood absorbs light in a manner
directly proportional to blood density. The greater
blood density, the greater light absorption and the less
light reflection. The photoelectric transducer converts
the reflected light into electric signals, which then can
he processed and displayed by the recorder. In this
experiment,we will use a photoelectrictransducercou-
pled to a computer data acquisition system to record a
plethysmogram and observe howplethysmographycan
contributeto anunderstandingoffactors thatinfluence
the peripheral distribution ofblood.
EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To become familiar with the principle of plethys-
mographyandits usefulness in qualitativelyassess-
ing peripheralchanges in bloodvolume.
2. To observe and recordchanges in peripheralblood
volume and pressure pulse under a variety of both
experimental andphysiologicconditions.
3. To determine the approximate speed of the pres-
surepulsewavetravelingbetweenthe heartandthe
finger.
4. To illustrate the electrical activity associated with
normal cardiac activity and how it relates to the
flow ofblood throughoutthe body.
II EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT
ANDSUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for minimum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
MacintoshrunningOS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPACMP30dataacquisition unitwithAClOOA
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPACelectrodelead set (SS2L)
BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes (EI.503), three
electrodes per subject
It
c:c-:rrooc :el GEL1) and abrasive pad prompt will appear 'Fi:'Jre
'
''+' asking you to
ELP.'l.D or skin cleanser choose a lesson. Choose Lesson - I "L07-ECG&P-
1") by clicking on Itto ;llS;l:iC::U it. then clicking
lJIOP.'l.C pulse plethysmograph (SS4LAor SS4L)
OK.
-..
Ruler or measuring tape
5. Apromptshouldappearasking\()L co"Pleasetype
Ice water in plastic bucket
inyourfilename." Entera uniqu, i.ientifier sothat
you can locate and retrieve your tor analysis
after datarecording.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
6. After you log 011, a window similar to Figure 10.5
will appear. Checkto make sure the electrodes and
Set Up
electrode leads are secure and the electrode assem-
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
bly is plugged into Channel 2. This concludes the
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
set-up procedures.
ratoryinstructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
Calibration
powerswitch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanel indicatespoweron. Ifthe LED does not
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
lightup whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
to makesurethe ACIOOA transformer (whichsup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outleton the laboratory bench.
3. Select a subjectfor plethysmography/electrocardio-
graphy. Thesubject mustremove all clothing, jew-
One on Right Forearm V
\
t
U"e1 abov
elry, and other accessories from the areas of
electrodeplacement(Figure 10.2).With the subject
resting comfortably in a sittingpositionin front of

the laboratory table, use an ELPAD to cleanse the
skin on the anterior aspect of the right wrist and
the medialaspectof the rightandleft ankles where
the ECG electrodes will be placed (Figure 10.2).
Attach the electrodes and the colored electrode
"'
One on Inside Right Leg
leads to the subject as shown, and plug the SS2L (just above ankle bone)
electrodelead set into Channell of the MP30.The
pinch connectors work like a small clothespin, but "j
VI
onlylatchontothe nippleof the electrodefrom one
One on Inside Left Leg
(just above ankle bone)
side of the connector. Position the electrode cables
r
such that they are not pulling on the electrodes.
Connect the electrode cable clip (where the cable
J
meets the three individual colored wires) to a con-
venient location (can be on the subject's clothes).
This will relieve cable strain. The subject should Right Forearm
WHITE Lead
not be in contact with nearby metal objects
6111
f'\\

(faucets, pipes,etc.).
Have the subjectwrap the pulse transducer (SS4L)
around the tip of his or her index finger (Figure
10.3). Position the transducer so that the sensor is

on the bottom (palmar surface) of the fingertip.
Wrap the Velcro tape around the finger so the
transducer fits snugly but not so snugly that the
Right Leg Left Leg
blood circulation is cut off. Position the cable so
BLACK Lead RED Lead
that it is not pulling on the transducer. Plug the (Ground)
f
pulse transducerlead into Channel2 ofthe MP30.
l
4. Locate the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, open it, FIGURE 10.2 Electrodeplacementand lead
l
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A connectionsforlead /IECG
('
f

r
I
,
The E',ectrocardiogram and the Peripheral PressurePulse ril 133
.. :.

--.L

and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close


attention to thecalibrationprocedure.
I
,
I
;
1. Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulled up, you will notget a
goodECC signal. The subjectmust be relaxed and
as still as possibleduringthecalibrationprocedure.
The electrocardiograph is very sensitive to small
changes in voltage caused by contraction of skele-

1
tal muscles, so the subject's arms and legs need to
be relaxed so that the muscle (FMC) signal docs
t
notcorrupttheECCsignal.
2. Click on Calibrate. The calibration procedure will
begin and then stop automatically after 8 seconds.
At the end of the calibration recording, the screen
should resemble Figure 10.6. There should be a
greatlyreducedECCwaveforrnwitharelativelyflat
baseline andwavelike forms ir: the pulse channel.
PulseTransducer (SS4LAorSS4L)
intoChannel 2
Electrode Lead(SS2L)
Plugs intoChannel 1
Ve'croStrap
WrapsAround
Finger
--
FIGURE 10.3 Placementandconnection of
pressure pulsetransducer
3. If the ECC data show any large spikes, jitter, or
large baseline drifts or the pulse channel recording
is flat, then you should redo the calibration by
clicking on the Redo Calibration button and
repeating the entire calibration sequence.
FIGURE 10.4
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
---------------------
i
I
------,
I
I
I
I
i
JIi&&Ji' :
"',_ '_" jel,.-,-"
..---_._.- ------
----------------1'
FIGURE 10.5
FIGURE 10.6
134 BIOPAC LabExperiment 10
I
I
I
'
EXPERIMENTALPROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
Prepare tor the recording and have the subject seated

and relaxed with arms on the armrest. Decide who,
among those students in your lab group, will be the
director andwhowill be the recorder. Thedirectorwill
give verbal commands to the subject, and the recorder
will insert markers and marker labels at appropriate
times in the data record.
You will record ECG on one channel and indirect
pulse pressure on another channel with the subject in
three conditions:
Segment 1: At rest, sitting, arms relaxed
Segment 2: At rest, sitting, hand immersed in cold
water
Segment 3: At rest, sitting, arm up
The subject will perform tasks in the intervals
between recordings.
In order to workefficiently, read this entire section
so you will know what to do for each recording seg-
ment. The subject should remain in a seated position
andcontinue to relaxwhile youreview the lesson.
,
Checkthe lastline of the Journalandnotethe total
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possibleso youdo notuse
an excessive amountof time (time is memory).
Hintsfor Obtaining Optimal Data
To minimize muscle (EMG) corruptionof the ECGsig-
naland baseline drift:
a. The subject should keep still during all of the
recording segments because the recordingfrom the
pulsetransducerissensitiveto motionandthe ECG
recording is sensitive to Ei'vlGartifact.
b. The subject should be in a relaxed state for each
recording segment.
c. Initially,thesubject'sforearmsshould besupported
on an armrest.
d. After the subject has repositioned his/her forearm,
checkto make sure that the cable is notpulling on
thepulsetransducer.
e. Therecordingshould be suspended beforethe sub-
jeer prepares for the nextrecording segment.
f. Makesure electrodes do not "peel up."
Segment 1:At Rest,Sitting, Arms Relaxed
1. Preparefor therecordingandhavethe subjectsit in
a chair with arms relaxed on the armrest or labo-
ratorytabletop.

2. Chck on Record. ,L.Ll tor 15 seconds,
then click on Suspend. I: "C'iata recording is
correct, it will resemble _..
3. The data would be tncorrc c: :;:
a. The Suspend button was :'l"c:sseJ prematurely.
b. An electrode peeled up, causing ,1 large base-
line drift, spike, or loss otsignal.
c. The subject has too much muscle,E:\lG) arti-
fact.
H the data recording is incorrect, vou should
redo the recording by clicking on Redo and
repeating Step 2. Note that once )'011 press
Redo, the data you have just recorded will be
erased.
Segment2: PU Rest, Sitting,Non-Recording
Hand immersed in Cold Water
1. Placea plastic bucket(or largeplastic beaker) with
cold (ionc) water near the subject in a position
where the subject can insert the non-recording
hand. WARNING: The container for the water
cannotbe metal,as this introduces a potentialdan-
ger of bypassing the electrical isolation of the
mOPAeStudentLab.
2. Instruct the subject to insert the non-recording
hand into the water and then click on Resume.
Record data for 30 seconds, thenclick on Suspend.
Your data should resemble Figure 10.8.
_____:::1 13
FIGURE10,1
FiGURE10,8
t
[
t
"
'r
t
t
f
f
t
I

t

J
.
t t

Ir
' ,.
I
f
'. t
f

f

f
!
t
!

t

i'
r
\
:
f
, !'
'r

III.

,
r
. I:


TheElectrocardiogramandthe Peripheral Pressure Pulse 135

---_.._-- --- ---
!!SF :s;; ...0"
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attentionto the calibrationprocedure.
1. Make sure the electrodes adhere securely to the
skin. Ifthey are being pulled up, you will notget a
goodECG signal. The subject mustbe relaxedand
asstill aspossibleduringthe calibrationprocedure.
The electrocardiograph is very sensitive to small
changes in voltage caused by contraction of skele-
tal muscles, so the subject's arms and legs need to
be relaxed so that the muscle (EMG) signal does
not corrupt the ECG signal.
2. Click on Calibrate. The calibration procedure will
begin and then stop automatically after 8 seconds.
At the end of the calibration recording, the screen
should resemble Figure 10.6. There should be a
greatlyreducedECG waveformwitharelativelyflat
baseline and wavelike forms in the pulse channel.
Electrode Lead (SS2L)
Plugs intoChannel 1
Erectroce Cher-k CH 1 CH 2 ell-1 pu,:;yPLlWC'

rr
S
'" MODELMP"
.,..,
PulseTransducer (SS4LA orSS4L)
Plugs intoChannel 2
SensorAttaches to
Bottom ofFingertip
\
...--VelcroStrap
Wraps Around
Finger
I
FIGURE 10.3 Placementand connection of
pressure pulse transducer
3. Ifthe ECG data show any large spikes, jitter, or
large baseline drifts or the pulse channel recording
is flat, then you should redo the calibration by
clicking on the Redo Calibration button and
repeating the entirecalibration sequence.
Qurt
!L01-EMG-1
lL02-EMG-2
:L03-EEG-l
!L04-EEG-2
L05-ECG-1
< L06-ECG-2
L08-R8Sp-'J
,L09-Poly-1
iL1O-EOG-'1
!LJ1
jL12-Lun9-1
iL13-Lun9-2
:LI4-Bioibf:-'l
lL'l::,-,i:!.,erCi-1
!L16-Bp-'1
!L17-Hs-'1
; Saved Data
FIGURE 10.4
------l
I
I

I
ico------:c;-------,,,.----- ,"--
-------------------,--'------'"
'c" "",0,' "'II'''"" "'-
',' ,..
FIGURE 10.5
------- '--------=
FIGURE 10.6
134 BIOPAC LabExperiment 10
-----
I
:XPERIr'f'ENTALPROTOCOL
..
DATAACQUISITION
:':-:::1; 3nci have the subject seated
_c._ -'.::_1 xrrns on the armrest. Decide who,
___ ::,- 'cc students in your lab group, will be the
.. 2:,': who will be the recorder. The directorwill
__ z -,,-::- 21 commands to the subject, and the recorder
.r.sert markers and marker labels at appropriate
.n the data record.
You will record ECG on one channel and indirect
:'.\,se pressure on another channel with the subject in
d,",- 0 conditions:
Segment 1: At rest, sitting, arms relaxed
Segment2: At rest, sitting, hand immersed in cold
water
Segment3: At rest, sitting, ann up
The subject will perform tasks in the intervals
between recordings.
In order to work efficiently, read this entire section
so you will know what to do for each recording seg-
ment. The subject should remain in a seated position
and continueto relax while you review the lesson.
,
Checkthe lastline of the Journalandnotethe total
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possibleso you do notuse
an excessive amountof time (time is memory).
HintsforObtaining Optimal Data
To minimize muscle (EMG) corruptionof the ECGsig-
nal and baseline drift:
a. The subject should keep still during all of the
recording segments because the recordingfrom the
pulse transducerissensitiveto motionandthe ECG
recordingis sensitive to EMGartifact.
b. The subject should be in a relaxed state for each
recording segment.
c. Initially,the subject'sforearmsshould besupported
on an armrest.
d. After the subject has repositioned his/her forearm,
check to make sure that the cable is notpulling on
the pulse transducer.
e. The recordingshould be suspended beforethe sub-
ject prepares for the nextrecording segment.
f. Make sure electrodes do not "peelup."
Segment1:AtRest, Sitting,Arms Relaxed
1. Preparefor therecordingandhave thesubjectsitin
a chair with arms relaxed on the armrest 01" labo-
ratorytabletop.

} Click on Record, and ec,-,:j LIe,:J for 15 seconds,
chen dick on Suspend. .u cata recording is
correct, it will resemble 1
3. The data would be ir:
a. The Suspend button \vas pressed prematurely.
b. An electrode peeled up. causing ,1 large base-
line drift, spike, orloss of signal.
c. The subject has too much muscle IE.\lG) arti-
fact.
Ifthe data recording is incorrect, vou should
redo the recording by clicking on Redo and
repeating Step 2. Note that once you press
Redo, the data you have just recorded will be
erased.
Segment2:JJ\'U: Rest, Sitting, Non-Recording
Hand Immersed in Cold Water
1. Place a plastic bucket (or largeplastic beaker) with
I
cold (lOC) water near the subject in a position
where the subject can insert the non-recording
hand. WARNING: The container for the water
cannotbe metal, asthis introduces apotentialdan-
ger of bypassing the electrical isolation of the
BlOPAC Studentlab.
2. Instruct the subject to insert the non-recording
hand into the water and then dick on Resume.
Recorddatafor 30 seconds, thenclick on Suspend.
Your data should resemble Figure 10.8.
Or:- ',--;::I ------_------==:----- __
t
I
I
:!

