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3200 Grammar Notes Unit 1

Sentence needs sense of completeness: names what were talking about and tells something Predicate o makes statement about subject o complete: telling part of sentence Subject o Complete: the naming part of sentence o Simple: noun or pronoun Verb o Auxiliary: helping verbs o Helping: shall, will may, can could, would, should must, might o Complete: main verb + helping verb o Action: actions of body/mind o Linking: verb that links (pro)noun or adjective Example: be, seem, become, look, feel, get Cant complete sentence alone Patterns o 1: Subject-Action Verb action verb by itself makes complete sentence complement sometimes needed after verb to complete meaning of sentence o 2: Subject-Action Verb-Direct Object direct object: follows the action verb direct object: receives the action o 3: Subject-Action Verb-Indirect Object-Direct Object indirect object is in between direct object and action verb (when present) indirect object: to whom/for whom to what/for what o 4: Subject-Linking Verb-Subject Complement subject complement: describes/identifies the subject subject complement follows linking verb linking verb cannot stand alone Adjective + Subject dont make sentence Modifiers o Adjective: word that modifies (pro)nouns Answer Which one? What kind? How many? If theyre subject complements, they come after subject/nouns they modify o Adverb: word that modifies verbs, adverbs, and adjectives Answer When? Where? How? Under what conditions? To what extent? Why? Phrases o Prepositional Group of words that begins with a preposition (word that shows relationship of (pro)noun that follows it to some other word in sentence) and ends with a subject Can modify the object of the preceding prepositional phrase Some words can be used as prepositions or adverbs o Adjective Prepositional phrase that modifies (pro)noun o Adverb Prepositional phrase that modifies adverb, verb, or adjective Can be moved from one position to another

Unit 2
Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Compound: having more than one part Compound Sentence: a sentence made by joining two (or more) simple sentences within a conjunction o Put a comma before the conjunction and but or or when it connects the two parts of the compound sentence o Three most common conjunctions: and, but, or o Two parts of compound sentence must be equal in importance Simple Sentence: sentence that can be separated into two parts o Can combine two simple sentences by using either a conjunction or semicolon Try to save words by using a compound predicate Semicolon: device for holding two sentences together o Not a conjunction o Only this has the power to hold two sentences together WITHOUT a conjunction Only a sentence makes sense by itself Appositive: noun or pronoun set after another noun or pronoun to explain it Noun Clause o Used as (pro)nouns o Begin with a relative pronoun o Cant be omitted Exception: noun clauses used as indirect objects or appositives o When start with whoever/whomever, treat as who/whom, respectively Adverb Clause o Clause used as an adverb o Can be moved from one position to another in a sentence o Modifies verb, adverb, or adjective o Subordinate: of lower rank Word groups that do not make a complete sense apart from a sentence Subordinating conjunction: subordinate word that connects a clause with a sentence After, although, whenever, where, while, even, before, as long as, unless, etc. To subordinate a fact/idea is like taking an article from the front of the sentence and putting it to the back Begins an adverb clause Adjective Clause o Modifies (pro)nouns o Relative Pronoun: pronoun that starts adjective clauses Who whom whose which that Use who, whom, whose for people Use which for things and animals Use that for anything May sometimes be omitted You can recognize these no signal clauses if you watch for a subject -verb combo right after the noun I think, I suppose, We hope When this follows relative pronoun, choose same form of pronoun as if it wasnt there o Useful in combining sentences when one sentence states an explanatory fact about (pro)noun in the previous sentence o Strengthen a weak sentence (compound) by changing one of the statements to an adjective clause Complex Sentence o Sentence that contains a clause o Contains one or more subordinating clauses o Exact relationship between to facts/ideas brought out by this Who vs. Whom o Who: pronoun is the subject of the verb Subjects Subject complements o Whom: the pronoun is the object of the verb or preposition DO IO OOP o The way an entire noun clause is used in a sentence has NO BEARING on your choice of who/whom Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Unit 3

