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AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Customary U.S.

Units DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS


SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1SCOPE OF THE SPECIFICATIONS 1.2DEFINITIONS 1.3DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 1.3.1General 1.3.2Limit States 1.3.2.1General 1.3.2.2 Service Limit State 1.3.2.3Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 1.3.2.4Strength Limit State 1.3.2.5Extreme Event Limit States 1.3.3Ductility 1.3.4Redundancy 1.3.5Operational Importance 1.4REFERENCES SECTION 2: GENERAL DESIGN AND LOCATION FEATURES 2.1SCOPE 2.2DEFINITIONS 2.3LOCATION FEATURES 2.3.1Route Location 2.3.1.1General 2.3.1.2Waterway and Floodplain Crossings 2.3.2Bridge Site Arrangement 2.3.2.1General 2.3.2.2Traffic Safety 2.3.2.2.1Protection of Structures 2.3.2.2.2Protection of Users 2.3.2.2.3Geometric Standards 2.3.2.2.4Road Surfaces 2.3.2.2.5Vessel Collisions 2.3.3Clearances 2.3.3.1Navigational 2.3.3.2Highway Vertical 2.3.3.3Highway Horizontal 2.3.3.4Railroad Overpass 2.3.4Environment 2.4FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 2.4.1General 2.4.2Topographic Studies 2.5DESIGN OBJECTIVES 2.5.1Safety 2.5.2Serviceability 2.5.2.1Durability 2.5.2.1.1Materials 2.5.2.1.2Self-Protecting Measures 2.5.2.2Inspectability 2.5.2.3Maintainability 2.5.2.4Rideability 2.5.2.5Utilities 2.5.2.6Deformations 2.5.2.6.1General

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2.5.2.6.2Criteria for Deflection 2.5.2.6.3Optional Criteria for Span-to-Depth Ratios 2.5.2.7Consideration of Future Widening 2.5.2.7.1Exterior Beams on Multibeam Bridges 2.5.2.7.2Substructure 2.5.3Constructibility 2.5.4Economy 2.5.4.1General 2.5.4.2Alternative Plans 2.5.5Bridge Aesthetics 2.6HYDROLOGY AND HYDRAULICS 2.6.1General 2.6.2Site Data 2.6.3Hydrologic Analysis 2.6.4Hydraulic Analysis 2.6.4.1General 2.6.4.2Stream Stability 2.6.4.3Bridge Waterway 2.6.4.4Bridge Foundations 2.6.4.4.1General 2.6.4.4.2Bridge Scour 2.6.4.5Roadway Approaches to Bridge 2.6.5Culvert Location, Length, and Waterway Area 2.6.6Roadway Drainage 2.6.6.1General 2.6.6.2Design Storm 2.6.6.3Type, Size, and Number of Drains 2.6.6.4Discharge from Deck Drains 2.6.6.5Drainage of Structures 2.7BRIDGE SECURITY 2.7.1General 2.7.2Design Demand 2.8REFERENCES

SECTION 3: LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS 3.1SCOPE 3.2DEFINITIONS 3.3NOTATION 3.3.1General 3.3.2Load and Load Designation 3.4LOAD FACTORS AND COMBINATIONS 3.4.1Load Factors and Load Combinations 3.4.2Load Factors for Construction Loads 3.4.2.1Evaluation at the Strength Limit State 3.4.2.2Evaluation of Deflection at the Service Limit State 3.4.3Load Factors for Jacking and Post-Tensioning Forces 3.4.3.1Jacking Forces 3.4.3.2Force for Post-Tensioning Anchorage Zones 3.5PERMANENT LOADS 3.5.1Dead Loads: DC, DW, and EV 3.5.2Earth Loads: EH, ES, and DD 3.6LIVE LOADS 3.6.1Gravity Loads: LL and PL 3.6.1.1Vehicular Live Load 3.6.1.1.1Number of Design Lanes 3.6.1.1.2Multiple Presence of Live Load 3.6.1.2Design Vehicular Live Load 3.6.1.2.1General

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3.6.1.2.2Design Truck 3.6.1.2.3Design Tandem 3.6.1.2.4Design Lane Load 3.6.1.2.5Tire Contact Area 3.6.1.2.6Distribution of Wheel Loads through Earth Fills 3.6.1.3Application of Design Vehicular Live Loads 3.6.1.3.1General 3.6.1.3.2Loading for Optional Live Load Deflection Evaluation 3.6.1.3.3Design Loads for Decks, Deck Systems, and the Top Slabs of Box Culverts 3.6.1.3.4Deck Overhang Load 3.6.1.4Fatigue Load 3.6.1.4.1Magnitude and Configuration 3.6.1.4.2Frequency 3.6.1.4.3Load Distribution for Fatigue 3.6.1.4.3aRefined Methods 3.6.1.4.3bApproximate Methods 3.6.1.5Rail Transit Load 3.6.1.6Pedestrian Loads 3.6.1.7Loads on Railings 3.6.2Dynamic Load Allowance: IM 3.6.2.1General 3.6.2.2Buried Components 3.6.2.3Wood Components 3.6.3Centrifugal Forces: CE 3.6.4Braking Force: BR 3.6.5Vehicular Collision Force: CT 3.6.5.1Protection of Structures 3.6.5.2Vehicle Collision with Barriers 3.7WATER LOADS: WA 3.7.1Static Pressure 3.7.2Buoyancy 3.7.3Stream Pressure 3.7.3.1Longitudinal 3.7.3.2Lateral 3.7.4Wave Load 3.7.5Change in Foundations Due to Limit State for Scour 3.8WIND LOAD: WL AND WS 3.8.1Horizontal Wind Pressure 3.8.1.1General 3.8.1.2Wind Pressure on Structures: WS 3.8.1.2.1General 3.8.1.2.2Loads from Superstructures 3.8.1.2.3Forces Applied Directly to the Substructure 3.8.1.3Wind Pressure on Vehicles: WL 3.8.2Vertical Wind Pressure 3.8.3Aeroelastic Instability 3.8.3.1General 3.8.3.2Aeroelastic Phenomena 3.8.3.3Control of Dynamic Responses 3.8.3.4Wind Tunnel Tests 3.9ICE LOADS: IC 3.9.1General 3.9.2Dynamic Ice Forces on Piers 3.9.2.1Effective Ice Strength 3.9.2.2Crushing and Flexing 3.9.2.3Small Streams 3.9.2.4Combination of Longitudinal and Transverse Forces 3.9.2.4.1Piers Parallel to Flow 3.9.2.4.2Piers Skewed to Flow 3.9.2.5Slender and Flexible Piers
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3.9.3Static Ice Loads on Piers 3.9.4Hanging Dams and Ice Jams 3.9.5Vertical Forces Due to Ice Adhesion 3.9.6Ice Accretion and Snow Loads on Superstructures 3.10EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS: EQ 3.10.1 General 3.10.2Seismic Hazard 3.10.2.1General Procedure 3.10.2.2Site Specific Procedure 3.10.3Site Effects 3.10.3.1Site Class Definitions 3.10.3.2Site Factors 3.10.4Seismic Hazard Characterization 3.10.4.1Design Response Spectrum 3.10.4.2Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient 3.10.5Operational Classification 3.10.6Seismic Performance Zones 3.10.7Response Modification Factors 3.10.7.1General 3.10.7.2Application 3.10.8Combination of Seismic Force Effects 3.10.9Calculation of Design Forces 3.10.9.1General 3.10.9.2Seismic Zone 1 3.10.9.3Seismic Zone 2 3.10.9.4Seismic Zones 3 and 4 3.10.9.4.1General 3.10.9.4.2Modified Design Forces 3.10.9.4.3Inelastic Hinging Forces 3.10.9.4.3aGeneral 3.10.9.4.3bSingle Columns and Piers 3.10.9.4.3cPiers with Two or More Columns 3.10.9.4.3dColumn and Pile Bent Design Forces 3.10.9.4.3ePier Design Forces 3.10.9.4.3fFoundation Design Forces 3.10.9.5Longitudinal Restrainers 3.10.9.6Hold-Down Devices 3.10.10Requirements for Temporary Bridges and Stage Construction 3.11EARTH PRESSURE: EH, ES, LS, AND DD 3.11.1General 3.11.2Compaction 3.11.3Presence of Water 3.11.4Effect of Earthquake 3.11.5Earth Pressure: EH 3.11.5.1Lateral Earth Pressure 3.11.5.2At-Rest Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, ko 3.11.5.3Active Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, ka 3.11.5.4Passive Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficient, kp 3.11.5.5Equivalent-Fluid Method of Estimating Rankine Lateral Earth Pressures 3.11.5.6 Lateral Earth Pressures for Nongravity Cantilevered Walls 3.11.5.7Apparent Earth Pressure (AEP) for Anchored Walls 3.11.5.7.1Cohesionless Soils 3.11.5.7.2Cohesive Soils 3.11.5.7.2aStiff to Hard 3.11.5.7.2bSoft to Medium Stiff 3.11.5.8Lateral Earth Pressures for Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls 3.11.5.8.1General 3.11.5.8.2Internal Stability 3.11.5.9Lateral Earth Pressures for Prefabricated Modular Walls 3.11.6Surcharge Loads: ES and LS
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3.11.6.1Uniform Surcharge Loads (ES) 3.11.6.2Point, Line, and Strip Loads (ES)Walls Restrained from Movement 3.11.6.3Strip Loads (ES)Flexible Walls 3.11.6.4Live Load Surcharge (LS) 3.11.6.5Reduction of Surcharge 3.11.7Reduction Due to Earth Pressure 3.11.8Downdrag 3.12FORCE EFFECTS DUE TO SUPERIMPOSED DEFORMATIONS: TU, TG, SH, CR, SE, PS 3.12.1General 3.12.2Uniform Temperature 3.12.2.1Temperature Range for Procedure A 3.12.2.2Temperature Range for Procedure B 3.12.2.3Design Thermal Movements 3.12.3Temperature Gradient 3.12.4Differential Shrinkage 3.12.5Creep 3.12.6Settlement 3.12.7Secondary Forces from Post-Tensioning, PS 3.13FRICTION FORCES: FR 3.14VESSEL COLLISION: CV 3.14.1General 3.14.2Owners Responsibility 3.14.3Operational Classification 3.14.4Design Vessel 3.14.5Annual Frequency of Collapse 3.14.5.1Vessel Frequency Distribution 3.14.5.2Probability of Aberrancy 3.14.5.2.1General 3.14.5.2.2Statistical Method 3.14.5.2.3Approximate Method 3.14.5.3Geometric Probability 3.14.5.4Probability of Collapse 3.14.5.5Protection Factor 3.14.6Design Collision Velocity 3.14.7Vessel Collision Energy 3.14.8Ship Collision Force on Pier 3.14.9Ship Bow Damage Length 3.14.10Ship Collision Force on Superstructure 3.14.10.1Collision with Bow 3.14.10.2Collision with Deck House 3.14.10.3Collision with Mast 3.14.11Barge Collision Force on Pier 3.14.12Barge Bow Damage Length 3.14.13Damage at the Extreme Limit State 3.14.14Application of Impact Force 3.14.14.1Substructure Design 3.14.14.2Superstructure Design 3.14.15Protection of Substructures 3.14.16Security Considerations 3.15BLAST LOADING 3.15.1Introduction 3.16REFERENCES APPENDIX A3SEISMIC DESIGN FLOWCHARTS APPENDIX B3OVERSTRENGTH RESISTANCE

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SECTION 4: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 4.1SCOPE 4.2DEFINITIONS 4.3NOTATION 4.4ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 4.5MATHEMATICAL MODELING 4.5.1General 4.5.2Structural Material Behavior 4.5.2.1Elastic Versus Inelastic Behavior 4.5.2.2Elastic Behavior 4.5.2.3Inelastic Behavior 4.5.3Geometry 4.5.3.1Small Deflection Theory 4.5.3.2Large Deflection Theory 4.5.3.2.1General 4.5.3.2.2Approximate Methods 4.5.3.2.2aGeneral 4.5.3.2.2bMoment MagnificationBeam Columns 4.5.3.2.2cMoment MagnificationArches 4.5.3.2.3Refined Methods 4.5.4Modeling Boundary Conditions 4.5.5Equivalent Members 4.6STATIC ANALYSIS 4.6.1Influence of Plan Geometry 4.6.1.1Plan Aspect Ratio 4.6.1.2Structures Curved in Plan 4.6.1.2.1General 4.6.1.2.2Single-Girder Torsionally Stiff Superstructures 4.6.1.2.3Multicell Concrete Box Girders 4.6.1.2.4Steel Multiple-Beam Superstructures 4.6.1.2.4aGeneral 4.6.1.2.4bI-Girders 4.6.1.2.4cClosed Box and Tub Girders 4.6.2Approximate Methods of Analysis 4.6.2.1Decks 4.6.2.1.1General 4.6.2.1.2Applicability 4.6.2.1.3Width of Equivalent Interior Strips 4.6.2.1.4Width of Equivalent Strips at Edges of Slabs 4.6.2.1.4aGeneral 4.6.2.1.4bLongitudinal Edges 4.6.2.1.4cTransverse Edges 4.6.2.1.5Distribution of Wheel Loads 4.6.2.1.6Calculation of Force Effects 4.6.2.1.7Cross-Sectional Frame Action 4.6.2.1.8Live Load Force Effects for Fully and Partially Filled Grids and for Unfilled Grid Decks Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slabs 4.6.2.1.9Inelastic Analysis 4.6.2.2Beam-Slab Bridges 4.6.2.2.1Application 4.6.2.2.2Distribution Factor Method for Moment and Shear 4.6.2.2.2aInterior Beams with Wood Decks 4.6.2.2.2bInterior Beams with Concrete Decks 4.6.2.2.2cInterior Beams with Corrugated Steel Decks 4.6.2.2.2dExterior Beams 4.6.2.2.2eSkewed Bridges 4.6.2.2.2fFlexural Moments and Shear in Transverse Floorbeams 4.6.2.2.3Distribution Factor Method for Shear 4.6.2.2.3aInterior Beams