Ie;
r1

t
FtiGURE 10.8
TheElectrocardiogramandthe Peripheral Pressure Pulse .. 135
FIGUIQE 10.1
, t

I
t
i
1 i
;
f
_ '"5- "'C:
3. The data would be incorrect for the reasons given
in Step 1 of the Segment 1 instructions. Ifthe data
choice and continue as directed. Ifchoosing the
"Recordfrom anotherSubject" option:
I
recordingis incorrect, you should redo the record-
ing byclickingon Redoand repeatingStep 2. Note
that once you press Redo, the data you have just
recorded will be erased.
4. AfterrecordingSegment2, allowthe subjecttodry
the hand. Wait about 5 minutes so as to give the
hand time to warm back up.
Segment3:At Rest,Sitting,
Recording Hand Raised
1. Instruct the subject to remain seated and raise the
recording hand (with the pulse transducer) above
the head and hold thatposition.
2. Click on Resume and record data for 60 seconds,
then click on Suspend. Your data should resemble
Figure 10.9.
3. Your data would be incorrectfor the reasons given
in Step 1 of the Segment 1 instructions. Ifthe data
recording is incorrect, youshould redothe record-
ing by clicking on Redo and repeating Steps 1 and
2. Note that once you press Redo, the data you
have just recorded will be erased.
4. Clickon Done. After you click on Done, a pop-up
message (Figure 10.10)will ask you toconfirmthat
you are finished with all recordings from the sub-
ject. Click Yes.
After you click Yes, a pop-up window with six
options will appear (Figure 10.11). Make your
'.

.-- '-'-
-:J L G
I I J I ; ! ' , i 1 I
F
,
"
"
-

,Lie",,::
1 ..... .." .."',.. ,..,_" ........
-,
I I -l- IiiI I
l""'\i
r
......A." '
: I ' I I I
.r-,
" to
se00 sere '0000 00 '0"00
.... .
!' '1' I ' i : ; I I I
.osc
'00
0,$(1
.r- , .
"
"-..I "00 fE
,0
"500 '0'00 '.,"'00 '.00 '"00 "000 '"')0<'em ""0) '''OJ
''''<r."

FIGURE10.9
Biop'!cStudentLab. ,
Areyousureyouaredonerecording? Pressing'Yes'will
Yes
automatically save the fileand you will notbeabletoredo,
No
FIGURE10.10
(a) Attachelectrodesandtransducerper the set-up
instructions, have the new Subject sit and
relax, and continue the entire lesson from the
'-
set-up on.
(b) Note that each person needs to use a unique
file name. Remove the electrode cable pinch
connectors and peel off the electrodes. Throw
outthe electrodes (BIOPAC electrodes are not
reusable). Wash the electrode gel residue from
the skin, using soapandwater. The electrodes
may leave a slight ring on the skin for a few
hours, which isquite normal.
DATA ANALYSIS
1. When you clicked on Done in the last step of the
data recording, and then clicked on Analyze cur-
rent data file (Figure 10.11), you automatically
entered the Review Saved Data mode, butonly for
the last subject. Ifyou have data from only one
subject, continue withStep 2. Otherwise, enterthe
Review Saved Data mode from the Lessons menu,
choose the correct file, and openit. The Datawin-
dowshouldresemble Figure 10.12.
Anal'izeanother datafile
Record another Lesson
Copyto FloppyorNetwork
;Qlltt
OK
FIGURE10.11
.r. GQJ.c:::::EL:J""
5120 571\0 (>400 ssso W2Q W.60 96.00 '024{0 ,c". c-,It:
fl, E,,. 005pt" l"'''''''

--,
FIGURE10.12
136 BIOPACLab Experiment 10
,le
"
the channel number (CH) designations:
Segment 1:At Rest, Sitting, Arms Relaxed
CH 1displays fCC Lead II in millivolts (mY)
CH40 displays the pressurepulse in millivolts (mY)
..
3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH 1 set to delta T
CH 1 set to BPM
CH 40 set to delta T
CH 40 set to BPM
CH 40set to p-p
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
markerregion in the Datawindowand eachmeas-
urement has three sections: channel number, meas-
urement type, and result. Thefirst two sections are
pull-downmenus thatare activatedwhenyouclick
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
delta T: The "delta time" measurement is the dif-
ference in time between the end and the begin-
ningof the selected area.
BPM: The "beatsperminute" measurementcalcu-
lates the difference in time between the end and
the beginning of the area selected by the I-beam
tool (just like delta T), and then divides this
value into 60 seconds/minute.
p-p: The peak-to-peak measurementshowsthe dif-
ference between the maximum amplitude value
and the minimum amplitude value in the select-
ed area.
,
m
0"""'0)
__
8Efl
=::J El
Insu
!
"1
00
:;;,
1-",00
,ro!'IIIQ
,
FIGURE10.13b

FIGURE10.13a
FIGURE10.14
.",
";,,,.- .. . _::=:::J G
T
rHO 7<'" I(/! 8.lJ(l I
FIGURE10.15
I
1. Use the zoom tool (0 enlarge four or five cardiac
cycles from Segment 1 data Figures 10.13a and
10.13b).
2. Use the I-beamtool to select the area between two
successive R-waves in Segment 1 data (Figure
10.14).Recordmeasurementvaluesfor deltaT and
BPM (CH1)in Table 10.1 in the repon.Repeatthe
measurement and record the data for two addi-
tionalcycles in Segment 1.
3. Use the I-beamtool to select the area between two
successive pulse peaks in Segment 1 data (Figure
10.15).Recordmeasurementvalues for deltaT and
BPM (CH40) in Table 10.1. I
4. Use the I-beam tool to select an individual pulse
peak and determine its amplitude using the 1'-1'
(CH 40) measurement (Figure 10.16). Record the I
measurementin Table 10.1. I
5. Use the I-beam tool to select the interval between
the R-wave and the very next pulse peak (Figure t
10.17). Record the time interval (delta T) between I
the twopeaksin Table 10.2.Thistime intervalwill
be used to calculate the speed of the pulse wave
traveling from the heart to the fingertip. The R-
wave approximates ventricular systole, the time of
pulsewaveinitiation;the pressurepulsepeakinthe
fingertip approximates the time of pulse wave
I
TheElectrocardiogramandthe Peripheral Pressure Pulse 137
---- ----.- .. -_.-
FIGURE 10.16
arrival. Aftermeasuringthe distancefromthe heart
to the fingertip, you can calculate the speed of the
pulse wave.
Segment 2: At Rest, Sitting, Non-Recording
Hand Immersed in Cold Water
1. Usethe timescroll button (or markertools) to dis-
playSegment2 data.
1. Use the I-beam tool to select the area betweentwo
successive R-waves in Segment 2 data. Record
measurementvaluesfor deltaT and BPM (Cl-I1) in
Table 10.1 in the report. Repeat the measurement
and record the data for two additional cycles in
Segment2.
3. Use the I-beamtool to select the area between two
successive pulse peaks in Segment 2 data. Record
measurement values for delta T and ~ l (CH40)
in Table 10.1.
4. Use the I-beam tool to select an individual pulse
peak and determine its amplitude using the p-p
(CH 40) measurement. Record the measurement in
Table 10.1.
FIGURE 10.17
Segment 3: At Rest, Sitting, Arm Up
1. Use the time scroll button (or markertools) to dis-
playSegment2 data.
1. Usethe I-beamtool to select the area betweentwo
successive R-waves in Segment 2 data. Record
measurementvalues for deltaT andBPM (CH1)in
Table 10.1 in the report. Repeat the measurement
and record the data for two additional cycles in
Segment2.
3. Use the l-bearn toolto select the area between two
successive pulse peaks in Segment 2 data. Record
measurementvalues for delta T andBPM (CH 40)
in Table 10.1.
4. Use the I-beam tool to select an individual pulse
peak and determine its amplitude using the p-p
(CH40) measurement. Recordthe measurementin
Table I 0.1.
5. You maysave the datato a diskette, save notesthat
are in the Journal, or printthe data file.
6. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
downthe computer.
138 II1II BIOPAC Lab Experiment 10
J
I
I
t:
BIOPAC THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM AND THE PERIPHERAL PRESSURE PULSE
10
~
DATA REPORT
:\ame: _
Lab Section:
Date: _
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name: Height: _
Age: Weight: _
Gender: Male / Female
A. ECG and Pressure Pulse Data
Complete Table 10.1 withdatafrom recording segments 1, 2, and 3 and calculatethe means.
I
I
TABLE 10.1
Data Segment Measurement Channel Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Mean
R-R Interval (M) (sec) CH 1
Segment 1:At
Heart Rate(BPM) CHl
Rest,Sitting,
PulseInterval um (sec) CH 40
Arms Relaxed
PulseRate (BPM) CH 40
PulseAmplitude (mV) CH 40
R-R Interval C,H) (sec) CH 1
Segment2: At
Heart Rate (BPM) CHl
Rest,Sitting,
Non-Recording PulseInterval (M) (sec) CH 40
Hand Immersed
in Cold Water
PulseRate (BPM) CH 40
PulseAmplitude (mV) CH 40
R-R Interval C,H) (sec) CH 1
Segment3: At Heart Rate (BPM) CHl
Rest,Sitting,
PulseInterval ~ T (sec) CH 40
Recording
Hand Raised PulseRate (BPM) CH 40
PulseAmplitude (mV) CH 40

I
I

I
~ ,
~
......--.-.
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 10 139
~ - - , ~
B. Calculation of Pulse Wave Velocity (Speed)
1) Use a tape measure or meter stick to measure the distance, in centimeters, between the subject's sternum
(breastbone) andthe rightshoulder. Enterthe measurementin Table 10.2.
2) Measurethe distance betweenthe shoulder andthe anteriorelbow. Enterthemeasurementin Table 10.2.
3) Add measurements 1 and2 and entertheresult in Table 10.2
4) Calculatethe velocity (speed) ofthe pulse wave.
TABLE 10.2
Distance between the subject's sternum and right shoulder em
Distance Distance between the subject's right shoulder and anterior elbow em
I
Time
Total distance between the subject's sternum and anterior elbow
Time between R-wave and the next pulse wave peak
em
sec
Velocity Velocity - distance/time - cm/ sec em/sec
II. QUESTIONS
1. Refer to the datain Table 10.1. Are the values for heartrate and pulse rate similar for eachcondition? Yes
___No . Explainwhythe values may differ.
3. Refer to data in Table 10.1. Compare the pulse amplitude for data Segments 1,2,and 3. Comparedto the
pulse amplitude data for Segment 1, howmuch did pulse amplitudechange (% increase, or % decrease) in
Segments2 and 3? Apply the following formulae:
(High Value - LowValue + LowValue) X (100) =% increase
(HighValue - LowValue + HighValue) X (100) =% decrease
Segment2 compared to Segment 1:
Segment 3 compared to Segment 1:
4. Would youexpectthe calculated pulse wave velocities ofotherstudents to be very close to (ifnotthesame
as) yours? Why or why not?
I
140 II BIOPAC Lab Experiment 10
I
f
5. Explainthechangesinpulse wave amplitudeand/orpulse wave frequencythatoccur whenthe handisraised
high abovethe heart. _
..


.
I
.
6. Whichcomponentsofthe cardiaccycle(atrialsystole, atrialdiastole,ventricularsystole, ventriculardiastole) E

are discernible in the pulse record? _


F
.
,'
I
,
I

c,
I
,
BIOPACLabExperiment 10 141
I
BIOPAC LA B EX PERI EN T
mr-----

The Respiratory Cycle
PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
,
The respir ator y cycle consists of alternati ng processes of
inspiration and expiration. Duri ng inspirati on, skeletal
muscles such as the diaphragm and external intercostals
cont ract, thereby increasing volume within the thorax
and lungs. As volume within the air spaces of the lung
(intrapulmonic volume) increases, air pressur e within
the lung (intrapulmonic pressure) falls below atmos-
pheric pressure and air rushes int o the lung. During
expiration, the inspiratory muscles relax, causing the
volume of the thorax and lungs to be reduc ed. The
reduction in intrapulmonic volume is accompanied by
an increase in intrapulmonic pressur e above atmospher-
ic pressure, forcing air out of the lungs. No rmally, unla-
bored expiration at rest is a passive event determined by
relaxation of inspir at or y muscles. When an increase in
pulmonary ventilation is requi red, such as during exer-
cise, expira tion becomes an active event dependent
upon cont raction of expiratory muscles that pull down
the rib cage and compress the lungs beyond the resting
end-expiratory level.
During one respiratory cycle, a specific volume of
air is drawn int o the respirat ory system and then pushed
back out. This volume, first inspir ed, then expired, is
known as tidal volume (TV). The actual value of tidal
volume varies in direct proport ion to the depth of inspi-
ration. Dur ing normal , qui et breathing (eupnea) at rest,
adult tidal volume is about 500 ml.
A norma l rat e of breathing at rest is about 15 res-
piratory cycles per minute (RR = 15 cpm). The respira-
tory rat e var ies with changes in body activity. During
exercise, respiratory rate increases, but it decreases, for
example, when a person concent rat es on cert ain tasks,
such as attempting to thread a needle.
,
The product of tidal volume and respiratory rate
(TV x RR) equals the rat e of pulmonary ventilation
(PV), also known as minute respirat ory volume (MRV).
During conditions of body rest, an adult rate of pul -
monary ventilation is approximately 7.5 Umin (500 ml
,
I
xi S cprn/ l 000 ).
Pulmonary ventilation includes ventilating a por-
,
tion of respirat or y passageways such as the pharynx,
larynx, trachea, pr imary bronchi, and other parts of the
respiratory tree that play no direct role in gas exchange
with the blood. Thi s space, called anatomical dead
space (ADS), averages 150 ml in an adult. Alveolar ven-
tilation is the rat e of vent ilating parts of the lung that
playa direct role in gas exchange with the blood. It is
I
calculated by subtra cting anatomical dead space from
tidal volume and multiplying the remainder by respir a-
tor y rate: AV =(TV - ADS) x (RR). During conditions
of body rest, an adult rate of alveolar ventil at ion is
approximat ely 5.25 Umin [(500ml - 150 ml ) x (15
cpm)/10 00).
The rate and strength of cont raction of respir at or y
muscles, and hence the rate and depth of respiration, are
controlled by primary respiratory centers (inspiratory
and expiratory) locat ed in the medulla oblongata at the
base of the brain stem. The primary centers are inher-
ently rhythmic, alternating their activity to produce
inspirat ion and then expiration. During normal qui et
breat hing at rest (eupnea) , the expiratory center acts to
limit and then inhibit the inspiratory center, ther eby pro -
ducing a passive expiration. In contrast, the inspiratory
center always acts to produce an active inspiration.
When respirat ory depth increases, as in exercise, both
inspiration and expiration are active processes con-
troll ed by their respective medullary cent ers.
To adjust respiratory rate and depth according to
the body's needs, the medullary centers receive inputs
from higher neur al cent ers (e.g., pons, cerebellum, cere-
bral cortex) and from peripheral receptors such as
The Respi ratory Cycle 143
chemorecepto rs in aortic and carotid bodies; stretch attempts to thread a needle. The cycle temporarily ceas-
--J
<
recept ors in joints, muscles, and tendons; and somatic
1 sensory receptors for pain and thermal stimuli (Figure
11.1). For example, cerebral control of the medullary
!


