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j . j . pizzuto ’s FABRIC SCIENCE tenth edition
j . j .
pizzuto ’s
FABRIC SCIENCE
tenth
edition
j . j . pizzuto’s FABRIC SCIENCE tenth edition
j . j .
pizzuto’s
FABRIC SCIENCE
tenth
edition

Allen C. Cohen

Fashion Institute of Technology New York, NY

Ingrid Johnson

Fashion Institute of Technology New York, NY

FAIRCHILD

BOOKS

New York

Executive Editor:

Olga T. Kontzias

Assistant Acquisitions Editor:

Amanda Breccia

Assistant Art Director:

Sarah Silberg

Production Director:

Ginger Hillman

Senior Production Editor:

Elizabeth Marotta

Copyeditor:

Precision Graphics

Ancillaries Editor:

Noah Schwartzberg

Executive Director & General Manager:

Michael Schluter

Associate Director of Sales:

Melanie Sankel

Cover Design:

Erin Fitzsimmons

Cover Art:

TK

Text Design:

TronvigKuypers

Page Layout:

Precision Graphics

Photo Research:

Sarah Silberg

Illustrations: TK

Copyright © 2012 Fairchild Books, a Division of Condé Nast Publications.

All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: TK

ISBN: 978-1-60901-380-6 GST R 133004424

Printed in TK TPXX CHXX

CONTENTS
CONTENTS

Preface

Acknowledgments

xv

xvii

1

The Textile Industry 3

2

Fiber Characteristics 19

3

Natural and Manufactured Fibers 35

4

Yarns and Sewing Threads 67

5

Woven Fabrics 89

6

Knitted Fabrics 119

7

Other Types of Textiles 147

8

Textile Dyeing 163

9

Textile Printing 181

10

Textile Finishing 199

11

Textiles and the Environment 221

12 Care and Renovation of Textiles 237

13 Unique Fabrications and Innovations 249

14 Textiles for Interiors 273

15 Determining Fabric Quality 307

16 Guide to Fabric Selection 341

17 Textile Laws, Regulations, and Trade Agreements 351

Textile Trade and Professional Associations 361

Bibliography 363

Credits 367

Index 369

A v F

EXTENDED CONTENTS
EXTENDED CONTENTS

Preface

Acknowledgments

xv

xvii

1 The Textile Industry 3

Objectives 3

Key Terms Related to Textiles

International Trade 4

General Fields of Textile Products 5

The Major Textile Production Segments 5

3

Table 1.1: Fabric End-Use Groupings

Fibers 6 Yarns 6 Fabrics 6 Dyeing and Printing Finishing 7

7

6

Textile Put-Up 7

Primary Sources of Fabrics 7

Mills

Converters

Importers

7

8

8

A

vii

F

Secondary Sources of Fabrics 8

Jobbers

Retail Stores

Overseas Agents

8

9

9

The Domestic and Import Textile Industries 9

The Domestic Textile Industry The Textile Import Industry

9

10

Buying and Selling Fabric 10

Private Label and Exclusive Brands

11

Market and Production Planning 12

Seasons 12

The Environment 13

Fair Trade 13

Textile Connection: Sustainability

Trade Shows 14

Textile Careers 14

Table 1.2: Textile Careers

15

14

Speaking of Textiles 15

Study Questions

The Textile Industry: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 17

16

PubQ: Reorder these entries as “Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment: The Textile Industry”?

2 Fiber Characteristics 19

Objectives 19

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Fiber Sources 20

19

Natural Fibers

Manufactured Fibers

20

20

Fiber Structure 21

Physical Attributes

Chemical Composition and Molecular Formation 24

21

Fiber Performance Properties 24

Table 2.1: Categories of Fiber Performance Properties 25

Abrasion Resistance

Absorbency

Chemical Effects

Cover

Elasticity

Environmental Conditions

Flammability

Flexibility

Hand

Luster

Pilling

Resiliency

25

25

26

26

26

26

26

26

27

27

27

27

3 Natural and Manufactured Fibers 35

Objectives

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Natural Fibers 36

35

35

Cotton 36

Table 3.1: Comparison Chart of the Most

Commonly Used Natural Fibers

Flax 37

Silk 38

Wool 39

Other Natural Fibers

The Environment

36

40

42

Micron System 42

Table 3.2: Diameters of Various Fibers

42

Manufactured Fibers 42

Generic Names

Table 3.3: The FTC Recognizes the Following Generic Names and Generic Fiber Subclasses

of Manufactured Fibers

Table 3.4: Comparison Chart of the Most

Commonly Used Manufactured Fibers

Marketing of Manufactured Fibers

43

43

43

44

Specific Gravity

27

Descriptions of Principal Manufactured

Static Electricity

27

Fibers 45

Strength

Thermoplasticity 28

Textile Connection: Maintaining

28

 

Acetate 45

Acrylic 46

Lyocell 46

Nylon 46

Olefin 47

Lastol 48

PLA 48

29

Polyester 48

30

Elasterell-p 49

Rayon 50

HWM Rayon

50

a Selling Price

28

Wicking 29

Identification of Textile Fibers 29

Determining Fiber Identification Other Fiber Identification Tests

Table 2.2: Burning Characteristics

of Textile Fibers

Table 2.3: Chemical Solubility Test

31

32

Spandex 50 Properties of Major Textile Fibers

Microfibers 51

Table 3.5: Properties of Major Textile Fibers 52

for Textile Fibers

33

Study Questions

Fiber Characteristics: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 33

Nanotechnology

53

Nano Innovation

54

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A

viii

F

51

Secondary Manufactured Fibers for Consumer Use 54

Textile Connection: Rayon Fiber

55

Bamboo Rayon

Glass

Metallic

56

56

56

Modacrylic

57

Triacetate

57

Secondary Manufactured Fibers for Industrial Applications 58

Comparison of Spun and Filament Yarn Properties 70

Uses of Spun and Filament Yarns

71

Yarn Twist 71

Twist Direction

71

Carded and Combed Cotton Yarns 72

Tow and Line Linen Yarns 72

Woolen and Worsted Yarns 72

Single and Ply Yarns 73

Anidex

58

Yarn Spinning 74

Aramid

58

Yarn Pilling 75

 

Azlon

58

Lastrile

58

Blends and Mixtures 75

Melamine

58

Special Types of Yarns 76

Novoloid

59

Textured Yarns

76

Nytril

59

Stretch Yarns

78

PBI

59

Rubber

59

Table 4.1: Comparison of Stretch Yarns

Saran

59

High-Bulk Yarns

79

Sulfar

60

Novelty Yarns

79

Vinal

60

Chenille Yarns

80

Vinyon

60

Metallic Yarns

80

79

Other Generic Fiber Categories 60

Yarn Numbering Systems 81

Carbon Fibers

60

The Denier System

81

Fluorocarbon Fibers

60

The Yarn Count System

81

Heterogeneous Fibers

60

The Tex System

82

Fiber Innovation 62

Table 3.6: Fiber Names in Other Languages 63

Table 3.7: International Abbreviations

for Designating Fibers in Yarns

64

Study Questions

Natural and Manufactured Fibers: Fabric Science

Swatch Kit Assignment

64

65

4 Yarns and Sewing Threads 67

Objectives 67

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Spun and Filament Yarns 68

67

Identifying Spun and Filament Yarns Monofilament, Multifilament, and

Microfilament Yarns

69

69

Table 4.2: Yarn Number Conversions

83

Sewing Threads 83

Fibers Used for Threads

Types of Threads Thread Finishes

84

Thread Sizes

Important Factors in Thread Selection Important Thread Factors That Govern

Seam Appearance

Table 4.3: Comparison of Sewing Thread Types 84

Table 4.4: Thread Finishes and Their Uses

Table 4.5: Sewing Applications by Thread Size 85

Textile Connection: Tassel

83

84

84

84

86

84

85

Study Questions

Yarns and Sewing Threads: Fabric Science Swatch

Kit Assignment

86

86

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A ix F

5 Woven Fabrics 89

Objectives 89

Key Terms Related to Textiles

The Loom 90

89

Types of Looms

91

Loom Production

93

Fabric Features 93

The Selvage

Identifying Warp Yarns and Filling Yarns

Face and Back Top and Bottom

95

Yarns Per Inch: A Measure of Fabric Quality 96

93

95

94

Determining the Weave of a Fabric 96

Weave Floats

97

Basic Fabric Weaves 97

Plain Weave

Table 5.1: Comparison of Basic Weave Properties 97

97

Twill Weave

99

Satin Weave

101

Which Weave Makes the Strongest Fabric? 102

Special Fabric Weaves 103

Leno Weave

103

Pile Weaves

103

Double Cloth and Variations

106

Woven Designs 106

Dobby Pattern

106

Jacquard Pattern

106

Clip-Spot Pattern

107

Color-and-Weave Effect

107

Technology Advancements 107

Factors Affecting the Cost of Woven Fabrics 108

New Developments 108

Classic Woven Fabrics 108

Textile Connection

Changing the Fabric

Table 5.2: Woven Fabrics by Common Characteristics 111

110

111

Glossary of Classic Woven Fabrics

112

Study Questions

Woven Fabrics: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 117

117

6 Knitted Fabrics 119

Objectives 119

Key Terms Related to Textiles

The Knitting Industry 120

119

Textile Connection: Knitwear

121

General Knitting Fabric Terms 121

Wales 121 Courses 121 Face and Back

122

Machine Nomenclature 122

Circular and Flat Machines

Knitting Needles Cut and Gauge

Types of Knitting Stitches 126

123

124

Knit Stitch

126

Purl Stitch

126

Miss Stitch

126

Tuck Stitch

126

122

Knit Fabric Classifications

127

Knit Fabric Names

Weft Knitting

Table 6.1: Comparison of Jersey, Rib,

and Purl Fabrics

Seamless Knitting

Warp Knitting

Table 6.2: Comparison of Weft Knits

and Warp Knits

128

128

129

135

135

135

Laid-in Yarn Fabrics 139

Narrow Knitted Fabrics

139

Important Differences Between Knitted and Woven Fabrics 140

The Effect of Fabric Construction (Wales and Courses per Inch) on Knitted Fabric Properties 141