And: used to add on idea to another o Objectionable only when it steals the job of words such as Who, which, as, when, because, and although o Can be eliminated to make an adverb or adjective clause Verbal: verb that has cross the boundary line and become another class of word without completely losing its identity of a verb o Participle: adjective that is formed by adding a different ending to a verb Participial Phrase: participles with their related words Used as adjectives Present End in -ing Past End in ed, -d, -en, -n, -t Used after the word have o Gerund: noun that is formed by adding ing to the verb Any verb can be turned into a gerund Used as nouns Can take direct objects and subject complements Gerund Phrase: phrases formed by gerunds with their related words o Infinitive: basic form of a verb from which all other forms are derived (before conjugation) Can take direct objects and subject complements Infinitive Phrase: phrases formed by infinitives with their related words Appositive: noun or pronoun that is set after another noun or pronoun to explain it o Appositive Phrase: An appositive with its modifiers Only consists of (pro)noun and its modifiers. NO VERB Simplifying: to reduce a word group Reduction: process of reducing a word group to a simpler word group o Omit useless words o Doesnt mean that you can take out words that have meaning o Can sometimes change adjective clause to just adjective This adjective is often present or past participle Any adj. clause describing someone can be changed to appositive o Prepositional phrase can sometimes be reduced to single adj/adv Elliptical clause: Adverb clause from which words have been omitted Adverbial modifier: an adverb, an adverb phrase, or an adverb clause o Adds variety to your writing o Show emphasis o Adverbial Clause: (if + idea) can only be expressed without using the clause signal if at all Adjective clause o Special type is useful when you wish to state a fact about only a part or number One of which Several or whom Two of which Most of which o In similar type of adjective clause, noun precedes the word of which Noun clause o Moving the noun clause to the end and adding an introductory word makes a sentence less rigid o Often used as an appositive after the words the fact o Noun Participle Phrase: consists of a noun followed by a present/past participle that modifies this noun No grammatical connection with rest of sentence Present participle doesnt modify a word in main statement Absolute phrase: (independent) a noun participle phrase Once o can sometimes be used as an adverb clause signal in place of if, when, after, or as soon as o makes sentence more empathetic No soonerthan o in this type of sentence, usually you need a helping verb such as Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Unit 4

Unit 5

o o

was, did, had followed by than NOT when other sentences like this not onlybut also the morethe more the lessthe less shows that as one thing increases/decreases, something else increases/decreases

Unit 6
Sentence: complete thought, subject, and verb Sentence may begin with a pronoun ever though the noun that the pronoun stand for in another sentence Fragment: if it doesnt pass YES to any of the above o Sentence fragments can result from splitting off a clause or phrase from the beginning of the sentence o Dont let appositive phrase become a fragment o Dont be careless by cutting off last part of compound predicate Noun Participle Phrase: noun followed by a present or past participle No comma is used before the conjunction when it connects two parts of a compound predicate Sentence ends only when the last grammatically connected idea has been expressed Number of words does not determine if its a sentence or not. o Sentence could be two words so long that it meets requirements o There could be 50 words in a group and it still doesnt make a sentence Run-on Sentence: running one sentence into another without a period (or other punctuation) and a capital letter o Opposite of fragments o Mainly occur if the writer just thinks to only add a comma 4 ways to correct run on sentence o separate it using period and capital letter o add conjunction and o insert semicolon o change one sentence to phrase/clause Conjunctions cannot be shifted throughout sentence like conjunctive adverbs (therefore, besides, however) o (therefore, however, etc.) Cannot harness power of conjunctions Wherever misunderstanding might occur, place the adverb only, just, merelyeven. Before it and nearest to it Unless the adjective clause is placed right after the word it modifies, you may read it connected to the wrong thing Modifiers can get in one anothers ways, making an awkward sentence. o You can often fix this by moving the adverb clause to the beginning of the sentence Adverb phrases and clauses are movable Clauses that have subjects tell who/what they are about Phrases do not tell whom/what theyre about o Therefore, sentence must answer who/what After an introductory word group that lacks a subject, do not use possessive form of (pro)noun to answer who/what Dont hesitate to start sentences with word groups that dont tell who/what Vocabulary o Misplaced Modifier: not in its proper place with relation to the word it modifies o Parallel Construction: the principle of expressing similar ideas in a similar/parallel way Basic idea: if your first item begins with a participle, then all should begin with participles Aka: if first item is clause, then all others should be clauses (same with adjectives) It doesnt matter which pattern you use at the beginning so long as you follow through with same pattern A way of streamlining your writing, giving your sentences smooth, clean lines Needed when you use words them, as, as well as Does not mean having word-for-word match between the parallel word groups o Dangling Phrase: phrase that has no word to modify or appears to modify the wrong word o Reference: referring to another word (antecedent to pronoun) o Ambiguous: having more than one meaning Sentences are confusing when it is not clear to which of two words a pronoun refers to Get rid of this by shifting the false antecedent to a position after the pronoun o Deadwood: when people use pretentious language, by repeating themselves and expressing themselves in a round about way Dont pack extra meaningless words to elongate the sentence, develop your thoughts Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Unit 7