respir atory centers may be evidenced by observing the
1
modification of the respir atory cycle as a subject
!
,

es in order to minimize body movement so that the nee-


dle may be threaded more easily.
Other modificati ons of the respirator y cycle occur
as a result of changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, or
hydrogen ion levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
,
i
+ +
Higher Neural Centers
(Pons, Diencephalon ,
Cerebrum , Etc.)
.
1
.
i
,
+ +
+
Medullary Medullary ~
Inspiration Expiratory
Center Center
.: ~ ~ .,
Nerve X ~ Nerve IX
Aortic and Carotid I
Somatic Sensory Chemoreceptors
Recepto rs Viscera l Sensory
(Pain, Temp., Receptors
Etc.)
t rW]
, _ Vagal Sensory
(r-
I
}-____ and ---{ e-- )
I-- Somatic Motor Nerves '-
Thorax
+
'--->0
Lungs
L ~ Stretch Receptors
FIGURE 11.1 Central and peripheral influences on medul lary respiratory cont rol centers
144 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11
____ - - -
I
Respir at or y rate and depth is a function of chemical
regul ati on . Blood bathes chcrn oreccprors located in the
aortic and car otid bodi es . Che morecepto rs sense

changes in systemic arter ial PC0 2, [H+], and P02, and
send impulses to the respirat ory centers in the medulla
oblongata . The following changes in the che mistry of
systemic arte rial blood alter al veolar ventil ation:
1PC0 2, 1 1H+J, and/or J,P
0 2
inc rease ra te and depth
of respi ration
J,PC0 2, J,rH +I , and/o r 1 P
0 2
tend to decr ease respi -
ratory rat e and depth
Changes in art er iaI ca rbon dioxid e content exert by
far the st rongest influ ence on resp iratory dri ve. CO ) by
virtue of its solubility in body fluids is able to inf lu;nce
respirat or y activit y by directl y affecting chemorecepto rs
on the vent raI surface of the medulla oblongata which
are bathed by cerebros pinal fluid. Also, being lipid-sol-
ubl e and cr ossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), CO
2
can exert its effect by changing the hydrogen ion con-
cent ration of the brain cerebros pinal fluid (Figur e 11.2).
P0 2 changes arc importa nt in regulation of respira-
ti on mainl y because such changes aff ect the relative sen-
sit ivity of chernor eceptors to PC02 . Ifthe art erial P0 2 is
very low, chernorec cprors become more sensiti ve to
changes in arterial PC02 .
,
One of the functions of the respiratory system is to
elimina te carb on dio xide fro m body fluids. Carbon
dioxid e is bein g co ntinually pr oduced during cellula r
met aboli sm. Carbon dioxide diffuses int o systemic cap-
W I,""",'
o
C021+ I
H20
1 PZ
pw IHCO -I
I n' I + 3


'.
+

ro
co
c

co
-6
o
o
m
V
C02
i
j
HC03-
,
FIGURE 11.2 Directand indirectinfluence of
increasing systemic arterial CO
2
on medullary
respiratorycenters

illary blood where some of it re.i cr s with wa ter to form
carbonic acid, which di ssociates into hydrogen ion and 1,
'1
bicarbonat e ion (Figure 11.3). These react ion s are "
I
1
reversible and are accelera ted bv an enzyme within the
.
I
i
red blood cell call ed carbonicanbvdr.ise,
,
!
In the systemic ca pilla ry, CO) is ad ded to the reac -
tion, dr iving the reacti on to the rig hc forming more H+
and lowering the pH of th e blood.
In rhe pulmonar y ca pillary, CO ) is removed from
the reacti on, pulli ng the reactio n to- th e lefr, reducing
the am ount of H+, and elevating rhe pH of the blood.
Normall y, the lungs elimina te CO) at the same rat e
it is being produced by cells. Under such co nditions, the
reaction sequence (Figur e 11.3) moves to the right and
then back to the left an equal am ount (a state of equi-
librium) and no net cha nge in hydrogen ion con cent ra-
I
tion or carbon di oxide content occ urs.
i
Eliminat ion of ca rbon dio xid e from body fluids at a
rate faster than it is being produced would dri ve the

reacti on sequence more to the left, thereby redu cing the
amount of H+ in the bod y fluid s and rai sing the pH.
t
,
Thi s wo uld occur in alveolar hyperventilation. The
process is call ed respiratory alkalosis, and the res ulta nt
elevated blood pH is call ed alkalemia.
If the hyperventil ati on is voluntary, excess CO) will
be removed fr om bl ood (hypocapnia), t endin-g to
depress breathi ng until normal CO
2
and H+ levels are
restored. The temporary cessa tion of breathing after
voluntar y hyp erventilation is known as apneauera.
Eliminat ion of carb on dioxid e from the body fluids
I"
at a ra te slowe r than it is being produced wo uld dri ve
the reaction sequence more to the ri ght, ther eby increas-
ing the amount of H+ in body fluids and lowerin g the
pH . This wo uld occ ur in alueolar hypouentilation. Th e
process is call ed respiratory acidosis, an d the resultant
decreased blood pH is ca lled acidemia.
C02
Excretion
(PulmonaryVentilation) PulmonaryCapillary
.
HC03-
Blood
Asreactionproceedstoleft,pHincreases
CI-
red blood cell ---
CA
C02 + H20===::;; H2C03:::=:-:;:W + HC03'- \Chloride
Carbon Water CACarbonicAcid HydrogenBicarbonate)Shift
Dioxide Ion Ion
Systemic Capillary

Blood
HC03-
Asreactionproceedstoright,pHdecreases
Cd02. C.A.=CarbonicAnhydrase
Pro uction
(CellMetabolism)
FIGURE 11.3 CO
2
production vsCO
2
excretion
and the effect on blood pH
TheRespiratory Cycle 145
- ._ - - - - - - - - --
.. .S
If the hypoventilation is voluntary, excess CO
2
will
accumulate in the blood (hypercapnia), tendingto stim-
ulate breathing until normal CO
2
and H+ levels are
restored.
In the experimentsthatfollow, physiologicmodifica-
tion ofthe respiratorycycleasitoccursunderavarietyof
conditionswill beobserved. Youwill measureventilation
by recording the rate and depth of the breathing cycle
using a pneumograph transducer. This transducer con-
verts changes in chest expansion and contraction to
changes in voltage, which will appear as a waveform.
Onerespiratorycyclewill then berecordedas an increas-
ing voltage (ascendingsegment) duringinspirationandas
a decreasing voltage (descendingsegment) duringexpira-
tion. Also, you will record the temperature of the air
flowing in and out of one nostril with a temperature
probe.Thetemperatureof the air passing by the temper-
ature probe isinversely related to the expansion or con-
traction of the subject's chest. During inspiration when
the chest expands, the subject breathes in relatively cool
air (comparedto the subject's bodytemperature). Theair
iswarmedin the body. Duringexpiration,whenthe chest
contracts, the warmer air iscompressed outof the lungs
andoutthe respiratorypassages.
EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To observe andrecord normal respiratory rate and
depth utilizing pneumograph and air temperature
transducers.
2. To observe and record modifications in the rate
and depth of the normal respiratory cycle due to
cerebral influence and chemoreceptor influence on
the medullarycontrolcenters.
EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT
AND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for rnrrurnum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
Macintosh running OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPAC IVIP30 data acquisition unitwithAC100A
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1J\;1 Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPAC Respiratory Transducer SS5LB (or older
SS5LA or SS5L)
BIOPAC Temperature Transducer SS6L (Fast
Response Thermistor)
Single-sided (surgical) tape (TAPE1)
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
SetUp
1. Turn onthe computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. If it does notappear, ask the labo-
ratoryinstructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the .M.P30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED onthe
frontpanelindicatespoweron. If the LED does not
light up when the powerswitch isturned on, check
to makesure the AClGOA transformer (which sup-
plies power to the wlP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outleton the laboratory bench.
3. Select a subject and attach the respiratory trans-
ducer (SS5Lor SS5LA) around the chest belowthe
armpits and above the nipples (Figure 11.4). The
correcttensioniscritical. Therespiratorytransduc-
er must be slightly tight at the point of maximal
expiration.Thetransducercan be wornovera thin
shirt or blouse.
IMPORTANT USE NOTE: If using the SS5LA
transducer, you must be very careful notto pull or
yank on the rubber bowtie portion that contains
the sensorelement.
4. Attach the temperature transducer (thermistor) to
the subjectasshownin Figure 11.5.Thethermistor
should be firmly attachedso it does notmove. The
thermistor should be positioned below the nostril,
directly in the airflow pathway, andshould not be
touching the face. It is usually best to makea small
loop in the cable about2 inches from the tempera-
ture probe tip and tape the loop to the subject's
face.
SS6L
Temperature
Transducer
\
I
SS5LorSS5LA
Respiration
Transducer
FIGURE 11.4 Biopac set up for measuring
airflow and respiration
Courtesy of BIOPAC Systems, Inc.
146 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11
--
- - - -
----
-----
I
Plug the respiratory transdu cer into Channel 1
of the MP30, and plug the temperature tr ansducer
into Channel 2.

5. Loca te the BIOPAC Student Lab folder, ope n it ,


and start the BIOPAC Stud ent Lab program. A
prompt will appea r (Figur e 11. 6) as king you to
choose a lesson. Choose Lesson 8 ("L08-Resp-l" )
byclicking on it to highl ightit, then clicking OK.
6. A prompt should appear ask ing you to "Please type
in your file na me. " Ent er a uniqueidentifierso t hat
you can locat e and retrieve your dat a for analysis
after dat a recording.
7. Aft er you log on, a window similar to Figure 11.7
will appe ar.Checkto makesure thet ran sducersare
secure and plugged into correctcha nnels.Thiscon-
clud es the set-u p pr ocedur es.
-, \
-: :;. 1-k
I)
-.:".
Smallloopmade
J'
. jJ inwire
; Thermistertipdirectly
'1 undernostril
" '0, . \
' > '. <' \
Tape

,

-
FIGURE 11.5 Placement oftheairflowsensor
CourtesyofBIOPACSystems, Inc.
. ----- ---_.. _- ----
Please Choose a lesson:
. - - -
fUJi -EMC; -T - - - - -- - - -
IL02. EMG-2
IL03-EEG-1
IL04-EEG-2
LOS-ECO-1
L06-ECO-2
I
i L07-ECG&P-1
1-: - .t
L09-PoIy- 1
r
L10-EOG-1
L11-React-1
jL12- Lung-1
L13- Lung-2
L14-Bioibk-1
IL1S-Aero-1
IL16-BP-1
iL17-HS-1
ReviewSavedDat a
j
I
-
FIGURE 11.6
..

'..
Calibration
The calibra tion pr ocedure esrablishes the hard ware 's
internal para meters (such as gain. offset , and sca ling)
and is critical for optimum perf or mance. Pay close
attention to the calibration procedure.
Theprogr am needs a rea ding of the subject's maxi-
mumvolume and temperaturechangesto per form auto-
cal ibrat ion. The calibratio n wi ll run for 8 seco nds and
then sto p automatically, so let it run it scourse.
1. The subj ect sho uld sit in a relaxed state and
breathe no rma lly.
2. Click on Calibr ate, wait 2 seconds, and then
inst ruct th e subjcct t o breathe deeply forone cycle
and the n br eathe normall y.
3_ At the end of the ca libra tio n recor ding, your screen
I
sho uld resembl e figure 11.8.
,
I

4. Neit her ch annel (" respiration" or "airflow")


sho uld show a flat, st raight line. The resp iration

cha nnelrecordmaynotshow lar gedeviationsfrom
baseline, as in f igur e 11.8, but it sho uld not be per-
fectly flat.Ifthere is not any fluctuati on, then it is
possi ble that a tr ansducer is not connected or

I
I
'I
I

,
[ e e
.'..rs - n
I 1 '-. 1 1
FIGURE 11.7
'


"""' .
+--
-b
1O,,
.>'
-
r
,,'J
..0""-
I'"''
I"
; -,
- -_.
- ," ,I
; ' -.J
- 00 :' "00

i
r
"
FIGURE 11.8
t
t
f
The Respiratory Cycle 147
t

positioned pr operlyandyoumust redo the calibra-
tion by clicking on the Redo Cal ibration button
and repeating the entire calibration sequence.
Before reca librating, check the transducer position
an d connection.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
You will record airflow on one channel and chest
expansion (respiration) on another channel from the
sub ject under four conditions: Decide who, among
those students in your lab group, will be the director
andwhowill be the recorder. The directorwill givever-
bal commands to the subject, and the recorder will
insertmarkersand markerlabels at appropriatetimes in
the data recor d.
Segment 1:Sittingat rest, normal breathing
Segment 2: Sitting, hyperventilation, and recovery
Segment 3: Sitting, hypoventilation, and recovery
Segment 4: Coughing,readingaloud
Inorderto workefficiently,read thisentire section so
you will know whatto do for each recording segment.
Check the last line of theJournalandnotethe total
amount of time available for reco rding. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possiblesoyou do notuse
an excessive amountof time (time is memory).
Hintsfor Obtaining Optimal Data
1. The subject should stop hyperventilation or
hypoventilation ifdizziness develops.
2. The respirat ion transducer should fit snugly
around the chestpriorto inspiration.
3. The temperature transducer should be firmly
attachedso it does notmove. The transducer ther-
mistor should be positioned below the nostril and
nottouchingthe face.
4. The subject should be sittingfor all segments.
5. The recordingshould be suspended aftereach seg-
ment so that the subject can prepare for the next
recording segment .
Segment 1
1. The subject should be sitting in a chair, breathing
normally, and not facing the monitorscreen.
2. Click on Record, and record normal resting respi-
ration for 15 seconds, then click on Suspend. If
your data recording is correct, it will resemble
Figure 11.9.
:>0,..., -
FMUTJe ) 9f'1<>
...
'. m l__""", _ ..J ...
..'or"' '''''ed
I
i
' .1
;1
--- ---
- -