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4.6.2.2.3bExterior Beams 4.6.2.2.3cSkewed Bridges 4.6.2.2.4Curved Steel Bridges 4.6.2.2.5Special Loads with Other Traffic 4.6.2.3Equivalent Strip Widths for Slab-Type Bridges 4.6.2.4Truss and Arch Bridges 4.6.2.5Effective Length Factor, K 4.6.2.6Effective Flange Width 4.6.2.6.1General 4.6.2.6.2Segmental Concrete Box Beams and Single-Cell, Cast-in-Place Box Beams 4.6.2.6.3Cast-in-Place Multicell Superstructures 4.6.2.6.4Orthotropic Steel Decks 4.6.2.6.5Transverse Floorbeams and Integral Bent Caps 4.6.2.7Lateral Wind Load Distribution in Multibeam Bridges 4.6.2.7.1I-Sections 4.6.2.7.2Box Sections 4.6.2.7.3Construction 4.6.2.8Seismic Lateral Load Distribution 4.6.2.8.1Applicability 4.6.2.8.2Design Criteria 4.6.2.8.3Load Distribution 4.6.2.9Analysis of Segmental Concrete Bridges 4.6.2.9.1General 4.6.2.9.2Strut-and-Tie Models 4.6.2.9.3Effective Flange Width 4.6.2.9.4Transverse Analysis 4.6.2.9.5Longitudinal Analysis 4.6.2.9.5aGeneral 4.6.2.9.5bErection Analysis 4.6.2.9.5cAnalysis of the Final Structural System 4.6.2.10Equivalent Strip Widths for Box Culverts 4.6.2.10.1General 4.6.2.10.2Case 1: Traffic Travels Parallel to Span 4.6.2.10.3Case 2: Traffic Travels Perpendicular to Span 4.6.2.10.4PrecastBox Culverts 4.6.3Refined Methods of Analysis 4.6.3.1General 4.6.3.2Decks 4.6.3.2.1General 4.6.3.2.2Isotropic Plate Model 4.6.3.2.3Orthotropic Plate Model 4.6.3.3Beam-Slab Bridges 4.6.3.3.1General 4.6.3.3.2Curved Steel Bridges 4.6.3.4Cellular and Box Bridges 4.6.3.5Truss Bridges 4.6.3.6Arch Bridges 4.6.3.7Cable-Stayed Bridges 4.6.3.8Suspension Bridges 4.6.4Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Beam Bridges 4.6.4.1General 4.6.4.2Refined Method 4.6.4.3Approximate Procedure 4.6.5Stability 4.6.6Analysis for Temperature Gradient 4.7DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 4.7.1Basic Requirements of Structural Dynamics 4.7.1.1General 4.7.1.2Distribution of Masses 4.7.1.3Stiffness
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4.7.1.4Damping 4.7.1.5Natural Frequencies 4.7.2Elastic Dynamic Responses 4.7.2.1Vehicle-Induced Vibration 4.7.2.2Wind-Induced Vibration 4.7.2.2.1Wind Velocities 4.7.2.2.2Dynamic Effects 4.7.2.2.3Design Considerations 4.7.3Inelastic Dynamic Responses 4.7.3.1General 4.7.3.2Plastic Hinges and Yield Lines 4.7.4Analysis for Earthquake Loads 4.7.4.1General 4.7.4.2Single-Span Bridges 4.7.4.3Multispan Bridges 4.7.4.3.1Selection of Method 4.7.4.3.2Single-Mode Methods of Analysis 4.7.4.3.2aGeneral 4.7.4.3.2bSingle-Mode Spectral Method 4.7.4.3.2cUniform Load Method 4.7.4.3.3Multimode Spectral Method 4.7.4.3.4Time-History Method 4.7.4.3.4aGeneral 4.7.4.3.4bAcceleration Time Histories 4.7.4.4Minimum Support Length Requirements 4.7.4.5P- Requirements 4.7.5Analysis for Collision Loads 4.7.6Analysis of Blast Effects 4.8ANALYSIS BY PHYSICAL MODELS 4.8.1Scale Model Testing 4.8.2Bridge Testing 4.9REFERENCES APPENDIX A4DECK SLAB DESIGN TABLE

SECTION 5: CONCRETE STRUCTURES 5.1SCOPE 5.2DEFINITIONS 5.3NOTATION 5.4MATERIAL PROPERTIES 5.4.1General 5.4.2Normal Weight and Structural Lightweight Concrete 5.4.2.1Compressive Strength 5.4.2.2Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 5.4.2.3Shrinkage and Creep 5.4.2.3.1General 5.4.2.3.2Creep 5.4.2.3.3Shrinkage 5.4.2.4Modulus of Elasticity 5.4.2.5Poissons Ratio 5.4.2.6Modulus of Rupture 5.4.2.7Tensile Strength 5.4.3Reinforcing Steel 5.4.3.1General 5.4.3.2Modulus of Elasticity 5.4.3.3Special Applications 5.4.4Prestressing Steel 5.4.4.1General

