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A seminar

on
A STUDY OF QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY
ASSURANCE AT CONSTRUCTION SITE

Guided by: Presented by:


Prof.D.A.Patel Harjimal Meena

SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


SURAT
INTRODUCTION

Construction Management:
• Construction Management refers to the study and practice of the managerial and
technological aspects of the construction industry
• Construction manager has to do project planning , cost management , safety

management ,quality management etc


• Quality management is very essential
• Under this heading quality control and quality assurance is practiced
Definition
• Quality control (QC): Is the ongoing, comprehensive, independent checking
and verification of those activities, which lead to a final product that meets or
exceeds the Department’s requirements.
• Quality Assurance (QA): Is all those actions necessary to provide confidence
that the Department’s Quality Control process has occurred

Need For Quality Control And Assurance In Construction:


• Concern for project managers

• Even minor defects in constructed facilities can cause heavy loss


• Quality control during construction consists largely of insuring conformance to
these original design and planning decisions.
ORGANIZING FOR QUALITY CONTROL AND ASSURANCE
• A variety of different organizations are possible for quality control during
construction
• Most common practice is to have two groups

1.for quality control.

2.for quality assurance.

• In large organization separate departments are formed .

• Specific Individuals are assigned with these functions on small projects.


• In both the cases project manager is concerned for the work.
WORK AND MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
• Specifications of work quality are an important feature of facility designs
• General specifications of work quality are available in numerous fields and are

issued in publications of organizations such as the American Society for Testing

and Materials (ASTM), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and
Indian standard codes for different work quality .
• Sometimes these specifications has to be changed depending upon the field
conditions
APPROACH TO QUALITY CONTROL BY STATISTICAL METHODS
• An ideal quality control program might test all materials and work on a particular

facility
• For example, non-destructive techniques such as x-ray inspection of welds can be
used throughout a facility
• Exhaustive or 100%percnt; testing of all materials and work by inspectors can be
exceedingly expensive
• As a result, small samples are used to establish the basis of accepting or rejecting a
particular work item
• Statistical methods are used to interpret the results of test on a small sample to
reach a conclusion .
QUALITY CONTROL AND ASSURANCE PLAN
• An inventory agency responsible for coordinating QA/QC activities;
• A QA/QC plan;
• general QC procedures ;
• Source category-specific QC procedures;
• QA review procedures;
• Reporting, documentation, and archiving procedures.

OJECTIVES OF QA PLAN
• Describe the quality program and organization to be implemented so that the
project is constructed in accordance with the contract requirements and industry
standards;
• Describe guidelines for inspection and documentation of construction activities;
• Provide reasonable assurance that the completed work will meet or exceed the
requirements of the construction drawings and specifications.
PROJECT QC/QA ORGANIZATION
Construction Manager

Construction Contractors

Site Manager

Construction Quality Assurance Officer

Senior Field Engineer

Field Inspectors
QC Testing:
• As required by the contract specifications, the contractor shall establish a test
program
• To ensure that all required testing is properly identified, planned, documented and
performed under controlled and suitable environmental conditions, including
cleanliness

QA Testing:
• The CQAO will be responsible for the QA materials sampling and testing program.
QA testing is provided for the verification of the adequacy and effectiveness of the
contractor’s QC testing
Why Quality Assurance Programs fail:
– Starting site work without an acceptable, approved Quality Control Plan

– Inadequately developed Quality Control contract provisions

– Inadequately enforced Quality Control contract provisions

– Delay in submitting an acceptable Quality Control Plan

– Inadequate qualifications of personnel in the quality control organization

– Untimely or incomplete reports

– Failure to take corrective action when deficiencies exist

– Late or incomplete reporting of tests and inspections

– Lack of interest by contractors management personnel


CASE STUDY
SIX/FOUR LANING OF BHARUCH-SURAT SECTION
OF NH-8, ON BOT BASIS (BOT PACKAGE-2)

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE PROJECT:


• Type of project : Infrastructure
• Type of contract : Built operate transfer (BOT)
• End use of project : Road transportation
• Owner/ Authority : National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
• Concessionaire : M/s IDAA infrastructure Ltd.
• Contractor : M/s IRB Infrastructures Pvt Ltd
• Independent Consultant : M/s STUP consultants Pvt Ltd
• PMC : M/s NAC designs Pvt Ltd
• Date of signing of concession agreement: 7th July 2006
• Date of starting: 7thJanuary 2007
• Construction Time frame: 30 months
• Intended date of completion: 6th July 2009
• Concession period: 15 years
QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE MANAGEMENT