' -ClJ 'w aec
,"
o. .00
__....l ,; m:n' ""!""n .'


soc reo . 00 sec
,,.
" 00 e ee " 00
.. oc .. 00 '.. " 00

1-1G

"
'00
'w 1
i
_'00
_' 00
'M
' 00 I
-0. ,, ""

FIGURE11.9
3. Thedata would be incorrect if:
a. Thepneumograph(respiration) datarecording
has "plateaus" instead of waveforms. Ifthere
are plateaus, adjust the pneumograph.
b. The waveforms in the temperature (airflow)
dataare notoffset from the respirationdata.If
there is no offset, adjust the respiration trans-
ducer.
c. The temperature thermistor moved and is no
longerdirect lyunderthe nostril.
d. The pneumograph slipped.
e. The"Suspend" buttonwas pressed premature-
ly.
f. Any of the channels have flat data, indicating
no signal.
If the data recording is incorrect, you should
redo the recording by clicking on Redo and
repeating Steps 1 and 2. Note that once you
press Redo, the data you have just recorded
will be erased.
Segment2
1. Ask the subject to hyperventilate (breathe rapidly
and deeply) through the mouth for a maximum of
3D seconds. Click on Resume at the beginning of
hyperventilation.
WARNING: Thedirectorshould watch the subject
and stop the procedure if the subject starts to
feel sick or excessively dizzy.
2. At the end of the 3D-second hyperventilation peri-
od (about the 45-second mark), ask the subject to
stophyperventilatingandresume breathingnasally
until a normal breathing pattern is reestablished.
Record recovery for 3D seconds, then click on
Suspend.
148 BIOPACLab Experiment 11
- 1
-- -
I
3. Ifall went well, your data sho uld resembl e Figure
11.10. Use the hori zontal scroll bar to look at dif-
ferent portions of thewaveform.
..,
4. The data would be incorrect for the reasons given
..
in Step 3 of the Segment 1 instructions .Ifthe dat a
recording is incorrect, you should redo the record-
ing byclicking on Redo and repeatingSteps 1 and
2. Note that once )'OU press Redo, the data you
hav e just recorded will be erased.
Segment 3
1. Allowtime for thesubject'sbreathi ngto areturnto
normal restinglevel.
2. Ask the subject to hypoventilate. The subject
should breathe slowly and shallowly through the
nose.
3. Click on Resume" and record hypoventilation for
30 seconds.
4. At the end of the 30-second hypoventilation peri-
od, ask the subject to resume normal breathing.
Continue to record 30 seconds of recovery, then
click on Suspend (at the 135-second mark). Your
data should resembl eFigure 11.11.
5. Yourdat a would be incorrect for thereasons given
in Step 3 of the Segment 1 instructions. If the data
recording is incorrect, you should redo the record-
ing by clicking on Redo and repeatingSteps 2 and
3. Not e that once you press Redo, the data you
-
have just recorded will be erased.
. r,,,:,,, _,
EDL_- =::J R i -.__'!<"'" .:
J
r,., v
]
I --
... _.i-:":
"
l --,
-. - ..'
,
'.
t w
I'" f
________ ________- __________ _________ .--.. . __ _ __------.._____----.___.
"'"
.t$Joo S; oX ,100 15l; 1lC !' lJ: "'D 5>"".'(1 !lC1X n m '1 11 ..; n, n c:l 'H II
FIGURE11. 10
-
- - e-e .
g ,__....... =.J 1iEr-j;q-=] U],:.:.m: Q
..'_G
-- - - .- ., ,
". m "' m "., "om ," m ' n m "'00 '""'_';'- "." " 0' on, "00 "' 00 "' " '"
...
FIGURE11.11

Segment4
1. Click on Resume and ask thesubject to cough and
then begin readi ng aloud.
2. Record for 30 seconds, then click on Suspend.
3. Your data should resembl e Figure 11. 12. Ifneces-
sary, repeat the recordi ng of Segment 4 dat a by
clicking on Redo.
4. Click on Done. After you click on Done, a pop-up
message (Figure 11.13) will ask you to confirm tha t
you ar e finished with all recordings from the sub-
ject. Click Yes. Carefully remove the respiration
and temperature tran sducers.
5. After you click Yes, a pop-up window with six
options will appear (Figure 11.14). Make your
choice and continue as dir ected. If choosing the
"Record from another subject " option:
I

Attach the thermistor and transducer per the set - I


up instructions, have the new subjectsit and relax,


-

,-
"
,
i" . -
.-_.j ,..-

r ,
l l-'.
. -" . 1",.; e
00 ,,, . n '" , . ' ' ' ''' ..
I
FIGURE11.12
BIDpac Studentlab
AreyOI.J sureyouare donerecording?Pressing'Yes'will
Yes
aut omaticallys a.....e t hefile andyou\'Vill not beable t o redo.
No
FIGURE11.13
OK
RecordfromanotherSubject
I tl,nalyzeanotherdala t ,l
' RecordanotherLesson
!cOf:<YtoFloppyorNet'Nork
' Quit
FIGURE11.14
I
, .
The Respirat ory Cycle 149
l

"..".-------
and con tinue the ent ire lesson from the set up on . for its calculation, the BPM value is not specific
No te that each per son needs to use a unique file to a parti cul ar chann el.
name. p-p:The pea k-to-pea k measur ement shows the dif-
ference between the maximum amplitude value
and the min imum amplitude value in the select-
DATA ANALYSIS
ed area.
4. Use the zoo mtool to select about four cycles of res-
1. Wh en you clicked on Done in the last step of the
dat a recording, and then clicked on Anal yze cur-
pir at ion in Segment 1 dat a (Figures 11.16a and
A

rent dat a file (fi gure 11.1 4), you automati call y
11.16b ).
5. Use the I-beam tool to select an appropriate area
entered theReview Saved Data mode, buton lyfor
i
for the meas urement of the durati on of delta T of
the last subject. If you have da ta from on ly one

inspi rati on (Figur e 11 .17), expiration (Figure


subject, contin ue with Step 2. Ot herwise, ente r the
11.1 8), and cycle durati on (Figure 11.19). Record
Review Saved Dat a mode from the Lessons menu,
the measurement s in Tabl e 11. 1 in the report. Use

choose the cor rect file, and open it. The dat a win-

dow sho uld resemblefi gure 11. 15.


the I-beam toolto select an ap propriate ar ea from
1
t
2. Note t he channelnumber (CH) designat ions:

CH 2 = airflow

1
CH 40 = respiration
.. J.... r;3]t:::::r'"L] .,,, ' ;'.p-"- .... TL- :;.;;;- ---:
3. Set up the measur ement boxes as follows:
"
CH 40 set to delta T
CH 40 set to BPM
CH 40 set to p-p
CH 2 set to p-p
Recall that the measur ement box es are above t he
marker region in the Data wi ndow an d each meas-
urementhas three sectio ns: channelnumber, meas-
urement type, and result.The first t wo sections are
pull-down men us that are activa ted when you click
FIGURE11.16a
on them. Here are some brief descripti ons of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment :
delta T:The "delta time" measurement is the dif-

__ J'" o.'! ..,-u _


ference in time bet ween the end and the begin-
0" .,.
ning of theselected area.
BPN1: The " beats per minute, " or in this lesson /..
" breat hs per minute," measur ement calc ulates
-,
.
I""r.
!
" " J
the differ ence in time bet ween the end and the
I
beginning of thearea selected bythel -bearn tool
r"
< ;
i
(just like delt a T), and then di vides thi s value
int o 60 seconds/minute. Because the BPM only
uses the time measur ement of the selected area
FIGURE11.16b
/< ,1 !
; t
.
, "',.., ....(C 'm"" ,g:w;- lilt: 1 Q
.
{1 !I f' r(..l:,A,.. 1
,,_!1..]\r./1,, 1\.n,; 'oi \r\., ..\\ .:......
I,'
:
:' :::.'];
:!

..,' ..././.. //.
.. !
11(,t) '2JlO n'(, " )l -sx ll r': '7 -.-. ,,'(
i
i '----"'-"
FIGURE11.15 FIGURE11.17
150 BIOPAC LabExperiment 11
I

the peak of one cycle to the peak of the nextcycle


(fi gure 11. 20) for the measurement of respirato ry
rat e (BPM) an d record t he measurement in Table
... 11. 1 in the report.
,
6. Repeat Step 5 for t\VOother respi rat or y cycles in
the Segme nt 1 dat a and calculate mean values .
7. Use t he time scr oll button or the marker tools t o
move to the record of hyperventilati on recovery.
Select one respiratorycyclean d use thel-bearn tool
to det ermine the cycle durati on and RPM (Figure
11. 21 ). Record the measurements in Table 11.2.
Repeat the deterrni nati ons for t\VOother respi rato-
ry cycles in Segment 2 recovery. Calculate mean
values where indica ted in Table t l .2.
8. Repeat Step 7 for three cycles in t he hypovent ila-
ti on reco ver y period of Segme nt 3, read ing aloud

.. ..
. - - . _ -- - -, . :7 1
- -'----=--==-==
, I '
il ' ",'
!II '
I' "
. .
t" oc. - ;;- . .,.c::'--c",,,--C'"7' ''; -' ' .----;cc----o;e---;-;-'--,..iill..:'
FIGURE11.18
1)
.

i:' ... --- - . - - - - - - ----...
._ - - ._--- -- - - - -- - _ ._- -
C
I
! . '
/1
r;:- ' ",..... .
;!
..
-"'..
t
.-
, .)} ; ; If_' " . , " .-.' " . " " ! '" ac ".:.J
FIGURE 11.19
,' ,:- .. '1 ".'i:"f'--I '
- - _.,- -.-----
._- ._- - ==:..=::.:..:.... '.::1
. Ir; '
I
l
\
'"", // .
-i-i , ._/ . , .
f
..rr-...."'''-'-.....
;( " [-
: .. . - '
.r.,
LJ
''''' "
FIGURE11.20


Segment4 and the cough -::- -:1"" Enterthemeasur e-
me nts in Ta ble 11.2 and c..alcui.ite mea n values.
9. Use the l -bea rn tool to select t hree individ ual cycles
in eac h ofthe fourdata I onlyone cycl ein
Segment 4) and dete rmin e the respirat ion amp li-
t ude (p-p CH 40) for each. Record meas ur ements
in Ta ble 11.3 in th e report . Calc ulate mean values
wher e indicated.
fi gur e 11.22 shows an exa mple of select ing an area
in the cycle that captures the mi nimum and max i-
mum amplitu de values . The p-p measurement wi ll
'''I
display the ampl itude .Note that Segment 4 (cough)
...

.0
,,..,
requires only one measur ement .
,..,
10. Use the l -bea rn tool to select the int er val bet ween
'''' .j
-
""i
the maximal inspi ration and the maximal temp era
,''01
I
.,
" .
ture change (Figur e 11.23) in data fro m Segment I ,
.-It
III -
, :
r
..-" ..
_--...=- --- ----====-----= ." ' 8 0
_f
i
.

..
. "':

J
".
!!' :
r

I
- 1. I

'. .... , c
t

r
.
:::
l0-
f.
FIGURE11.21
i
,.
t-

, ,_ " tofU "', _._-, ---


,

c_=: =-:-'
:

.-
;
0-
r
" .
' .- . . .... ... . -- . ., - '. .--1 '.- I

r

uc . ,,) ... ".. '0 J ). , , . _, ,,, . <C b: . .-. ..


f
,.

. ..
FIGURE11.22
.. ..--.;;;. I:
JE ' . 0
_ _ _ . _
I'
i
I
...._-

-. ,
'- ..
, - ',",= ---,,-,.
.. 7;''-; C: iITT;
- - - - ,, -
FIGURE 11.23
TheRespiratoryCycle 151
_ _
I
Segment 2, and Segment 3. Record the delta T 11. You may save the data to a diskette, save notes that
(time interval) between the two peaks and the p-p are in the Journal, or print the data file.
(temperature amplitude) in Table 11.4 in the 12. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
report. down the computer.
I
152 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11
I
-
~
>-
~
,
BIOPAC
Name:
11
Lab Section:
THE RESPIRATORY CYCLE
DATA REPORT
Date:
_
_
t
!'
'I'"
~
~
l!-
f
~ i
~
t
~
..
;.
" ".
~
.
~
"
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
Subject Profile: Name: Height:
Age: Weight:
Gender: Male / Female
A. Eupnea (Subject sitting, at rest, breathing normally)
Complete Table 11.1 with values for each cycle and calculate the means.
TABLE 11.1
_
_
r
,
r
, ~
I
~

B. Comparison of Ventilation Rates (Subject sitting and experiencing voluntary hyperventilation, voluntary
hypoventilation, reading aloud, single cough)
Complete Table 11.2 with measurements from CH 40 for three cycles during the recovery period for the hyper-
ventilation and hypoventilation segments and for the talking and coughing segment. Calculate the means where
indicated.
Duration or Frequency Measurement CH Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Mean
Inspiration Duration ~ T 40
Expiration Duration ~ T 40
Cycle Duration (I+E) ~ T 40
CycleFrequency BPM 40
TABLE 11.2
Hyperventilation
Recovery
Segment 2
Hypoventilation
Recovery
Segment 3
Read Aloud
Segment 4
Cough
Segment 4
Measurement ~ T BPM ~ T BPM ~ T BPM ~ T BPM
Cycle 1
Cycle2
Cycle3
Mean
I
Note: ~ T iscycle duration, BPMisbreathing rate, and cough hasonly one cycle
~
:?S:.
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11 153 I 1
'" ~

>-
I
i
~
.

if

"
it'
t
!'
f-
...
~
~
t
"'"
t
,.
it'
~
;
f>
~
it-
f-
~
~
~
t
'"

f
~
it'
~
~
1/"
\'