Glossary of Defects in Knit Fabrics

Glossary of Classic Knit Fabrics

Study Questions

Knitted Fabrics: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 145

144

141

141

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A x F

7 Other Types of Textiles 147

Objectives 147

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Nonwoven Fabrics 148

147

Background 148

Table 7.1: End Uses of Nonwoven Fabrics

Durable and Disposable Nonwoven Fabrics 149

Manufacturing Nonwovens

Fusible Nonwovens

149

151

Hybrid Products

151

Nonwoven Wipes

152

Trade Shows and Associations

The Environment

153

152

148

Felt 153

Bonded and Laminated Materials 153

Bonded Fabrics

Laminated Fabrics

153

154

Quilted Material 155

Stitch Bonding 156

Lace Fabrics 156

Embroidery 157

Textile Connection: Appliqué

158

Tufted Fabrics 159

Study Questions

Other Types of Textiles: Fabric Science Swatch

Kit Assignment

160

161

8 Textile Dyeing 163

Objectives 163

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Dyes and Pigments 165

Conventional, or Aqueous, Dyeing 165

Textile Connection: A Colonial Dyer

163

166

Classes of Dyes 166

Color Formulations and Matching Shades 166

Table 8.1: Major Dye Classes and their Fastness Properties 167

Computer Shade Matching and Computer- Controlled Dyeing 168

Metamerism 169

When Dyeing Is Done 169

Stock Dyeing

Top Dyeing

Table 8.2: Comparison of Dyeing in Various Stages 170

Yarn Dyeing

Piece Dyeing

170

170

171

171

Continuous Dyeing

173

Garment Dyeing

173

Special Dyeing Effects 173

Cross-Dyeing 173

Table 8.3: Classical Woven Fabrics with Colored Effects Created by Dyeing of Yarns 174

Union Dyeing

Tone-On-Tone Effects

174

174

Pigment Coloring 174

Solution Dyeing 175

Colorfastness 175

Textile Connection: Bleeding Madras

New Developments 176

The Environment 176

Glossary of Imperfections of Dyed Fabrics

Study Questions

Textile Dyeing: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 179

178

176

177

9 Textile Printing 181

Objectives 181

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Methods of Printing 183

181

Screen-Printing

Hand-Screen Printing

Textile Connection: A Printed Mark

Automatic Screen Printing

Rotary-Screen Printing

Roller Printing

Setting the Color in Screen and Roller Printing 186

185

183

183

184

183

184

Heat-Transfer Printing

186

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A xi F

Advancements in the Print Industry 187

188

The Environment 188

Color Features of Printed Fabrics 189

Digital Printing

Colorfastness 189 Wet-on-Dry and Wet-on-Wet Effects Halftone 189

Strike-Off and Color Matching in Printed Fabrics 189

189

Which Method of Printing is Best?

Table 9.1: Comparison of Printing Methods 190

189

Basic Types of Prints 191

Direct Prints

Discharge Prints

Resist Prints

Pigment Prints

191

191

191

191

Special Types of Prints 192

Blotch Prints

Table 9.2: Comparison of Wet (Dye) Prints, Dry (Pigment) Prints, and Heat-Transfer Prints 192

Flock Prints

192

193

Flocking

194

Warp Prints

194

Burn-Out Prints

194

Duplex Prints

194

Engineered Prints

194

Glossary of Imperfections on Printed Fabric

Study Questions

Textile Printing: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 197

196

195

10 Textile Finishing 199

Objectives 199

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Classification of Finishes 200

Pretreatment Processes 200

199

Textile Connection: The Origin

of Bleaching

201

Resins 202

Aesthetic Finishes 202

Calendering 202

EXTENDED

A

Table 10.1: Summary of Textile Finishes

202

Fragrances 204 Fulling 204 Mercerization 204 Napping and Sueding Plissé 205 Shearing 206 Softening 206 Stiffening 206

205

 

Stone Washing, Acid Washing,

and Cellulase

206

Functional Finishes 207

 

Antimicrobial Finishes

207

Antistatic Finishes

208

Crease-Resistant Finishes

208

 

Durable Press

208

Resin Treatment and Curing

208

Flame-Resistant Finishes

210

Mothproof Finishes

210

Shrinkage-Control Finishes

210

Table 10.2: Shrinkage Control Methods

211

Soil-Release Finishes

Ultraviolet-Absorbent Finish

Water Repellents

Waterproof-Coated Fabrics

212

212

212

214

Nonaqueous Finishing 214

Final Fabric Drying 215

Plasma Processing 215

Nanotechnology 215

The Environment 216

Textile Connection: The Changing Fabric

Glossary of Finishing Imperfections

Study Questions

Textile Finishing: Fabric Science Swatch Kit Assignment 219

217

218

217

11 Textiles and the Environment 221

Objectives 221

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Green Product Characteristics 222

221

Renewable

Resource Conservation

Energy Saving

223

224

224

CONTENTS

xii

F

Nonhazardous

Recycling

224

224

Worker Assessment

225

Cost Consideration

226

Textile Connection: Corporate Responsibility 226

Eco-Friendly Textiles 226

Fibers 226 Yarns and Fabrics

Dyeing and Printing Finishing 229 Care of Products Recycling Programs

228

230

228

231

Eco-Fashion 232

Product Visibility 232

Organizations 233

Organic Standards

Government Regulations 234

233

Table 11.1: Sustainability Criteria

Study Questions

235

234

12 Care and Renovation of Textiles 237

Objectives 237

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Soil Types 238

Laundering 238

237

Table 12.1: Stain Removal Guide for Washable Fabrics 239

Dry-Cleaning 242

Dry-Cleaning Solvents Spotting 243 Water-Repellent Garments Cautions in Dry Cleaning Home Solvent Cleaning

Dry-Cleaning Solvents Spotting 243 Water-Repellent Garments Cautions in Dry Cleaning Home Solvent Cleaning
Dry-Cleaning Solvents Spotting 243 Water-Repellent Garments Cautions in Dry Cleaning Home Solvent Cleaning
Dry-Cleaning Solvents Spotting 243 Water-Repellent Garments Cautions in Dry Cleaning Home Solvent Cleaning

243

243

243

244

Dry Cleaning Versus Laundering 244

Textile Connection: Challenging the Dry Cleaners 244

Professional Wet Cleaning 245

Ultrasonic Washing of Textiles 245

Trade Associations 245

Trade Shows 245

Claiming Damages 246

The Environment 246

Study Questions

247

13 Unique Fabrications and Innovations 249

Objectives 249

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Fabrics with Special Features 250

249

Moisture Transport

Table 13.1: Examples of Moisture Transport/

Comfort Cooling Textiles

Waterproof Breathable Fabrics

Thermal Insulation

Table 13.2: Examples of Water Resistant

and Waterproof, Breathable Fabrics

250

251

252

253

253

Thermal Comfort 255

Clo Values

255

Nanotechnology 256

Electrotextiles 256

Phase-Change Materials 257

Ultrasonic Sound Technology 257

Textile Connection: Textiles in the Car

258

Industrial Fabrics 258

Table 13.3: Industrial Technical Fabrics

Market (Illustrates the Wide Range of Uses

and Products)

Specialty Fibers

Protective Garments Geotextiles 260

Biotechnology 261

259

259

260

Narrow Fabrics

Reflective Safety Apparel

Retroglo ® Yarn Growth 262 Trade Association

Plastic, Leather, and Fur 262

261

261

261

262

Plastic

262

Leather

264

Fur

267

Study Questions

271

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A

xiii

F

14 Textiles for Interiors 273

Table 14.7: Carpet Traffic Ratings

Carpet Soiling

294

Objectives 273

Carpet Maintenance

295

Key Terms Related to Textiles

273

Methods of Cleaning

295

294

Interiors Product Classifications 274

Decorative Fabrics Soft Floor Coverings

Table 14.1: Widely Used Interiors Fabrics

Manufactured Products

Residential and Commercial Interiors 277

Table 14.2: The Association for Contract

274

274

275

276

Textiles Performance Guidelines

278

Interior Decorators and Interior Designers 278

Flammability 278

Upholstery 279

Upholstery Fabric on Furniture

280

Table 14.3: Examples of Standard Performance Specifications for Woven

Upholstery Fabrics

Table 14.4: Upholstery Fabrics In-Use

Application Terms

Flame Resistance of Upholstered Fabrics 283

Textile Connection: Ottoman

Filling and Padding of Upholstered Furniture 283

Care and Maintenance of Upholstery Fabrics 284

The Environment

Table 14.5: Upholstery Cleaning Codes

280

281

283

284

284

Carpet 285

Table 14.6: Factors to Consider When

Evaluating Carpet Quality

How Carpets Are Made

Other Methods of Manufacturing Carpets 288

Types of Carpet Pile

290

Fibers, Yarns, Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing

for Carpets

Carpet Underlay

286

286

288

Carpet Construction Terms

291

293

Carpet Flammability

293

Traffic Classifications

294

Table 14.8: Removal of Spots and Stains from

296

The Environment

Nylon Fibers

297

Window Fabrics 297

How Fiber Properties Affect Window Fabrics 297

Table 14.9: Fiber Resistance to Ultraviolet Degradation 297

How Yarn and Fabric Construction Affect

Window Fabrics

298

How Dyes and Prints Affect Window Fabrics 298 Fabric Finishing for Window Fabrics

298

Drapery-Lining Material

299

Wall and Ceiling Coverings 299

 

Manufactured Products 299

Bath Products

299

Bedding Products

301

Textile Connection: Canopy Bed

303

Textile Tabletop Products

303

Hospitality Industry 304

Study Questions

305

15 Determining Fabric Quality 307

 