SYSTEM
FEILD INSPECTION SYSTEM
• A 3 level field quality control system is established at site. For every activity executed, there
are at least 2 agencies inspecting it
• The PMC (Project Management Consultancy) appointed by Concessionaire is

responsible for day-to-day inspection of the works being done by the contractor
• PMC inspects the work for its accordance with specifications and after finding it appropriate
allows the contractor for further work by accepting the RFI submitted as ‘Accepted ’. Without
approval of consultant contractor cannot proceed further on that work
• Other than PMC appointed by the concessionaire the client – NHAI has appointed an
Independent Consultant (IC) for monitoring of works on its behalf.
• contractor itself has deployed engineers to monitor the work going on project
REQUSITION FOR INSPECTION (RFI)
• Most important documentary evidence for a work executed by the contractor is RFI .It is a
detail sheet of all aspects of works executed.
• Along with the RFI, documents pertaining to levels, formwork, inspection checklists, material
test results, Concrete pour card, Stressing and grouting records, material consumption records,
comments of independent and engineering consultant.

MATERIAL TESTING
• One of the important aspects of quality management is quality of materials. And for
maintaining a regular check on quality of material a field laboratory housing all the necessary
tools and equipments becomes a must on large scale projects.
• Regular testing of all materials is required as the batches of supply keep on changing and the
ultimate quality of the structure is highly dependant on quality and properties of the used
material.
FIELD LABORATORY
• For testing properties and quality of materials used and for other quality checks on
concrete and bitumen mix tests a site laboratory is of great importance.
• Most important of its benefits is of quick and at will results

SPECIFICATIONS
• All the Materials shall be tested and incorporated in the works by the contractor
after obtaining the approval of the engineer (PMC Consultants)
• The Contractor shall arrange to provide fully furnished and adequately equipped
field laboratory constructed near the site. The field laboratory shall preferably be
located adjacent to the site office of the Engineer
MATERIALS
Testing procedures for materials are as follows
a).Soil
Tests conducted on Soil are as follows:
1. Grain size distribution
2. Liquid and Plastic limit
3. California bearing test
4. Density test
5. Density of compacted soil – Nuclear density test/Sand
replacement
6. Plate load test for compacted soil in approaches
b) Bitumen and Bituminous Mixes
Testing of Bitumen and Bituminous Mixes
1. Penetration Test
2. Ductility Test
3. Softening Point Test
c) Aggregates
Tests Conducted On Road Aggregates
1. Flakiness and elongation index
2. Los Angeles abrasion value
3. Aggregate impact value
4. Water absorption
REFERENCES:
• Seetharaman, S., “Construction Engineering and Management”, Umesh
Publications, New Delhi, (2000)
• Brain Thorpe,Peter Sumner, “Quality Management in Construction”,Gower
,(1992)
• James Jerome O’Brein,Leonard P.Schaefer,Rita F,Gibson, “Construction
Inspection Handbook”,Van Nostrand Reinhold ,(1983)
• H.W.Chung , “Understanding Quality Assurance in Construction: A Practical
Guide to ISO 9000 for Contractors”,Taylor &Francis ,(1999)
• Sidney M Levy , “Project Management in Construction”,McGraw-Hill
Professional ,(2000)
• Charles S.Hughes , “State Construction Quality Assurance Programs”,
Transportation Research Board,(2005)
• Barbara J.Jackson , “Construction Management Jumpstart”, Wiley_Default ,
(2004)
• Franklin S.Kurtz, “The Contractor’s Guide to Quality Concrete
Construction”,American Concrete Institute ,(2005)
• Robert S.Mann,Bob Mann, “Defect-Free Buildings A Construction Manual
for Quality Control and Conflict Resolution”, McGraw-Hill
Professional,(2006)
• John M Duncan,Brain Thorpe,Peter Sumner,“Quality Assurance in
Construction”, Gower, (1990)
• Frank Harris ,Ronald McCaffer , “Modern Construction Management”,
Blackwell Publishing ,(2001)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

• The success of any work depends largely on the encouragement and


guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to
the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this
seminar.
• I would like to show my greatest appreciation to Prof. Dilip A. Patel, my
seminar guide. I can’t thank him enough for his tremendous support and
help. I felt motivated and encouraged every time I attended a meeting with
him. Without his encouragement and guidance, this seminar would not have
materialized.
• I am also thankful to Dr. B.K. Samtani, Head of the Department & Dr.
J.E.M Macwan, Seminar Co-coordinator, for their invaluable motivation in
this regards.
• I also thank M/S IRB Infrastructures Pvt. Ltd. for providing me with
invaluable information about their SIX/FOUR LANING OF BHARUCH-
SURAT SECTION OF NH-8, ON BOT BASIS (BOT PACKAGE-2)
PROJECT, for my case study included in the seminar.
• I thank my friends & Family members for their support from time to time.
• I am grateful for their constant support and help.
THANKING YOU