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5.4.4.2Modulus of Elasticity 5.4.5Post-Tensioning Anchorages and Couplers 5.4.6Ducts 5.4.6.1General 5.4.6.2Size of Ducts 5.4.6.3Ducts at Deviation Saddles 5.5LIMIT STATES 5.5.1General 5.5.2Service Limit State 5.5.3Fatigue Limit State 5.5.3.1General 5.5.3.2Reinforcing Bars 5.5.3.3Prestressing Tendons 5.5.3.4Welded or Mechanical Splices of Reinforcement 5.5.4Strength Limit State 5.5.4.1General 5.5.4.2Resistance Factors 5.5.4.2.1Conventional Construction 5.5.4.2.2Segmental Construction 5.5.4.2.3Special Requirements for Seismic Zones 2, 3, and 4 5.5.4.3Stability 5.5.5Extreme Event Limit State 5.6DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5.6.1General 5.6.2Effects of Imposed Deformation 5.6.3Strut-and-Tie Model 5.6.3.1General 5.6.3.2Structural Modeling 5.6.3.3Proportioning of Compressive Struts 5.6.3.3.1Strength of Unreinforced Strut 5.6.3.3.2Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut 5.6.3.3.3Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut 5.6.3.3.4Reinforced Strut 5.6.3.4Proportioning of Tension Ties 5.6.3.4.1Strength of Tie 5.6.3.4.2Anchorage of Tie 5.6.3.5Proportioning of Node Regions 5.6.3.6Crack Control Reinforcement 5.7DESIGN FOR FLEXURAL AND AXIAL FORCE EFFECTS 5.7.1Assumptions for Service and Fatigue Limit States 5.7.2Assumptions for Strength and Extreme Event Limit States 5.7.2.1General 5.7.2.2Rectangular Stress Distribution 5.7.3Flexural Members 5.7.3.1Stress in Prestressing Steel at Nominal Flexural Resistance 5.7.3.1.1Components with Bonded Tendons 5.7.3.1.2Components with Unbonded Tendons 5.7.3.1.3Components with Both Bonded and Unbonded Tendons 5.7.3.1.3aDetailed Analysis 5.7.3.1.3bSimplified Analysis 5.7.3.2Flexural Resistance 5.7.3.2.1Factored Flexural Resistance 5.7.3.2.2Flanged Sections 5.7.3.2.3Rectangular Sections 5.7.3.2.4Other Cross-Sections 5.7.3.2.5Strain Compatibility Approach 5.7.3.3Limits for Reinforcement 5.7.3.3.1Maximum Reinforcement 5.7.3.3.2Minimum Reinforcement 5.7.3.4Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement
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5.7.3.5Moment Redistribution 5.7.3.6Deformations 5.7.3.6.1General 5.7.3.6.2Deflection and Camber 5.7.3.6.3Axial Deformation 5.7.4Compression Members 5.7.4.1General 5.7.4.2Limits for Reinforcement 5.7.4.3Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects 5.7.4.4Factored Axial Resistance 5.7.4.5Biaxial Flexure 5.7.4.6Spirals and Ties 5.7.4.7Hollow Rectangular Compression Members 5.7.4.7.1Wall Slenderness Ratio 5.7.4.7.2Limitations on the Use of the Rectangular Stress Block Method 5.7.4.7.2aGeneral 5.7.4.7.2bRefined Method for Adjusting Maximum Usable Strain Limit 5.7.4.7.2cApproximate Method for Adjusting Factored Resistance 5.7.5Bearing 5.7.6Tension Members 5.7.6.1Factored Tension Resistance 5.7.6.2Resistance to Combinations of Tension and Flexure 5.8SHEAR AND TORSION 5.8.1Design Procedures 5.8.1.1Flexural Regions 5.8.1.2Regions Near Discontinuities 5.8.1.3Interface Regions 5.8.1.4Slabs and Footings 5.8.2General Requirements 5.8.2.1General 5.8.2.2Modifications for Lightweight Concrete 5.8.2.3Transfer and Development Lengths 5.8.2.4Regions Requiring Transverse Reinforcement 5.8.2.5Minimum Transverse Reinforcement 5.8.2.6Types of Transverse Reinforcement 5.8.2.7Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement 5.8.2.8Design and Detailing Requirements 5.8.2.9 Shear Stress on Concrete 5.8.3Sectional Design Model 5.8.3.1 General 5.8.3.2Sections Near Supports 5.8.3.3Nominal Shear Resistance 5.8.3.4Procedures for Determining Shear Resistance 5.8.3.4.1Simplified Procedure for Nonprestressed Sections 5.8.3.4.2General Procedure 5.8.3.4.3 Simplified Procedure for Prestressed and Nonprestressed Sections 5.8.3.5Longitudinal Reinforcement 5.8.3.6Sections Subjected to Combined Shear and Torsion 5.8.3.6.1Transverse Reinforcement 5.8.3.6.2Torsional Resistance 5.8.3.6.3Longitudinal Reinforcement 5.8.4Interface Shear TransferShear Friction 5.8.4.1General 5.8.4.2Computation of the Factored Interface Shear Force, Vui, for Girder/Slab Bridges 5.8.4.3Cohesion and Friction Factors 5.8.4.4Minimum Area of Interface Shear Reinforcement 5.8.5Principal Stresses in Webs of Segmental Concrete Bridges 5.8.6Shear and Torsion for Segmental Box Girder Bridges 5.8.6.1 General 5.8.6.2Loading
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5.8.6.3Regions Requiring Consideration of Torsional Effects 5.8.6.4Torsional Reinforcement 5.8.6.5Nominal Shear Resistance 5.8.6.6Reinforcement Details 5.9PRESTRESSING AND PARTIAL PRESTRESSING 5.9.1General Design Considerations 5.9.1.1General 5.9.1.2Specified Concrete Strengths 5.9.1.3Buckling 5.9.1.4Section Properties 5.9.1.5Crack Control 5.9.1.6Tendons with Angle Points or Curves 5.9.2Stresses Due to Imposed Deformation 5.9.3Stress Limitations for Prestressing Tendons 5.9.4Stress Limits for Concrete 5.9.4.1For Temporary Stresses before LossesFully Prestressed Components 5.9.4.1.1Compression Stresses 5.9.4.1.2Tension Stresses 5.9.4.2For Stresses at Service Limit State after LossesFully Prestressed Components 5.9.4.2.1 Compression Stresses 5.9.4.2.2Tension Stresses 5.9.4.3Partially Prestressed Components 5.9.5Loss of Prestress 5.9.5.1Total Loss of Prestress 5.9.5.2Instantaneous Losses 5.9.5.2.1Anchorage Set 5.9.5.2.2Friction 5.9.5.2.2aPretensioned Construction 5.9.5.2.2bPost-Tensioned Construction 5.9.5.2.3Elastic Shortening 5.9.5.2.3aPretensioned Members 5.9.5.2.3bPost-Tensioned Members 5.9.5.2.3cCombined Pretensioning and Post-Tensioning 5.9.5.3Approximate Estimate of Time-Dependent Losses 5.9.5.4Refined Estimates of Time-Dependent Losses 5.9.5.4.1General 5.9.5.4.2Losses: Time of Transfer to Time of Deck Placement 5.9.5.4.2aShrinkage of Girder Concrete 5.9.5.4.2bCreep of Girder Concrete 5.9.5.4.2cRelaxation of Prestressing Strands 5.9.5.4.3Losses: Time of Deck Placement toFinal Time 5.9.5.4.3aShrinkage of Girder Concrete 5.9.5.4.3bCreep of Girder Concrete 5.9.5.4.3cRelaxation of Prestressing Strands 5.9.5.4.3dShrinkage of Deck Concrete 5.9.5.4.4Precast Pretensioned Girders without Composite Topping 5.9.5.4.5Post-Tensioned Nonsegmental Girders 5.9.5.5Losses for Deflection Calculations 5.10DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT 5.10.1Concrete Cover 5.10.2Hooks and Bends 5.10.2.1Standard Hooks 5.10.2.2Seismic Hooks 5.10.2.3Minimum Bend Diameters 5.10.3Spacing of Reinforcement 5.10.3.1Minimum Spacing of Reinforcing Bars 5.10.3.1.1Cast-in-Place Concrete 5.10.3.1.2Precast Concrete 5.10.3.1.3Multilayers 5.10.3.1.4Splices
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5.10.3.1.5Bundled Bars 5.10.3.2Maximum Spacing of Reinforcing Bars 5.10.3.3Minimum Spacing of Prestressing Tendons and Ducts 5.10.3.3.1Pretensioning Strand 5.10.3.3.2Post-Tensioning DuctsGirders Straight in Plan 5.10.3.3.3Post-Tensioning DuctsGirders Curvedin Plan 5.10.3.4Maximum Spacing of Prestressing Tendons and Ducts in Slabs 5.10.3.5Couplers in Post-Tensioning Tendons 5.10.4Tendon Confinement 5.10.4.1General 5.10.4.2Wobble Effect in Slabs 5.10.4.3Effects of Curved Tendons 5.10.4.3.1In-Plane Force Effects 5.10.4.3.2Out-of-Plane Force Effects 5.10.5External Tendon Supports 5.10.6Transverse Reinforcement for Compression Members 5.10.6.1General 5.10.6.2Spirals 5.10.6.3Ties 5.10.7Transverse Reinforcement for Flexural Members 5.10.8Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement 5.10.9Post-Tensioned Anchorage Zones 5.10.9.1General 5.10.9.2General Zone and Local Zone 5.10.9.2.1General 5.10.9.2.2General Zone 5.10.9.2.3Local Zone 5.10.9.2.4Responsibilities 5.10.9.3Design of the General Zone 5.10.9.3.1Design Methods 5.10.9.3.2Design Principles 5.10.9.3.3Special Anchorage Devices 5.10.9.3.4Intermediate Anchorages 5.10.9.3.4aGeneral 5.10.9.3.4bTie-Backs 5.10.9.3.4cBlister and Rib Reinforcement 5.10.9.3.5 Diaphragms 5.10.9.3.6Multiple Slab Anchorages 5.10.9.3.7Deviation Saddles 5.10.9.4Application of the Strut-and-Tie Model to the Design of General Zone 5.10.9.4.1General 5.10.9.4.2Nodes 5.10.9.4.3Struts 5.10.9.4.4Ties 5.10.9.5Elastic Stress Analysis 5.10.9.6Approximate Stress Analyses and Design 5.10.9.6.1Limitations of Application 5.10.9.6.2Compressive Stresses 5.10.9.6.3Bursting Forces 5.10.9.6.4Edge Tension Forces 5.10.9.7Design of Local Zones 5.10.9.7.1Dimensions of Local Zone 5.10.9.7.2Bearing Resistance 5.10.9.7.3Special Anchorage Devices 5.10.10Pretensioned Anchorage Zones 5.10.10.1Splitting Resistance 5.10.10.2Confinement Reinforcement 5.10.11Provisions for Seismic Design 5.10.11.1General 5.10.11.2Seismic Zone 1
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5.10.11.3Seismic Zone 2 5.10.11.4Seismic Zones 3 and 4 5.10.11.4.1Column Requirements 5.10.11.4.1aLongitudinal Reinforcement 5.10.11.4.1bFlexural Resistance 5.10.11.4.1cColumn Shear and Transverse Reinforcement 5.10.11.4.1dTransverse Reinforcement for Confinement at Plastic Hinges 5.10.11.4.1eSpacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement 5.10.11.4.1fSplices 5.10.11.4.2Requirements for Wall-Type Piers 5.10.11.4.3Column Connections 5.10.11.4.4Construction Joints in Piers and Columns 5.10.12Reinforcement for Hollow Rectangular Compression Members 5.10.12.1General 5.10.12.2Spacing of Reinforcement 5.10.12.3Ties 5.10.12.4Splices 5.10.12.5Hoops 5.11DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT 5.11.1General 5.11.1.1Basic Requirements 5.11.1.2Flexural Reinforcement 5.11.1.2.1General 5.11.1.2.2Positive Moment Reinforcement 5.11.1.2.3Negative Moment Reinforcement 5.11.1.2.4Moment Resisting Joints 5.11.2Development of Reinforcement 5.11.2.1Deformed Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension 5.11.2.1.1Tension Development Length 5.11.2.1.2Modification Factors which Increase d 5.11.2.1.3Modification Factors which Decrease d 5.11.2.2Deformed Bars in Compression 5.11.2.2.1Compressive Development Length 5.11.2.2.2Modification Factors 5.11.2.3Bundled Bars 5.11.2.4Standard Hooks in Tension 5.11.2.4.1Basic Hook Development Length 5.11.2.4.2Modification Factors 5.11.2.4.3Hooked-Bar Tie Requirements 5.11.2.5Welded Wire Fabric 5.11.2.5.1Deformed Wire Fabric 5.11.2.5.2Plain Wire Fabric 5.11.2.6Shear Reinforcement 5.11.2.6.1General 5.11.2.6.2Anchorage of Deformed Reinforcement 5.11.2.6.3Anchorage of Wire Fabric Reinforcement 5.11.2.6.4Closed Stirrups 5.11.3Development by Mechanical Anchorages 5.11.4Development of Prestressing Strand 5.11.4.1General 5.11.4.2Bonded Strand 5.11.4.3Partially Debonded Strands 5.11.5Splices of Bar Reinforcement 5.11.5.1Detailing 5.11.5.2General Requirements 5.11.5.2.1Lap Splices 5.11.5.2.2Mechanical Connections 5.11.5.2.3Welded Splices 5.11.5.3Splices of Reinforcement in Tension 5.11.5.3.1Lap Splices in Tension
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5.11.5.3.2Mechanical Connections or Welded Splices in Tension 5.11.5.4Splices in Tension Tie Members 5.11.5.5Splices of Bars in Compression 5.11.5.5.1Lap Splices in Compression 5.11.5.5.2Mechanical Connections or Welded Splices in Compression 5.11.5.5.3End-Bearing Splices 5.11.6Splices of Welded Wire Fabric 5.11.6.1Splices of Welded Deformed Wire Fabric in Tension 5.11.6.2Splices of Welded Smooth Wire Fabric in Tension 5.12DURABILITY 5.12.1General 5.12.2Alkali-Silica Reactive Aggregates 5.12.3Concrete Cover 5.12.4Protective Coatings 5.12.5Protection for Prestressing Tendons 5.13SPECIFIC MEMBERS 5.13.1Deck Slabs 5.13.2Diaphragms, Deep Beams, Brackets, Corbels, and Beam Ledges 5.13.2.1General 5.13.2.2Diaphragms 5.13.2.3Detailing Requirements for Deep Beams 5.13.2.4Brackets and Corbels 5.13.2.4.1General 5.13.2.4.2Alternative to Strut-and-Tie Model 5.13.2.5Beam Ledges 5.13.2.5.1General 5.13.2.5.2Design for Shear 5.13.2.5.3Design for Flexure and Horizontal Force 5.13.2.5.4Design for Punching Shear 5.13.2.5.5Design of Hanger Reinforcement 5.13.2.5.6Design for Bearing 5.13.3Footings 5.13.3.1General 5.13.3.2Loads and Reactions 5.13.3.3Resistance Factors 5.13.3.4Moment in Footings 5.13.3.5Distribution of Moment Reinforcement 5.13.3.6Shear in Slabs and Footings 5.13.3.6.1Critical Sections for Shear 5.13.3.6.2One-Way Action 5.13.3.6.3Two-Way Action 5.13.3.7Development of Reinforcement 5.13.3.8Transfer of Force at Base of Column 5.13.4Concrete Piles 5.13.4.1General 5.13.4.2Splices 5.13.4.3Precast Reinforced Piles 5.13.4.3.1Pile Dimensions 5.13.4.3.2Reinforcing Steel 5.13.4.4Precast Prestressed Piles 5.13.4.4.1Pile Dimensions 5.13.4.4.2Concrete Quality 5.13.4.4.3Reinforcement 5.13.4.5Cast-in-Place Piles 5.13.4.5.1Pile Dimensions 5.13.4.5.2Reinforcing Steel 5.13.4.6Seismic Requirements 5.13.4.6.1Zone 1 5.13.4.6.2Zone 2 5.13.4.6.2aGeneral
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5.13.4.6.2bCast-in-Place Piles 5.13.4.6.2cPrecast Reinforced Piles 5.13.4.6.2dPrecast Prestressed Piles 5.13.4.6.3Zones 3 and 4 5.13.4.6.3aGeneral 5.13.4.6.3bConfinement Length 5.13.4.6.3cVolumetric Ratio for Confinement 5.13.4.6.3dCast-in-Place Piles 5.13.4.6.3ePrecast Piles 5.14PROVISIONS FOR STRUCTURE TYPES 5.14.1Beams and Girders 5.14.1.1General 5.14.1.2Precast Beams 5.14.1.2.1Preservice Conditions 5.14.1.2.2Extreme Dimensions 5.14.1.2.3Lifting Devices 5.14.1.2.4Detail Design 5.14.1.2.5Concrete Strength 5.14.1.3Spliced Precast Girders 5.14.1.3.1General 5.14.1.3.2Joints between Segments 5.14.1.3.2aGeneral 5.14.1.3.2bDetails of Closure Joints 5.14.1.3.2cDetails of Match-Cast Joints 5.14.1.3.2dJoint Design 5.14.1.3.3Girder Segment Design 5.14.1.3.4Post-Tensioning 5.14.1.4 Bridges Composed of Simple Span Precast Girders Made Continuous 5.14.1.4.1General 5.14.1.4.2Restraint Moments 5.14.1.4.3Material Properties 5.14.1.4.4Age of Girder When Continuity Is Established 5.14.1.4.5Degree of Continuity at Various Limit States 5.14.1.4.6Service Limit State 5.14.1.4.7Strength Limit State 5.14.1.4.8Negative Moment Connections 5.14.1.4.9Positive Moment Connections 5.14.1.4.9aGeneral 5.14.1.4.9bPositive Moment Connection Using Mild Reinforcement 5.14.1.4.9cPositive Moment Connection Using Prestressing Strand 5.14.1.4.9dDetails of Positive Moment Connection 5.14.1.4.10Continuity Diaphragms 5.14.1.5Cast-in-Place Girders and Box and T-Beams 5.14.1.5.1Flange and Web Thickness 5.14.1.5.1aTop Flange 5.14.1.5.1bBottom Flange 5.14.1.5.1cWeb 5.14.1.5.2Reinforcement 5.14.1.5.2aDeck Slab Reinforcement Cast-in-Place in T-Beams and Box Girders 5.14.1.5.2bBottom Slab Reinforcement in Cast-in-Place Box Girders 5.14.2Segmental Construction 5.14.2.1General 5.14.2.2Analysis of Segmental Bridges 5.14.2.2.1General 5.14.2.2.2Construction Analysis 5.14.2.2.3Analysis of the Final Structural System 5.14.2.3Design 5.14.2.3.1Loads 5.14.2.3.2Construction Loads 5.14.2.3.3Construction Load Combinations at the Service Limit State
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5.14.2.3.4Construction Load Combinations at Strength Limit States 5.14.2.3.4aSuperstructures 5.14.2.3.4bSubstructures 5.14.2.3.5Thermal Effects During Construction 5.14.2.3.6Creep and Shrinkage 5.14.2.3.7Prestress Losses 5.14.2.3.8Provisional Post-Tensioning Ducts and Anchorages 5.14.2.3.8aGeneral 5.14.2.3.8bBridges with Internal Ducts 5.14.2.3.8cProvision for Future Dead Load or Deflection Adjustment 5.14.2.3.9Plan Presentation 5.14.2.3.10Box Girder Cross-Section Dimensions and Details 5.14.2.3.10aMinimum Flange Thickness 5.14.2.3.10bMinimum Web Thickness 5.14.2.3.10cLength of Top Flange Cantilever 5.14.2.3.10dOverall Cross-Section Dimensions 5.14.2.3.10eOverlays 5.14.2.3.11Seismic Design 5.14.2.4Types of Segmental Bridges 5.14.2.4.1General 5.14.2.4.2Details for Precast Construction 5.14.2.4.3Details for Cast-in-Place Construction 5.14.2.4.4Cantilever Construction 5.14.2.4.5Span-by-Span Construction 5.14.2.4.6Incrementally Launched Construction 5.14.2.4.6aGeneral 5.14.2.4.6bForce Effects Due to Construction Tolerances 5.14.2.4.6cDesign Details 5.14.2.4.6dDesign of Construction Equipment 5.14.2.5Use of Alternative Construction Methods 5.14.2.6Segmental Bridge Substructures 5.14.2.6.1General 5.14.2.6.2Construction Load Combinations 5.14.2.6.3Longitudinal Reinforcement of Hollow, Rectangular Precast Segmental Piers 5.14.3Arches 5.14.3.1General 5.14.3.2Arch Ribs 5.14.4Slab Superstructures 5.14.4.1Cast-in-Place Solid Slab Superstructures 5.14.4.2Cast-in-Place Voided Slab Superstructures 5.14.4.2.1Cross-Section Dimensions 5.14.4.2.2Minimum Number of Bearings 5.14.4.2.3Solid End Sections 5.14.4.2.4General Design Requirements 5.14.4.2.5Compressive Zones in Negative Moment Area 5.14.4.2.6Drainage of Voids 5.14.4.3Precast Deck Bridges 5.14.4.3.1General 5.14.4.3.2Shear Transfer Joints 5.14.4.3.3Shear-Flexure Transfer Joints 5.14.4.3.3aGeneral 5.14.4.3.3bDesign 5.14.4.3.3cPost-Tensioning 5.14.4.3.3dLongitudinal Construction Joints 5.14.4.3.3eCast-in-Place Closure Joint 5.14.4.3.3fStructural Overlay 5.14.5Additional Provisions for Culverts 5.14.5.1General 5.14.5.2Design for Flexure 5.14.5.3Design for Shear in Slabs of Box Culverts
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5.15REFERENCES APPENDIX A5BASIC STEPS FOR CONCRETE BRIDGES A5.1GENERAL A5.2GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS A5.3BEAM AND GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN A5.4SLAB BRIDGES A5.5SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN APPENDIX B5GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR SHEAR DESIGN WITH TABLES B5.1BACKGROUND B5.2SECTIONAL DESIGN MODELGENERAL PROCEDURE APPENDIX C5UPPER LIMITS FOR ARTICLES AFFECTED BY CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

SECTION 6: STEEL STRUCTURES 6.1SCOPE 6.2DEFINITIONS 6.3NOTATION 6.4MATERIALS 6.4.1Structural Steels 6.4.2Pins, Rollers, and Rockers 6.4.3Bolts, Nuts, and Washers 6.4.3.1Bolts 6.4.3.2Nuts 6.4.3.2.1Nuts Used with Structural Fasteners 6.4.3.2.2Nuts Used with Anchor Bolts 6.4.3.3Washers 6.4.3.4Alternative Fasteners 6.4.3.5Load Indicator Devices 6.4.4Stud Shear Connectors 6.4.5Weld Metal 6.4.6Cast Metal 6.4.6.1Cast Steel and Ductile Iron 6.4.6.2Malleable Castings 6.4.6.3Cast Iron 6.4.7Stainless Steel 6.4.8Cables 6.4.8.1Bright Wire 6.4.8.2Galvanized Wire 6.4.8.3Epoxy-Coated Wire 6.4.8.4Bridge Strand 6.5LIMIT STATES 6.5.1General 6.5.2Service Limit State 6.5.3Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 6.5.4Strength Limit State 6.5.4.1General 6.5.4.2Resistance Factors 6.5.5Extreme Event Limit State 6.6FATIGUE AND FRACTURE CONSIDERATIONS 6.6.1Fatigue 6.6.1.1General 6.6.1.2Load-Induced Fatigue 6.6.1.2.1Application 6.6.1.2.2Design Criteria 6.6.1.2.3Detail Categories 6.6.1.2.4Detailing to Reduce Constraint 6.6.1.2.5Fatigue Resistance