It is wrong to define a thing as a place or time o All you have to do is define it in a word or two then add a clause after o When actually talking about a time or place, use when or where o Use occurred, happened, or took place to avoid is when or is where o Pretty much, dont say Aerodynamics is where Use pronouns instead of nouns to avoid repeating the nouns o Pronouns I and you require no antecedents because there can be no doubt about to whom they refer o Pronouns require antecedents whenever there can be any doubt whom or what they refer to Use article a when before a consonant sound, and an before a vowel sound Dont omit that from a noun clause when its used as a subject complement after any form of the linking verb be Make comparisons only between things of the same class o Make sure comparisons are logical

Unit 8
Plural subjects need plural verbs, singular subjects need singular verbs In the present tense, a verb without a final s may be either singular or plural, but with a final s, verb is always singular Verb should agree in number with its subject, not with a subject complement that might follow it Each, either, neither: nouns or pronouns Dont let of phrases sway the decision for verbslook at subject! When two singular subjects joined by and mean the same thing, use singular verb Phrase introduced by with, along with, together, as well as, etc. often follows subject. Dont mistake the noun in these phrases for the subject If one of the subjects is joined by or/nor is singular and the other is plural, the verb should agree with the closer word. In an adjective clause, a verb should agree with its subject o When relative pronoun stands for a singular noun, use singular verb. Same with plural and plural o To make a statement about the only one among a larger number, always use a singular verb in the adjective clause To make a sentence more forceful, start with (t)here is, (t)here are In interrogative sentences, the verb precedes the subject Singular nouns o Kind, Sort, Type o Weights o Measurements o Period of time o Amounts of money Collective noun: noun that means a group or collection of persons or animals o EX: Family Unit 9(a big thanks to Natalie Boyle for providing the notes for this unit) Principle Parts of a Verb: past, present, past participle o Past participle: form we use to combine with any form of the helping verb have or be Regular vs. Irregular Verbs o Regular: when both past and past participle forms end with ed o Irregular: when both past and past participle forms dont end in ed 2 Rules to avoid misusing past and past participle o never use past participle by itself without some form of helping verb be or have o never use simple past form of three-part verb after any helping verb be or have principal parts: 3 basic forms of a verb Past participle: the form we use in combination with any form of the helping verb have or be irregular verbs: ones whose past participles don't end in -ed One part verbs: verbs with only one form for all uses (present, past, past participle) three part verbs: special form for past participle Don't confuse past and past-participle! (2 tips) o Never use past participle by itself without a form of have or be o Never use simplest form of a 3 part verb after a helping verb Ring-rang-rung pattern (i-a-u). Past and past participle are different 5 Trouble Irregulars do go Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