~
\l
e
~
II
-----
------
C RelativeVentllation (Subject sitting, atrest, breathing normally, then experiencing voluntary
hvperventilarion, voluntary hypoventilation, and a single cough)
TABLE 11.3
p-p (1-1 40)
I
Depth Cycle 1 Cycle 2
1 __Cycle 3
Mean
I I
-
Eupnea
Segment 7 I
I
!
"
Hyperventilation
I
!
Recovery
Segment 2
_J I
Hypoventilation
Recovery
I
Segment 3
I
f--------
Cough
Segment 4
I I
D. Association ofRespiratory DepthandTemperature
TABLE 11,4
Measurement
PeakIJ. Temp
llT between
MaxInspiration
and Peak
i1Temp
I
tupnea Hyperventilation Hypoventilation
Segment 2 Segment 3 Segment 1

p-p (CH2)
LiT(CH 40)

-
II. QUESTIONS
1. Comparealveolar ventilation duringthehyperventilation recovery period (Tables 11.2 and 11.3) with alve-
olarventilation duringeupnea (Table 11.1). Explain whyalveolarventilation was differentin termsof phys-
iological mechanisms. (Recall alveolar ventilation is proportional to the productof respiratorycycle depth
times respiratory rate.)
J
154 !Ill BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11
1
--
I
i
2. Comparealveolarventilation duringthe hypoventilationrecovery period (Tables 11.2 and 11.3) with alve-
olarventilationduringeupnea (Table 11.1). Explainwhyalveolarventilationwas differentin termsof phys-
iological mechanisms.
J
3. Compare the inspiratory duration (Inspiration ~ T between the eupnea segment and the talking segment.
Explainwhythere is a difference. ~
~
.
,.. ~
",,-:-
:-r:!'
,t
It
, J
t'
,
"",,
to
4. Compare the expiratory duration (Expiratory ~ T between the eupnea segment and the talking segment.
Explain why there is a difference. _
It
5. Distinguish between "voluntaryapnea" and "apneavera." _
6. In whichpart (inspiration or expiration) of the respiratorycycle is the respiratoryairtemperature:
lowest? highest?
~
r--
BIOPACLab Experiment 11 155
9:J: -
I
I
- .. , ~ I
~ J
~ ~
t
t
l
7. Voluntary apnea most often begins at the end of a deep inspiration whereas apnea vera begins at the end of
an expiration. Explain this difference in terms of physiological mechanisms.
8. Describe the modification of the respiratory cycle associated with the cough. _
9. It is possible to have a rapid respiratory rate (BPM) combined with a respiratory acidosis. Explain how this
can occur, with reference to alveolar ventilation and blood carbon dioxide.
10. Explain the physiological mechanism that normally terminates breath-holding by the obstinate child trying
to coerce a parent. _
156 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 11
..
I
I
I
I
I

BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
-
II
#
PulmonaryFunction Tests:
Volumes and Capacities
PHYSIOLOGICALCONCEPTS
The volume of air a person inhales (inspires) and
exhales (expires) can be measured with a spirometer
(spiro =breath, meter =to measure). A bell spirometer
(Figure 12.1) consists of a double-walled cylinder in
whichan inverted bell filled with oxygen-enrichedairis
immersed in water to form a seal. The bell is attached
by a pulley to a recording pen that writes on a drum
rotating at a constant speed. During inspiration, air is
removed from the bell and the pen rises, recording an
1)
inspired volume. As expired air enters the bell, the pen
falls and an expired volume is recorded. The resultant
record of volume change versus time is called a
spirogram.
The volume of air inspired or expired duringa sin-
gle breath is called tidal volume (TV). When a resting
person breathes normally, tidalvolume is approximate-
ly 500 ml. During exercise, tidal volume can be more
than 3 L.
Tidal volume is one of four non-overlapping pri-
marycompartmentsoftotallungcapacity(Figure12.1).
The other three primary lung volumes are inspiratory
reserve volume, expiratoryreservevolume, andresidual
volume.
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) is the volume of
air that can be maximally inhaled atthe end of a tidal
inspiration. Resting IRVis approximately 3300 ml and
1900ml in youngadultmales and females, respectively.
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is the volume of
air that can be maximally exhaled at the end of a tidal
expiration. Resting ERV is approximately 1000ml and
700 ml in young adult males and females, respectively.
Residual volume (RV) is the volume of gas remain-
ing in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration. In
contrastto IRV,TV, andERV,residualvolume does not
changewithexercise. Average adultRVvaluesfor males
~
,-.
and females are 1200 ml and 1100 ml, respectively.
Residual volume reflects the fact thatafterwe take our
first breath at birth and inflatethe lungs,we nevercom-
pletely empty the lungs during any subsequent respira-
torycycle.
A pulmonary capacity is the sum of two or more
primarylungvolumes. There are five pulmonarycapac-
ities: inspiratorycapacity,expiratorycapacity, function-
al residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung
capacity.
1. Inspiratorycapacity (IC) = TV + IRV
2. Expiratorycapacity (EC) = TV + ERV
3. Functionalresidual capacity (FRC) =ERV + RV
4. Vital capacity (VC) =IRV + TV + ERV
5. Totallungcapacity(TLC) = IRV +TV +ERV +RV
Each of these capacities is represented graphically
in Figure 12.1.
Table 12.1 summarizesthe terms, symbols,anddef-
initions for the standard divisions of lung volume, and
Table 12.2 lists normaladultvalues.
Pulmonary volumes and capacities are generally
measured in the clinical assessment of a variety of pul-
monary disorders. In general, chronic pulmonary dis-
eases may be classified into two physiologic categories:
(1) obstructive pulmonary disorders, such as emphyse-
ma andbronchialasthma,and (2) restrictiue pulmonary
disorders, suchas pulmonaryfibrosis and other chron-
ic diseases of the lung interstitium.
In a chronicobstructivepulmonarydisease (COPD)
such as bronchial asthma, excessive mucus secretion
partially blocks airways, increasing airway resistance
andthus makingbreathingmoredifficult. Theasthmat-
icmaytakelongerto inspireandexpire, butpulmonary
volumes may be normal or nearnormal.
In a restrictive pulmonary disease, the ability to
chartlungvolumeisdecreased. Forexample,in silicosis
I
w
tf
i

~
Ii
I
(
IT1,l
,-,I
. - j ~ .
~ -,
,
"1
f
f
~ -
i'
t
.
~ .
: ~ .
~
~
~
iw
Pulmonary Function Tests Volumes and Capacities II 157
''is:- X ~

I
,+'------ -
o
Floating Drum
Kymograph
Drum

Counterbalance
Weight
Chamber
g
1
Residual
Capacity
Residual
Volume
Resting
Expiratory
Level
f
Insptatory f
Vital
Reserve
Capacity
Volume l
I
Inspiratory
Capacity
Total
Lung
Capacity
Expiratory
o
o
Reserve
a;
Volume
Functional
E
::J
Extrapulmonary
Volume

Time: Seconds
FIGURE 12.1 Bell spirometer and spirogram
TABLE 12.1 Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
Standardized Term Symbol Definition
Inspiratory Reserve Volume IRV Maximal volume of gasthatcan be inspired from end tidal inspiration
Tidal Volume TV Volume of gasinspired or expired during each respiratory cycle
Expiratory Reserve Volume ERV Maximal volume of gasthatcan be expired from resting expiratory level
ResidualVolume RV Volume of gasremaining inthe lungs at the end of amaximal expiration
Total Lung Capacity TLC Volume ofgascontained in the lungs at the end of amaximal inspiration
Vital Capacity VC Maximal amountof gasthatcan beexpired following amaximal inspiration
InspiratoryCapacity IC Maximal amountof gasthatcan be inspired from the resting expiratory level
Functional ResidualCapacity FRC Amountofgasremaining inthe lungs at the resting end-expiratory level
158 BIOPAC LabExperiment 12
I
TABLE 12.2 Components ofLung Volume
Volume/ Capacity
- Tidal Volume (TV)
Inspiratory ReserveVolume (IRV)
Expiratory ReserveVolume (ERV)
Residual Volume (RV)
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
(grinder's disease), a disordercaused by chronic inhala-
tion of stone dust, sand, or flint, the lungslose distensi-
bility and become stiffer.
In restrictive pulmonary diseases, lung capacities
andvolumes are generallyreduced (e.g., decreased vital
capacity), and in obstructive pulmonary diseases, pul-
monary airflow is generally reduced. Both obstructive
and restrictive pulmonary diseases often coexist (e.g.,
combined pulmonaryemphysema and fibrosis).
Restrictive pulmonary diseases may be diagnosed,
in part, by determiningthe lung capacities and volumes
thatyou will measurein the experimentsin this chapter.
Obstructive pulmonary diseases usually require meas-
urements of pulmonaryflow rates, whichwill be meas-
ured in Chapter 13.
~
iii EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES
1. To observeexperimentally,record,and/orcalculate
selected pulmonary volumes andcapacities.
2. To compare the observed values of volume and
capacity with predicted normals.
3. To compare the normal values of pulmonary vol-
umes and capacities of subjects differing in sex,
age, weight, and height.
EXPERIMENTALEQUIPMEf\iT
AND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for minimum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
Macintoshrunning OS 8.6-9.2.2
mOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPAC MP30data acquisition unitwithACI00A
transformer
BIOPAC USBIW Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USBIM Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
mOPAC Airflow Transducer (SSlILA)
mOPAC Bacteriological Filter (AFTl)
~
mOPAC Disposable Mouthpiece (AFT2)
Males females
500 ml 500 mi
3300 ml 1900 rnl
1000 ml 700 ml
1200 rnl 1100 ml
3800 ml 2400 ml
2200 ml 1800 ml
6000 ml 4200 ml
BIOP,i\C MP30 unit
~ - - - - - - - -
Electrode Check CH 1 CH2 CH 3 CH 4 Busy Power
(Wil)J j ~ ~ ~ O O
MODEL MP30
I2SEJ
....
/. -.Pluqs i t
I ~ In0 Channel 1
c:J
8811L
/
or
8811LA
(shown)
Airflow
Transducer
/
FIGURE 12.2 imi Biopacset up forpulmonary
function
mOPAC Nose clip (AFB)
mOPAC Calibration Syringe (AFT6)
mOPAC Autoclavable Mouthpiece (AFT8)-
optional
III EXPER!MENTAl METHODS
Set Up
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratory instructor for assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
front panelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LED does not
light up whenthe powerswitchisturned on, check
to makesurethe ACI00Atransformer (which sup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. Plug the airflowtransducer (SSllLA)into Channel
1 (Figure 12.2).

l
t
t
~ .
~
t:
I
~
'fp

t#
~
I
,
~
,
,
~ ..
~
~ ~
~
i:;
Pulmonary Function TestsVolumes and Capacities II 159
~ ~ .. ~
. - . ,. . . .1'l....-
I
4. Place afilter ontothe end of the calibrationsyringe
and insert the calibration syringelfilter assembly
into the large diameter port. Ifusing the SSllLA
transducer with removable, cleanable head, insert
the syringe assembly so that the transducer cable
exits on the left, as shown in Figure 12.3.
NOTE:Ifusing the SSllLtransducer with nonre-
movable head, insertthe syringe assembly into the
large diameter port. Ifusingthe SSllLAtransduc-
er with removable, cleanable head, insert the
syringe assemblyso thatthe transducercableexists
onthe left, as shownin Figure 12.3.
IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow
heads after each use, make sure a clean head is
installed now.
5. Locate the "BIOPAC Student Lab" folder, openit,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 12.4) asking you to
choosealesson. ChooseLesson12 ("L12-Lung-1")
byclickingon it to highlight it, then clickingOK.
6. Apromptshouldappearaskingyou to "Pleasetype
in yourfilename." Enteraunique identifier sothat
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
after data recording.
7. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 12.5
will appear. This concludes the set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
1. Pull the calibrationsyringeplungerall the way out
and hold the calibration syringelfilter assembly
upright (Figure 12.6). The airflow transducer is
sensitive to gravity so it needs to be held upright
throughoutthe calibrationandrecording.
SS11LA
Airflow
Calibration Syringe/FilterAssembly
Transducer

1 1+-1----------..\

+-.---- Insert
IMPORTANT!
Always Inserton the
Side Labeled "Inlet"
FIGURE 12.3 Calibration assembly
FIGURE 12.4
,. ,,,"'


I
-- ..-
I.
o.w 'GD :0: l.i"
,,,,,,-,j-


ILwe
;C,. ',"
Th,h""",icJ'c''iller
Iw,.;",",}, (j",,::",",'
FIGURE 12.5
Airflow
Transducer
Calibration Syringe Plunger
Hangs Freely
Offthe End

Airflow
Transducer
IsHeldUpright
atAllTimes
FIGURE 12.6
Correct Placement
ofHands
I
160 BIOPAC LabExperiment12
----------

-,
ducer handlewhen using the calibration syringe or
the syringe tip may break.
2. Click on Calibrate.Apop-upmessage(Figure 12.7)
appears remindingyou notto force air throughthe
airflow transducer for the first stage of the calibra-
tion procedure. Leave the plunger extended and
hold the assembly steady and upright during the
entire calibration procedure. Do not touch the
plunger, because any pressure at this stage will
cause inaccurate results. Click OK.
The first stage of calibration willrun for 8 sec-
onds and automatically end with an alert box
(Figure 12.8). Read the directions in the Journal
windowand step 3 beforeclicking on Yesto begin
the secondstage of calibration.
3. Inthe secondstageofcalibration,you will cycle the
syringe plunger completely in and completely out
for S consecutivecycles (10 strokes). Use a rhythm
of about1 secondper strokewith2 secondsof rest
between strokes.
NOTE: The calibration procedure may seem a lit-
tle strange, but it is required because of the com-
plexity of the airflow-to-volume calculation. The
accuracy of this conversationis aided by analyzing
the airflowvariations occurringoverfive complete
cycles of the calibrationsyringe.
4. Click Yes to start the second stage of calibration.
Cycle the syringeplungeras statedabovein Step 3.