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6.6.1.3Distortion-Induced Fatigue 6.6.1.3.1Transverse Connection Plates 6.6.1.3.2Lateral Connection Plates 6.6.1.3.3Orthotropic Decks 6.6.2Fracture 6.7GENERAL DIMENSION AND DETAIL REQUIREMENTS 6.7.1Effective Length of Span 6.7.2Dead Load Camber 6.7.3Minimum Thickness of Steel 6.7.4Diaphragms and Cross-Frames 6.7.4.1General 6.7.4.2I-Section Members 6.7.4.3Box Section Members 6.7.4.4Trusses and Arches 6.7.5Lateral Bracing 6.7.5.1General 6.7.5.2I-Section Members 6.7.5.3Tub Section Members 6.7.5.4Trusses 6.7.6Pins 6.7.6.1Location 6.7.6.2Resistance 6.7.6.2.1Combined Flexure and Shear 6.7.6.2.2Bearing 6.7.6.3Minimum Size Pin for Eyebars 6.7.6.4Pins and Pin Nuts 6.7.7Heat-Curved Rolled Beams and Welded Plate Girders 6.7.7.1Scope 6.7.7.2Minimum Radius of Curvature 6.7.7.3Camber 6.8TENSION MEMBERS 6.8.1General 6.8.2Tensile Resistance 6.8.2.1General 6.8.2.2Reduction Factor, U 6.8.2.3Combined Tension and Flexure 6.8.3Net Area 6.8.4Limiting Slenderness Ratio 6.8.5Builtup Members 6.8.5.1General 6.8.5.2Perforated Plates 6.8.6Eyebars 6.8.6.1Factored Resistance 6.8.6.2Proportions 6.8.6.3Packing 6.8.7Pin-Connected Plates 6.8.7.1General 6.8.7.2Pin Plates 6.8.7.3Proportions 6.8.7.4Packing 6.9COMPRESSION MEMBERS 6.9.1General 6.9.2Compressive Resistance 6.9.2.1Axial Compression 6.9.2.2Combined Axial Compression and Flexure 6.9.3Limiting Slenderness Ratio 6.9.4Noncomposite Members 6.9.4.1Nominal Compressive Resistance 6.9.4.1.1General 6.9.4.1.2Elastic Flexural Buckling Resistance
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6.9.4.1.3Elastic Torsional Buckling and Flexural-Torsional Buckling Resistance 6.9.4.2Nonslender and Slender Member Elements 6.9.4.2.1Nonslender Member Elements 6.9.4.3Builtup Members 6.9.4.3.1General 6.9.4.3.2Perforated Plates 6.9.5Composite Members 6.9.5.1Nominal Compressive Resistance 6.9.5.2Limitations 6.9.5.2.1General 6.9.5.2.2Concrete-Filled Tubes 6.9.5.2.3Concrete-Encased Shapes 6.10I-SECTION FLEXURAL MEMBERS 6.10.1General 6.10.1.1Composite Sections 6.10.1.1.1Stresses 6.10.1.1.1aSequence of Loading 6.10.1.1.1bStresses for Sections in Positive Flexure 6.10.1.1.1cStresses for Sections in Negative Flexure 6.10.1.1.1dConcrete Deck Stresses 6.10.1.1.1eEffective Width of Concrete Deck 6.10.1.2Noncomposite Sections 6.10.1.3Hybrid Sections 6.10.1.4Variable Web Depth Members 6.10.1.5Stiffness 6.10.1.6Flange Stresses and Member Bending Moments 6.10.1.7Minimum Negative Flexure Concrete Deck Reinforcement 6.10.1.8Net Section Fracture 6.10.1.9Web Bend-Buckling Resistance 6.10.1.9.1Webs without Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.10.1.9.2Webs with Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.10.1.10Flange-Strength Reduction Factors 6.10.1.10.1Hybrid Factor, Rh 6.10.1.10.2Web Load-Shedding Factor, Rb 6.10.2Cross-Section Proportion Limits 6.10.2.1Web Proportions 6.10.2.1.1Webs without Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.10.2.1.2Webs with Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.10.2.2 Flange Proportions 6.10.3Constructibility 6.10.3.1General 6.10.3.2Flexure 6.10.3.2.1Discretely Braced Flanges in Compression 6.10.3.2.2Discretely Braced Flanges in Tension 6.10.3.2.3 Continuously Braced Flanges in Tension or Compression 6.10.3.2.4 Concrete Deck 6.10.3.3Shear 6.10.3.4Deck Placement 6.10.3.5Dead Load Deflections 6.10.4Service Limit State 6.10.4.1Elastic Deformations 6.10.4.2Permanent Deformations 6.10.4.2.1General 6.10.4.2.2Flexure 6.10.5Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 6.10.5.1Fatigue 6.10.5.2Fracture 6.10.5.3Special Fatigue Requirement for Webs 6.10.6Strength Limit State 6.10.6.1General
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6.10.6.2Flexure 6.10.6.2.1General 6.10.6.2.2Composite Sections in Positive Flexure 6.10.6.2.3Composite Sections in Negative Flexure and Noncomposite Sections 6.10.6.3Shear 6.10.6.4Shear Connectors 6.10.7Flexural ResistanceComposite Sections in Positive Flexure 6.10.7.1Compact Sections 6.10.7.1.1General 6.10.7.1.2Nominal Flexural Resistance 6.10.7.2Noncompact Sections 6.10.7.2.1General 6.10.7.2.2Nominal Flexural Resistance 6.10.7.3Ductility Requirement 6.10.8 Flexural ResistanceComposite Sections in Negative Flexure and Noncomposite Sections 6.10.8.1General 6.10.8.1.1 Discretely Braced Flanges in Compression 6.10.8.1.2Discretely Braced Flanges in Tension 6.10.8.1.3Continuously Braced Flanges in Tension or Compression 6.10.8.2 Compression-Flange Flexural Resistance 6.10.8.2.1General 6.10.8.2.2Local Buckling Resistance 6.10.8.2.3Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance 6.10.8.3Tension-Flange Flexural Resistance 6.10.9Shear Resistance 6.10.9.1 General 6.10.9.2 Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs 6.10.9.3 Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Webs 6.10.9.3.1 General 6.10.9.3.2Interior Panels 6.10.9.3.3End Panels 6.10.10 Shear Connectors 6.10.10.1General 6.10.10.1.1 Types 6.10.10.1.2Pitch 6.10.10.1.3Transverse Spacing 6.10.10.1.4Cover and Penetration 6.10.10.2Fatigue Resistance 6.10.10.3Special Requirements for Points of Permanent Load Contraflexure 6.10.10.4Strength Limit State 6.10.10.4.1General 6.10.10.4.2Nominal Shear Force 6.10.10.4.3Nominal Shear Resistance 6.10.11 Stiffeners 6.10.11.1Transverse Stiffeners 6.10.11.1.1General 6.10.11.1.2Projecting Width 6.10.11.1.3Moment of Inertia 6.10.11.2Bearing Stiffeners 6.10.11.2.1General 6.10.11.2.2Projecting Width 6.10.11.2.3Bearing Resistance 6.10.11.2.4Axial Resistance of Bearing Stiffeners 6.10.11.2.4aGeneral 6.10.11.2.4bEffective Section 6.10.11.3Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.10.11.3.1General 6.10.11.3.2Projecting Width 6.10.11.3.3Moment of Inertia and Radius of Gyration

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6.10.12Cover Plates 6.10.12.1General 6.10.12.2End Requirements 6.10.12.2.1General 6.10.12.2.2Welded Ends 6.10.12.2.3Bolted Ends 6.11BOX-SECTION FLEXURAL MEMBERS 6.11.1General 6.11.1.1Stress Determinations 6.11.1.2Bearings 6.11.1.3Flange-to-Web Connections 6.11.1.4Access and Drainage 6.11.2Cross-Section Proportion Limits 6.11.2.1Web Proportions 6.11.2.1.1General 6.11.2.1.2Webs without Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.11.2.1.3Webs with Longitudinal Stiffeners 6.11.2.2Flange Proportions 6.11.2.3Special Restrictions on Use of Live Load Distribution Factor for Multiple Box Sections 6.11.3Constructibility 6.11.3.1General 6.11.3.2Flexure 6.11.3.3Shear 6.11.4Service Limit State 6.11.5Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 6.11.6Strength Limit State 6.11.6.1General 6.11.6.2Flexure 6.11.6.2.1General 6.11.6.2.2Sections in Positive Flexure 6.11.6.2.3Sections in Negative Flexure 6.11.6.3Shear 6.11.6.4Shear Connectors 6.11.7Flexural ResistanceSections in Positive Flexure 6.11.7.1Compact Sections 6.11.7.1.1General 6.11.7.1.2Nominal Flexural Resistance 6.11.7.2Noncompact Sections 6.11.7.2.1General 6.11.7.2.2Nominal Flexural Resistance 6.11.8Flexural ResistanceSections in Negative Flexure 6.11.8.1General 6.11.8.1.1Box Flanges in Compression 6.11.8.1.2Continuously Braced Flanges in Tension 6.11.8.2Flexural Resistance of Box Flanges in Compression 6.11.8.2.1General 6.11.8.2.2 Unstiffened Flanges 6.11.8.2.3Longitudinally Stiffened Flanges 6.11.8.3Tension-Flange Flexural Resistance 6.11.9Shear Resistance 6.11.10Shear Connectors 6.11.11Stiffeners 6.11.11.1Web Stiffeners 6.11.11.2Longitudinal Compression-Flange Stiffeners 6.12MISCELLANEOUS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 6.12.1General 6.12.1.1Scope 6.12.1.2Strength Limit State 6.12.1.2.1Flexure 6.12.1.2.2Combined Flexure and Axial Load
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6.12.1.2.3Shear 6.12.1.2.3aGeneral 6.12.1.2.3bSquare and Rectangular HSS 6.12.1.2.3cCircular Tubes 6.12.2Nominal Flexural Resistance 6.12.2.1General 6.12.2.2Noncomposite Members 6.12.2.2.1I- and H-Shaped Members 6.12.2.2.2Box-Shaped Members 6.12.2.2.3Circular Tubes 6.12.2.2.4Tees and Double Angles 6.12.2.2.5Channels 6.12.2.2.6Single Angles 6.12.2.2.7Rectangular Bars and Solid Rounds 6.12.2.3Composite Members 6.12.2.3.1Concrete-Encased Shapes 6.12.2.3.2Concrete-Filled Tubes 6.12.3Nominal Shear Resistance of Composite Members 6.12.3.1Concrete-Encased Shapes 6.12.3.2Concrete-Filled Tubes 6.12.3.2.1Rectangular Tubes 6.12.3.2.2Circular Tubes 6.13CONNECTIONS AND SPLICES 6.13.1General 6.13.2Bolted Connections 6.13.2.1General 6.13.2.1.1Slip-Critical Connections 6.13.2.1.2Bearing-Type Connections 6.13.2.2Factored Resistance 6.13.2.3Bolts, Nuts, and Washers 6.13.2.3.1Bolts and Nuts 6.13.2.3.2Washers 6.13.2.4Holes 6.13.2.4.1Type 6.13.2.4.1aGeneral 6.13.2.4.1bOversize Holes 6.13.2.4.1cShort-Slotted Holes 6.13.2.4.1dLong-Slotted Holes 6.13.2.4.2Size 6.13.2.5Size of Bolts 6.13.2.6Spacing of Bolts 6.13.2.6.1Minimum Spacing and Clear Distance 6.13.2.6.2Maximum Spacing for Sealing Bolts 6.13.2.6.3Maximum Pitch for Stitch Bolts 6.13.2.6.4Maximum Pitch for Stitch Bolts at the End of Compression Members 6.13.2.6.5End Distance 6.13.2.6.6Edge Distances 6.13.2.7Shear Resistance 6.13.2.8Slip Resistance 6.13.2.9Bearing Resistance at Bolt Holes 6.13.2.10Tensile Resistance 6.13.2.10.1General 6.13.2.10.2Nominal Tensile Resistance 6.13.2.10.3Fatigue Resistance 6.13.2.10.4Prying Action 6.13.2.11Combined Tension and Shear 6.13.2.12Shear Resistance of Anchor Bolts 6.13.3Welded Connections 6.13.3.1General 6.13.3.2Factored Resistance
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6.13.3.2.1General 6.13.3.2.2Complete Penetration Groove-Welded Connections 6.13.3.2.2aTension and Compression 6.13.3.2.2bShear 6.13.3.2.3Partial Penetration Groove-Welded Connections 6.13.3.2.3aTension or Compression 6.13.3.2.3bShear 6.13.3.2.4Fillet-Welded Connections 6.13.3.2.4aTension and Compression 6.13.3.2.4bShear 6.13.3.3Effective Area 6.13.3.4Size of Fillet Welds 6.13.3.5Minimum Effective Length of Fillet Welds 6.13.3.6Fillet Weld End Returns 6.13.3.7Seal Welds 6.13.4Block Shear Rupture Resistance 6.13.5Connection Elements 6.13.5.1General 6.13.5.2Tension 6.13.5.3Shear 6.13.6Splices 6.13.6.1Bolted Splices 6.13.6.1.1General 6.13.6.1.2Tension Members 6.13.6.1.3Compression Members 6.13.6.1.4Flexural Members 6.13.6.1.4aGeneral 6.13.6.1.4bWeb Splices 6.13.6.1.4cFlange Splices 6.13.6.1.5Fillers 6.13.6.2Welded Splices 6.13.7Rigid Frame Connections 6.13.7.1General 6.13.7.2Webs 6.14PROVISIONS FOR STRUCTURE TYPES 6.14.1Through-Girder Spans 6.14.2Trusses 6.14.2.1General 6.14.2.2Truss Members 6.14.2.3Secondary Stresses 6.14.2.4Diaphragms 6.14.2.5Camber 6.14.2.6Working Lines and Gravity Axes 6.14.2.7Portal and Sway Bracing 6.14.2.7.1General 6.14.2.7.2Through-Truss Spans 6.14.2.7.3Deck Truss Spans 6.14.2.8Gusset Plates 6.14.2.9Half Through-Trusses 6.14.2.10Factored Resistance 6.14.3Orthotropic Deck Superstructures 6.14.3.1General 6.14.3.2Effective Width of Deck 6.14.3.3Superposition of Global and Local Effects 6.14.3.3.1General 6.14.3.3.2Decks in Global Tension 6.14.3.3.3Decks in Global Compression 6.14.3.4Transverse Flexure 6.14.3.5Diaphragms 6.14.4Solid Web Arches
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6.14.4.1Moment Amplification for Deflection 6.14.4.2Web Slenderness 6.14.4.3Flange Stability 6.15PILES 6.15.1General 6.15.2Structural Resistance 6.15.3Compressive Resistance 6.15.3.1Axial Compression 6.15.3.2Combined Axial Compression and Flexure 6.15.3.3Buckling 6.15.4Maximum Permissible Driving Stresses 6.16REFERENCES APPENDIX A6FLEXURAL RESISTANCE OF STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I-SECTIONS IN NEGATIVE FLEXURE AND STRAIGHT NONCOMPOSITE I-SECTIONSWITH COMPACT OR NONCOMPACT WEBS A6.1GENERAL A6.1.1 Sections with Discretely Braced Compression Flanges A6.1.2 Sections with Discretely Braced Tension Flanges A6.1.3 Sections with Continuously Braced Compression Flanges A6.1.4 Sections with Continuously Braced Tension Flanges A6.2WEB PLASTIFICATION FACTORS A6.2.1Compact Web Sections A6.2.2Noncompact Web Sections A6.3FLEXURAL RESISTANCE BASED ON THE COMPRESSION FLANGE A6.3.1General A6.3.2Local Buckling Resistance A6.3.3Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance A6.4FLEXURAL RESISTANCE BASED ON TENSION FLANGE YIELDING APPENDIX B6MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION FROM INTERIOR-PIER I-SECTIONS IN STRAIGHT CONTINUOUSSPAN BRIDGES B6.1GENERAL B6.2SCOPE B6.2.1Web Proportions B6.2.2Compression Flange Proportions B6.2.3Section Transitions B6.2.4Compression Flange Bracing B6.2.5Shear B6.2.6Bearing Stiffeners B6.3SERVICE LIMIT STATE B6.3.1General B6.3.2Flexure B6.3.2.1Adjacent to Interior-Pier Sections B6.3.2.2At All Other Locations B6.3.3Redistribution Moments B6.3.3.1At Interior-Pier Sections B6.3.3.2At All Other Locations B6.4STRENGTH LIMIT STATE B6.4.1Flexural Resistance B6.4.1.1Adjacent to Interior-Pier Sections B6.4.1.2At All Other Locations B6.4.2Redistribution Moments B6.4.2.1At Interior-Pier Sections B6.4.2.2At All Other Sections B6.5EFFECTIVE PLASTIC MOMENT B6.5.1Interior-Pier Sections with Enhanced Moment-Rotation Characteristics B6.5.2All Other Interior-Pier Sections B6.6REFINED METHOD B6.6.1General B6.6.2Nominal Moment-Rotation Curves