Objectives 307

Key Terms Related to Textiles

307

Basic Fabric Measurements

308

Textile Connection: See-Through Fabric

308

How to Use the Pick Glass

Fabric Count

Determining Yarn-Twist Direction

Dimensional Properties of Fabric

Weight of Fabric

Table 15.1: Range of Fabric Weights

Table 15.2: Metric-English Conversions

Weave Layout

Analyzing the Weave

Analyzing the Color Effect

308

308

310

311

312

312

314

314

315

316

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A

xiv

F

Fabric Performance Testing 316

Textile Standards and Specifications

Environmental Standards Textile Testing Laboratories

Relationship Between Laboratory Tests and Usage 319

Types of Test Methods

Table 15.3: Common Textile Tests

317

318

319

319

320

Fabric Strength Tests

321

Surface-Friction Tests

323

Appearance Tests

325

Functional Tests

327

Understanding Color 331

Color Specifications

331

Colorfastness Tests

332

Performance Standards and Their Application 336

Table 15.4: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Performance Specifications for Fabrics and Selected End Uses 337

Study Questions

338

16 Guide to Fabric Selection

Objectives 341

Key Terms Related to Textiles

341

341

Examining for Aesthetics

342

Examining for Suitability

342

Textile Connection: Fashion Influences

342

Examining for Durability and Serviceability 344

Applying Fabric Selection Guidelines 344

Fiber Content

344

Yarn Properties

344

Fabric Properties

345

Dye and Print Properties

Finish Properties

Carpet Floor Coverings

348

347

348

The Environment

348

Fabric Selection

349

17 Textile Laws, Regulations, and Trade Agreements 351

Objectives 351

Key Terms Related to Textiles

Textile Fiber Products Identification Act 352

Wool Products Labeling Act 354

Flammable Fabrics Act 354

351

Flammability Standards

Textile Connection: Triangle Shirtwaist

Factory Fire

355

355

Care Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel 356

Exemptions 356 Care Labeling Contents Basis for Care Information Glossary of Standard Terms

Care Labeling Symbols

Responsibility of Industry and Care Labeling 358

356

357

357

357

International Textile Regulations and Trade Agreements 358

International Regulations

Trade Agreements

358

Study Questions

360

358

Textile Trade and Professional Associations 361

Bibliography 363

Credits 367

Index 369

EXTENDED

CONTENTS

A xv F

j . j . pizzuto ’s FABRIC SCIENCE tenth edition
j . j .
pizzuto ’s
FABRIC SCIENCE
tenth
edition
chapter four YARNS AND SEWING THREADS Objectives
chapter four
YARNS AND
SEWING THREADS
Objectives

u

u

u

u

To understand that the type of yarn used has an important effect on the properties of fabric.

To know the distinctions between the various yarn types as well as their properties and end-use applications.

To understand the systems for determining yarn sizes.

To be able to know the types, uses, and optimum applications of sewing threads.

Use fabrics in the Yarns section of the Fabric Science Swatch Kit for this chapter. Swatches 16 through 27 focus on various Yarns.

Key Terms Related to Textiles

air-jet

filament yarn

monofilaments

tex system

bare elastic yarn

gear crimping

multifilaments

textured yarn

blended yarn

hard twist

novelty yarn

thread size

bulk-textured

high-bulk or hi-bulk yarn

open-ended spun

tow linen

carded

knife-edge

ply

turns-per-inch or TPI

chenille yarn

knit-deknit

ring spinning

turns-per-meter or TPM

combed

lea

ring-spun

turbo-bulk yarn

core-spun yarn

line linen

run

woolen

cotton count system

metallic yarn

set-textured

worsted

covered elastic yarn

metric yarn count

sewing thread

worsted count system

crepe-filament

microdenier

single

yarn count

crepe twist

microfibers

soft twist

yarn number or size

denier

microfilament

spun yarn

yarn numbering system

false twist

mixture

stretch-textured

A 67 F

T he formation of yarns is t he next m ajor step in t he development of textile products.

The simple process of m aking yarn predates recorded history. Cave dwellers u sed h air fiber f rom a nimals t hat were t wisted i nto coarse yarn for ropes a nd nets. Eventu- ally t hey refined t heir techniques to m ake yarn c apable of b eing i ntertwined to produce crude fabrics. While s eemingly u nimportant, t his i nvention, along w ith t he i nventions of fi re a nd t he wheel, is c on- sidered a m ajor m ilestone of t he world’s civilization. T he ability to create a yarn, a nd to subsequently i nterlace the yarn (weaving) f reed primitive humans to leave their c aves in an expanded s earch for food, a nd eventu- ally to migrate to other regions. The i nvention of s pinning was so profound a nd yet so simple t hat t he principle of m aking yarn, by t wisting fiber while simultaneously pulling or d rawing it out, h as remained u nchanged t hroughout t he a ges a nd c ontin- ues to this day. Yarns a re by definition g roups of fibers t wisted together to form a c ontinuous strand. All textile fab- rics, except for a few, such as felt (p. 153) a nd nonwoven fabrics (p. 148), a re produced f rom yarns. T he yarns a re interlaced (woven), i nterlooped (knitted), or c ombined in other ways to form a textile fabric. T here a re m any types of yarns, s ome lustrous, s ome dull, s ome smooth, some rough, s ome t hinner t han human h air, s ome t hick and bulky. Two fabrics e ach m ade f rom t he s a me fiber (e.g., p olyester) a nd e ach woven in t he s ame weave (e.g., plain weave; p. 97) m ay be substantially di fferent f rom one a nother in appearance, durability, a nd cleanability due to the yarn differences in each of the fabrics.

Spun and Filament Yarns

Yarns are classified into two main categories: spun and filament. Spun yarns a re composed of relatively short lengths of fiber t wisted or s pun so t hat t hey hold together. T he short lengths of fiber (measured in i nches) a re c alled sta- ple fibers. Staple fibers a re m ade i nto yarn by mechanical processes t hat fir st m ake t he fibers more or less parallel, and t hen a lternately pull a nd t wist t hem. High t wist is necessary to press t he fibers together to give strength to the resulting yarn. It is important t hat staple fibers pos- sess sufficient surface f riction to adhere to each other. Filament yarns a re c omposed of c ontinuous strands of fiber t hat m ay be m iles (kilometers) long. T hese yarns are produced di rectly f rom a s pinnerette (see p. 20) or from a silk c ocoon (see p. 39). B ecause filament yarns,

(a) twisted twisted spun filament yarn yarn
(a)
twisted
twisted
spun
filament
yarn
yarn
(b) untwisted spun yarn untwisted ament yarn Figure 4.1
(b)
untwisted
spun yarn
untwisted
ament yarn
Figure 4.1

Twisted (a) and untwisted (b) spun and filament yarns.

unlike s pun yarns, c ontain fibers of i nfinite length, t hey do not need to be h ighly t wisted. Most filament yarns are of low t wist (enough to hold t he fibers together) to provide a smooth, lustrous su rface. However, filament yarns m ay be tightly t wisted, t hus producing s pecial effects such as crepe. (See Figure 4.1.)

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Identifying Spun and Filament Yarns

Spun yarns may be identified by untwisting the yarn so that all fibers are parallel and by then pulling slightly, so the yarn simply comes apart without breaking. When a filament yarn is untwisted and pulled, the fibers remain parallel and the yarn does not come apart. Spun yarns composed of longer fibers a re stronger, more u niform, a nd more lustrous t han similar spun yarns made f rom shorter fibers. Long-staple cotton, for example, is cotton fiber of longer-than-average length a nd com- mands premium prices on cotton commodity markets. Filament yarns a re c omposed only of m anufactured fibers or silk. Spun yarns, however, m ay c onsist of b oth natural a nd m anufactured fibers. In t he l atter i nstance, the long strands of fiber extruded f rom a s pinnerette a re chopped i nto short fiber lengths (staple) a nd l ater pro- cessed i nto s pun yarns (see p. 21). T hese yarns a re c alled spun nylon, s pun p olyester, or s pun whatever t he generic fiber composition. Manufactured y arns are m ade a nd m arketed by chemical fiber producers. Sp un y arns are m ade by y arn- spinning m ills t hat are either engaged exclusively in

the y arn-spinning b usiness or are a br anch or depart- ment of a weaving m ill or vertically i ntegrated textile producing c ompany.

Monofilament, Multifilament, and Microfilament Yarns

Filament yarns may be composed of one single filament or of many filaments, and are known as monofilaments or multifilaments, respectively. (See Figure 4.2.) Both have the same fundamental properties, governed by the fiber composition of the yarn. An important physi- cal difference is that a monofilament yarn of a given diameter is stiffer and less flexible than a multifilament yarn of the same diameter. And given two multifilament yarns of equal diameter (or equal denier, see p. 81), the yarn composed of fewer, but coarser, filaments is stiffer and less flexible than the yarn consisting of a higher number of finer filaments. Supple, soft fabrics, such as lining fabrics, are typically made from yarns composed of a large number of fine filaments. The large number gives the appropriate string of coverage and the fine fila- ment offers greater flexibility.

coverage and the fine fila- ment offers greater flexibility. F igure 4.2 Fabrics made of filament

Figure 4.2

Fabrics made of filament yarns may be found in many end uses, including royal wedding gowns.

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standard yarn 2.0 dpf microdenier yarn 1.0 dpf microdenier yarn 0.5 dpf F igure 4
standard yarn 2.0 dpf microdenier yarn 1.0 dpf microdenier yarn 0.5 dpf F igure 4
standard yarn 2.0 dpf microdenier yarn 1.0 dpf microdenier yarn 0.5 dpf F igure 4
standard yarn 2.0 dpf microdenier yarn 1.0 dpf microdenier yarn 0.5 dpf F igure 4

standard yarn 2.0 dpf

microdenier yarn 1.0 dpf

microdenier yarn 0.5 dpf

Figure 4.3

Assume the three yarns are the same size, e.g. 80 d. The yarn on the left at 2 dpf would have 40 filaments. The yarn in the center at 1 dpf would have 80 filaments. The yarn on the right at .5 dpf would have 160 filaments. Thus, although the three yarns are of the same size, as the fibers get thinner (lower denier per filament) there is a higher filament count in the yarn.