IMPORTANT:Neverhold on to the airflowtrans-
Donotterce airthroughtheAirflowTransducerforthis pJ:H1 ofthe OK
calibrationI
FIGURE 12.7
,
_..-----,,----------------_._-----_.----_._--------:
1--;;;:::::;:]
--
.-
FIGURE 12.8
-

At the end of the fifth cycle. stop the calibration
procedure by clickingon End Calibration.
S. Atthe end ofthe calibrationrecording,yourscreen
should resemble Figure 12.9. Ifyour data shows
five downward deflections andfive upward deflec-
tions,proceedto the DataRecordingsection.Ifthe
data recording shows any large spikes, then you
must redo the calibration by clicking on Redo
Calibration and repeating the entire calibration
sequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATAACQUISITION
In order to work efficiently, read this entire section so
I
you will knowwhat to do for each recording segment.

Thesubject should remain seated and continueto relax

while you review the lesson. Following the procedure


I
precisely is very important. as the calculation from air-

flow to volumeis very sensitive.
Checkthe lastline ofthe Journalandnotethe total I
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possibleso you do notuse
an excessive amountof time (time is memory).
I
NOTE:Residualvolume(RV) cannotbedetermined
using a normal spirometer or airflowtransducer, so the
BIOPAC StudentLabsoftware uses a defaultof 1 L.
HintsforObtaining Optimal Data
1. Keep the airflow transducer upright at all times
I
(Figure 12.10).
2. Ifyou start the recording on an inhale, try to end
on an exhale, and vice versa. Thisis notabsolutely
critical, butit does increase the accuracyof the air-
flow-to-volume calculation.
3. Subject should not look at the screen during
recording.
I

FIGURE 12.9
Pulmonary Function Tests Volumes and Capacities 161
'---'--
IMPORTANTI
Always Breathe through
the Side Labeled "Inlet"
Disposable
Mouthpiece
(AFT2)
Disposable
Bacteriological
Filter (AFT1)
Airflow
Transducer
(SS"!1L)
FiGURE 12.11
t
Disposable
-: Mouthpiece
(AFT2)
I",-"Inlel" Label
1U ! on this Side
Airflow
t
Autoclavable
Mouthpiece
(AFT8)
Transducer
(SS11 LA)
FIGURE 12.12
d. breathe normally for three breaths, and then
after a normal resting inspiration, maximally
exhale, and then
e. resume breathing normally for three breaths.
4. Click on Stop. As soon as the Stop button is
pressed, the BIOPAe Student Lab software will
automatically calculate volume data based on the
recorded airflow data. At the end of the calcula-
tion, both waveforms will be displayed on the
screen (Figure 12.14).
5. If all went well, your data should look similar to
Figure 12.14.Thedatawouldbe incorrectandyou
will need to repeatthe recordingifyoufeel youdid
not follow the procedure precisely (for example, if
the subject coughed or air escaped). In this case,
you shouldredo the recording by clicking on Redo
FIGURE 12.10
Procedure
1. Insert a clean mouthpiece (and filter, if applicable)
into the airflowtransducer.
IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow
heads after each use, make sure a clean head is
installed now. To be safe and to avoid contamina-
tion, have the subject personally remove the filter
and mouthpiece from the plastic packaging. This
mouthpiece will become the subject's personal
mouthpiece. It is advisable to write the subject's
name on the mouthpiece and filter with a penna-
nentmarkerso they can be reused later.
If using the 55IlLtransducer with non-removable
head, insert a new filter and mouthpiece into the
larger diameter port (Figure 12.1]).
If using the SSIILA transducer and sterilizing the
head aftereach use, insert a disposable mouthpiece
(BIOPAC AFT2) or an autoclavable mouthpiece
(BIOPAC AFT8) into the airflow transducer
(Figure 12.12).
If using the S511LA transducer and not sterilizing
the head after each use, insert a filter and mouth-
piece into the airflowtransducer (Figure 12.13).
2. Ask the subject to place a nose clip on his or her
noseand begin breathingnormallythroughthe air-
flow transducer (Figure 12.10). The subject must
holdthe airflowtransducerupright M all times.
3. Click on Record. Ask the subjectto:
a. breathe normally for three breaths, then, after
a resting expiration
b. inhale as deeply as possible, and then
c. exhalejustto the pointof normalresting expi-
ration, andthen
162 III BIOPAC Lab Experiment 12
I
I

I:

b

t


e
-
I
I
-.
/""-
i
Disposable
Mouthpiece
Disposable
(AFT2)
Bacteriological
Filter (AFT1)
+--"Inlet"Label
on thisSide
Airflow
Transducer
(SS11LA)
FIGURE12.13
4';f,
L'" "

c=
j",,",,,,,,,",,,,,,,,
.,
FIGURE12.14

and repeating Step 3. Note that once you press on
Redo, the data you have just recorded will be
erased.
6. Click on Done. After you press Done, a pop-up
window will ask you to confirm you are finished
recording from the current subject. Click Yes and
your data will automatically be saved in the "Data
Files" folderon yourharddrive. Apop-upwindow
withsix options will appear (Figure 12.15). Make
yourchoiceandcontinue as directed.
If choosing the "Record from another Subject"
option:
a. You will not need to recalibrate the airflow
transducer. For this reason, we recommend
that all recordings be completed before you
proceed to data analysis.
b. Remember to have each person use his or her
own mouthpiece, bacteriological filter, and
nose clip.
c. Repeat recording Steps 1-6 for each new
Subject.
d. Each person will need to use a unique file
name.




t andCacecrtres

T
===-:J
(\.J:: !
,/"' ", !.1({)
I iQ
FIGURE12.15
,.,,,
Li:
E;;;;;c;;;",,,,, -

_". __
,', ,
J5<J
I,"
'J(iG-,,-,-,,-m-';00---"'-'
,m""" ..
'CIIDil ----... ----
FIGURE12.16
EXPERIMENTALPROTOCOL
AND DATAACQUISITION
1.When you clicked on Done in the last step of the
data recording, and then clicked on Analyze cur-
rent data file (Figure 12.15), you automatically
entered the Review Saved Datamode, but only for
the last subject. Ifyou have data from only one
subject, continuewith Step 2. Otherwise, enter the
Review Saved Data mode from the Lessons menu,
choosethe correctfile, and open it. The Datawin-
dow should resemble Figure 12.16
2. Notethe channelnumber (CH) designations:
CH 1 = airflow
CH 2 = volume
3. Althoughyou will notuse the airflowdata, it actu-
ally contains an interesting perspective on the
recording. Looking at the airflow waveform, note
that the vertical scale is in liters per second
(Liters/sec.) and thatthe data recording is centered
on zero. Lookingat the graph,you canseethatwith
each exhale, a downward pointing curve appears.
The deeper an inhale, the larger the positive peak;
PulmonaryFunction Tests Volumes and Capacities 163

_._. --
"
IR!J
E':':C-,_ ~ ., ._-=.. . --=-_-.------====1.:., )2:J
FIGURE 12.17
FIGURE 12.18
the more forceful an exhale, the larger the negative
peak.
4. Turn off Channel 1 (airflow). 10 toggle a channel
on/off, click on the Channelnumber boxand hold
down the option key (Mac) or the Ctr! key (PC).
5. Set up themeasurement boxes as follows:
CH2 =p-p
CH2 = delta
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
marker region in the data window and each meas-
urement has threesections: channel number, meas-
urement type, andresult. Thefirst two sections are
pull-downmenusthatare activatedwhenyouclick
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
delta: The"delta" measurementisthe differencein
value between the beginning and the end of the
selected area.
p-p: Thepeak-to-peakmeasurementshows the dif-
ference between the maximum amplitude value
FIGURE 12.19
"'ill
. ~ : - ~ - = - - - = = = ~ _ .. _.__._=:l EJ
c.L- ----c.
1 Ct.
FIGURE 12.20
and the minimum amplitude value in the select-
ed area.
The ,.selected area" is the area selected by the 1-
beam tool (includingthe endpoints).
6. Use the I-beam tool to select the regionof the first
three breaths (Figure 12.17).Thep-pmeasurement
represents tidal volume (TV). Record the value in
Table 12.3 in the report.
7. Use the I-beam tool to select an appropriate area
for measurement and the delta measurement to
determine values for IRV (Figure 12.18) and ERV
(Figure 12.19). Use the p-p measurement to deter-
mine VC (Figure 12.20).Recordthe valuesin Table
12.3 in the report.
8. You may save the datato a diskette, save notes that
are in the Journal,orprint the datafile.
9. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut
down the computer.
164 III BIOPAC Lab Experiment 12
,
-
BIOPAC PULMONARYFUNCTION TESTS: VOLUMESAND CAPACITIES
12
DATA REPORT
Name: _
Date: _
LabSection:
I. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name: _ Height: _
Age: _ Weight: _
Gender: Male / Female
W
-
~
A. Volume / Capacity Measurements
r
TABLE 12.3
~
Volume / Capacity

Measurement(liters)
Tidal Volume(TV)
Inspiratory ReserveVolume (IRV)
Expiratory ReserveVolume(ERV)
Vital Capacity(VC)
ResidualVolume (RV) 1 liter (defaultsetting)
I
~
~
I
1. PredictedVital Capacity
Use the equation belowto calculate the subject's predictedvital capacity.
EquationsforPredicted Vital Capacity
VC = 0052 H-0.022 A-3.60 MALES
VC = 0.041 H-0.018A-2.69 FEMALES
VC = Vital Capacityin liters, H = Heightin centimeters, A =Age in years
Work space for calculations:
PredictedVital Capacity liters
1)
BIOPAC Lab Experiment 12 165
-_.r--
-_.- ~ ~
2. Calculate the following capacities using datafrom Table 12.3:
Capacity Formula Result (ml)
I
InspiratoryCapacity(IC) IC::: TV+IRV
ExpiratoryCapacity(EC) EC ::: TV+ERV
FunctionalResidual Capacity(FRC)
Total LungCapacity(TLC)
FRC ::: ERV +RV
TLC ::: IRV +TV+ERV + RV
I
3. Compare measured/calculated values with normals and calculate the percentage deviation from normal. (+
deviation meansgreaterthan normal,- deviation means less than normal).
% Deviation [Difference betweenmeasured and normal-i- normal] x 100
Example: Measured TV ::: 400m!.
% Deviation e [(500- 400) -i- 500] x 100::: -20%
Volume / Capacity Males Females Measured or Calculated Value +or - % dey.
TidalVolume(TV) 500 ml 500 ml
I
InspiratoryReserve Volume(lRV) 3300 ml 1900ml
ExpiratoryReserve Volume(ERV) 1000ml 700 ml
Residual Volume(RV) 1200ml 1100ml
InspiratoryCapacity(IC) 3800 ml 2400 ml
FunctionalResidual Capacity(FRC) 2200 ml 1800 ml
TotalLungCapacity(TLC) 6000 ml 4200 ml
I
4. Comparethe measuredvital capacitywiththe predicted vital capacityand calculatethe % difference:
[ liters measuredVC -;- liters predictedVC ]x 100::: %
Note: Vital capacities are dependent on otherfactors besides age and height. Therefore, 80% of predicted
values are still considered "normal."
B. QUESTIONS
1. Which pulmonary volumes would change during exercise and whichwould not? Explain how they would
change (increase, decrease) andwhythey would change.
(a) TV
(b) IRV
166 BIOPACLab Experiment 12
I
-
(d) RV
I:
(c) ERV
2. Explainthedifference between a pulmonarycapacity and a pulmonary volume.
3. Vital capacityandexpiratoryreservevolumerend todecrease withage, butfunctional residualcapacitynor-
mallyremainsconstant(ages 20-65).Usevolume/capacityrelationshipstoexplainhowERV decreaseswhile
FRC is constant, and give a reasonwhy VC andfRVdecrease withage.


w-
,
I

4. Howdoes restrictive pulmonary disease differ from obstructive pulmonarydisease?



{.
t
t

BiOP,b,C Lab Experiment 12 II 167


5. Bronchial asthma is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in whichpulmonaryvolumes may be
normalor nearnormal. Explain.
!I" ,

J
t
f'



..

z--ri;
I
I
v
J'
..
...
BIOPAC LAB EXPERIMENT
-
II
..
Pulmonary Function Tests:
Forced ExpiratoryCapacity
Maximal VoluntaryVentilation

PHYSIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
Pulmonary volumes, pulmonary capacines, and pul-
monary airflowrates are often measured in diagnosing
andassessing chronic disease of the respiratory system.
Ingeneral,chronicpulmonarydiseases may beclassified
intotwo physiologiccategories:chronicobstructivepul-
monary disease (COPD) and chronic restrictive pul-
monary disease (CRPD).
In chronic restrictive pulmonary disease, the sub-
ject's ability to inflate and deflate the lungs is reduced,
.-
and as a result, some lung volumes and capacities are
belownormal.For example,inpulmonaryfibrosis, such
-
as occurs in coal miner's disease, or in silicosis or other
chronic diseases of the lung interstitium in which the
lungs become less distensible, vital capacity is reduced
because of reductions in inspiratory and expiratory
reserve volumes.
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),
such as asthma or emphysema, airflow into and out of
the lungs is reduced. Inasthma,inflammationof the lin-
ings of the airways and heavy mucus secretion reduce
airway diameters and increase airway resistance. This
results in a wheezing sound characteristic of asthmatic
breathing and a reduction in the volume of air flowing
per minute into andoutof the lungs.
It is not uncommon for a person to have both
restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease at the
same time. For example, a person may suffer from
emphysema and fibrosis of the lung at the same time,
even though each disease may have a different origin
and begin at a differenttime.
Restrictive pulmonary diseases are diagnosed, in
part, by determining lung volumes and capacities as in
the previous chapter. However, obstructive pulmonary
diseases usually require measurements of pulmonary
flow rates. Inthis chapter,you will performtwotests to

measure pulmonary flow rates: (1) Forced Vital


Capacityand (2)MaximalVoluntaryVentilation.
ForcedVital Capacity(FVC), knownalso as forced
expiratory capacity and timed vital capacity, isa test in
which a limit is placed on the length of time a subject
has to expel vital capacity air. Forced Expiratory



I

.
"
'F,
" ""
i *
:"'1
I '"
t
,..,
tl

II j
f
i
&
f
t
:
t
I

f
:f.
t

Volume (FEV)isthe volumeof air expiredat the end of
1 second (FEV1.0)' 2 seconds (FEV2.0)' or 3 seconds
(FEV3.0) after the beginning of the FVC test. Forced
Expiratory Volume is expressed as a percentage of the
ForcedVital Capacity:
[FEV -;- FVC] x 100 = % of FVC
n
expired after n seconds.
The normal adult is able, with maximal effort, to
expire about 83% of their vital capacity in one second
(FEV1.0)' 94% of vital capacity in the second second
(FEV2.0)' and 97% of vital capacity by the end of the
third second (FEV3.0)' In obstructive pulmonary dis-
eases, FEV isreduced. Apersonwith asthma may have
anormalor near-normalvital capacityas measuredina
simple one-stage test in which the person can take as
long as necessaryto maximallyinhaleandexhale;how-
ever, when an asthmatic exhales vital capacity with
maximal effort, FEV measurements are all reduced
becauseheavy mucussecretionreduces airwaydiameter
and it takes longer to completely exhale vital capacity
againstincreasedairwayresistance. NormalFEVvalues
are tabulated in Table 13.1.
TABLE 13.1
ForcedExpiratory Normal AdultRange
Volume as% of FVC
66%-83%
FEV1,0 second
FEV
2
,Oseconds
75%-94%
78%-97%
FEV3,0 seconds
PulmonaryFunction Tests:Forced Expiratory Capacity Maximal VoluntaryVentilation 169

...