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APPENDIX C6BASIC STEPS FOR STEEL BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES C6.1GENERAL C6.2GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS C6.3SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN C6.4FLOWCHARTS FOR FLEXURAL DESIGN OF I-SECTIONS C6.4.1Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.3 C6.4.2Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.4 C6.4.3Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.5 C6.4.4Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.6 C6.4.5Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.7 C6.4.6Flowchart for LRFD Article 6.10.8 C6.4.7Flowchart for Appendix A6 C6.4.8Flowchart for Article D6.4.1 C6.4.9Flowchart for Article D6.4.2 C6.4.10Moment Gradient Modifier, Cb (Sample Cases) APPENDIX D6FUNDAMENTAL CALCULATIONS FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS D6.1PLASTIC MOMENT D6.2YIELD MOMENT D6.2.1Noncomposite Sections D6.2.2Composite Sections in Positive Flexure D6.2.3 Composite Sections in Negative Flexure D6.2.4 Sections with Cover Plates D6.3DEPTH OF THE WEB IN COMPRESSION D6.3.1In the Elastic Range (Dc) D6.3.2At Plastic Moment (Dcp) D6.4LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING EQUATIONS FOR CB > 1.0, WITH EMPHASIS ON UNBRACED LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAXIMUM FLEXURAL RESISTANCE D6.4.1By the Provisions of Article 6.10.8.2.3 D6.4.2By the Provisions of Article A6.3.3 D6.5CONCENTRATED LOADS APPLIED TO WEBS WITHOUT BEARING STIFFENERS D6.5.1General D6.5.2Web Local Yielding D6.5.3Web Crippling

SECTION 7: ALUMINUM STRUCTURES 7.1SCOPE 7.2DEFINITIONS 7.3NOTATION 7.4MATERIALS 7.4.1General 7.4.2Aluminum Sheet, Plate, and Shapes 7.4.2.1Extrusions and Mechanically Fastened Builtup Members 7.4.2.2Welded Builtup Members 7.4.3Material for Pins, Rollers, and Expansion Rockers 7.4.4FastenersRivets and Bolts 7.4.5Weld Metal 7.4.6Aluminum Castings 7.4.7Aluminum Forgings 7.5LIMIT STATES 7.5.1Service Limit State 7.5.1.1Appearance of Buckling 7.5.1.2Effective Width for Calculation of Deflection of Thin Gage Sections 7.5.1.3Web Crippling 7.5.1.4Live Load Deflection 7.5.2Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 7.5.3Strength Limit State

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7.5.4Resistance Factors 7.6FATIGUE AND FRACTURE CONSIDERATIONS 7.6.1Fatigue 7.6.1.1General 7.6.1.2Load-Induced Fatigue 7.6.1.2.1Application 7.6.1.2.2Design Criteria 7.6.1.2.3Detail Categories 7.6.1.2.4Fatigue Resistance 7.6.1.3Distortion-Induced Fatigue 7.6.1.3.1Transverse Connection Plates 7.6.1.3.2Lateral Connection Plates 7.6.2Fracture 7.7DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 7.7.1Dead Load Camber 7.7.2Welding Requirements 7.7.3Welding Procedures 7.7.4Nondestructive Testing 7.7.5Uplift and Slip of Deck Slabs 7.7.6Composite Sections 7.8GENERAL DIMENSION AND DETAIL REQUIREMENTS 7.8.1Effective Length of Span 7.8.2Slenderness Ratios for Tension and Compression Members 7.8.3Minimum Thickness of Aluminum 7.8.4Diaphragms and Cross-Frames 7.8.5Lateral Bracing 7.8.5.1 General 7.8.5.2Through-Spans 7.8.6Pins and Pin-Connected Elements 7.9TENSION MEMBERS 7.9.1General 7.9.2Tensile Resistance 7.9.3Effective Area of Angle and T-Sections 7.9.4Net Area 7.10COMPRESSION MEMBERS 7.10.1General 7.10.2Compressive Resistance of Columns 7.10.3Compressive Resistance of Components of ColumnsOutstanding Flanges and Legs 7.10.4Compressive Resistance of Components of Columns, Gross SectionFlat Plates with Both Edges Supported 7.10.4.1General 7.10.4.2Effect of Local Buckling of Elements on Column Strength 7.10.5Compressive Resistance of Components of Columns, Gross SectionCurved Plates Supported on Both Edges, Walls of Round, or Oval Tubes 7.11FLEXURAL MEMBERS 7.11.1 Tensile Resistance of Flexural Member 7.11.1.1 Net Section 7.11.1.2Tension in Extreme Fibers of Beams, Structural Shapes Bent about Strong Axis, Rectangular Tubes 7.11.1.3Tension in Extreme Fibers of Beams, Round, or Oval Tubes 7.11.1.4Tension in Extreme Fibers of BeamsShapes Bent about Weak Axis, Rectangular Bars, Plates 7.11.2Compressive Resistance of Flexural Members 7.11.2.1Compression in Beams, Extreme Fiber, Gross Section, Single-Web Beams Bent about Strong Axis 7.11.2.2Compression in Beams, Extreme Fiber, Gross Section, Round or Oval Tubes 7.11.2.3Compression in Beams, Extreme Fiber, Gross Section, Solid Rectangular Beams 7.11.2.4Compression in Beams, Extreme Fiber, Gross Section, Rectangular Tubes, and Box Sections 7.11.3Compressive Resistance of Flexural Members Limited by Plate Slenderness 7.11.3.1General 7.11.3.2Compression in Components of Beams with Component under Uniform Compression, Gross Section, Outstanding Flanges 7.11.3.2.1General 7.11.3.2.2Effect of Local Buckling of Elements on Resistance
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7.11.3.3Compression in Components of Beams with Component under Uniform Compression, Gross Section, Flat Plates with Both Edges Supported 7.11.3.4Compression in Components of BeamsCurved Sections 7.11.3.5Compression in Components of Beams with Component under Bending in Own Plane, Gross Section, Flat Plates with Compression Edge Free, Tension Edge Supported 7.11.3.6Webs of Beams, Gross Section, Flat Plates with Both Edges Supported 7.11.3.7Webs of Beams with Longitudinal Stiffener, Both Edges Supported 7.11.4Shear Resistance 7.11.4.1ShearUnstiffened Flat Webs 7.11.4.2Shear in WebsStiffened Flat Webs 7.11.5Design of Stiffeners 7.11.5.1Longitudinal Stiffeners for Webs 7.11.5.2Transverse Stiffeners for Shear in Webs 7.11.5.3Stiffeners For Outstanding Flanges 7.11.5.4Bearing Stiffeners 7.12TORSION 7.12.1General 7.12.2Compression Members Subjected to Torsion 7.12.2.1Members With Double-Axis Symmetry 7.12.2.2Members With Single-Axis Symmetry 7.12.3St. Venant Torsion 7.12.3.1Open Section 7.12.3.2Box Section 7.12.4Warping Torsion 7.12.4.1 Open Sections 7.12.4.2Box Section 7.13COMBINED FORCE EFFECTS 7.13.1Combined Compression and Flexure 7.13.2Combined Shear, Compression, and Flexure 7.13.3Torsion and Shear in Tubes 7.13.4Combined Compression and FlexureWebs 7.14CONNECTIONS AND SPLICES 7.14.1General 7.14.2Bolted Connections 7.14.2.1Bolts and Nuts 7.14.2.2Holes 7.14.2.3Size of Fasteners 7.14.2.4Spacing of Fasteners 7.14.2.4.1Minimum Pitch and Clear Distance 7.14.2.4.2Maximum Pitch for Sealing Fasteners 7.14.2.4.3Maximum Pitch for Stitch Fasteners 7.14.2.4.4Stitch Fasteners at the End ofCompression Members 7.14.2.4.5End and Edge Distances 7.14.2.5Shear Resistance of Fasteners 7.14.2.6Slip-Critical Connections 7.14.2.7Bearing Resistance at Fastener Holes 7.14.2.7.1General 7.14.2.7.2Bearing Resistance at Rivet and Bolt Holes 7.14.2.7.3Bearing on Flat Surfaces and Pins 7.14.2.8Tension 7.14.3Block Shear or End Rupture 7.14.4Splices 7.14.4.1General 7.14.4.2Tension Members 7.14.4.3Compression Members 7.14.4.4Flexural Members 7.14.4.5Welding 7.15PROVISIONS FOR STRUCTURE TYPES 7.15.1Floor System 7.15.2Lateral Bracing
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7.15.3Beam and Girder Framing 7.15.4Trusses 7.15.4.1General 7.15.4.2Portal and Sway Bracing 7.15.5Arches 7.16REFERENCES

SECTION 8: WOOD STRUCTURES 8.1SCOPE 8.2DEFINITIONS 8.3NOTATION 8.4MATERIALS 8.4.1Wood Products 8.4.1.1Sawn Lumber 8.4.1.1.1General 8.4.1.1.2Dimensions 8.4.1.1.3Moisture Content 8.4.1.1.4Reference Design Values 8.4.1.2Structural Glued Laminated Timber (Glulam) 8.4.1.2.1General 8.4.1.2.2Dimensions 8.4.1.2.3 Reference Design Values 8.4.1.3Tension-Reinforced Glulams 8.4.1.3.1General 8.4.1.3.2Dimensions 8.4.1.3.3Fatigue 8.4.1.3.4Reference Design Values for Tension-Reinforced Glulams 8.4.1.3.5Volume Effect 8.4.1.3.6Preservative Treatment 8.4.1.4Piles 8.4.2Metal Fasteners and Hardware 8.4.2.1General 8.4.2.2Minimum Requirements 8.4.2.2.1Fasteners 8.4.2.2.2Prestressing Bars 8.4.2.2.3Split Ring Connectors 8.4.2.2.4Shear Plate Connectors 8.4.2.2.5Nails and Spikes 8.4.2.2.6Drift Pins and Bolts 8.4.2.2.7Spike Grids 8.4.2.2.8Toothed Metal Plate Connectors 8.4.2.3Corrosion Protection 8.4.2.3.1Metallic Coating 8.4.2.3.2Alternative Coating 8.4.3Preservative Treatment 8.4.3.1Requirement for Treatment 8.4.3.2Treatment Chemicals 8.4.3.3Inspection and Marking 8.4.3.4Fire Retardant Treatment 8.4.4Adjustment Factors for Reference Design Values 8.4.4.1General 8.4.4.2 Format Conversion Factor, CKF 8.4.4.3 Wet Service Factor, CM 8.4.4.4 Size Factor, CF, for Sawn Lumber 8.4.4.5 Volume Factor, CV,(Glulam) 8.4.4.6 Flat-Use Factor, Cfu 8.4.4.7 Incising Factor, Ci 8.4.4.8 Deck Factor, Cd