run come become come and run are 3 part verbs! Lay vs. Lie 1. to lie - to rest in a flat position; to be in place present - lie; past - lay; P.P. - lain 2. to lay - to put (down) or to place something A. present - lay; past - laid; P.P. - laid Sit vs. Set 1. to sit - to take a sitting position, to be in place B. present - sit; past - sat; P.P. - sat 2. to set - to place something C. present - set; past - set; P.P - set Raise vs. Rise 1. to raise - to make something rise; to lift something up D. present - raise; past - raised; P.P. - raised 2. to rise - to go up; to get up E. present - rise; past - rose; P.P. - risen tense - time You CANNOT change tense mid-sentence unless there is a change in time occurring Present tense is used for things that are always true (e.g. facts, measurements EVEN when you did something in 2 the past involving something (e.g. forgot 2 IS 4, remembered there ARE two cups to a pint) Past participle + a form of have = perfect tense present perfect Present form of have + P.P. used for actions that began in the past BUT continue in the present past perfect Past form of have (had) + P.P. Used for an earlier action mentioned in a later action Though they're mentioned in order of occurrence, actions can be emphasized by using pat perfect tense to show the first action was completed before the second action began In an "if" clause with past perfect, "would have" is wrong! future perfect Future form of have (will/shall have) + P.P. used for actions that will have been completed at a specified future time infinitives cause problems. For these verbs that point to the future, use an infinitive hope plan expect intend Active verb: a verb whose subject performs an action passive verb: a verb whose subject is acted upon. ALWAYS has a past participle combined with a form of to be! Use a passive verb when... - the "doer" of the action is unknown - it's obvious who the doer is - to avoid naming who made a mistake Adjectives: modify only (pro)nouns o To change ly adjectives to adverbs, put them in prepositional phrase Adverbs: modify only (ad)verbs and adjectives o ly signals adverb o ly is not exclusive to adverbs thoughcan be adjectives too Look smell taste feel hear (sound): Sense Verbs o When verbs mean actions of body, use adverbs to describe actions o They can be linking verbs in which case you use adjectives o Whenever a sense verb is used as a linking verb, you can often times replace it with form of be o If sense verb is used as a linking verb, follow it with adjective good Well vs. Good Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Unit 10

o Adverb: well to describe action o Adjective: good to describe something Do not use kind of/sort of as adverbial modifiers o Use rather or somewhat Case: the change in form of pronouns to show their relationship to other words o Nominative case: pronoun is in this when it fits before an action verb as in subject Use for a pronoun that follows any form of verb be Use dress up occasions or when we are with people who observe traditions who o Objective case: pronoun is in this when it fits after an action verb as its direct object Use on casual occasions Whom o Possessive: word that shows ownership is in this case Add s (singular) Add (plural) Common plural nouns that dont end in s; therefore, add s to make possessive Men Women Children People Make sure you have the correct spelling of the owner(s) before the apostrophe Apostrophe belongs in the word showing ownership, not in a word that is part of a modifying phrase/clause To avoid this error, show ownership of the word by using of phrase When pronoun follows the word than or as in a comparison, think of missing words Pronouns are frequently used as appositives Reminder: in expressions like we (or us) boys, omit boys Pronouns o Reflexive: when a pronoun reflects or turns back the action of the verb to the doer of the verb Dont use in place of simple pronoun like I, he, or we o Intensive: when pronouns ending in self/selves are used after a (pro)noun to emphasize or intensify it o Demonstrative: used to point out This, that, those, these o Possessive: show possession without apostrophe His, hers, mine, yours, ours, theirs First Person: I, we Second Person: you (person speaking uses the pronoun to address person spoken to) Third Person: he, she, they (indicates the person(s) spoken about) Person should agree with antecedent in number Singular o Everyone o Everybody o Someone o Somebody o Anybody o Any person o ones and bodys o Use singular pronouns and possessive nouns, unless the pronoun that refers to it is nominative or objective, then forced to use plural pronoun their/them o Doesnt always follow singular rule If a pronoun can be either gender, use his or her or him or her Dont go by ear to determine what pronoun to use Compound sentence consists of two or more main clauses joined by conjunction (and, but, or) o Use comma generally before conjunctions (and but or) in a compound sentence o Commas are generally omitted in short compound sentences o Do not use comma before conjunction in a sentence with compound predicate For variety/emphasis, often begin sentence with an adverbial modifier (word, phrase, clause) o Using comma after introductory adverb sets the adverb a part, giving it emphasis Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

