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TRADE UNION

Trade Union means a combination formed for the purpose of regulating the relations not only between workmen and employers but also between workmen and workmen or between employers and employers

- Trade Union Act 1926

WHAT IS TRADE UNION

A trade union is an organised group of workers. Its main goal is to protect and advance the interests of its members

A union often negotiates agreements with employers on pay and conditions. It may also provide legal and financial advice, sickness benefits and education facilities to its members

Trade unions aim to represent the interests of people at work and negotiate with employers for better terms and conditions for their members

HISTORY OF TRADE UNION

The first trade union was started in 1877 in Nagpur It was this labour protest on an organized scale, through the support of some philanthropic personalities, that organized labour unions came to be formed The setting up of large-scale industrial units, created conditions of widespread use of machinery, new lines of production, and brought about changes in working and living environment of workers, and concentration of industries in large towns The first Factory’s Act was passed in 1881 by N.M. Lokhode In 1919 Madras Labour Union was the first Union in India to be formed and established by B. P. Vadia Bombay Trade Union formed in 1975 under the

PROCEDURE OF REGISTRATION OF TRADE UNION

At least 7 members should be present for an application

It should in a prescribed form ,fees and should be registered under the Registrar of Trade Unions

Should be accompanied by a copy of the Rules of TU

Certificate of Registration is issued as soon as TU has been duely registered under the Act

FUNCTION OF TRADE UNION

To secure for workers better wages

To safeguard security of tenure and improve conditions of service

To increase opportunities for promotion and training To improve working and living condition To provide for educational cultural and recreational facilities To promote identity of interests of the workers To offer improved level of production and productivity discipline and high standard of quality To promote individual and collective welfare

WHAT IS TRADE UNION MOVEMENT

The trade union movement started after 1918, when the workers formed their associations to improve their conditions. It is, thus, a part of the ‘labour movement’, which is a much wide term

A

trade

union

is

an

essential

basis of

a labour movement for

without which one cannot exist, because trade unions are the principal schools in which the workers learn the lesson of self- reliance and solidarity

Trade

Unionism in India

modern factory system

has been the natural out come of the

The main elements in the development of trade unions of workers in every country have been more or less the same

The development of trade unionism in India has had a checkered history and a stormy career

TRADE UNION MOVEMENT GROWTH

Social Welfare Period (1875-1918)

The development of industries led to large-scale production on the one hand and social evils like employment and exploitation of women and child labour and the deplorable workable conditions, the government’s attitude of complete indifference in respect of protection of labour from such evils, on the other.

Early Trade Union Period(1918-1924)

The year 1918 was an important one for the Indian trade union movement.

The industrial unrest that grew up as a result of grave economic difficulties created by war. The rising cost of living prompted the workers to demand reasonable wages for which purpose they united to take resort to collective action.

Left-Wing Unionism Period (1924-1934)

In 1924, a violent and long-drawn-out strike by unions led to the arrest, prosecution, conviction and imprisonment of many communist leaders. The rapid growth of the trade unionism was facilitated by several factors

TRADE UNION MOVEMENT GROWTH

Trade Union’s Unity Period (1935-1938)

In mid-thirties the state of divided labour movement was natural thought undesirable and soon after the first split, attempts at trade union unity began to be made through the efforts of the Roy Group on the basis of ‘a platform of unity’.

Second World War Period (1939-1945)

The Second World War, which broke out in September 1939, created new strains in the united trade union movement.

Hence, again a rift took place in 1941 and the Radicals left the AITUC with nearly 200 unions with a membership of 3, 00,000 and formed a new central federation known as the Indian Federation of Labour

The Post-Independence Period (From 1947 to-date)

As pointed out earlier, when attempts to restructure the AITUC failed, those believing in the aims and ideals other than those of the AITUC separated from the organization and established the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in May, 1947

Names and details of some Unions in India

Names and details of some Unions in India

The Indian National Trade Union Congress

Origin:

The INTUC came into existence on 4th May, 1948, as a result of the resolution passed on 17th November 1947, by the Central Board of the Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh, which was a labour leader on the Gandhian Philosophy of Sarvodaya

Objectives:

To establish an order of society which is free from hindrances to an all- round development of its individual members, which fosters the growth of human personality in all its aspects, and which goes to the utmost limit in progressively eliminating social, political or economic exploitation and inequality, the profit motive in the economic activity and organization of society and the anti-social concentration of power in any form;

to place industry under national ownership and control in a suitable form;

to secure increasing association of workers in the administration of industry and their full participation in that control;

All-India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)

Origin:

It was established in 1920 as result of a resolution passed by the organized workers of Bombay and the delegates which met I a conference on 31st October, 1920.