I
MaximalVoluntaryVentilation (MVV), also known
as maximal breathing capacity (MBC), measures both
volume and flow ratesandisused to assess overall func-
tion with respect to pulmonary ventilation. In perform-
ing this test, the subject inspires and expires as deeply
andas rapidlyas possiblewhile the tidal volume andthe
respiratory rate are measured. The product of the aver-
age volume per respiratory cycle (liters) times the num-
ber of cycles per minute equals MVV (liters/min).
Normal values varywith gender, age, andbodysize (see
Tables 13.2and13.3).MVVtendsto bereducedin both
restrictive and obstructive pulmonarydiseases.
III EXPERIMENTALOBJECTIVES
1. To observeexperimentally, record, and/orcalculate
forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory vol-
ume (FEV), and maximal voluntary ventilation
(MVV).
\
1
. ~
,
!
'ill
:ii
;
~
; ~
~ I
( .j
~ ;
~
'I:'
,
TABLE 13.2 Predicted MaximalVoluntaryVentilation-Males, Umin.
BodySurfaceArea-m?
Age years 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85
16-19 103 112 116 120 124 128 132 135 139 143
20-24 105 109 113 116 120 124 128 131 135 139
25-29 101 105 109 112 116 120 123 126 130 134
30-34 98 101 105 108 112 115 119 122 126 129
35-39 94 97 101 104 108 111 114 117 121 124
40-44 91 94 97 100 103 106 110 113 116 119
45-49 87 90 93 95 99 102 105 108 112 115
50-54 83 85 89 92 95 98 101 104 107 110
55-59 79 82 85 88 91 93 96 99 102 105
60-64 76 78 81 83 86 89 92 94 97 100
65-69 72 74 77 79 82 84 87 90 92 95
70-74 68 70 73 75 78 80 83 85 88 90
75-79 64 67 69 71 74 76 78 80 83 85
TABLE 13.3 Predicted MaximalVoluntaryVentilation-Females, Umin
BodySurfaceArea-m?
Ageyears 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85
16-19 88 91 94 98 101 194 197 110 113 116
20-24 85 88 92 95 98 101 104 106 109 112
25-29 82 85 88 91 94 97 100 102 105 108
30-34 79 81 84 87 90 93 96 98 101 104
35-39 75 77 80 83 86 89 91 94 97 99
40-44 72 74 77 79 82 85 87 90 93 94
45-49 68 70 73 75 78 81 83 85 88 91
50-54 65 67 70 72 74 77 79 81 84 86
55-59 62 64 66 68 71 73 75 77 79 81
60-64 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77
65-69 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 r: 73
70-74 52 54 56 58 59 61 63 65 67 69
75-79 48 50 52 54 55 57 59 61 62 64
1.90
147
143
138
133
128
123
118
113
108
103
98
93
88
1.90
120
116
111
107
102
98
93
88
84
79
75
71
66
1.95
151
146
141
136
131
126
121
115
110
105
100
94
90
1.95
123
119
114
109
105
101
96
91
86
81
77
72
68
2.00
155
150
145
140
134
129
124
118
113
108
103
98
92
2.00
126
122
117
112
108
103
98
93
88
84
79
74
69
2.05
159
154
148
143
137
132
127
121
116
111
106
100
94
2.05
129
125
120
115
111
106
101
96
91
86
81
76
71
2.10
163
158
152
147
141
136
130
124
119
113
108
102
97
2.10
132
128
123
118
113
108
103
98
93
88
83
78
73
\.
170 II BIOPAC Lab Expenmellt 13
)
--

..
f
..
...
..
..
..
..
...
~
...
~

..
..
..
.a
~
.I

I
t
t

I)

-
2. To compare observed values of FVC, FEV, and
MVVwithpredictednormals.
3. Tocomparenormalvalues of pulmonaryflow rates
of persons differing in gender, age, and body sur-
face area.
EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT
AND SUPPLIES
Computer: See Table 1.1 for mmimum system
requirements for a PC running Windows or a
Macintosh running OS 8.6-9.2.2
BIOPAC Student Lab software v3.7.0 (Windows),
v3.0.7 (Macintosh)
BIOPAC MP30data acquisitionunitwithAC100A
transformer
BIOPAC USB1W Serial Adaptor (Windows) or
USB1M Serial Adaptor (Macintosh)
BIOPAC AirflowTransducer (SSllLA)
BIOPAC Bacteriological Filter (AFTl)
BIOPAC Disposable Mouthpiece (AFT2)
BIOPAC Nose Clip (AFT3)
BIOPAC CalibrationSyringe (AFT6)
BIOPAC Autoclavable Mouthpiece (AFT8)-
optional
Clinical LaboratoryScale
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Set Up
1. Turn on the computer. The desktop should appear
on the monitor. Ifit does notappear, ask the labo-
ratory instructorfor assistance.
2. Turn on the MP30 data acquisition unit. The
power switch is on the rear panel. An LED on the
frontpanelindicatespoweron. Ifthe LEDdoes not
light up whenthe powerswitchisturnedon, check
tomakesure the AC100Atransformer (which sup-
plies power to the MP30) is plugged into an elec-
trical outlet on the laboratory bench.
3. Plug the airflowtransducer(SSllLA) intoChannel
1 (Figure 13.1).
4. Place afilter ontothe end of the calibrationsyringe
and insert the calibration syringelfilter assembly
intothe airflow transducer (Figure 13.2).
NOTE: Ifusing the SSllL transducer with non-
removable head, insert the syringe assembly into
the large diameter port. Ifusing the SSllLAtrans-
ducer with removable, cleanable head, insert the
syringe assemblyso thatthetransducercable exists
on the left, as shownin Figure 13.2.
IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow
heads after each use, make sure a clean head is
installed now.
5. Locate the "BIOPAC StudentLab" folder, open it,
and start the BIOPAC Student Lab program. A
prompt will appear (Figure 13.3) asking you to
choosea lesson. ChooseLesson 13 ("L13-Lung-2")
byclickingon it tohighlightit, thenclicking OK.
6. Apromptshouldappearaskingyou to "Pleasetype
inyourfilename."Enteraunique identifier so that
you can locate and retrieve your data for analysis
afterdata recording.
7. After you log on, a window similar to Figure 13.4
will appear. This concludesthe set-up procedures.
Calibration
The calibration procedure establishes the hardware's
internal parameters (such as gain, offset, and scaling)
BIOPACMP30 Unit
Electrode Check CH 1 CH2 CH 3 CH4 BusyPower
MODEL MP30
~ ~ ~ o o
~ Plugs into Channel 1 \.. --.
SS11L
or
SS11LA
(Shown)
Airflow
Transducer
FIGURE 13.1
SS11'-8
Airflow
Transducer
CalibrationSyringe/FilterAssembly
~
~
1
'*

~ )=
Inserl
FIGURE13.2
Pulmonary Function Tests: ForcedExpiratory Capacity Maximal VoluntaryVentilation 171
,
l
t
W
k ~
L
~
F
-
I
I
t

----
FIGURE 13.3
,CO,'"
~ ~ . ~ -- -- ----- ----
----,"
I,
I
I
I
i
--r.",);
, ~ 0 4
I
.,'
FIGURE 13.4
and is critical for optimum performance. Pay close
attention to the calibrationprocedure.
1. Pull the calibrationsyringe plungerall the wayout
and hold the calibration syringelfilter assembly
upright (Figure 13.5). The airflow transducer is
sensitive to gravity so it needs to be held upright
throughoutthecalibrationandrecording.
IMPORTANT:Neverhold on to the airflowtrans-
ducerhandle when usingthe calibrationsyringe or
the syringe tip may break.
2. Clickon Calibrate.Apop-upmessage(Figure 13.6)
appears remindingyounotto force air throughthe
airflowtransducerfor thefirst stage of the calibra-
tion procedure. Leave the plunger extended and
hold the assembly steady and upright during the
entire calibration procedure. Do not touch the
plunger, because any pressure at this stage will
cause inaccurate results.
Airflow
Transducer
CalibrationSyringe Plunger
Hangs Freely
Airflow
Transducer
IsHeld Upright
atAllTimes
FIGURE 13.5
Offthe End
~ j
Correct Placement
of Hands
FiGURE 13.6
The first stage of calibrationwill runfor 8 seconds
and automatically end with an alert box (Figure
13.7). Read the directions in the Journal window
and Step 3 before clicking on Yesto begin the sec-
ond stage of calibration.
3. Inthe secondstage ofcalibration,youwill cycle the
syringe plunger completely in and completely out
for five consecutive cycles (10 strokes). Use a
rhythm of about 1 second per stroke with 2 sec-
ondsof rest betweenstrokes.
NOTE: The calibration procedure may seem a lit-
tle strange, but it is required because of the com-
plexity of the airflow-to-volume calculation. The
accuracyof this conversation is aided by analyzing
the airflow variations occurringover five complete
cycles of the calibrationsyringe.
4. Click Yes to start the second stage of calibration.
Cycle the syringeplungeras statedin Step 3. At the
end of the fifth cycle, stop the calibration proce-
dure by clicking on EndCalibration.
5. At theend ofthecalibrationrecording,yourscreen
should resemble Figure 13.8. Ifyour data shows
172 II BIOPAC LabExperiment 13
I

t
.
.tf.
',. :'
.... ... .",}
t
,.


!'
i "t,I
.,.
r--
Disposable
Mouthpiece
f

----- =,1 (AFT2)


I i
Disposable
"00 ," '00__ '"
Bacteriological
Filter (AFT1)
Airflow
Transducer
,r
(8811 L)
IM""m."Ol'"
:i
FIGURE 13.7 FIGURE 13.9

?

2. Always use the nose clip to ensure that there is no


'..
< ?_e-",.>Ofl I
loss of air through the nose during recording.
-j
3. The subject must tryto expand the thoracic cavity
to its largest volume during maximal inspiratory
efforts.
4. During recording of FEY, the subject should

attempt to exhale as quickly as possible into the


mouthpiece.
5. During recording of MVV, the subject should
'0
,
MIX" :10.00 :OJOO
attempttoexhaleandinhaleas quicklyas possible.
Breathing rates should be faster than 60
breaths/minute or greater than 1 breath/secondfor
FIGURE 13.8
f
,.
the best results. The breathing needs to be main-

tainedfor 12-15seconds.
--
-
I
f
t
'"
i'
t
J
r
fi
t.I'
I. 1'

Il.
..'
1
1.
t-
t-
I
j


if
f

@c
t
!


f
If
A
t
,

five downwarddeflections andfive upward deflec-


tions, proceedto the DataRecordingsection.Ifthe
data recording shows any large spikes, then you
must redo the calibration by clicking on Redo
Calibration and repeating the entire calibration
sequence.
EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL
AND DATA ACQUISITION
In order to work efficiently, read this entire section so
you will know what to do for each recording segment.
The subject shouldremainseatedandcontinue to relax
while you review the lesson. Following the procedure
precisely is very important, as the calculation from air-
flow to volume is very sensitive.
Checkthe last line of the Journalandnote the total
amount of time available for recording. Stop each
recordingsegmentas soonas possiblesoyoudo notuse
an excessive amountof time (time ismemory).
HintsforObtaining Optimal Data
1.Thesubject should wear loose clothing so clothing
"
does not inhibitchestexpansion.