Unit 11

Unit 12

Comma is more frequently used after a long introduction as opposed to a short one After short introductory phrases that tell time/place, commas omitted o *When the end clause begins with for (meaning because) a comma is needed to prevent misreading A series is a number of similar things that follow one after another o In a sentence, a series is three or more words/phrases/clauses all used in the same way o Use commas between items of a series, and not before or after (unless a comma is required for another reason) o Number of required commas is always one less than number of items in a series (for a series) o Its not wrong to omit the comma between last two items of a series, but dont do it if theres a chance of misunderstanding o Do not use commas if (when) all items in a series are connected by and/but/or Use a comma between two adjectives when they modify same noun and arent completely connected Interrupting expressions can be omitted without damaging the meaning/completeness of a sentence Parenthetical expressions: added words or phrases to make their meaning (the sentence) clearer or more empathetic Use not phrase to show contrary beliefs Dates and addresses consist of three parts o After first part of date/address, put a comma both before and after each additional part unless it ends the sentence When well/why/yes/no are used in a sentence as an opener, it is generally followed by a comma Restrict: limit in number o Participial phrases can be restrictive or nonrestrictive o Sentence usually becomes untrue when you omit a restrictive clause o Nonrestrictive clause: a clause which merely adds a fact that is not essential to the meaning of sentence Semicolon o May be used in place of conjunction (and but or) to connect the main clauses in a compound sentence o Can take place of the clause signal because in complex sentence Colon o Use before an item or a series of items introduced by a statement that is grammatically complete o May be used before a single item that is introduced by a complete statement Dashes o Cant be used in place of commas or periods, but gives more force o Use to set off series of appositives Quotes o Direct quotation: repeats persons remark directly in his own words Always capitalize first letter o Indirect quotation: reports a persons remarks indirectly in someone elses words o That is used often to change direct to indirect quotations o When quotation asks a question, first decide whether youre repeating the actual words or repeating your own words o When the question comes first, be sure to put the question mark at the end of the question, not at the end of the sentence Exclamation points handled the same way Contractions: two in one words o EX: weve, cant, lets o Put an apostrophe in the place of the omitted letter(s) o Adverb not is shortened to nt in many contractions o Dont change any letters in the original words o Dont confuse contractions with possessive pronouns which are pronounced the same Its vs. its Capitalization Rules o Capitalize proper nouns o Capitalize geographical names that apply to particular countries, sections of countries, states, cities, oceans, rivers, lakes, etc. o Capitalize the names of nationalities, languages, races, religions, and adjectives formed from these names (American, Catholic, etc.) o Capitalize the entire names of organizations, companies, buildings, theaters, and institutions such as schools, clubs, churches, libraries, and hospitals o Capitalize the names of the days of the week, months, and holidays, but not names of seasons o Capitalize the brand names of particular products, but not the types of products that they identify Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

o o o o o o o

Capitalize the names of governmental bodies, agencies, departments, and offices Capitalize titles that show a persons profession, rank, office, or family relationship when they are used with personal names Capitalize the first word and all important words in titles of books, stories, movies, works of art, musical compositions, etc. Capitalize the names of historical events, periods, and documents Capitalize all sacred names and religious titles Capitalize proper adjectives that modify common nouns DONT CAPITALIZE Foods, Games Musical in statements Occupations Diseases Trees, Flowers Birds, Animals and fish