Objectives:

to establish a socialist state in India;

to socialize and nationalize means of production, distribution and exchange;

to improve the economic and social conditions of the working class;

to watch, promote, and further the interests, rights, and privileges of the workers in all matters relating to their employment;

to secure and maintain for the workers the freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of association freedom of assembly, the right to strike, and the right to work and maintenance;

to co-ordinate the activities of the labour unions affiliated to the AITUC;

United Trade Union Congress (UTUC)

Origin:

Some trade union leaders of the socialist bent met together December 1948 to form a new central organization of labour, called Hind Mazdoor Sabha

Objectives:

The objectives of the UTUC are:

to establish a socialist society in India;

to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India;

to nationalize exchange;

and

socialize the means of production, distribution and

to safeguard

and promote

the

interests, rights, and privileges to

the

workers in all matters, social, cultural, economic and political;

to

secure and maintain

workers’

freedom of

speech, freedom of press,

freedom of association, freedom of assembly, right to strike, right to work or maintenance and the right to social security;

Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)

Origin:

This union has been the outcome of decision taken by the Jana Sangh in its Convention at Bhopal on 23rd July, 1954.

Objectives:

to establish the Bhartiya order of classless society in which there shall be secured full employment;

to assist workers in organizing themselves in trade unions as medium of service to the motherland irrespective of faiths and political affinities;

the right to strike;

to inculcate in the minds of the workers the spirit of service, co-operation and dutifulness and develop in them a sense of responsibility towards the nation in general and the industry in particular.

The BMS is a productivity-oriented non-political trade union. Its ideological basis is the triple formula:

nationalize the labour;

National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU)

Origin

This union was founded in 1967, with the claim that “this trade union of India is not controlled by any of the political party, employers or government.”

Objectives:

to organize and unite trade unions with the object of building up a National Central Organisation of trade unions, independent of political parties, employers and the government, to further the cause of labour and that of national solidarity security and defence of India, and to make the working people conscious of their right as well as of obligations in all spheres of life;

to

secure to

members of

trade unions full facilities of recognition and

effective representation of interests of workers and to ensure for the working people fair conditions of life and service and progressively to raise their social, economic and cultural state and conditions;

to help in every possible way member trade unions in their fight to raise real wages of the workers;

to endeavour to secure for members of affiliated trade unions adoption of

Centre of Indian Trade Union (CITU)

Origin

This union was formed in 1970 when as a result of the rift in the AITUC, some

members of the Communist party seceded. About the objectives of the CITU, its constitution says:

Objectives:

The CITU believes that the exploitation of the working class can be ended only by socializing all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state, that is, it stands for the complete emancipation of the society from all exploitation.

The CITU fights against all encroachments on the economic

and social

rights of

the workers and the enlargement of their

rights and liberties

including the right to

strike, for

winning, defending and extending the

freedom of the democratic trade union movement.

In

the

fight for

demands:

(a)

the immediate interest of

of

all

the

working class the CITU monopoly concerns who

nationalization

foreign

barbarously exploit the working class; (b) nationalization of all concerns owned by Indian monopolists and big industry who garner huge profits at

the expenses of the workers, who exploit the people by pegging prices at a h

hi

h

l

l

d

di

t

t

th

ti l

b

d

ti

l

li

i

f th

CRITICISMS

Political Affiliations

As

regards

leadership,

all

the

four

organizations

have

their

political affiliations, and the leadership, therefore, lies in the hands of the politicians, and not in those of the working class, which is yet illiterate and backward to wield any influence.

The AITUC is pro-communist. It is led by the Right CPI. Its attitude towards the government is not entirely hostile, but of course highly critical of the government.

The UTUC is radical, non-communist and anti-INTUC. It is led by some independent trade union leaders, the Forward Block and the Revolutionary Socialist Party.

On

the

international

level,

the

INTUC

is

affiliated

to

the

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) – an organization mainly supported by the Anglo American block; while the AITUC is affiliated to the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), supported by the Communist block.

CONCLUSION

Trade Union is an important factor of the current society, as it safeguards the basic interest and needs of both the employees as well as employers, by giving better terms and conditions of employment, secured jobs, better wages, favorable working environment which in turn leads to desired profitability.