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y = log b x is equivalent to x = b y log b b = 1 log b 1 = 0

Basic Properties & Facts

Arithmetic Operations Properties of Inequalities log b b x = x b logb x = x

If a < b then a + c < b + c and a - c < b - c Example

ab + ac = a ( b + c )

æ b ö ab

aç ÷ = log b ( x r

) = r log x

a b log 5 125 = 3 because 53 = 125 b

ècø c If a < b and c > 0 then ac < bc and < log b ( xy ) = log b x + logb y

æaö c c

ç ÷ a a b Special Logarithms æxö

èbø = a ac If a < b and c < 0 then ac > bc and > log b ç ÷ = log b x - logb y

= ln x = log e x natural log

c bc æbö b c c è yø

çc÷ log x = log 10 x common log

è ø

Properties of Absolute Value where e = 2.718281828K The domain of log b x is x > 0

a c ad + bc a c ad - bc ìa if a ³ 0

+ = - = a =í Factoring and Solving

b d bd b d bd î-a if a < 0 Factoring Formulas Quadratic Formula

a-b b-a a+b a b a ³0 -a = a x 2 - a 2 = ( x + a )( x - a ) Solve ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , a ¹ 0

= = +

c-d d -c c c c a a x 2 + 2ax + a 2 = ( x + a )

2 -b ± b 2 - 4 ac

ab = a b = x=

æaö b b 2a

x 2 - 2 ax + a 2 = ( x - a )

2

ab + ac ç b ÷ ad

è ø= a +b £ a + b If b 2 - 4ac > 0 - Two real unequal solns.

= b + c, a ¹ 0 Triangle Inequality

a æ c ö bc x 2 + ( a + b ) x + ab = ( x + a )( x + b ) If b 2 - 4ac = 0 - Repeated real solution.

çd ÷

è ø Distance Formula x3 + 3ax 2 + 3a 2 x + a 3 = ( x + a )

3 If b 2 - 4ac < 0 - Two complex solutions.

Exponent Properties If P1 = ( x1, y1 ) and P2 = ( x2 , y2 ) are two

x3 - 3ax2 + 3a 2 x - a 3 = ( x - a )

3

an 1 Square Root Property

a na m = a n+ m = a n -m = m -n points the distance between them is

am a x3 + a 3 = ( x + a ) ( x2 - ax + a 2 ) If x2 = p then x = ± p

(a ) n m

= a nm a 0 = 1, a ¹ 0 d ( P1 , P2 ) = ( x2 - x1 )

2

+ ( y2 - y1 )

2

x3 - a 3 = ( x - a ) ( x2 + ax + a 2 ) Absolute Value Equations/Inequalities

x 2 n - a 2 n = ( x n - a n )( x n + a n ) If b is a positive number

n n

æaö a

( ab )

n

=a b n n

ç ÷ = n Complex Numbers p =b Þ p = - b or p = b

èbø b If n is odd then,

a -n 1

= n

1

=a n x n - a n = ( x - a ) ( x n-1 + ax n -2 + L + a n -1 ) p <b Þ -b < p < b

i = -1 i = -1

2

-a = i a, a ³ 0

a a-n p >b Þ p < - b or p>b

-n n ( a + bi ) + ( c + di ) = a + c + ( b + d ) i xn + an

æaö æbö bn

( ) = (a )

n 1

= ( x + a)( x )

n 1

=ç ÷ = n a = a n

-L + a

m

n -1 n -2 2 n -3 n -1

ç ÷ ( a + bi ) - ( c + di ) = a - c + ( b - d ) i - ax +a x

m m

èbø è aø a

( a + bi )( c + di ) = ac - bd + ( ad + bc ) i Completing the Square

Properties of Radicals Solve 2 x 2 - 6 x - 10 = 0 (4) Factor the left side

( a + bi )( a - bi ) = a 2 + b2 æ 3ö 29

2

n

a =a

1

n

ab = a b

n n

a + bi = a + b 2 2

Complex Modulus (1) Divide by the coefficient of the x 2 çx- ÷ =

n

è 2ø 4

x 2 - 3x - 5 = 0 (5) Use Square Root Property

m n

a = nm a n

a na

= ( a + bi ) = a - bi Complex Conjugate (2) Move the constant to the other side.

b nb 3 29 29

( a + bi )( a + bi ) = a + bi

2

x 2 - 3x = 5 x- =± =±

2 4 2

n

a n = a , if n is odd (3) Take half the coefficient of x, square

(6) Solve for x

it and add it to both sides

n

a n = a , if n is even 2 2 3 29

æ 3ö æ 3ö 9 29 x= ±

x 2 - 3x + ç - ÷ = 5 + ç - ÷ = 5 + = 2 2

è 2ø è 2ø 4 4

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

Functions and Graphs Common Algebraic Errors

Constant Function Parabola/Quadratic Function Error Reason/Correct/Justification/Example

y = a or f ( x) = a x = ay2 + by + c g ( y ) = ay2 + by + c 2 2

¹ 0 and ¹ 2 Division by zero is undefined!