Technological developments in m anufactured fiber processes h ave m ade p ossible t he generation of fibers such as nylon, p olyester, lyocell a nd others to be pro- duced in dia meters fi ner t han silk (microfilament) (Fig- ure 4.3). T hese fi ne fibers a re c alled microfibers, a nd a re also k nown as microdenier. T he n ame a lso applies to the yarns made from them (see p. 81 for an explanation of denier). Microfibers a re u sed as multifilament yarns in flat or textured (see p. 76) c onfiguration or a re pro- cessed as staple fibers a nd t hen s pun i nto yarn. Fabrics made f rom m icrofiber filament yarn a re ex tremely s oft and d rapable a nd c an be a lmost indistinguishable f rom silk. Spun yarns f rom m icrofibers c an be blended w ith cotton, wool, or other fibers to produce yarns t hat p os- sess much g reater s oftness a nd flexibility, t hus creating a more drapable or fluid fabric.

Comparison of Spun and Filament Yarn Properties

There are a variety of properties used to compare and contrast spun and filament yarns. The three most important are yarn uniformity, yarn smoothness and luster, and yarn strength. In general, filament yarns a re more u niform in diameter t han s pun yarns, a lthough t hese differences a re not visible to the naked eye. In filament yarns, the same number of filaments a re present at every point a long t he yarn. A multifilament yarn composed of 40 filaments h as 40 filaments a long its entire length. T his is not t he c ase with s pun yarns, where, for example, at one point t here may be 40 fibers, at a nother, 43, a nd at still a nother, 37. Filament yarns a re generally smoother a nd more lustrous t han s pun yarns. Satin, a familiar filament- yarn fabric, is smooth a nd lustrous, whereas sheeting,

a t ypical s pun-yarn fabric, is less smooth a nd s omewhat duller w ith a slight su rface f uzz t hat is characteristic of spun yarns. A filament yarn v iewed a gainst light shows uniform dia meter a nd no f uzziness. B ecause e ach fila- ment is as long as t he yarn itself, t here a re no fiber ends protruding f rom t he yarn su rface as in s pun yarns. T his uniformity a nd smoothness in filament yarns is t he m ain reason for their greater luster and smoother surface. The smooth surface of t he filament yarns can some- times be disadvantageous, causing yarns to slip a nd slide easily within a fabric. Excess stress on a seam, for example, may cause slipping of yarns a nd opening of a seam without the actual breakage of t hread. T his is more likely to occur in fabrics of low construction, fabrics with a low number of yarns per square inch (see p. 96) or where improper seam allowance is taken in sewing. T he test described on page 324 should be used to determine t he suitability of a filament yarn fabric for yarn a nd seam slippage. When a s pun yarn is broken, s ome fibers break a nd others just slide away f rom e ach other. W hen a filament yarn is broken, every filament in the yarn breaks. Thus, filament yarns a re stronger t han s pun yarns of t he s ame diameter a nd fiber t ype b ecause it requires more force to break yarn if all t he fibers break t han if only s ome fibers break while others slip apart. More t wist in a s pun yarn i ncreases its strength by i ncreasing t he pressure exerted on t he fibers. T his results in reduced fiber slippage when force is exerted on t he yarn. Up to a c ertain p oint, t he more t wist in a yarn, t he stronger it i s. A f ter t hat p oint, t he extra t wist begins to c ause t he fibers to cut i nto e ach other a nd the yarn strength decreases. T his h appens b ecause t he fiber di rection a nd t hus t he yarn’s strength is no longer in a s piral di rection but h as b een forced i nto more of a horizontal steplike direction.

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Uses of Spun and Filament Yarns

Some fabrics are made only of spun yarns, some of only filament yarns, and others of a combination of spun and filament yarns. Each type of yarn is best for certain uses. Spun yarns may provide warmth, softness, and light- ness of weight and are, for example, ideal in fabrics for T-shirts, sweaters, and blankets. Filament yarns are bet- ter for items where smoothness and luster are desired because the yarns are finer, more uniform in diameter, and lustrous. Filament yarn fabrics can offer a smooth, uniform surface. They are used in linings because their smoothness makes it easier to slide into and out of garments. They are also used for the outer shell of ski jackets, in a tightly packed construction, to resist the penetration of wind.

Yarn Twist

Yarns are made by twisting together parallel or nearly parallel fibers. The amount of twist in a yarn is desig- nated as the turns-per-inch (2.54 centimeters), or TPI, of the yarns. The TPI in a yarn has an important bear- ing on the appearance and durability of the yarn and the fabric that will be made from it. Spun yarns w ith relatively low t wist (from 2 to 12 TPI) a re f requently c alled soft-twist yarns b ecause t he yarn is s ofter, fluffier, a nd more flexible. T hey a re not as strong as s pun yarns w ith h igh t wist. K nitting yarns a re usually soft twist. Spun yarns w ith relatively h igh T PI (20 to 30 T PI) are c alled hard-twist yarns. T he h igher t wist c auses them to be smoother, fi rmer, a nd k inkier t han s pun yarns with low twist. They are also stronger. Filament yarns u sually h ave very low t wist (½ to 1 TPI). Twist in filament yarns does not i ncrease strength but merely serves to keep t he filaments in t he yarn together. S ome filament yarns a re purposely m ade with high t wist to produce a pebbly, h arsh surface effect. These yarns a re c alled crepe-filament yarns a nd t he twist is referred to as crepe twist. (See Figure 4.4.)

Twist Direction

In addition to the amount of twist in a yarn, the direction of the twist is also designated. As shown in Figure 4.5, there are two types of yarn twist: S and Z. In an S-twist yarn, the spirals run upward to the left, corresponding to the direction of the diagonal part of the letter S. In a Z-twist yarn, the spirals run upward to the right, similar to the diagonal part of the letter Z. Yarn-twist direction is not an element of quality because it does not affect

is not an element of quality because it does not affect F igure 4.4 A crepe
is not an element of quality because it does not affect F igure 4.4 A crepe

Figure 4.4

A crepe yarn k inks when slackened b ecause of t he h igh t
A crepe yarn k inks when slackened b ecause of t he h igh t wist.
Figure 4.5
S- and Z-twist yarns.

properties such as strength and abrasion resistance. S- and Z-twist are important to the fabric designer and stylist because the direction of the twist affects the sur- face appearance of fabrics. Crepe fabrics are sometimes made by combining S- and Z-twist yarns to produce the balanced, pebbly effect on the fabric surface. Yarns for t he towel business t ypically a re m ade of cotton, t wisted in a Z di rection w ith a h igh T PI. T his results in a fi nal product t hat is relatively h ard. Twistless

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cotton or Z ero Twist c otton h as b een u sed in t he lux- ury towel i ndustry to m arket terrycloth t hat is notice- ably s ofter. Z ero Twist is a ccomplished by p lying a PVA (polyvinyl a lcohol) yar n a round t he c otton yarn in t he

opposite di rection (S di rection) t hus u ntwisting t he c ot- ton y arn. T he PVA h olds t he c otton y arn t ogether as it m akes t he pile in t he terrycloth as it is woven (see p. 105). A fter t he f abric is f ormed, t he PVA is r emoved

in t he fi nishing process. T he resultant towel offers c on-

sumers a very soft hand with excellent absorption.

Carded and Combed Cotton Yarns

Carded and combed refer to the methods used to make cotton and cotton-blend spun yarns as well as to the designation of fabrics made from such yarns. A broad- cloth fabric used as shirting fabric, for example, may be carded broadcloth or combed broadcloth, depending on the yarn used. All staple fibers h ave to be c arded to help clean

Tow and Line Linen Yarns

Linen yarns are classified into two types called tow and line. Tow linen yarn is composed of short fibers and is irregular and rather coarse in texture. Tow linen is used for coarser types of linen fabrics found in sports jackets and trousers. Line linen is composed of long fibers aver- aging about 15 inches (38.1 centimeters) in length. Line linen yarns are smooth and fine and are used for fabrics such as fine table linens and tissue-weight blouses.

Woolen and Worsted Yarns

There are two types of wool or wool-blend fabrics:

woolens, made of carded yarns, and worsteds, made of combed yarns. 1 A woolen yarn is fuzzier, has a more uneven diameter, is bulkier, and has a wider range of fiber length (including short fibers) than a worsted yarn. Worsted yarn is smooth with little fuzz, has an even diameter, and is more tightly twisted and firmer than woolen yarn. (See Figure 4.6.)

and di sentangle t hem. For less c ostly fabrics, t he fiber is c
and di sentangle t hem. For less c ostly fabrics, t he fiber
is c arded a nd formed i nto a t hick rope of loose fiber
1. Wool fibers are first carded and then combed as part of the worsted
yarn-manufacturing process. Combed sliver of wool is called top.
called sliver. T he sliver is m ade i nto yarn by d rawing
and spinning.
For fi ner fabrics, t he c arded c otton in t he form of
sliver goes to t he c ombing u nit, which f urther cleans
the fibers a nd puts t hem in parallel p osition. C ombing
also removes short fibers. T he c omb delivers a loose
sliver of parallel, long fibers c alled c ombed sliver, which
is u sed to m ake t he s pun yarns, k nown as c ombed yarns.
A c ombed yarn t hus h as longer fibers, fibers in
more parallel p osition, fibers of more u niform length,
fewer s peck a nd di rt i mpurities, a nd more u niformity
of dia meter t han a yarn t hat is not c ombed. Fabrics of
combed yarn look b etter, feel smoother, a nd a re stronger
and more expensive t han c omparable fabrics of c arded
yarn. Fine, lightweight yarns need to be c ombed b ecause
long fibers a re required for proper strength. T hey m ay be
found in fine shirting and luxury sheeting.
For s ome f abrics, c ombed y arns a re n ot o nly
unnecessary, b ut a l so le ss d esirable t han c arded y arns.
A n apped f abric, s uch as c otton fl annel, s hould be
a
b
made f rom s horter fi bers to c reate a f uzzier s urface.
(See p. 205.) D enim a nd t erry cloth a re t wo f abrics
typically m ade e xclusively of c arded y arns. T his g ives
denim t he n atural, r ugged l ook c onsumers r ecognize.
The f uzzy, s oft b ulkiness of c arding h elps t erry cloth
remove m oisture.
Figure 4.6
(a) Woolen and (b) worsted yarns.
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Fabrics m ade f rom worsted yarn a re not necessarily better t han fabrics m ade f rom woolen yarn. E ach k ind of yarn is suitable for a s pecific t ype of fabric. Tweed is an example of a woolen fabric; gabardine is an example of a worsted fabric. T here a re expensive woolens as well as expensive worsteds. The following a re additional facts about woolen and worsted yarns:

Fabrics of woolen yarn a re more i mportant in heavy w inter c oatings, ski s weaters, a nd blankets because woolens generally provide b etter i nsulation than worsteds. T he f uzziness a nd s oft bulkiness of woolen yarns provide t he dead a ir s paces needed for better insulation.

u

u

Because worsted yarns a re more tightly t wisted than woolen yarns, fabrics of worsted yarn a re usu- ally fi rmer a nd denser t han fabrics of woolen yarn. The more tightly t wisted yarns help worsted to hold its pressed creases a nd generally to b etter keep its shape b etween cleanings t han fabrics m ade of woolen yarn.

Fabrics m ade f rom worsted yarn usually show t he yarns a nd weave clearly a nd sharply on t he face of the fabric. Fabrics m ade f rom woolen yarns, on t he other h and, m ay h ave a n apped su rface or look like the surface of felt.

Worsted fabrics, such as gabardine a nd s erge u sed in trousers a nd suiting, tend to develop a shine w ith wear. Because t he yarns a re very smooth a nd tightly t wisted, pressure on t he fabric (e.g., f rom sitting) a nd r ubbing tend to flatten t he yarns a nd produce t he luster. A p opu- lar suiting fabric k nown as u nfinished worsted is g iven a

u

light n apping a nd f ulling fi nish, which tends to c over up the yarns (see p. 205). T hus t he appearance of t he yarns and t he weave a re more subdued a nd t he shine problem

is eliminated or g reatly reduced. (Unfinished worsted is

a m isnomer b ecause t he fabric i s, in fact, g iven extra

finishing treatments.)

Single and Ply Yarns

Yarns are also categorized as single or ply. When a ply yarn is untwisted, it separates into two or more finer yarns. As shown in Figure 4.7, when a single spun yarn

is untwisted, it comes apart. Ply yarn, therefore, may

be defined as two or more single yarns twisted together to form one new yarn. Two-ply yarns are two singles twisted together, three-ply are three singles twisted

a b Figure 4.7 (a) Single spun and (b) ply yarns.
a
b
Figure 4.7
(a) Single spun and (b) ply yarns.

together, and so forth. Most ply yarns used in clothing are two-ply. Little is gained by using yarns of higher ply. If a yarn is not ply, it is referred to as single, never single-ply. Advertisements of t wo-ply worsted s uiting a nd of 2 × 2 broadcloth sh irts a im to i ndicate quality. 2 × 2 broadcloth sh irts h ave t wo-ply y arns in b oth w arp a nd filling. In a 2 × 1 broadcloth, t he w arp is t wo-ply a nd the fi lling is single. In a ply yarn, t wo or more fi ner yarns a re usually twisted to produce t he s ame t hickness as a single yarn, but w ith m any additional b enefits. In s pun yarns, e ach fiber c an w ind more times a round a t hinner yarn a nd so hold more fi rmly. In plying t he fi ner-spun yarns, more t wist is added, holding t he fibers more fi rmly in place a nd m aking t he yarn stronger. Spun yarns a re not perfectly even in dia meter. By t w isting together t wo or more yarns, t he t hin, weaker s pots a re reinforced. T hus, plying i mproves s pun yarns b ecause t he fibers c annot slip as e asily, t he yarns a re stronger, t he yarn dia meter is more u niform, a nd t here is a reduced tendency to pill. Most single yarns h ave a Z t wist. W hen plied w ith another single yarn, an S t wist is u sed. O pen end yarns (see p. 74) a lways h ave a Z t wist. R ing s pun (see p. 74) and a ir-jet (see p. 74) usually h ave a Z t wist, but t he sys- tem can produce S twist if modified.

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In filament yarn, t he dia meter is u niform a nd t he filaments c annot slip when t he yarn is pulled. Twist is not needed to hold t he filaments in place. For t hese rea- sons, plying does not i mprove filament yarns as it does spun yarns. However, plying of filament yarns c an be done to produce u nique effects on novelty yarns a nd metallic yarns (see p. 80). Ply yarns require b etter-quality fiber, more l abor, and s pecial m achinery. B ecause of t his expense, ply yarns a re more c ostly t han singles. T hus, most fabrics are made of single yarns.

Yarn Spinning

Staple fibers are spun into yarns by a variety of methods. The most widely used is ring spinning where fibers are carded to bring them to a more parallel position and bundled into a loosely formed rope about one inch in diameter, known as sliver. Multiple slivers are grouped together and then drawn or pulled slightly to decrease into a smaller diameter, known as roving. Further draw- ing and more twist are needed to form the desired yarn size with the required turns per inch. The final yarn is then wound onto a cone or package. (See Figure 4.8.) Ring s pinning c an produce a nything f rom u niform yarns to t he more c omplex, novelty yarns. It c an pro- duce yarns in a w ide r ange of sizes a nd excels in t he finer c ounts (see p. 81). R ing s pinning produces yarns with t he s oftest h and available a nd a re noted for m ak- ing fabrics t hat feel s oft. However, low production r ates and additional steps m ake t his a more c ostly process.

Products m ade f rom r ing s pun yarns a re advertised to promote t heir quality a nd a re found in t-shirts, hosiery, sheets, towels, a nd even denim, all for t he luxury m arket. Open-end (OE) spinning is a method of producing spun yarns. It is different f rom conventionally s pun yarn, frequently c alled ring-spun yarn, in t hat only one pro- cess f rom c arded sliver to s pun yarn is required. Substan- tially higher r ates of production, coupled with savings in space a nd power requirements, a re realized in OE s pin- ning. Carded sliver is fed to t he open-end s pinning u nit, which separates t he fibers, t wists t hem together to form the completed s pun yarn, a nd t hen winds t he yarn onto spools or cones. Yarns m ade by t his process a re some- times c alled roto-spun yarns or t urbine-spun yarns. Some advantages of OE s pun yarns a re b etter regu- larity a nd u niformity; i mproved abrasion re sistance, especially in h igh-twist t ypes; i mproved di stribution of fibers in blends; a nd i mproved absorption, resulting in brighter shades a nd print-pattern definition. Two important shortcomings a re t hat yarn strength averages 20 p ercent lower t han c onventionally s pun yarns, a nd manufacture is limited to c oarse a nd medium-size yarns. These yarns a re more u niform, s omewhat weaker, and less expensive t han r ing-spun yarns. T heir r ate of production is 10 times faster t han r ing s pun yarns. It has a limited r ange for yarn sizes a nd is b est when u nder Ne 20 (see p. 82). A lmost all yarn produced for denim is s pun w ith t his method. End yarns a re u sed in fabrics such as i nterlock, fleece, a nd a lmost all yarns u sed in denim for mass markets. Air-jet s pinning, a lso k nown as Vortex s pinning, uses c ompressed a ir to a ide in t he s pinning process. In

Figure 4.8

Yarn winding on a package at a textile plant.

a ide in t he s pinning process. In F igure 4.8 Yarn winding on a

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this s ystem, one end of a fiber is pushed toward t he c en- ter of t he yarn a nd t he other end to t he outside to w ind around other fibers. T his process is very fast w ith pro- duction t wice t hat of open-end production a nd 20 times faster t han r ing s pinning. T he fibers a re more s ecurely locked i nto t he yarn, do not slide as e asily as other methods, a nd exhibit less f uzz or h airiness a long t heir length. However, t hey h ave less u niformity, a re limited to c oarse yarn sizes, a nd h ave a lower yarn strength then r ing-spun yarns. Fabrics m ade f rom t his yarn w ill exhibit fewer pills a nd do not show wear e asily. T he l arg- est end u se is for sheeting or print cloth m ade of c otton and p olyester blended yarns (see p. 75). It is a lso ideal for active wear, uniforms, and sweatshirts.

Yarn Pilling

As described on page 28, certain fibers are more likely

to pill than others. The yarn construction bears impor-

tantly on whether pills will occur. Provided that the fiber is prone to pilling, pills will develop more readily on spun yarns than on filament yarns because fiber ends are already on the surface. Filament yarn fabrics form pills only when the filaments break (e.g., from wear). Short-staple, fiber-spun yarns pill more readily than long-staple spun yarns because there are more fiber ends on the surface. Soft-twist yarns pill more than hard- twist yarns because it is easier for the fiber ends to move and protrude on the surface.

Blends and Mixtures

A blended yarn is made of two or more fiber types. Both

spun yarns and filament yarns may be blended, but spun yarns are the type most widely used. Blending is usually done to c ombine t he desir- able properties of di fferent fibers. Wool, for example, is

blended w ith staple p olyester b ecause wool h as exc ellent drape a nd p olyester helps to retain shape a nd reduce t he cost of t he fabric. Polyester is stronger t han wool but thinner, so a blend of the two can be lightweight. It is di fficult to obtain p erfectly u niform blending

of fibers in a s pun yarn b ecause of di fferences in s pe-

cific g ravity, length, dia meter, su rface shape a nd texture, the moisture regain property. T here is a lso s ome varia- tion a long t he length of blended yarn a nd in c omposi- tion f rom i nside to outside. L onger fibers tend to t ravel toward t he c enter a nd shorter fibers toward t he outside

of yarns. W hen t he blending o ccurs in a u niform m an-

ner, it is referred to as an “intimate blend”.