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8.4.4.9 Time Effect Factor, C 8.5LIMIT STATES 8.5.1Service Limit State 8.5.2Strength Limit State 8.5.2.1General 8.5.2.2Resistance Factors 8.5.2.3Stability 8.5.3Extreme Event Limit State 8.6COMPONENTS IN FLEXURE 8.6.1General 8.6.2Rectangular Section 8.6.3Circular Section 8.7COMPONENTS UNDER SHEAR 8.8COMPONENTS IN COMPRESSION 8.8.1General 8.8.2Compression Parallel to Grain 8.8.3Compression Perpendicular to Grain 8.9COMPONENTS IN TENSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN 8.10COMPONENTS IN COMBINED FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADING 8.10.1Components in Combined Flexure and Tension 8.10.2Components in Combined Flexure and Compression Parallel to Grain 8.11BRACING REQUIREMENTS 8.11.1General 8.11.2Sawn Wood Beams 8.11.3Glued Laminated Timber Girders 8.11.4Bracing of Trusses 8.12CAMBER REQUIREMENTS 8.12.1Glued Laminated Timber Girders 8.12.2Trusses 8.12.3Stress Laminated Timber Deck Bridge 8.13CONNECTION DESIGN 8.14REFERENCES

SECTION 9: DECKS AND DECK SYSTEMS 9.1SCOPE 9.2DEFINITIONS 9.3NOTATION 9.4GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 9.4.1Interface Action 9.4.2Deck Drainage 9.4.3Concrete Appurtenances 9.4.4Edge Supports 9.4.5Stay-in-Place Formwork for Overhangs 9.5LIMIT STATES 9.5.1General 9.5.2Service Limit States 9.5.3Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 9.5.4Strength Limit States 9.5.5Extreme Event Limit States 9.6ANALYSIS 9.6.1Methods of Analysis 9.6.2Loading 9.7CONCRETE DECK SLABS 9.7.1General 9.7.1.1Minimum Depth and Cover 9.7.1.2Composite Action 9.7.1.3Skewed Decks

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9.7.1.4Edge Support 9.7.1.5Design of Cantilever Slabs 9.7.2Empirical Design 9.7.2.1General 9.7.2.2Application 9.7.2.3Effective Length 9.7.2.4Design Conditions 9.7.2.5Reinforcement Requirements 9.7.2.6Deck with Stay-in-Place Formwork 9.7.3Traditional Design 9.7.3.1General 9.7.3.2Distribution Reinforcement 9.7.4Stay-in-Place Formwork 9.7.4.1General 9.7.4.2Steel Formwork 9.7.4.3Concrete Formwork 9.7.4.3.1Depth 9.7.4.3.2Reinforcement 9.7.4.3.3Creep and Shrinkage Control 9.7.4.3.4Bedding of Panels 9.7.5Precast Deck Slabs on Girders 9.7.5.1General 9.7.5.2Transversely Joined Precast Decks 9.7.5.3Longitudinally Post-Tensioned Precast Decks 9.7.6Deck Slabs in Segmental Construction 9.7.6.1General 9.7.6.2Joints in Decks 9.8METAL DECKS 9.8.1General 9.8.2Metal Grid Decks 9.8.2.1General 9.8.2.2Open Grid Floors 9.8.2.3Filled and Partially Filled Grid Decks 9.8.2.3.1General 9.8.2.3.2Design Requirements 9.8.2.3.3Fatigue and Fracture Limit State 9.8.2.4Unfilled Grid Decks Composite with Reinforced Concrete Slabs 9.8.2.4.1General 9.8.2.4.2Design 9.8.2.4.3Fatigue Limit State 9.8.3Orthotropic Steel Decks 9.8.3.1General 9.8.3.2Wheel Load Distribution 9.8.3.3Wearing Surface 9.8.3.4Refined Analysis 9.8.3.5Approximate Analysis 9.8.3.5.1Effective Width 9.8.3.5.2Decks with Open Ribs 9.8.3.5.3Decks with Closed Ribs 9.8.3.6Design 9.8.3.6.1Superposition of Local and Global Effects 9.8.3.6.2Limit States 9.8.3.7Detailing Requirements 9.8.3.7.1Minimum Plate Thickness 9.8.3.7.2Closed Ribs 9.8.3.7.3Unauthorized Welding to Orthotropic Decks 9.8.3.7.4Deck and Rib Details 9.8.4Orthotropic Aluminum Decks 9.8.4.1General 9.8.4.2Approximate Analysis
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9.8.4.3Limit States 9.8.5Corrugated Metal Decks 9.8.5.1General 9.8.5.2Distribution of Wheel Loads 9.8.5.3Composite Action 9.9WOOD DECKS AND DECK SYSTEMS 9.9.1Scope 9.9.2General 9.9.3Design Requirements 9.9.3.1Load Distribution 9.9.3.2Shear Design 9.9.3.3Deformation 9.9.3.4Thermal Expansion 9.9.3.5Wearing Surfaces 9.9.3.6Skewed Decks 9.9.4Glued Laminated Decks 9.9.4.1General 9.9.4.2Deck Tie-Downs 9.9.4.3Interconnected Decks 9.9.4.3.1Panels Parallel to Traffic 9.9.4.3.2Panels Perpendicular to Traffic 9.9.4.4Noninterconnected Decks 9.9.5Stress Laminated Decks 9.9.5.1General 9.9.5.2Nailing 9.9.5.3Staggered Butt Joints 9.9.5.4Holes in Laminations 9.9.5.5Deck Tie-Downs 9.9.5.6Stressing 9.9.5.6.1Prestressing System 9.9.5.6.2Prestressing Materials 9.9.5.6.3Design Requirements 9.9.5.6.4Corrosion Protection 9.9.5.6.5Railings 9.9.6Spike Laminated Decks 9.9.6.1General 9.9.6.2Deck Tie-Downs 9.9.6.3Panel Decks 9.9.7Plank Decks 9.9.7.1General 9.9.7.2Deck Tie-Downs 9.9.8Wearing Surfaces for Wood Decks 9.9.8.1General 9.9.8.2Plant Mix Asphalt 9.9.8.3Chip Seal 9.10REFERENCES

SECTION 10: FOUNDATIONS 10.1SCOPE 10.2DEFINITIONS 10.3NOTATION 10.4SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES 10.4.1Informational Needs 10.4.2Subsurface Exploration 10.4.3Laboratory Tests 10.4.3.1Soil Tests 10.4.3.2Rock Tests 10.4.4In-Situ Tests
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10.4.5Geophysical Tests 10.4.6Selection of Design Properties 10.4.6.1General 10.4.6.2Soil Strength 10.4.6.2.1General 10.4.6.2.2Undrained Strength of Cohesive Soils 10.4.6.2.3Drained Strength of Cohesive Soils 10.4.6.2.4Drained Strength of Granular Soils 10.4.6.3Soil Deformation 10.4.6.4Rock Mass Strength 10.4.6.5Rock Mass Deformation 10.4.6.6Erodibility of Rock 10.5 LIMIT STATES AND RESISTANCE FACTORS 10.5.1General 10.5.2Service Limit States 10.5.2.1General 10.5.2.2Tolerable Movements and Movement Criteria 10.5.2.3Overall Stability 10.5.2.4Abutment Transitions 10.5.3Strength Limit States 10.5.3.1General 10.5.3.2Spread Footings 10.5.3.3Driven Piles 10.5.3.4Drilled Shafts 10.5.3.5Micropiles 10.5.4Extreme Events Limit States 10.5.4.1Extreme Events Design 10.5.4.2Liquefaction Design Requirements 10.5.5Resistance Factors 10.5.5.1Service Limit States 10.5.5.2Strength Limit States 10.5.5.2.1General 10.5.5.2.2Spread Footings 10.5.5.2.3Driven Piles 10.5.5.2.4Drilled Shafts 10.5.5.2.5Micropiles 10.5.5.3Extreme Limit States 10.5.5.3.1General 10.5.5.3.2Scour 10.5.5.3.3Other Extreme Limit States 10.6SPREAD FOOTINGS 10.6.1General Considerations 10.6.1.1General 10.6.1.2Bearing Depth 10.6.1.3Effective Footing Dimensions 10.6.1.4Bearing Stress Distributions 10.6.1.5Anchorage of Inclined Footings 10.6.1.6Groundwater 10.6.1.7Uplift 10.6.1.8Nearby Structures 10.6.2Service Limit State Design 10.6.2.1General 10.6.2.2Tolerable Movements 10.6.2.3Loads 10.6.2.4Settlement Analyses 10.6.2.4.1General 10.6.2.4.2Settlement of Footings on Cohesionless Soils 10.6.2.4.3Settlement of Footings on Cohesive Soils 10.6.2.4.4Settlement of Footings on Rock 10.6.2.5Overall Stability
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10.6.2.6Bearing Resistance at the Service Limit State 10.6.2.6.1Presumptive Values for Bearing Resistance 10.6.2.6.2Semiempirical Procedures for Bearing Resistance 10.6.3Strength Limit State Design 10.6.3.1Bearing Resistance of Soil 10.6.3.1.1General 10.6.3.1.2Theoretical Estimation 10.6.3.1.2aBasic Formulation 10.6.3.1.2bConsiderations for Punching Shear 10.6.3.1.2cConsiderations for Footings on Slopes 10.6.3.1.2dConsiderations for Two-Layer Soil SystemsCritical Depth 10.6.3.1.2eTwo-Layered Soil System in Undrained Loading 10.6.3.1.2fTwo-Layered Soil System in Drained Loading 10.6.3.1.3Semiempirical Procedures 10.6.3.1.4Plate Load Tests 10.6.3.2Bearing Resistance of Rock 10.6.3.2.1General 10.6.3.2.2Semiempirical Procedures 10.6.3.2.3Analytic Method 10.6.3.2.4Load Test 10.6.3.3Eccentric Load Limitations 10.6.3.4Failure by Sliding 10.6.4Extreme Event Limit State Design 10.6.4.1General 10.6.4.2Eccentric Load Limitations 10.6.5Structural Design 10.7DRIVEN PILES 10.7.1General 10.7.1.1Application 10.7.1.2Minimum Pile Spacing, Clearance, and Embedment into Cap 10.7.1.3Piles through Embankment Fill 10.7.1.4Batter Piles 10.7.1.5Pile Design Requirements 10.7.1.6Determination of Pile Loads 10.7.1.6.1General 10.7.1.6.2Downdrag 10.7.1.6.3Uplift Due to Expansive Soils 10.7.1.6.4Nearby Structures 10.7.2Service Limit State Design 10.7.2.1General 10.7.2.2Tolerable Movements 10.7.2.3Settlement 10.7.2.3.1Equivalent Footing Analogy 10.7.2.3.2Pile Groups in Cohesive Soil 10.7.2.4Horizontal Pile Foundation Movement 10.7.2.5Settlement Due to Downdrag 10.7.2.6Lateral Squeeze 10.7.3Strength Limit State Design 10.7.3.1General 10.7.3.2Point Bearing Piles on Rock 10.7.3.2.1General 10.7.3.2.2Piles Driven to Soft Rock 10.7.3.2.3Piles Driven to Hard Rock 10.7.3.3Pile Length Estimates for Contract Documents 10.7.3.4Nominal Axial Resistance Change after Pile Driving 10.7.3.4.1General 10.7.3.4.2Relaxation 10.7.3.4.3Setup 10.7.3.5Groundwater Effects and Buoyancy 10.7.3.6Scour
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10.7.3.7Downdrag 10.7.3.8Determination of Nominal Axial Pile Resistance in Compression 10.7.3.8.1General 10.7.3.8.2Static Load Test 10.7.3.8.3Dynamic Testing 10.7.3.8.4Wave Equation Analysis 10.7.3.8.5Dynamic Formula 10.7.3.8.6Static Analysis 10.7.3.8.6aGeneral 10.7.3.8.6b-Method 10.7.3.8.6c-Method 10.7.3.8.6d-Method 10.7.3.8.6eTip Resistance in Cohesive Soils 10.7.3.8.6fNordlund/Thurman Method in Cohesionless Soils 10.7.3.8.6gUsing SPT or CPT in Cohesionless Soils 10.7.3.9Resistance of Pile Groups in Compression 10.7.3.10Uplift Resistance of Single Piles 10.7.3.11Uplift Resistance of Pile Groups 10.7.3.12Nominal Horizontal Resistance of Pile Foundations 10.7.3.13Pile Structural Resistance 10.7.3.13.1Steel Piles 10.7.3.13.2Concrete Piles 10.7.3.13.3Timber Piles 10.7.3.13.4Buckling and Lateral Stability 10.7.4Extreme Event Limit State 10.7.5Corrosion and Deterioration 10.7.6Determination of Minimum Pile Penetration 10.7.7 Determination of Rndr Used to Establish Contract Driving Criteria for Bearing 10.7.8Drivability Analysis 10.7.9Test Piles 10.8DRILLED SHAFTS 10.8.1General 10.8.1.1Scope 10.8.1.2Shaft Spacing, Clearance, and Embedment into Cap 10.8.1.3Shaft Diameter and Enlarged Bases 10.8.1.4Battered Shafts 10.8.1.5Drilled Shaft Resistance 10.8.1.6Determination of Shaft Loads 10.8.1.6.1General 10.8.1.6.2Downdrag 10.8.1.6.3Uplift 10.8.2Service Limit State Design 10.8.2.1Tolerable Movements 10.8.2.2Settlement 10.8.2.2.1General 10.8.2.2.2Settlement of Single-Drilled Shaft 10.8.2.2.3Intermediate Geo Materials (IGMs) 10.8.2.2.4Group Settlement 10.8.2.3Horizontal Movement of Shafts and Shaft Groups 10.8.2.4Settlement Due to Downdrag 10.8.2.5Lateral Squeeze 10.8.3Strength Limit State Design 10.8.3.1General 10.8.3.2Groundwater Table and Bouyancy 10.8.3.3Scour 10.8.3.4Downdrag 10.8.3.5Nominal Axial Compression Resistance of Single Drilled Shafts 10.8.3.5.1Estimation of Drilled Shaft Resistance in Cohesive Soils 10.8.3.5.1aGeneral