Huckleberry Finn by John Steinbeck

(a thanks to Kate Mosteller for providing us with this portion) Chapter 1 -widow douglas: let huck come and live with her -miss watson: widow douglas sister, lives with them -huck is really superstitious Chapter 2 jim-miss watsons slave -jim is superstitious -tom is a prankster -huck is caring -huck has no family but his dad who is a drunk Chapter 3 -tom had a good imagination -said they were going to rob arabs and spaniards of elephants and camels -really it was just sunday school -teaches huck about genies -miss watson told huck he will get what he prays for Chapter 4 -hucks dad is back -huck runs to judge thatchers to give all his money to judge -huck talks to jim and his hairball -huck still superstitious Chapter 5 -pap is back in hucks room -he is mean and tells huck to drop out of school -gets drunk -new judge takes him and tries to change him but it doesnt work Chapter 6 -pap steals huck and lives in a cabin with him -pap gets drunk a lot -huck thinking of ways to get out -pap goes crazy and tries to kill huck Chapter 7 -huck escapes and makes it looks like robbers killed him -sails to jackson island Chapter 8 -huck hears cannons being fired to make his carcass come to the top Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

-also finds bread with quicksilver in it to eat (bakers bread) -the ferry came by looking for huck -huck made time by exploring -found out that jim was on the island at=that -jim thinks huck is a ghost -huck makes breakfast -jim ran away because he thought miss watson was going to sell him -jim used to tackle live stock (gamble) Chapter 9 -stormy -jim and huck find a cavern to live in in a rock -it rains for 10-12 days -see a house floating and they find a dead guy in it -they take a bunch of stuff Chapters 10-15 -jim gets bit by a rattle snake -new moon over left shoulder= bad luck -cause six foot two hundred pound catfish -huck is bored and he wants to go into town so he dresses up like a girl -sees a new woman in town and wants to talk to her because she wont now who huck is -huck says his name is sarah williams from hookerville -abner moore -women is judith loftus -judith tells huck about suspects for his murder -figures out he is a boy -jim and huck went to IL side -watched boats at channel -jim built a wigwam -saw a sinking steamboat -went to explore -inside were jake packar, bill, and jim turner -bill wanted to kill turner for something -didnt want turner to tell something -huck and turner escape -stern of texas -huck wants to trick a skiff -says family is on wreck called walter scott -huck tells about solomon -raft gets disconnected -huck tricks jim about it -tells him it was a dream -jim is mad Chapters 16-20 -raft- procession -jim really wants cairo because it means freedom for him -huck feels guilty -huck tricks bounty hunters and get 40 bucks -passed cairo in the fog -raft ruined by steamboat -rachel: old lady -buck: kid -betsey: slave -stephen dowling bots: fell down a well -emmeline grangerford: daughter who died -huck really likes the house -explains the parlor -col. grangerford Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

-tom and bob -miss charlotte-25 -miss sophia-20 -3 sons died -shepherdsons -young harney shepherdson -they kill each other, bud died -miss sophia-testament -huck named himself george jackson -jim in forest -hucks slave is jack -miss sophia ran off to marry harney -cousin joe shot -buck died -jim and huck leave -raft is relaxing -save 2 men, one seventy and one thirty -one says he is the duke of bildgewater -other says he is dauphin son of louis xvi and marie antoinette -king and dike join the raft -went to pike county, pokeville in missouri -st. jaques, where jim ran away -king makes up story about being a changed pirate -gets $87.75 -goes to print press -finds reward for jim Chapters 21-30 -king and duke decide they need encores -duke does the highland fling or sailors hornpipe -kings does hamlets soliloquy -going to put on their play in some town of arkansas -duke: david gerrick -king: edmund kean -hank, bill, buck, andy, joe -lafe buckner -ben thompson -boggs -rode into kill colonel sherburn -colonel sherburn killed boggs -want to lynch sherburn -gives a whole speech about being cowards -minus half-man buck flarkness -fun circus (bully circus) -horse trick -no one comes to play -decide to put on a new one called the kings cameleopard or the royal nonesuch -new play was just the king painted -audience=sold -made $465 in three nights -huck tells story about henry the 8th and 1001 tales jims kid elizabeth and johnny -elizabeth is deaf -paint jim (sick arab) -learn a story about some mans family on a steamboat -man was going to new orleans -pretend to be uncles to get money -$415 -$6000 -harvey wilks -peter wilks died Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