A c ommon blended yarn is c otton a nd p olyester,

which is u sed extensively to m ake fabrics for shirts a nd sheets. E ach fiber t ype in t he blend adds not only its

favorable properties, but a lso its u nfavorable qualities. Thus, a shirt or d ress fabric c omposed of 50 p ercent polyester a nd 50 p ercent c otton is less c omfortable in hot humid weather t han a 100 p ercent c otton fabric because of the low moisture absorption of the polyester. Not all blended yarns a re p erfect i ntimate blends. In s ome i nstances, depending on m anufacturing pro- cedures, t he fibers m ay be di spersed in a nonuniform manner, such as a side-by-side or sheath-and-core c on- figuration (Figure 4.9).

A mixture is fabric c omposed of t wo or more dif-

ferent t ypes of yarn. Filament a nd s pun yarns c ombined in a fabric is an example of a m ixture. A fabric w ith acetate warp a nd r ayon filling is a nother example. Fab- ric m ixtures a re u sed to achieve c ertain design a nd c olor effects, as in cross-dyeing (see p. 173). T hey a lso a re u sed

yarn a yarn b yarn c
yarn
a
yarn
b
yarn
c

Figure 4.9

Blended yarns are not always perfectly blended. Yarn A, blended at the opening stage, is a true intimate blend, which is most desirable. Yarn B, blended at the roving stage, is nonuniform and is less desirable. Yarn C is a blend consisting of long and short fibers. The long fibers tend to move to the center. Outside fibers contribute to hand, abrasion resistance, and pilling; inside fibers contribute to strength and flexibility.

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to lower t he c ost of c ertain fabrics by c ombining less- expensive yarns w ith t he more c ostly. T hey c an be u sed to add strength to a weak yarn, such as adding nylon to a metallic yarn. A m ixture is s ometimes referred to as a combination fabric.

Special Types of Yarns

Textured Yarns

The appearance and touch of multifilament yarn can be altered from smooth, lustrous, and flat to crimped, dull, and soft (somewhat like the appearance of spun yarn). This modification yields entirely new yarn properties, which in turn provide entirely new fabric properties. The filament yarns are modified before they are woven or knitted. Because the modified yarn takes on an entirely new surface or texture, it is called textured yarn. The ability of filament yarns to be modified to give t hem new shape, crimp, a nd bulk derives f rom t he thermoplastic n ature of t he fibers f rom which t hey a re produced (see p. 28). T he various methods for m aking textured yarn i nvolve shaping t he yarn to s ome desired configuration of crimp or bulk by s etting t he yarn, heat- ing it to near its melting p oint, a nd t hen c ooling t he material. (The exception to t his is t he a ir-jet method, described on p. 74.)

Favorable Properties

The following are favorable properties of textured yarns.

Possess high stretch and/or bulk

Provide g reater c over (opacity) t han regular fila- ment yarns

Afford g reater breathability a nd absorption t han regular filament yarns

Afford g reater insulation t han r egular fi lament yarns

Provide s ofter a nd d rier h and t han regular filament

Provide spunlike yarn characteristics

Are m ore wrinkle r esistant t han s pun y arns or regular fi lament y arns

u

u

u

u

u

u

u

Unfavorable Properties

The f ollowing a re u nfavorable p roperties of t extured yarns.

u They h ave a tendency to s nag on broken fi nger- nails, chair s e ats, a nd similar objects. B ecause it is

u

u

u

a long filament r ather t han a short-spun fiber t hat snags, t he likelihood of d amaging t he fabric is h igh. Textured yarns should, t herefore, be avoided in such ga rments as children’s playwear, where h ard, rough use is anticipated.

Possible growth problem

Poor abrasion resistance

Easy soil penetration

Types of Textured Yarn

There are several methods of producing textured yarns. They are classified into three main categories: stretch- textured, bulk-textured, and set-textured type. (See Fig- ure 4.10.)

Stretch-Textured Stretch-textured yarn is made pri- marily from nylon and used extensively in leotards, stretch ski pants, stretch hosiery, and similar items. These yarns can be stretched from 30 to 50 percent of their relaxed length. Stretch-textured yarns a re produced by s everal methods. T he false-twist method is t he most w idely used technique for producing textured yarns in fi ner deniers. Yarns a re t wisted, heat-set, a nd u ntwisted in one operation. Stretch-textured yarns a re a lso produced by t he knife-edge method. T his process c onsists of passing the filaments over a heated roll a nd t hen pulling t hem over a sharp e dge at an acute a ngle. W hen relaxed, t he

filaments t ake t he form of c oiled s prings, but t he s piral direction reverses itself at r andom, which helps produce

a balanced yarn. Gear crimping is a t hird method for producing stretch-textured yarns. T his method c onsists of passing the filament yarn t hrough a s eries of heated rollers or sets of heated gears t hat deform t he filaments. Variations in crimp c an be obtained by c ontrolling t he number of crimps p er i nch as well as t he depth of gear deformation.

Bulk-Textured The most important property of bulk- textured yarns is their high bulk with low or minimal stretch. A method for producing bulk-textured yarn is the stuffer-box method, which produces an increase in

bulk from 200 to 300 percent and can be found in yarns used for carpets. In this process, the filaments are com- pressed into the confined space of a heated chamber and heat-set with a wavy, random crimp. The resultant yarn

is relatively bulky, possesses some degree of stretch, and

is torque-free. Torque-free means the yarn will stay flat

and motionless as opposed to a yarn that has a tendency to curl around itself.

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textured yarn guide rollers guide rollers edge point heater heater regular yarn regular yarn a
textured yarn
guide rollers
guide rollers
edge point
heater
heater
regular yarn
regular yarn
a
b
regular yarn
textured yarn
heater
heated chambers
guide rollers
heater
regular yarn
textured yarn
c
d
textured yarn
circular
knit fabric
unraveled
textured yarn
heater
textured yarn
high pressure/
regular yarn
high-velocity air
e
f

Figure 4.10 Methods of producing textured yarn: (a) false twist (b) knife-edge (c) stuffer box (d) gear crimping (e) high-pressure/high velocity air-jet and (f) knit-deknit.

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The air-jet method is a s econd way to produce bulk- textured yarns. In t his method, a jet of h igh-velocity a ir is di rected at a multifilament yarn, which s eparates t he fibers, forcing s ome filaments to form loops a nd t urns. The result is a bulkier, less lustrous yarn. Many yarn style varieties a re p ossible by varying t he yarn t ypes a nd air-jet volume. No heat is i nvolved, so t he yarns need not be thermoplastic. The knit-deknit method is a way of producing a bulky yarn t hat h as more stretch t han yarn produced using t he stuffer-box or a ir-jet methods. T he filaments are k nit i nto a n arrow-diameter t ubular form. T he fabric is rolled up, heat-set, and then unraveled.

Set-Textured Textured yarns in the set-textured cat- egory undergo an additional heat-setting step in the texturizing process to set the yarn and eliminate or greatly minimize stretch. This is accomplished in some instances by winding previously textured stretch yarns onto spools under moderate tension, and then heat- setting the yarn a second time. The yarn then becomes set in the bulked condition with either minimal or no stretch. Textured yarns of this type, made of filament polyester fiber, can be used in many fabrics including gabardine, interlock, and crepe de chine.

Stretch Yarns

Yarns that have the capability of stretching are increas- ingly being used in textile materials. Aside from being the traditional materials used in foundation garments and swimwear, fabrics made from yarns that stretch are being used in apparel to provide increased comfort when sitting, bending, stooping, or engaged in active sports or work activities. Stretch fabrics a re generally classified i nto t wo categories: p ower stretch a nd c omfort stretch. (See Fig- ure 4.11.) Power-stretch m aterials a re fabrics in which holding p ower is required, as in foundation ga rments, swimwear, su rgical support ga rments, a nd su spenders. The yarns u sed for p ower-stretch fabrics h ave h igh elas- ticity a nd h igh recovery force. C omfort-stretch fabrics are designed to y ield w ith b ody movement. T hese fab- rics h ave low recovery force a nd, in most i nstances, t he yarns f rom which t hey a re m ade a nd t he fabrics t hem- selves look the same as non-stretch materials. Stretch yar ns a nd t he fabrics made f rom t hem require not only t hat t hey stretch to t he extent required, but also that t hey return to t heir original dimensions on release of t he stresses t hat cause t he stretch. Fabrics t hat do not readily recover a re i nadequate for t he particular end u se. A pair of pants t hat stretches at t he k nee f rom sitting, a nd t hat remains b aggy at t he k nee for a long

sitting, a nd t hat remains b aggy at t he k nee for a long

Figure 4.11 Power stretch fabrics are often used for activewear.

period of time a fter standing, m ay be less desirable t han a pair of pants m ade f rom r igid fabric t hat does not stretch in the first place. Unrecovered stretch in textile fabrics is called growth. Growth has not been completely eliminated in most stretch fabrics, but can be kept to very low, tolerable minimums in properly constructed fabrics. In general, tightly constructed fabrics recover more quickly t han loosely constructed fabrics. Also, fabrics made f rom high- denier stretch textured yarns recover more quickly t han fabrics f rom fine-denier stretch textured yarns. A method for determining fabric g rowth is given on page 328.

Types of Stretch Yarns

The following common types of stretch yarns are com- pared in Table 4.1:

Bare Elastic Yarns Bare elastic yarns are usually composed of monofilament spandex fiber. Bare elastic yarns are used in power-stretch fabrics. In general, they

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Table 4.1

Comparison oF sTreTCh Yarns

 
 

Stretch Fiber

 

Recovery

 

Yarn Type

Component

Stretch Type

Power

Uses and Features

Textured

Nylon or

Comfort

Low

Blouses, sportswear, stretch pants, hosiery, polyester men’s socks. Polyester has a tendency to pill.

yarns

polyester

Bare elastic

Spandex

Power

Moderate

Lightweight foundations, swimwear, athletic wear— gym clothing, bike shorts.