Graph is a horizontal line passing 0 0

through the point ( 0, a ) . ( -3)

2

The graph is a parabola that opens right -32 ¹ 9 -32 = -9 , = 9 Watch parenthesis!

if a > 0 or left if a < 0 and has a vertex

Line/Linear Function æ æ b ö b ö (x )

2 3

¹ x5 (x )

2 3

= x2 x2 x 2 = x6

at ç g ç - ÷ , - ÷ .

y = mx + b or f ( x ) = mx + b è è 2a ø 2a ø a a a

¹ +

1

=

1 1 1

¹ + =2

b+c b c 2 1+ 1 1 1

Graph is a line with point ( 0,b ) and

Circle 1 A more complex version of the previous

slope m. ¹ x -2 + x-3

( x - h) + ( y - k ) = r2 x2 + x3 error.

2 2

Slope a + bx = + =1+

¹ 1 + bx

Slope of the line containing the two ( h, k ) . a

a a a a

points ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) is Beware of incorrect canceling!

- a ( x - 1) = - ax + a

y2 - y1 rise Ellipse - a ( x - 1) ¹ - ax - a

m= = Make sure you distribute the “-“!

( x - h) ( y - k)

2 2

x2 - x1 run

+ =1 ( x + a)

2

¹ x2 + a 2 ( x + a)

2

= ( x + a )( x + a ) = x 2 + 2 ax + a 2

Slope – intercept form a2 b2

The equation of the line with slope m Graph is an ellipse with center ( h, k ) x2 + a2 ¹ x + a 5 = 25 = 3 2 + 4 2 ¹ 3 2 + 4 2 = 3 + 4 = 7

and y-intercept ( 0,b ) is with vertices a units right/left from the x+a ¹ x+ a See previous error.

y = mx + b center and vertices b units up/down from More general versions of previous three

( x + a)

n

Point – Slope form the center. ¹ x n + a n and n

x+a ¹ n

x+n a

errors.

The equation of the line with slope m

2 ( x + 1) = 2 ( x2 + 2 x + 1) = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2

2

2 ( x + 1) ¹ ( 2 x + 2 )

2 2

( x - h) ( y - k) ( 2x + 2)

2 2 2

= 4 x2 + 8x + 4

y = y1 + m ( x - x1 ) - =1

2 2

a b Square first then distribute!

Graph is a hyperbola that opens left and See the previous example. You can not

Parabola/Quadratic Function

right, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices a ( 2x + 2) ¹ 2 ( x + 1)

2 2

factor out a constant if there is a power on

y = a ( x - h) + k f ( x) = a ( x - h) + k

2 2

1

The graph is a parabola that opens up if that pass through center with slope ± .

b - x2 + a2 = ( - x2 + a2 )2

a - x2 + a2 ¹ - x2 + a2

a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex Now see the previous error.

Hyperbola

at ( h, k ) . æaö

(y -k) ( x - h) = 1

2 2

a ab ç1÷

- ¹ a æ a ö æ c ö ac

b2 a2 æbö c = è ø = ç ÷ç ÷ =

Parabola/Quadratic Function çc÷ æ b ö æ b ö è 1 øè b ø b

y = ax 2 + bx + c f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c Graph is a hyperbola that opens up and è ø ç ÷ ç ÷

ècø ècø

down, has a center at ( h, k ) , vertices b

æaö æaö

The graph is a parabola that opens up if units up/down from the center and æaö ç ÷ ç ÷

asymptotes that pass through center with ç ÷ ac è b ø = è b ø = æ a öæ 1 ö = a

a > 0 or down if a < 0 and has a vertex èbø ¹ ç ÷ç ÷

b c æ c ö è b ø è c ø bc

æ b æ b öö slope ± . c b ç ÷

at ç - , f ç - ÷ ÷ . a è ø

1

è 2a è 2a ø ø

For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins For a complete set of online Algebra notes visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu. © 2005 Paul Dawkins

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