-daughters: mary jane, susan, johanna -doctor can tell hes a fraud -sir elexander blodgett -adolphus -harelip is jo -gets in trouble for thinking huck is lying -wants to turn in the king and buck -huck takes money from them -hid the money in the coffin -dog ran through sermon with a rat -undertaker popular -sold the wilks slaves -huck tells mary jane the truth -makes her promise to go to mr. lothrops -royal nonesuch, bricksville -go before breakfast because her face would give it away -wont give her love -full of sand -grit to pray for judus -proctors, hanner -steamboat landed with real uncles -levi bell-lawyer gone up to louisville -susan powell cincinnati -lawyer asks both to sign a paper so he could compare handwriting -went to tavern -ab turner -thinks theyre both frauds -mary jane had the most sand -dug up corpse -found gold -huck ran -escaped king and duke but then they came back on skiff -wilted down on planks -huck makes up story avout why he ran -duke and king blame each other for hiding the money -king owns up Chapters 31-40 -jim is gone -huck writes note to miss watson -tears it up, goes to phelps -runs into duke -tell him raft is gone -finds out they sold jim -duke says he sold jim to abram g foster 40 miles away in lafayette -phelps=lonely -dogs -providence -thinks huck is cousin tom -lize, aunt sally, silas phelps, lally rook, cousin tom is tom sawyer -tom says he will help steal jim -jimmy is one of the kids -tom says he is william thompson from hicksville ohio -kissed aunt sally -tom pretends to be sid sawyer -duke and king got tar and feathered -figure out where jim is being imprisoned -each made a plan but they chose toms -play a trick on the slave feeding jim -thinks hes haunted by withces -tom thinks his plan is too easy Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

-finished the hole and reached jim -jim is healthy -Nat is the slave that feeds jim -made a rope ladder pie -aunt sally starts realizing everything is going missing -makes jim write an inscription -bugs and rats are running all over the house -their plan goes well except that huck runs into a bunch of farmers ready to catch jim when he escapes -they escape and get to raft but tom gets shot -they send for a doctor who figures out Jim is a runaway Chapters 41-Chapter the last -aunt sally is worried cause she thinks tom is dead -doctor comes back with tom and Jim -farmers want to hang jim, doctor says no he was a good slave -aunt Polly shows up -jim gets released -dead man in the floating house was pap -aunt sally adopts huck

Author Notebook
1. Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) a. First notable American poet (Puritan) b. Coming to America i. Born in England (Anne Dudley) ii. Received good education iii. 1628: 16 years old; married Simon Bradstreet iv. 1630: sailed to Massachusetts v. Personal poetry got her through hardships c. Personal poetry i. Focused on realities of her life ii. 8 children, house, and husband iii. published poems in a volume called The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America: first book of poetry published by American colonist d. Authority without wisdom is like a heavy axe without an edge, fitter to bruise than polish e. Politicians wife f. Ran the house due to husbands traveling g. The colony in England would one day take care of England h. Rhyming couplets: every 2 lines rhyme i. Upon the Burning of Our House i. What is she going to miss? 1. Trunk and chest (treasures) 2. Furniture and candle 3. Store 4. Memories and good times 5. Dinners and rooms ii. What did she say about God? 1. I blest His name that gave and took. j. Good side of Puritan faith k. RANDOM VOCAB SHE GAVE US i. Inverted syntax: reversal in the expected order of words ii. Metaphor: comparison not using like or as (between two things; complicated and easily understood) iii. Couplets: two lines (can rhyme) 2. Jonathon Edwards (1703-1758) a. Believed that religion should be rooted in emotion rather than reason b. Americas greatest religious thinker c. East Windsor, Connecticutentered Yale at 12 d. Puritan minister e. Delivered sermons; helped trigger the Great Awakening: a religious revival that swept through New England (1734-1758) Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

f. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God: most famous sermon g. Imagerycreating pictures in your mind when you read h. (this is the story/guy that we drew a picture of) i. So that, thus it is that natural men are held in the hand of God, over the pit of hell 3. John Steinbeck (1902?) th a. Wrote about 20 century b. Dishonest author who exposed dirty little secrets c. American writer d. Kind of like Tom Sawyersocially awkward kid e. Shameless magpie f. wrote Red Pony, The Pearl, and Grapes of Wrath rd g. 2 divorces, 3 Marriage= Elane h. Winter of Our Discontent 4. Sir Thomas Malory (? ?) a. How Arthur was Crowned King b. What values are reflected in this story? i. Acceptance ii. Commitment (keeping a promise) iii. Loyalty to his family iv. Honor v. Faith (Gods will) vi. Patience (hes dedicated to following rules) vii. Responsibility viii. Humble ix. Forgiving of men who made him prove himself c. Characters: Merlin, King Uther, Arthur, Sir Kay (brother) 5. Mark Twain (18351910) a. Life on the River i. Samuel Langhorne Clemens ii. Hannibal, MO iii. Worked at early age in printing and newspaper iv. Spent four years on the river b. On the Move i. Twain traveled west ii. The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County iii. Traveled the world c. Twains legacy i. Married in 1870 ii. Produced Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in Hartford, CONN d. Tragedy Haunts the Later Years i. In debt ii. Bankruptcy in 1893 iii. 2 daughters died and wifes health failed e. Recall: What new job does Mark Twain begin? i. Mark Twain begins a new career of being a river boat pilot along the Mississippi River. f. Recall: How does Twain react to Mr. Bixbys initial instruction? i. Twain had his own opinion, and he decided to not do what the pilot wanted. He went against Mr. Bixby. g. Summarize: As Twains training continues, what does he lear n? i. Mark Twain learns that when you know the seas well enough, somewhat like they are roads with street signs and land marks, then all the beauty escapes. You no longer look at the river and nature as beauty. You look at it for signs and meanings of something that might happen, such as storms. h. More About Twain: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn i. Published in 1884 ii. First half missing for a century (1880s) iii. 665 page handwritten iv. Suthebys auction house v. Found by 62 year old librarian 1. Grandfather was Twains friend (James Fraser Gluck) 2. Had been in attic for 30 years Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1

vi. 1885: Twain sent Gluck 475 page manuscript and 210 loose leaf papers (second half of book) vii. Lies in Buffalo and Erie County Public Library viii. Library has 2 1887 letters to author saying it once possessed both halves of the manuscript ix. Written in dialect 6. Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) a. Always wore all white b. Stayed to herself c. Amherst, Massachusetts th d. One of greatest American poets of 19 Century e. Family Ties i. Puritan father ii. Mother who did not care for thought iii. Close relationship with older brother Austin and younger sister Vinnie iv. 1847: she left home v. Felt torn between her own convictions and religious beliefs of those around her f. Writers Life i. Devoted to poetry in 1850s ii. Inspired by her own experiences iii. Gradually withdrew from world g. Poetic Legacy i. 1886: wrote letter to cousins that read Called Back 1. realized she was dying ii. Vinnie found her poems in a box iii. Volume of 1775 in all published in 1890 h. Bedroom overlooked graveyard i. Because I Could Not Stop for Death i. Read for comprehension ii. Note use of imagery and capital words

HOW TO WRITE A GOOD PAPER (according to her) A Paper Good job proofreading Original ideas Clear understanding of book and characters Specific examples Well chosen quotes (2) Good introduction, conclusion, transitions, and title B Paper One good idea Few errors Fairly good understanding of book and characters Specific example Two quotes Decent introduction, conclusion, transitions, and title C Paper Organized ideas Some errors At least two quotes A reference to the book Attempt at example An introduction, conclusion, transitions, and title D Paper Confusing Many errors Misunderstanding of the book Missing introduction, conclusion, transitions, and/or title Late Mrs. DiMarco: English SEM1