Covered

Spandex or

Power

High

Heavy foundations, elastic bandages, surgical stockings, athletic supporters. Rubber has higher power and recovery than spandex, but poor shelf life—it begins to decay in one year.

elastic

rubber

Core spun

Spandex

Comfort

Very low

Active sportswear, stretch denim.

to low

provide softer and more gentle shape control (moderate recovery force) than covered yarns.

Covered Elastic Yarns Covered elastic yarns are monofilaments that are wrapped or covered with a spun or filament yarn to hide the elastomeric yarn. Covered yarns tend to be thick and heavy and are used in power- stretch fabrics. In general, they provide firmer and more powerful shape control (high recovery force) than bare elastic yarns.

Core-spun Yarns Core-spun yarns have a central fil- ament core of spandex with staple fiber that has been spun around the core. The core in the center does not appear on the yarn surface, so the hand, texture, and appearance are identical to what the spun yarn would be without the core center. Core-spun elastic yarns are used in comfort stretch fabrics because they possess very low recovery force. These yarns can be spun very fine and thus provide elasticity without the bulk usually associated with other types of stretch yarns. Stretch chino, a popular cotton sportswear fabric used for tennis shorts and other active sportswear, is made from core- spun cotton yarns. Core-spun stretch yarns are the most expensive of all stretch yarns.

Textured Yarns Textured yarns are the most widely used of the comfort stretch yarns. The “ease” or “give” these yarns contribute to the fabric is a quality many consumers find attractive.

High-Bulk Yarns

High-bulk, also called hi-bulk or turbo-bulk, yarns are acrylic spun yarns that are specially processed to yield lofty, bulky, and soft yarns without stretch. These yarns a re produced by a u nique process t hat involves s pinning yarn by blending acrylic fibers of h igh

and low p otential shrinkage. W hen t he fi nished yarn is treated w ith b oiling water or steam, t he h igh-shrinkage fibers c ontract a nd move to t he c enter of t he yarn, forc- ing t he low-shrinkage fibers to buckle, which forms a yarn t hat is g reater in dia meter t han t he original a nd has more loft a nd bulk. S ome h igh-bulk yarns a re bulked (boiled or steamed) in yarn form, a nd others a re bulked in garment form (e.g., knitted sweaters). Fabrics m ade of h igh-bulk acrylic yarns feel s oft a nd luxurious, a nd f requently h ave t he h and a nd appearance of h igh-quality worsted. T hey h ave t he di sadvantage of tending to pill e asily, a nd t hey should be checked c are- fully for c onformity to current flammability regulations.

Novelty Yarns

Novelty yarns, sometimes also called fancy yarns, are yarns that are not of uniform thickness throughout their length, but have deliberate irregularities on their sur- faces (Figure 4.12). These irregularities may be knots, bumps, curls, or similar effects. The n a ming of novelty yarns is c onfusing, however. Because t here is no e stablished terminology for novelty yarns, t heir n ames a re often u sed i nterchangeably. Nov- elty yarns, or fabrics c ontaining novelty yarns, should never be purchased on t he b asis of yarn n ame a lone, but only when accompanied by s amples. Typical novelty yarns a re slub, t hick a nd t hin, s piral, flock, a nd b ouclé. (See Figure 4.13.) Novelty yarns g ive fabrics m ade f rom t hem i nterest- ing a nd decorative su rface effects. Using novelty yarns is one means by which textile designers c an create cloth with r aised or nubby su rface textures as di stinguished from the usual flat surface of most textile materials. Fabrics m ade f rom most novelty yarns a re not dura- ble a nd a re especially su sceptible to wear f rom abrasion or r ubbing. T he parts of t he yarn exposed b eyond t he

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seed yarn nub yarn slub yarn
seed yarn
nub yarn
slub yarn
bouclé yarn spiral or corkscrew yarn chenille yarn
bouclé yarn
spiral or corkscrew yarn
chenille yarn

Figure 4.12 Popular types of novelty yarns.

surface of t he substrate a re particularly v ulnerable to rubbing action. Novelty yarn fabrics should be avoided in applications where durability a nd long wear must take precedence over fabric b eauty a nd i nteresting sur- face effects.

Chenille Yarns

Chenille yarns are yarns that have a soft pile protrud- ing from their surface. Their appearance resembles pipe cleaners without the wire. Unlike pipe cleaners, how- ever, chenille yarns are soft, supple, and very flexible. Chenille yarns a re m ade in an u nusual m anner. T he yarn is m ade by slitting n arrow lengths f rom 1 8 i nch to 1 4 i nch (3.18 millimeters to 6.35 millimeters) of a fabric

i nch (3.18 millimeters to 6.35 millimeters) of a fabric F igure 4.13 Chanel garment made

Figure 4.13 Chanel garment made of bouclé yarns.

that h as fir st b een woven es pecially for t his purpose. This fabric is a leno-effect weave (see p. 103) a nd h as a

filling of soft, t wisted yarns. A fter t he fabric is woven, it

is cut lengthwise i nto n arrow strips, each strip b ecoming

a chenille yarn. T he crisscrossing leno warp prevents t he soft filling f rom falling out. (See Figure 4.14.) Chenille yarns m ay be m ade f rom a ny fiber, but most c ommonly t hey a re m ade of c otton, wool, r ayon,

or nylon. C henille yarns a re u sed in woven fabric to pro-

duce s oft pilelike effects on b edspreads a nd other deco-

rative fabrics. C henille yarns h ave r ather low resistance

to abrasion, a nd t heir u se should be avoided in products

that will be subjected to even minimal fabric rubbing.

Metallic Yarns

A strip of metallic fiber (see p. 56) is also a metallic

yarn. Such yarn is flat and ribbonlike rather than round

or elliptical in cross-section, as are other yarns. Strips of

metallic yarns are usually from 1 32 inch (0.80 millimeter)

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warp yarn
warp
yarn

filling

yarn

Figure 4.14 Making chenille yarn: Filling yarns are cut between each section of warp leno.

to 1 128 inch (0.20 millimeter) wide. These yarns can be supported by loosely twisting one or more fine-filament yarns around them (e.g., two 15-denier nylon yarns). This increases its strength and abrasion resistance. Metallic yarns a re mostly u sed for decorative r ather than f unctional purposes; a w ide r ange of c olors a nd effects is available. Metallic yarns tend to be expensive. Lurex Co., Ltd. is a major metallic yarn manufacturer.

Yarn Numbering Systems

Yarns are bought and sold by the pound. Knitting mills, for example, purchase their yarn requirements in pounds rather than in yards. Even home knitters purchase yarns

in packages sold by ounce or gram weight. Yarn numbering systems a re u sed to express

a relationship b etween a u nit length a nd weight of

yarns—either meters p er g ram or yards p er p ound. T he relationship b etween u nit length a nd weight a lso reflects the dia meter or t hickness of a yarn. T his is b ecause a yarn of low weight p er u nit of length would be fi ner (thinner) t han a yarn w ith a h igher weight p er e qual unit of length. However, t he dia meter of t he yarn m ay vary for a ny g iven yarn number b ecause of di fferences in t he s pecific g ravity of t he fibers f rom which yarns are m ade, a nd b ecause s ome yarns a re h ighly t wisted whereas others have low twist. The terms yarn numbers a nd yarn sizes a re u sed interchangeably. D espite t he words “yarn size,” b ear in mind t hat t he size (or number) expresses a relationship between a u nit of length a nd weight, a nd only a close, but not exact, relationship to diameter or thickness. There a re t wo m ain numbering s ystems in u se: t he denier s ystem, which is u sed for all filament yarns, a nd

the yarn-count s ystem, which is u sed for all s pun yarns.

A

t hird s ystem k nown as t he tex s ystem was developed

to

bring all yarn numbering s ystems i nto a single s ystem

for all types of yarns.

The Denier System

The denier system is the simpler of the two number- ing systems. In this system, heavier and usually thicker filament yarns are designated by higher denier numbers. Very fine yarns, of 10 denier, for example, are used in sheer hosiery. The heavy, coarse yarns used in carpeting are around 2,000 denier. The denier system is called a direct system because higher denier numbers designate heavier (thicker) yarn. A 100-denier nylon filament has twice the weight of an equal length of 50-denier nylon filament. Thus the system is based on weight in grams per 9,000 meters. A 1-denier yarn is a yarn in which 9,000 meters, if weighed, would e qual 1 g ram. A 2-denier yarn would

weigh 2 g rams p er 9,000 meters, a nd so forth. T hus t he yarn has twice the thickness per unit length. Filament yarns a re s old by i ndicating t he number

of

filaments t he yarn c ontains, a nd t he t wist as well

as

t he denier size. For example, a 300-10- 1 2 Z filament

yarn i ndicates a yarn of 300 denier in size, c ontaining 10 filaments w ith 1 2 T PI of Z t wist. E ach filament fiber

in t his yarn would be 30 denier. A 400-40- 1 2 Z would be

thicker t han t he 300-10- 1 2 Z, but h ave fi ner filaments because e ach filament fiber would be a 10-denier fiber and thus finer.

The Yarn Count System

In the yarn count system, the yarn count number is inversely proportional to weight. This system, there- fore, is indirect. A 50-count spun yarn has twice the weight (thickness) of a 100-count spun yarn. The

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weight of the yarn is indirectly proportional to the yarn-count number. Cotton yarn, for example, which is used for sheer voile fabrics, may be as fine as 100 count, whereas thicker yarns used in many poplin fabrics may be a 30 count. Heavy cotton duck fabric used for truck tarps may be made of 5-count yarn.