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10.8.3.5.1bSide Resistance 10.8.3.5.1cTip Resistance 10.8.3.5.2Estimation of Drilled Shaft Resistance in Cohesionless Soils 10.8.3.5.2aGeneral 10.8.3.5.2bSide Resistance 10.8.3.5.2cTip Resistance 10.8.3.5.3Shafts in Strong Soil Overlying Weaker Compressible Soil 10.8.3.5.4Estimation of Drilled Shaft Resistance in Rock 10.8.3.5.4aGeneral 10.8.3.5.4bSide Resistance 10.8.3.5.4cTip Resistance 10.8.3.5.4dCombined Side and Tip Resistance 10.8.3.5.5Estimation of Drilled Shaft Resistance in Intermediate Geo Materials (IGMs) 10.8.3.5.6Shaft Load Test 10.8.3.6Shaft Group Resistance 10.8.3.6.1General 10.8.3.6.2Cohesive Soil 10.8.3.6.3Cohesionless Soil 10.8.3.6.4Shaft Groups in Strong Soil Overlying Weak Soil 10.8.3.7Uplift Resistance 10.8.3.7.1General 10.8.3.7.2Uplift Resistance of Single Drilled Shaft 10.8.3.7.3Group Uplift Resistance 10.8.3.7.4Uplift Load Test 10.8.3.8Nominal Horizontal Resistance of Shaft and Shaft Groups 10.8.3.9Shaft Structural Resistance 10.8.3.9.1General 10.8.3.9.2Buckling and Lateral Stability 10.8.3.9.3Reinforcement 10.8.3.9.4Transverse Reinforcement 10.8.3.9.5Concrete 10.8.3.9.6Reinforcement into Superstructure 10.8.3.9.7Enlarged Bases 10.8.4Extreme Event Limit State 10.9MICROPILES 10.9.1General 10.9.1.1Scope 10.9.1.2Minimum Micropile Spacing, Clearance, and Embedment into Cap 10.9.1.3Micropiles through Embankment Fill 10.9.1.4Battered Micropiles 10.9.1.5Micropile Design Requirements 10.9.1.6Determination of Micropile Loads 10.9.1.6.1Downdrag 10.9.1.6.2Uplift Due to Expansive Soils 10.9.1.6.3Nearby Structures 10.9.2Service Limit State Design 10.9.2.1General 10.9.2.2Tolerable Movements 10.9.2.3Settlement 10.9.2.3.1Micropile Groups in Cohesive Soil 10.9.2.3.2Micropile Groups in Cohesionless Soil 10.9.2.4Horizontal Micropile Foundation Movement 10.9.2.5Settlement Due to Downdrag 10.9.2.6Lateral Squeeze 10.9.3Strength Limit State Design 10.9.3.1General 10.9.3.2Ground Water Table and Buoyancy 10.9.3.3Scour 10.9.3.4Downdrag 10.9.3.5Nominal Axial Compression Resistance of a Single Micropile
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10.9.3.5.1General 10.9.3.5.2Estimation of Grout-to-Ground Bond Resistance 10.9.3.5.3Estimation of Micropile Tip Resistance in Rock 10.9.3.5.4Micropile Load Test 10.9.3.6Resistance of Micropile Groups in Compression 10.9.3.7Nominal Uplift Resistance of a Single Micropile 10.9.3.8Nominal Uplift Resistance of Micropile Groups 10.9.3.9Nominal Horizontal Resistance of Micropiles and Micropile Groups 10.9.3.10Structural Resistance 10.9.3.10.1General 10.9.3.10.2Axial Compressive Resistance 10.9.3.10.2aCased Length 10.9.3.10.2bUncased Length 10.9.3.10.3Axial Tension Resistance 10.9.3.10.3aCased Length 10.9.3.10.3bUncased Length 10.9.3.10.4Plunge Length Transfer Load 10.9.3.10.5Grout-to-Steel Bond 10.9.3.10.6Buckling and Lateral Stability 10.9.3.10.7Reinforcement into Superstructure 10.9.4Extreme Event Limit State 10.9.5Corrosion and Deterioration 10.10REFERENCES APPENDIX A10SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS A10.1INVESTIGATION A10.2FOUNDATION DESIGN A10.3SPECIAL PILE REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 11: ABUTMENTS, PIERS, AND WALLS 11.1SCOPE 11.2DEFINITIONS 11.3NOTATION 11.3.1General 11.4SOIL PROPERTIES AND MATERIALS 11.4.1General 11.4.2Determination of Soil Properties 11.5LIMIT STATES AND RESISTANCE FACTORS 11.5.1General 11.5.2Service Limit States 11.5.3Strength Limit State 11.5.4Resistance Requirement 11.5.5Load Combinations and Load Factors 11.5.6Resistance Factors 11.5.7Extreme Event Limit State 11.6ABUTMENTS AND CONVENTIONAL RETAINING WALLS 11.6.1General Considerations 11.6.1.1General 11.6.1.2Loading 11.6.1.3Integral Abutments 11.6.1.4Wingwalls 11.6.1.5Reinforcement 11.6.1.5.1 Conventional Walls and Abutments 11.6.1.5.2Wingwalls 11.6.1.6Expansion and Contraction Joints 11.6.2Movement and Stability at the Service Limit State 11.6.2.1Abutments 11.6.2.2Conventional Retaining Walls
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11.6.2.3Overall Stability 11.6.3Bearing Resistance and Stability at the Strength Limit State 11.6.3.1General 11.6.3.2Bearing Resistance 11.6.3.3Overturning 11.6.3.4Subsurface Erosion 11.6.3.5Passive Resistance 11.6.3.6Sliding 11.6.4Safety against Structural Failure 11.6.5Seismic Design 11.6.6Drainage 11.7PIERS 11.7.1Load Effects in Piers 11.7.2Pier Protection 11.7.2.1Collision 11.7.2.2Collision Walls 11.7.2.3Scour 11.7.2.4Facing 11.8NONGRAVITY CANTILEVERED WALLS 11.8.1General 11.8.2Loading 11.8.3Movement and Stability at the Service Limit State 11.8.3.1 Movement 11.8.3.2 Overall Stability 11.8.4Safety against Soil Failure at the Strength Limit State 11.8.4.1Overall Stability 11.8.5Safety against Structural Failure 11.8.5.1Vertical Wall Elements 11.8.5.2Facing 11.8.6Seismic Design 11.8.7Corrosion Protection 11.8.8Drainage 11.9ANCHORED WALLS 11.9.1General 11.9.2Loading 11.9.3Movement and Stability at the Service Limit State 11.9.3.1 Movement 11.9.3.2 Overall Stability 11.9.4Safety against Soil Failure 11.9.4.1Bearing Resistance 11.9.4.2Anchor Pullout Capacity 11.9.4.3Passive Resistance 11.9.5Safety against Structural Failure 11.9.5.1Anchors 11.9.5.2Vertical Wall Elements 11.9.5.3Facing 11.9.6Seismic Design 11.9.7Corrosion Protection 11.9.8Construction and Installation 11.9.8.1Anchor Stressing and Testing 11.9.9Drainage 11.10MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH WALLS 11.10.1General 11.10.2Structure Dimensions 11.10.2.1Minimum Length of Soil Reinforcement 11.10.2.2Minimum Front Face Embedment 11.10.2.3Facing 11.10.2.3.1Stiff or Rigid Concrete, Steel, and Timber Facings 11.10.2.3.2Flexible Wall Facings 11.10.2.3.3Corrosion Issues for MSE Facing
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11.10.3Loading 11.10.4Movement and Stability at the Service Limit State 11.10.4.1Settlement 11.10.4.2Lateral Displacement 11.10.4.3Overall Stability 11.10.5Safety against Soil Failure (External Stability) 11.10.5.1 General 11.10.5.2 Loading 11.10.5.3Sliding 11.10.5.4Bearing Resistance 11.10.5.5Overturning 11.10.6Safety against Structural Failure (Internal Stability) 11.10.6.1General 11.10.6.2Loading 11.10.6.2.1Maximum Reinforcement Loads 11.10.6.2.2Reinforcement Loads at Connection to Wall Face 11.10.6.3Reinforcement Pullout 11.10.6.3.1Boundary between Active and Resistant Zones 11.10.6.3.2Reinforcement Pullout Design 11.10.6.4Reinforcement Strength 11.10.6.4.1 General 11.10.6.4.2Design Life Considerations 11.10.6.4.2aSteel Reinforcements 11.10.6.4.2bGeosynthetic Reinforcements 11.10.6.4.3Design Tensile Resistance 11.10.6.4.3aSteel Reinforcements 11.10.6.4.3bGeosynthetic Reinforcements 11.10.6.4.4Reinforcement/Facing Connection Design Strength 11.10.6.4.4a Steel Reinforcements 11.10.6.4.4bGeosynthetic Reinforcements 11.10.7Seismic Design 11.10.7.1External Stability 11.10.7.2Internal Stability 11.10.7.3Facing Reinforcement Connections 11.10.8Drainage 11.10.9Subsurface Erosion 11.10.10Special Loading Conditions 11.10.10.1Concentrated Dead Loads 11.10.10.2Traffic Loads and Barriers 11.10.10.3Hydrostatic Pressures 11.10.10.4Obstructions in the Reinforced Soil Zone 11.10.11MSE Abutments 11.11PREFABRICATED MODULAR WALLS 11.11.1General 11.11.2Loading 11.11.3Movement at the Service Limit State 11.11.4Safety against Soil Failure 11.11.4.1General 11.11.4.2Sliding 11.11.4.3Bearing Resistance 11.11.4.4Overturning 11.11.4.5Subsurface Erosion 11.11.4.6Overall Stability 11.11.4.7Passive Resistance and Sliding 11.11.5Safety against Structural Failure 11.11.5.1Module Members 11.11.6Seismic Design 11.11.7Abutments 11.11.8Drainage 11.12REFERENCES
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APPENDIX A11SEISMIC DESIGN OF ABUTMENTS AND GRAVITY RETAINING STRUCTURES A11.1GENERAL A11.1.1Free-Standing Abutments A11.1.1.1Mononobe-Okabe Analysis A11.1.1.2Design for Displacement A11.1.1.3Nonyielding Abutments A11.1.2Monolithic Abutments A11.2APPENDIX REFERENCES

SECTION 12: BURIED STRUCTURES AND TUNNEL LINERS 12.1SCOPE 12.2DEFINITIONS 12.3NOTATION 12.4SOIL AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES 12.4.1Determination of Soil Properties 12.4.1.1General 12.4.1.2Foundation Soils 12.4.1.3Envelope Backfill Soils 12.4.2Materials 12.4.2.1Aluminum Pipe and Structural Plate Structures 12.4.2.2Concrete 12.4.2.3Precast Concrete Pipe 12.4.2.4Precast Concrete Structures 12.4.2.5Steel Pipe and Structural Plate Structures 12.4.2.6Deep Corrugated Structures 12.4.2.7Steel Reinforcement 12.4.2.8Thermoplastic Pipe 12.5LIMIT STATES AND RESISTANCE FACTORS 12.5.1General 12.5.2Service Limit State 12.5.3Strength Limit State 12.5.4Load Modifiers and Load Factors 12.5.5Resistance Factors 12.5.6Flexibility Limits and Construction Stiffness 12.5.6.1Corrugated Metal Pipe and Structural Plate Structures 12.5.6.2Spiral Rib Metal Pipe and Pipe Arches 12.5.6.3Thermoplastic Pipe 12.5.6.4Steel Tunnel Liner Plate 12.6GENERAL DESIGN FEATURES 12.6.1Loading 12.6.2Service Limit State 12.6.2.1Tolerable Movement 12.6.2.2Settlement 12.6.2.2.1General 12.6.2.2.2Longitudinal Differential Settlement 12.6.2.2.3Differential Settlement between Structure and Backfill 12.6.2.2.4Footing Settlement 12.6.2.2.5Unbalanced Loading 12.6.2.3Uplift 12.6.3Safety against Soil Failure 12.6.3.1Bearing Resistance and Stability 12.6.3.2Corner Backfill for Metal Pipe Arches 12.6.4Hydraulic Design 12.6.5Scour 12.6.6Soil Envelope 12.6.6.1Trench Installations 12.6.6.2Embankment Installations