6. Thesubjectshouldalways begin breathing intothe


airflowtransducer before the recording begins and
continuebreathingintothe airflowtransduceruntil
after the recordingends.
7. Ifyou start the recording on an inhale, try to end
on an exhale, and viceversa. This isnotabsolutely
critical, but it will increase the accuracy of the
airflow-to-volumecalculation.
Procedure
1.Insert a clean mouthpiece (and filter, if applicable)
into the airflowtransducer.
IMPORTANT: If your lab sterilizes the airflow
heads after each use, make sure a clean head is
installed now. To be safe and to avoid contamina-
tion, have the subject personally remove the filter
and mouthpiece from the plastic packaging. This
mouthpiece will become the subject's personal
mouthpiece. It is advisable to write the subject's
name on the mouthpiece and filter with a perma-
nentmarkerso theycan be reusedlater.
Ifusing the SSllL transducer with non-remov-
able head, insert a new filter and mouthpiece into
the larger diameter port (Figure 13.9).
Pulmonary Function Tests: ForcedExpiratory Capacity Maximal VoluntaryVentilation 173

" . __.__..,-.c
If using the SS11LA transducer and sterilizing
;;-. I the head after each use, insert a disposable mouth-
piece (BIOPAC AFT2) or an autoclavable mouth-
piece (BIOPAC AFT8) into the airflow transducer
(Figure 13.10).
Ifusingthe SS11LAtransducerandnotsterilizing
the head after each use, insert a filter and mouth-
piece intothe airflow transducer (Figure 13.11).
2. Ask the subject to place a nose clip on his or her
nose and begin breathingnormallythroughthe air-
flow transducer (Figure 13.12). The subject must
hold the airflowtransduceruprightat all times.
3. Click on Record. Ask the subjectto:
(a) Breathe normally for three cycles (1 cycle
inspiration + expiration)
(b) Following a normal expiration, inhale as
deeply as possible (maximal inspiration), hold
the breath for about a second, then forcefully
and maximallyexhale (maximumexpiration)
(c) Resume normal breathing for three more
cycles
i
Disposable
Mouthpiece
Disposable
(AFT2)
Bacteriological
Filter (AFT1)
Airflow
Transducer
(SS11LA)
FIGURE13.10
]
i
Disposable
Autoclavable
Mouthpiece
Mouthpiece
(AFT2)
(AFT8)
Airflow
Transducer
(SS11LA)
FIGURE13.11
[j
4. Click on Stop. As soon as the Stop button is
pressed, the BIOPAC Student Lab software will
automatically convert the airflow data to volume
data. At the end of the calculation, just the volume
data will be shownon the screen.
5. Ifall went well, your data should look similar to
Figure 13.13. The data would be incorrect if you
cannot clearly define the start of maximal expira-
tion or you feel you did not follow the procedure
precisely. In this case, you should redo the record-
ing by clicking on Redo and repeating Steps 3 and
4. Note that once you press Redo, the data you
have just recordedwill be erased.
6. Use the I-beam tool to select the area from the
beginning of maximal expiration to the end of
maximal expiration (Figure 13.14). The selected
area must be at least 3 seconds in length. The first
measurementboxwill automaticallyrecorddeltaT
so you can make sure the selected area is longer
than 3 seconds.
HoldAirflow Transducer
UprightatAllTimes
FIGURE 13.12
-" 'f'''';
'.J .... JJ
,c;.e" G
1 ::
I'"
r:
i
I,"
1:,<0 .
'''''-;',::-,c-, .. -". I';; i
FIGURE 13.13
174 iIIII BIOPAC Lab Experiment 13
I
- -
t
7. When you have selected the correct area, click OIl WARNING:Thisprocedurecan makethe sub-
Setup FEV.The program will cut outyour selected ject dizzy and lightheaded. The subject should
area, invert it, and paste it into a new channel stopmaximallyventilating i t sickness or exces--
(Figure 13.15). The volume waveform originally sive dizziness isexperienced.
recorded will be hidden from view so you can con- Co Breathe normally for five cLitional cycles.
centrate on the data needed to calculate FEY.The 12. Click on Stop. As soon as the Stop button IS
plotshowsthe cumulativeexpiredvolumeover time. pressed, the BIOPAC Student Lab software will
8. Compare yourdata to Figure 13.15. If you wishto automatically convert the airflow data to volume
reselect an areain Figure 13.13, click on Redo and data. At the end of the calculation, justthe volume
repeat Steps 6 and 7. data will be shownon the screen.
9. Click on BeginMVV. ThecurrentFEV data on the 13. Your data shouldresembleFigure 13.16.YOUf data
screenwill be automatically saved to disk for later would be incorrectifyou did notfollow the proce-
analysis and the screen display will change to dure precisely or if the subject failed to breathe :,,;
include a Record 1\:1VY button. rapidlyandas deeplyas possiblefor ar least12 sec
10. Ask the subject to place a nose clip on and begin onds. If your data is incorrect, click on Redo and
~
breathing through the airflow transducer. It is repeat Steps 10, 11, and 12. Note that once you
~
importantthat the subjectbegin breathingthrough press Redo, the data you have just recorded uill he
the airflow transducer before you click on the erased.
Record MYY button. Make sure air does not leak 14. Click on Done. After you press Done, a pop-up
throughthe mouthpiece or nose clip. window will ask "lOU to confirm vou are finished
~
11. Click on Record MVV. Instruct the subject to per- recording from the current subject. Click Yes and r'
form the following procedure: your data will automatically be saved in the Dam
I
a. Breathe normallv into the airflow transducer Files" folder on your hard drive (with an FEV and
for five cycles. an MVV extension after the file name). A pop-up
b. Breathe as quickly and as deeply as possible window with six options will appear (Figure
for 12-15 seconds. For optimal results, the 13.17).Makeyourchoiceandcontinueasdirected.
emphasis should be on speed more than depth
of breathing.
I

--
I
Pulmonary Function Tests Forced Expiratory Capacity Maximal Voluntary Ventilation ~ J:'
6
".
.
1 [ Of< r:::J Ii
; . . ~
FIGURE 13.17
,--------_.
FIGURE 13.16
FIGURE 13.14
FIGURE 13.15
-
'"
-'
-- . ~ _ . _ ~ ..__.
Ifchoosing the "Record from another subject"
option:
a. You will not need to recalihrate the airflow
transducer. For this reason, we recommend
that all recordings be completed before you
proceed to data analysis.
b. Remember to have each person use his or her
own mouthpiece, bacteriological filter, and
nose clip.
c. RepeatrecordingSteps 1-13for eachnewsub-
ject.
d. Note that each person will need to use a
unique file name.
If you are ready to analyze recorded data, click
Quit.
III DATA ANALYSIS
1. Enter the Review Saved Data mode from the
Lessons menu, choose the correct file (your file
namewith the extension "FEV-L13"), and open it.
The Data windowshould resemble Figure 13.18.
2. Turngridsonby selectingDisplaypreferencesfrom
the File menu; then choose Grids, select Show
Grids, and click OK, The Data window should
resemble Figure 13.19.
FIGURE13.18
3. Set up the measurement boxes as follows:
CH2 = delta T
CH2 = p-p
Recall that the measurement boxes are above the
markerregionin the Datawindowandeachmeas-
urement has three sections: channel number, meas-
urement type, andresult. Thefirsttwosections are
pull-down menusthatare activatedwhenyou click
on them. Here are some brief descriptions of the
measurement boxes used in this experiment:
delta T: The "delta T" measurement is the differ-
ence in time between the beginning and the end
ofthe selected area.
p-p: Thepeak-to-peakmeasurementshowsthedif-
ference between the maximum amplitude value
and the minimum amplitude value in the select-
ed area.
The "selected area" is the area selected by the
I-beamtool (including the endpoints).
4. Use the I-beam tool to select the first Lsecond
interval (Figure 13.20).Theselectedarea shouldbe
from time 0 tothe I-secondreadingas displayedin
the delta measurement. Recordthe volumeexpired
at the I-second mark (p-p value) in Table 13.4 in
the report.
5. Use the l-bearn tool to select the 2-second interval
from time 0 to the 2-second mark (Figure 13.21).
Record the volume expired at the 2-second mark
(p-p value) in Table 13.4in the report.
"
FIGURE13.20
(I'-J
_ ~ . I . -
l}iTi]S
FiGURE13.19
176 !!il BIOPACLab Experiment 13
I
FiGURE13.21 ,
--
f
,",0 -;-:;-- ;,-,-'-'l --- -
"., FIGURE B.23b
F!GURE 13,25
-
t

Pulmonary Function Tests Forced Expiratory Capacity Maximal Voluntary Ventilation IiIlI 177 r f
i
1

.. _---
lit'
6. Use the I-beam tool to select the 3-second interval ] 1. Usethe I-beamtool to select a 12-second area that
from time 0 to the 3-second mark (Figure 13.22). is convenient to countthe number of cycles in the
Record the volume expired at the 3-second mark interval (Figure 13.24). Startat the beginningof an
(p-p value) in Table 13.4in the report. inspiration and drag the cursor to the right until
7. Use the I-beamtool to selectthe entirerecord tram the delta measurementvalue is 12 seconds.
-
time 0 to the endof the recording. The p-p value is 12. Count the number of complete cycles within the
now the value for uital capacity (in liters). Record selected area andrecord the number in thereport.
the vital capacity in Table 13.4 in the report. 13. Leave the selected area darkened, click on the cur-
8. Pull down the Lessons menu, select Review Saved sortool, and use it to place a marker at the end of
Data, choose your data file from the MVVrecord- the selectedarea (Figure 13.25).To inserta marker
mg (your file name with the extension where the cursor tool is located along the marker
"MVY.U3"), and open it. bar, press the Esc key (Mac) orthe F9 key (PC).
9. Use the zoomtoolto select thedeep, fast-breathing 14. After placing the marker, click on the l-beam tool
segmentfor analysis (Figures 13.23a,]3.23b). and use it to select each complete individual cycle
10. Set up the measurement boxes as follows: in the 12-secondinterval defined in Step 11. Select
CH 2 == delta T one cycle ata time (Figure 13.26). Recordthe vol-

CH 2 == p-p ume (p-p) percycle in Table 13.5 in the report.
v,:

-
-==-=
0"
FIGURE B.23a FIGURE 13.25
rt
-- ':oJ



-----_._-,

FIGURE 13.22
FiGURE 13.24
I
I


1\1\ -, "-,,-
-,
I"-
i'J"
I"-
1"-'"

'W
l
\
1\'
l\"---
1"-1"-
.r-'--.I"
"l"-
I"-
1\, .
I"- <,r-:-
1\
['-.,r'-.
'{::. r-,
r-, -,
1'--.1"
>1
I\i'i::ti'-.
I'--.
t'K
I
'"
r-,
I ,
I'--. I'--.mI"-f)<?
""t
-.
"'0
7
l\tfj;)J'!"'"
,...,
<,
f&
1
<,

r-,
7


<, <,
7

I
--t"
7+j
{-t:"',- 10'I
3C
U)
75
G)
..C
70

c:c:
c GJ
0, 60
00
I
55
0
0
50
co
co 45
40
c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[.0 "-0 t-, CO 0) 0 0J (C) "T .o <D t-,

cc) r-; C\J CD In 0 io 0) "T <Xl C') r-,
C\J 0J C') C') "1- <r io io io <D <D r-; r-,
Bodysurface area nomogram
0 0
0) CO

0 0 0
0 ,- 0J
C\J C\J C\J
0 0 0
C') "T io
C\J C\J C\J
NudeWeight in Pounds
C\J CD io 0 <r "T
a;
0)
<Xl co en 0 0 0
-r-r- -r-r-
Nude Weight InKilograms
0
<D
C\J
CO

-r-r-
5, You maysave the datato a diskette,save notesthat 17. Use the
F0'
<?<?
I"')
0 0
1--- CO
C\J C\!
C') r--.
C\! C\J
0
en
C\J
C\!
C')
-r-r-
1
0
0
C')
<D
C')
I
"'''
''''0$
I
203
til
191 ill
Qi
178
E
.-
165
ill
0
.E:
152
-:
140 'ijj
I
127
0
.2
114
ill
ro
CD
102
0 0
0J
C') C')
io
"T
"'"
0
C')
C')
0
l()

0
"T
C')
"T
l()
0
io
C')
en
io
0 0 0
<D t-, co
C') C') C')
"T co C')
<D <D r-,
-r-r-
subject's height and weight to determine
are in the Journal, or print the data file. body surface area (BSA) from the nomogram in
16. Exit the program. Turn off the MP30 and shut Figure 13.27. Record the value in the report.
, down the computer.
,; 1
1
I
71 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 1.3

BIOPAC PULMONARYFUNCTION TESTS: FORCED EXPIRATORYCAPACITY
I
13 MAXIMALVOLUNTARYVENTILATION
-

DATA REPORT
Name: _
Lab Section:
Date: _
I. DATA ANDCALCULATIONS
SubjectProfile: Name: Height: _
i

Iii
Age: Weight: _

Gender: Male / Female
f
A. Forced ExpiratoryVolumes: FEV
1
.
0
, FEV
2
.
0
, FEV
3
.
0
TABLE13.4
I
____+--_(_F_E_V_I_F_V_C_)x 100= NormalAdultRange
r 66%-83%
FVC (liters) FEV(liters)
0-1
DeltaT
(sec)
0-2
0-3
75%-94%
J L 78_Yo-_9_7_%__

I
B.MaximalVoluntaryVentilation
1. The numberof complete respiratorycycles in the selected 12-secondinterval: _
2. Calculate the numberof respiratorycycles per minute (CPM):
Cycles / minute = cycles in 12 sec. x 5 = CPM.
3. Complete Table 13.5 with a volume (liters) measurement for each complete respiratory cycle within the
selected12-secondinterval.Ifthere isan incompletecycle, do notrecordit. (The table may havemorecycles
than you need.)
TABLE13.5
Cycle# Volume Cycle# Cycle# Volume Cycle#
Cycle1 Cycle5
Cycle2 Cycle6
Cycle3 Cycle7
Cycle4
I
Cycle8
Volume
I
l
Volume l
Cycle9 Cycle13
I
I
Cycle10
I 1
Cycle14
l
Cycie11
I
Cycle15
--j
Cycle12
I
Cycle16

BIOPACLab Experiment 13 II 179
".
,.,

._....__
I
4. Calculate the average volume percycle (AVPC):
Add the volumes of all countedcycles and divide the sum by the numberof cycles.
Volume sum liters -;- cycles = liters (AVPC)
5. Calculate the MVV:
Multiplythe AVPC times the respiratory cycle frequency (cycles/ minute)
MVV= AVPCx CPM = ( __liters / cycle) x (__cycles / min) = __ liters / min
6. Compare the calculatedMVVwiththe predicted normal (Table 13.2or Table 13.3):
CalculatedMVV__liters/ min PredictedMVV liters / min
II. QUESTIONS
1. Why does maximalvoluntary ventilation decrease with increasingage?
2. Is it possible for a personto have a normalvital capacity but an abnormal FEV1.0?
3. Whatwouldbethe long-termeffects of tobaccosmokingon a person'sFEVandMVV? Explainyouranswer
on the basis of physiologic/anatomicchanges in the smoker's lungs.
4. According to Tables 13.2and 13.3,for any given age and bodysurface area, men have a greaterMVVthan
women. Give one anatomic or physiologic reasonwhy.
180 BIOPAC Lab Experiment 13
I
I

. . ,t .. ....<1'
, ",
.
5. How does chronic obstructive lung disease differ from chronic restrictive lung disease?

t
:


t ,
tl
f

i
.
i

i
!' '
6. Explain the difference between forced expiratory volume and forced expiratory capacity.

r

"

r:
;
r


"
'0
,
I

I>


l


I'
".,
f'
,.., I

f!
t
l>-
i
1
i,
I
t
i

f
\,
I


,
i
"' f

BIOPACLab Experiment 13 II 181
.1 f
t
;:.
f
4
'i;
.....