How Spun Yarn Count Is Expressed

The method of expressing yarn size of spun yarns differs by the fiber content. Yarns spun on the cotton count system, for cotton and cotton blends, are designated as c.c. for cotton count. They may also be specified as Ne for Number English and cc could be replace with Nec. Cotton and cotton-blend yarns are expressed by two numbers: The first is the yarn size and the second indicates the yarn ply. For example, 50/1 means a size- 50 single yarn. (In oral communication, it is called a “fifty single” or “fifties yarn”.) A 70/1 is a size-70 single yarn or 70 s; 60/2 yarn is called a 60 two-ply or 60 s two. Worsted, worsted blends, a nd acrylic fibers a re s pun on t he worsted count system a nd a re designated by w.c. or New. T hese yarns a re i ndicated in t he reverse order f rom t he c otton c ount s ystem. For example, 1/50 (referred to as one 50 or singles 50) is a singles yarn of 50-count size. A 2/40 yarn is t wo size-40 yarns plied together. This yarn is called a two-40 s yarn. Woolen a nd woolen blends yarns a re designated by the term run, or Nar such as 4-run yarn. T hey a re r arely plied and are single yarns unless otherwise indicated. Linen yarns a re expressed by t he term lea, or NeL, which is u sed for flax, jute, hemp, a nd ramie fibers. T hey are almost never plied because t he fiber length is so long that plying does not improve t he yarn measurably. T hus, they a re considered single yarns u nless otherwise i ndi- cated. Yarns as fine as 400-lea a re u sed to make fine lace. Spun yarns c an a lso be expressed in t he metric sys- tem. T he yarn size is i ndicated u sing t he term metric. For example, a 50-count metric yarn would be desig- nated as a 50 s metric. T he metric yarn-count s ystem expresses t he number of k ilometers of yarn p er k ilogram of weight. T he s ystem is u sed for all s pun yarns a nd is an i ndirect c ount method. It m ay be i ndicated by Nm and is f requently u sed in i nternational m arkets for a ny spun yarn except s pun c otton, which is i ndicated by Ne. Several classifications a re u sed for determining yarn c ounts. T hese classifications a re c alled yarn-count standards a nd a re di fferent for e ach fiber-spinning sys- tem. T he yarn-count standard represents t he number of yards in one p ound of a number 1 c ount of t hat s pecific yarn. The following standards are in general use:

Cotton and cotton blends 840

Spun silk and all spun 100 percent manufactured fiber yarns except acrylic

840

Worsted, worsted blends, and acrylic

560

Woolen and woolen blends (run) 1,600

300

Linen (lea)

All spun yarns (metric) 496.055

A number-1-count c otton h as 840 yards in one

pound (768 meters p er 453.6 g rams) of t he yarn, a nd

a number-1-count worsted h as 560 yards in one p ound

(512 meters p er 453.6 g rams) of t he yarn. B oth a re c alled number-1 yarns, yet e ach is of di fferent weight p er u nit

of length. T hus a 20 c otton c ount would be fi ner t han

a 20 worsted count because the former has 16,800 yards

per p ound (15,362 meters p er 453.6 g rams) a nd t he latter h as 11,200 yards p er p ound (10,214 meters p er 453.6 grams). Table 4.2 p rovides t ypical y arn number a nd d enier comparisons. W hen u sing t his t able, r emember t hat a 200-denier fi lament y arn is of e qual weight p er u nit of

length (and a pproximate t hickness) to a 4 0-count wor- s ted y arn, a 27-count c otton y arn, a 14-count woolen (run) y arn, a 74-count l inen (lea) y arn, a nd a 45-count metric. There a re m any other variations of yarn numbers used outside the United States.

Ply Yarn Counts and Singles Equivalent

Spun yarns that are plied are expressed as, for example, 40/2 (cotton type). This means that two yarns of 40/1 each have been twisted together. The thickness of the resulting ply yarn is about twice that of the original 40/1 yarn, or about the same thickness as 20/1 yarn because this is an inverse proportion system. The singles equiva- lent of a 50/2 is 25 count, and of a 45/3 is 15 count. Filament yarns a re r arely plied b ecause t hey ga in

little by b eing plied. W hen t hey a re, t he usual method of expressing such a yarn would b e, for example, t wo-ply 40 denier. T he singles e quivalent of such a yarn would be 80 denier.

Ply yarns a nd single-yarn e quivalents a re illustrated

in Figure 4.15.

The Tex System

The tex system is i ntended to r eplace a ll t he e xist - ing c ount a nd d enier s ystems w ith a s ingle s ystem f or

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Table 4.2

Yarn number Conversions

 
         

Woolen

Linen

   

Denier

Worsted

Cotton

(Run)

(Lea)

Tex

Metric

   

50*

160

106

 

56

298

5.6

180

Fine yarns

 

75

106

72

   

37

198

8.3

120

range

100

 

80

53

 

28

149

11.1

90

 

150

 

53

35

 

19

99

16.6

60

Medium

200

 

40

27

 

14

74

22.2

45

yarns range

300

 

27

18

 

9.3

50

33.4

30

400

 

20

13

 

7.0

37

44.4

22.5

 

500

 

16

11

 

5.6

30

55.5

18

700

 

11.4

7.6

 

4.0

21

77.7

12.9

Coarse

1000

 

8.0

5.3

   

2.8

15

111

9

yarns range

1500

 

5.3

3.5

 

1.9

10

166

6

2000

 

4.0

2.7

 

1.4

7

222

4.5

* Much finer filament yarns, as low as 10 denier, are commonly used.

 

60/1

60/1

60/1

60/1

60/1

100d

100d

100d

60/2 a
60/2
a
30/1 b
30/1
b

60/3

20/1 c
20/1
c

100d/3-ply

300d

100d 100d 60/2 a 30/1 b 60/3 20/1 c 100d/3-ply 300d singles equivalent singles equivalent singles

singles equivalent

singles equivalent

singles equivalent

Figure 4.15 Ply yarn and singles equivalents:

(a)

spun yarn, (b) spun yarn, and

(c)

filament yarn.

designating a ll y arn s izes. T he I nternational O rganiza - tion f or S tandardization ( ISO) h as a dopted t his s ys - tem a nd it is u tilized in t he s ewing t hread b usiness. The t ex s ystem is a d irect n umbering s ystem in w hich higher t ex n umbers c orrespond to i ncreasingly h eavier (thicker) y arns. T he t ex s tandard u ses g rams p er 1 ,000 meters. T hus, a 10 d y arn u sed f or p antyhose w ould be equivalent to a 1 .1 t ex y arn. D ecitex ( dtex) is o ften used w hen r eferring to a v ery l ow t ex n umber. T hus 5 .6 tex w ould be 5 60 d tex.

Sewing Threads

Sewing threads are special kinds of yarns that are engi- neered and designed to pass through a sewing machine rapidly, to form a stitch efficiently, and to function while in a sewn product without breaking or becoming

distorted for at least the useful life of the product. How adequately a specific thread performs these tasks depends on proper thread selection for the specified fabric and seam type used. American & Efird, Inc., is a major thread manufacturer.

Fibers Used for Threads

The fibers used for sewing threads are primarily cotton, nylon, polyester, and rayon. Cotton-covered polyester is the most widely used because of its relatively low cost and high versatility. The properties and character- istics of each of the fibers prevail when they are used as threads, and these properties should be considered in thread selection for specific end uses. Rayon, for example, is usually used for thread intended primarily for embroidery or decorative stitch work rather than for seaming to hold parts together.

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Types of Threads

Threads may be spun, filament, or core-spun t ype. Each has distinctive properties and therefore certain advan- tages in specific seams. A comparison of these thread types is shown in Table 4.3. All s ewing t hreads, whether s pun, fi lament, or c ore spun, are ply y arns. S ewing t hreads are more h ighly twisted a nd fi rmer t han reg ular y arns a nd are o ften treated w ith s pecial fi nishes or lubricants to i mprove sewability.

Thread Finishes

Threads are produced with various finishes, such as mer- cerized, soft, glacé, and bonded. In addition, special fin- ishes, which include flame-resistant and heat-resistant types (for high-speed sewing), are also produced. Table 4.4 indicates the properties and use characteristics of thread finishes.

Thread Sizes

Sizes (weight per unit length) of thread are marketed and expressed with their Tex number designation (see p. 82). An older system of specifying thread size, the ticket number system, based on denier and yarn-count systems, is still in use but is gradually being replaced in the thread industry. Table 4.5 indicates typical Tex num- bers in thread applications for various sewn products.

Important Factors in Thread Selection

Selecting the correct thread for assembly of finished goods is of critical importance. The type of thread used

will determine the ease of manufacture, durability of the product, and satisfaction of the consumer. Thread size should be as fi ne as p ossible, c onsis- tent w ith t he strength requirements of t he s eam. Finer threads tend to b ecome buried b elow t he su rface of t he fabric a nd a re, t herefore, subjected to less abrasion t han seams w ith heavier t hread, which a re on top of t he fab- ric. Finer t hreads a lso require smaller needles, producing less fabric distortion than heavier needles. The breaking strength of a s eam (see p. 321) should be less t han t hat of t he fabric s ewn. Many authorities agree t hat t he s eam should be about 60 p ercent of t he fabric strength. T his is to ensure t hat if excessive stress is placed on a s eam, t he s eam, r ather t han t he fabric, breaks. Seams are easily repairable; fabric is not. If a ga rment is to be washed in hot water, t hen its t hread should h ave excellent resistance to c olor change from t his medium. A lso, t he t hread should not shrink as a result of the cleaning method.

Important Thread Factors That Govern Seam Appearance

When w oven-filament y arn f abrics a nd/or f abrics t hat have b een fi nished w ith r esins a re s ewn, t here is s ome - times a t endency f or s eams to p ucker a nd r ipple r ather than to l ie fl at a nd s mooth. T he t endency is g reater in l ightweight f abrics t han in h eavyweight m aterials. Some of t he c auses of p uckering a re e xcessive t ension on s ewing t hread d uring t he s ewing p rocess, d isplace - ment or m ovement of f abric y arn in t he s ewing o pera - tion, a nd