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12.6.6.3Minimum Soil Cover 12.6.7Minimum Spacing between Multiple Lines of Pipe 12.6.8End Treatment 12.6.8.1General 12.6.8.2Flexible Culverts Constructed on Skew 12.6.9Corrosive and Abrasive Conditions 12.7METAL PIPE, PIPE ARCH, AND ARCH STRUCTURES 12.7.1General 12.7.2Safety against Structural Failure 12.7.2.1Section Properties 12.7.2.2Thrust 12.7.2.3Wall Resistance 12.7.2.4Resistance to Buckling 12.7.2.5Seam Resistance 12.7.2.6Handling and Installation Requirements 12.7.3Smooth Lined Pipe 12.7.4Stiffening Elements for Structural Plate Structures 12.7.5Construction and Installation 12.8LONG-SPAN STRUCTURAL PLATE STRUCTURES 12.8.1General 12.8.2Service Limit State 12.8.3Safety against Structural Failure 12.8.3.1Section Properties 12.8.3.1.1Cross-Section 12.8.3.1.2Shape Control 12.8.3.1.3Mechanical and Chemical Requirements 12.8.3.2Thrust 12.8.3.3Wall Area 12.8.3.4Seam Strength 12.8.3.5Acceptable Special Features 12.8.3.5.1Continuous Longitudinal Stiffeners 12.8.3.5.2Reinforcing Ribs 12.8.4Safety Against Structural FailureFoundation Design 12.8.4.1Settlement Limits 12.8.4.2Footing Reactions in Arch Structures 12.8.4.3Footing Design 12.8.5Safety Against Structural FailureSoil Envelope Design 12.8.5.1General 12.8.5.2Construction Requirements 12.8.5.3Service Requirements 12.8.6Safety Against Structural FailureEnd Treatment Design 12.8.6.1General 12.8.6.2Standard Shell End Types 12.8.6.3Balanced Support 12.8.6.4Hydraulic Protection 12.8.6.4.1General 12.8.6.4.2Backfill Protection 12.8.6.4.3Cut-Off (Toe) Walls 12.8.6.4.4Hydraulic Uplift 12.8.6.4.5Scour 12.8.7Concrete Relieving Slabs 12.8.8Construction and Installation 12.8.9Deep Corrugated Structural Plate Structures 12.8.9.1General 12.8.9.2Width of Structural Backfill 12.8.9.2.1Deep Corrugated Structures with Ratio of Crown Radius to Haunch Radius 5 12.8.9.2.2Deep Corrugated Structures with Ratio of Crown Radius to Haunch Radius >5 12.8.9.3Safety against Structural Failure 12.8.9.3.1Structural Plate Requirements 12.8.9.3.2Structural Analysis
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12.8.9.4Minimum Depth of Fill 12.8.9.5Combined Thrust and Moment 12.8.9.6Global Buckling 12.8.9.7Connections 12.9STRUCTURAL PLATE BOX STRUCTURES 12.9.1General 12.9.2Loading 12.9.3Service Limit State 12.9.4Safety against Structural Failure 12.9.4.1General 12.9.4.2Moments Due to Factored Loads 12.9.4.3Plastic Moment Resistance 12.9.4.4Crown Soil Cover Factor, CH 12.9.4.5Footing Reactions 12.9.4.6Concrete Relieving Slabs 12.9.5Construction and Installation 12.10REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE 12.10.1General 12.10.2Loading 12.10.2.1Standard Installations 12.10.2.2Pipe Fluid Weight 12.10.2.3Live Loads 12.10.3Service Limit State 12.10.4Safety against Structural Failure 12.10.4.1General 12.10.4.2Direct Design Method 12.10.4.2.1Loads and Pressure Distribution 12.10.4.2.2Analysis for Force Effects with the Pipe Ring 12.10.4.2.3Process and Material Factors 12.10.4.2.4Flexural Resistance at the Strength Limit State 12.10.4.2.4aCircumferential Reinforcement 12.10.4.2.4bMinimum Reinforcement 12.10.4.2.4cMaximum Flexural Reinforcement without Stirrups 12.10.4.2.4dReinforcement for Crack Width Control 12.10.4.2.4eMinimum Concrete Cover 12.10.4.2.5Shear Resistance without Stirrups 12.10.4.2.6Shear Resistance with Radial Stirrups 12.10.4.2.7Stirrup Reinforcement Anchorage 12.10.4.2.7aRadial Tension Stirrup Anchorage 12.10.4.2.7bShear Stirrup Anchorage 12.10.4.2.7cStirrup Embedment 12.10.4.3Indirect Design Method 12.10.4.3.1Bearing Resistance 12.10.4.3.2Bedding Factor 12.10.4.3.2aEarth Load Bedding Factor for Circular Pipe 12.10.4.3.2bEarth Load Bedding Factor for Arch and Elliptical Pipe 12.10.4.3.2cLive Load Bedding Factors 12.10.4.4Development of Quadrant Mat Reinforcement 12.10.4.4.1Minimum Cage Reinforcement 12.10.4.4.2Development Length of Welded Wire Fabric 12.10.4.4.3Development of Quadrant Mat Reinforcement Consisting of Welded Plain Wire Fabric 12.10.4.4.4Development of Quadrant Mat Reinforcement Consisting of Deformed Bars, Deformed Wire, or Deformed Wire Fabric 12.10.5Construction and Installation 12.11REINFORCED CONCRETE CAST-IN-PLACE AND PRECAST BOX CULVERTS AND REINFORCED CAST-INPLACE ARCHES 12.11.1General 12.11.2Loads and Live Load Distribution 12.11.2.1General 12.11.2.2Modification of Earth Loads for Soil-Structure Interaction
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12.11.2.2.1Embankment and Trench Conditions 12.11.2.2.2Other Installations 12.11.2.3Distribution of Concentrated Loads to Bottom Slab of Box Culvert 12.11.2.4Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed Box Culverts 12.11.3Service Limit State 12.11.4Safety against Structural Failure 12.11.4.1General 12.11.4.2Design Moment for Box Culverts 12.11.4.3Minimum Reinforcement 12.11.4.3.1Cast-in-Place Structures 12.11.4.3.2Precast Box Structures 12.11.4.4Minimum Cover for Precast Box Structures 12.11.5Construction and Installation 12.12THERMOPLASTIC PIPES 12.12.1General 12.12.2Service Limit States 12.12.3Safety against Structural Failure 12.12.3.1General 12.12.3.2Section Properties 12.12.3.3Chemical and Mechanical Requirements 12.12.3.4Thrust 12.12.3.5Wall Resistance 12.12.3.5.1General 12.12.3.5.2Buckling 12.12.3.5.3Resistance to Local Buckling of Pipe Wall 12.12.3.5.3aGeneral 12.12.3.5.3bIdealized Wall Profile 12.12.3.5.3cSlenderness and Effective Width 12.12.3.5.4Combined Strain 12.12.3.5.4aGeneral 12.12.3.5.4bBending Strain 12.12.3.6Handling and Installation Requirements 12.13STEEL TUNNEL LINER PLATE 12.13.1General 12.13.2Loading 12.13.2.1Earth Loads 12.13.2.2Live Loads 12.13.2.3Grouting Pressure 12.13.3Safety against Structural Failure 12.13.3.1Section Properties 12.13.3.2Wall Area 12.13.3.3Buckling 12.13.3.4Seam Strength 12.13.3.5Construction Stiffness 12.14PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE THREE-SIDED STRUCTURES 12.14.1General 12.14.2Materials 12.14.2.1Concrete 12.14.2.2Reinforcement 12.14.3Concrete Cover for Reinforcement 12.14.4Geometric Properties 12.14.5Design 12.14.5.1General 12.14.5.2Distribution of Concentrated Load Effects in Top Slab and Sides 12.14.5.3Distribution of Concentrated Loads in Skewed Culverts 12.14.5.4Shear Transfer in Transverse Joints between Culvert Sections 12.14.5.5Span Length 12.14.5.6Resistance Factors 12.14.5.7Crack Control 12.14.5.8Minimum Reinforcement
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12.14.5.9Deflection Control at the Service Limit State 12.14.5.10Footing Design 12.14.5.11Structural Backfill 12.14.5.12Scour Protection and Waterway Considerations 12.15REFERENCES APPENDIX A12PLATE, PIPE, AND PIPE ARCH PROPERTIES

SECTION 13: RAILINGS 13.1SCOPE 13.2DEFINITIONS 13.3NOTATION 13.4GENERAL 13.5MATERIALS 13.6LIMIT STATES AND RESISTANCE FACTORS 13.6.1Strength Limit State 13.6.2Extreme Event Limit State 13.7TRAFFIC RAILING 13.7.1Railing System 13.7.1.1 General 13.7.1.2Approach Railings 13.7.1.3End Treatment 13.7.2Test Level Selection Criteria 13.7.3Railing Design 13.7.3.1General 13.7.3.1.1Application of Previously Tested Systems 13.7.3.1.2New Systems 13.7.3.2Height of Traffic Parapet or Railing 13.8PEDESTRIAN RAILING 13.8.1Geometry 13.8.2Design Live Loads 13.9BICYCLE RAILINGS 13.9.1General 13.9.2Geometry 13.9.3Design Live Loads 13.10COMBINATION RAILINGS 13.10.1General 13.10.2Geometry 13.10.3Design Live Loads 13.11CURBS AND SIDEWALKS 13.11.1General 13.11.2Sidewalks 13.11.3End Treatment of Separation Railing 13.12REFERENCES APPENDIX A13RAILINGS A13.1GEOMETRY AND ANCHORAGES A13.1.1Separation of Rail Elements A13.1.2Anchorages A13.2TRAFFIC RAILING DESIGN FORCES A13.3DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR RAILING TEST SPECIMENS A13.3.1Concrete Railings A13.3.2Post-and-Beam Railings A13.3.3Concrete Parapet and Metal Rail A13.3.4Wood Barriers A13.4DECK OVERHANG DESIGN A13.4.1Design Cases A13.4.2Decks Supporting Concrete Parapet Railings A13.4.3Decks Supporting Post-and-Beam Railings
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A13.4.3.1Overhang Design A13.4.3.2Resistance to Punching Shear

SECTION 14: JOINTS AND BEARINGS 14.1SCOPE 14.2DEFINITIONS 14.3NOTATION 14.4MOVEMENTS AND LOADS 14.4.1General 14.4.2Design Requirements 14.4.2.1Elastomeric Pads and Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings 14.4.2.2High Load Multirotational (HLMR) Bearings 14.4.2.2.1Pot Bearings and Curved Sliding Surface Bearings 14.4.2.2.2Disc Bearings 14.5BRIDGE JOINTS 14.5.1Requirements 14.5.1.1General 14.5.1.2Structural Design 14.5.1.3Geometry 14.5.1.4Materials 14.5.1.5Maintenance 14.5.2Selection 14.5.2.1Number of Joints 14.5.2.2Location of Joints 14.5.3Design Requirements 14.5.3.1Movements during Construction 14.5.3.2Design Movements 14.5.3.3Protection 14.5.3.4Bridging Plates 14.5.3.5Armor 14.5.3.6Anchors 14.5.3.7Bolts 14.5.4Fabrication 14.5.5Installation 14.5.5.1Adjustment 14.5.5.2Temporary Supports 14.5.5.3Field Splices 14.5.6Considerations for Specific Joint Types 14.5.6.1Open Joints 14.5.6.2Closed Joints 14.5.6.3Waterproofed Joints 14.5.6.4Joint Seals 14.5.6.5Poured Seals 14.5.6.6Compression and Cellular Seals 14.5.6.7Sheet and Strip Seals 14.5.6.8Plank Seals 14.5.6.9Modular Bridge Joint Systems (MBJS) 14.5.6.9.1General 14.5.6.9.2Performance Requirements 14.5.6.9.3Testing and Calculation Requirements 14.5.6.9.4Loads and Load Factors 14.5.6.9.5Distribution of Wheel Loads 14.5.6.9.6Strength Limit State Design Requirements 14.5.6.9.7Fatigue Limit State Design Requirements 14.5.6.9.7aGeneral 14.5.6.9.7bDesign Stress Range 14.6REQUIREMENTS FOR BEARINGS 14.6.1General

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14.6.2Characteristics 14.6.3Force Effects Resulting from Restraint of Movement at the Bearing 14.6.3.1Horizontal Force and Movement 14.6.3.2Moment 14.6.4Fabrication, Installation, Testing, and Shipping 14.6.5Seismic and Other Extreme Event Provisions for Bearings 14.6.5.1General 14.6.5.2Applicability 14.6.5.3Design Criteria 14.7SPECIAL DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR BEARINGS 14.7.1Metal Rocker and Roller Bearings 14.7.1.1General 14.7.1.2Materials 14.7.1.3Geometric Requirements 14.7.1.4Contact Stresses 14.7.2PTFE Sliding Surfaces 14.7.2.1PTFE Surface 14.7.2.2Mating Surface 14.7.2.3Minimum Thickness 14.7.2.3.1PTFE 14.7.2.3.2Stainless Steel Mating Surfaces 14.7.2.4Contact Pressure 14.7.2.5Coefficient of Friction 14.7.2.6Attachment 14.7.2.6.1PTFE 14.7.2.6.2Mating Surface 14.7.3Bearings with Curved Sliding Surfaces 14.7.3.1General 14.7.3.2Bearing Resistance 14.7.3.3Resistance to Lateral Load 14.7.4Pot Bearings 14.7.4.1General 14.7.4.2Materials 14.7.4.3Geometric Requirements 14.7.4.4Elastomeric Disc 14.7.4.5Sealing Rings 14.7.4.5.1General 14.7.4.5.2Rings with Rectangular Cross-Sections 14.7.4.5.3Rings with Circular Cross-Sections 14.7.4.6Pot 14.7.4.7Piston 14.7.5Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric BearingsMethod B 14.7.5.1General 14.7.5.2Material Properties 14.7.5.3Design Requirements 14.7.5.3.1Scope 14.7.5.3.2Shear Deformations 14.7.5.3.3Combined Compression, Rotation, and Shear 14.7.5.3.4Stability of Elastomeric Bearings 14.7.5.3.5Reinforcement 14.7.5.3.6Compressive Deflection 14.7.5.3.7Seismic and Other Extreme Event Provisions 14.7.5.4Anchorage for Bearings without Bonded External Plates 14.7.6Elastomeric Pads and Steel-Reinforced Elastomeric BearingsMethod A 14.7.6.1General 14.7.6.2Material Properties 14.7.6.3Design Requirements 14.7.6.3.1Scope 14.7.6.3.2Compressive Stress 14.7.6.3.3Compressive Deflection
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14.7.6.3.4Shear 14.7.6.3.5Rotation 14.7.6.3.5aGeneral 14.7.6.3.5bRotation of PEP 14.7.6.3.5cRotation of CDP 14.7.6.3.5dRotation of FGP and Steel Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings 14.7.6.3.6Stability 14.7.6.3.7Reinforcement 14.7.6.3.8Seismic and Other Extreme Event Provisions 14.7.7Bronze or Copper Alloy Sliding Surfaces 14.7.7.1Materials 14.7.7.2Coefficient of Friction 14.7.7.3Limit on Load 14.7.7.4Clearances and Mating Surfaces 14.7.8Disc Bearings 14.7.8.1General 14.7.8.2Materials 14.7.8.3Elastomeric Disc 14.7.8.4Shear Resisting Mechanism 14.7.8.5Steel Plates 14.7.9Guides and Restraints 14.7.9.1General 14.7.9.2Design Loads 14.7.9.3Materials 14.7.9.4Geometric Requirements 14.7.9.5Design Basis 14.7.9.5.1Load Location 14.7.9.5.2Contact Stress 14.7.9.6Attachment of Low-Friction Material 14.7.10Other Bearing Systems 14.8LOAD PLATES AND ANCHORAGE FOR BEARINGS 14.8.1Plates for Load Distribution 14.8.2Tapered Plates 14.8.3Anchorage and Anchor Bolts 14.8.3.1General 14.8.3.2Seismic and Other Extreme Event Design and Detailing Requirements 14.9CORROSION PROTECTION 14.10REFERENCES

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