Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

ANNEX 25 - Guidelines For Voyage Planning - IMO Resolution A.8 !

"2#$ %ON&EN&' Resolution text Annex- Draft guidelines for Voyage Planning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Objectives Appraisal Planning Execution Monitoring RE'O()&ION A.8 !"2#$ ado*ted on 25 No+e,-er # Guidelines For Voyage Planning &.E A''EM/(01 RECA !"# Article $%&j' of t(e Convention on t(e !nternational Mariti)e Organi*ation concerning t(e functions of t(e Asse)bly in relation to regulations and guidelines concerning )ariti)e safety and t(e prevention and control of )arine pollution fro) s(ips+ RECA !"# A ,O section A-V!!!-.+ Part . &Voyage planning' of t(e ,eafarers/ 0raining+ Certification and 1atc(2eeping Code+ RECA !"# 34R05ER t(e essential re6uire)ents contained in t(e !nternational Convention on ,tandards of 0raining+ Certification and 1atc(2eeping for ,eafarers and t(e !nternational Convention for t(e ,afety of ife at ,ea concerning voyage planning+ including t(ose relating to officers and cre7+ s(ipborne e6uip)ent+ and safety )anage)ent syste)s+ RECO#"!8!"# t(e essential i)portance for safety of life at sea+ safety of navigation and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent of a 7ell planned voyage+ and t(erefore t(e need to update t(e $9:; #uidance on voyage planning issued as ,"-Circ<9.+ "O0!"# t(e re6uest of t(e Asse)bly in resolution A<:9=&$9' t(at t(e Mariti)e ,afety Co))ittee consider t(e issue of voyage planning in conjunction 7it( its revie7 of t(e Code for t(e ,afe Carriage of !rradiated "uclear 3uel+ Plutoniu) and 5ig(- evel Radioactive 1astes in 3las2s on >oard ,(ips &!"3 Code'+ and t(e Co))ittee/s decision t(at consideration of t(e issue of voyage planning s(ould not be restricted to vessels carrying )aterials subject to t(e !"3 Code but s(ould apply to all s(ips engaged on international voyages+ 5AV!"# CO",!DERED t(e reco))endation )ade by t(e ,ub-Co))ittee on ,afety of "avigation at its forty-fift( session? #.$ ADOP0, t(e #uidelines for voyage planning set out in t(e Annex to t(e present resolution@ 2.$ !"V!0E, #overn)ents to bring t(e annexed #uidelines to t(e attention of )asters of

vessels flying t(eir countries/ flag+ s(ipo7ners+ s(ip operators+ s(ipping co)panies+ )ariti)e pilots+ training institutions and all ot(er parties concerned+ for infor)ation and action as appropriate@ !.$ REA4E,0, t(e Mariti)e ,afety Co))ittee to 2eep t(e said #uidelines under revie7 and to a)end t(e) as appropriate< Return to Reg< BC ANNEX 2ra3t Guidelines For Voyage Planning #.$ O-4e5ti+es #.#$ 0(e develop)ent of a plan for voyage or passage+ as 7ell as t(e close and continuous )onitoring of t(e vessel/s progress and position during t(e execution of suc( a plan+ are of essential i)portance for safety of life at sea+ safety and efficiency of navigation and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent< #.2$ 0(e need for voyage and passage planning applies to all vessels< 0(ere are several factors t(at )ay i)pede t(e safe navigation of all vessels and additional factors t(at )ay i)pede t(e navigation of large vessels or vessels carrying (a*ardous cargoes< 0(ese factors 7ill need to be ta2en into account in t(e preparation of t(e plan and in t(e subse6uent )onitoring of t(e execution of t(e plan< #.!$ Voyage and passage planning includes appraisal+ i<e< gat(ering all infor)ation relevant to t(e conte)plated voyage or passage@ detailed planning of t(e 7(ole voyage or passage fro) bert( to bert(+ including t(ose areas necessitating t(e presence of a pilot@ execution of t(e plan@ and t(e )onitoring of t(e progress of t(e vessel in t(e i)ple)entation of t(e plan< 0(ese co)ponents of voyage-passage planning are analysed belo7< Return to Reg< BC 2.$ A**raisal 2.#$ All infor)ation relevant to t(e conte)plated voyage or passage s(ould be considered< 0(e follo7ing ite)s s(ould be ta2en into account in voyage and passage planning? 2.#.#$ t(e condition and state of t(e vessel+ its stability+ and its e6uip)ent@ any operational li)itations@ its per)issible draug(t at sea in fair7ays and in ports@ its )anoeuvring data+ including any restrictions@ 2.#.2$ any special c(aracteristics of t(e cargo &especially if (a*ardous'+ and its distribution+ sto7age and securing on board t(e vessel@ 2.#.!$ t(e provision of a co)petent and 7ell-rested cre7 to underta2e t(e voyage or passage@ 2.#.6$ re6uire)ents for up-to-date certificates and docu)ents concerning t(e vessel+ its e6uip)ent+ cre7+ passengers or cargo@ 2.#.5$ appropriate scale+ accurate and up-to-date c(arts to be used for t(e intended voyage or passage+ as 7ell as any relevant per)anent or te)porary notices to )ariners and existing radio navigational 7arnings@

2.#.7$ accurate and up-to-date sailing directions+ lists of lig(ts and lists of radio aids to navigation@ and 2.#.8$ any relevant up-to-date additional infor)ation+ including? 2.#.8.#$ )ariners/ routeing guides and passage planning c(arts+ publis(ed by co)petent aut(orities@ 2.#.8.2$ current and tidal atlases and tide tables@ 2.#.8.!$ cli)atological+ (ydrograp(ical+ and oceanograp(ic data as 7ell as ot(er appropriate )eteorological infor)ation@ 2.#.8.6$ availability of services for 7eat(er routeing &suc( as t(at contained in Volu)e D of t(e 1orld Meteorological Organi*ation/s Publication "o< 9'@ 2.#.8.5$ existing s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s+ vessel traffic services+ and )arine environ)ental protection )easures@ 2.#.8.7$ volu)e of traffic li2ely to be encountered t(roug(out t(e voyage or passage@ 2.#.8.8$ if a pilot is to be used+ infor)ation relating to pilotage and e)bar2ation and dise)bar2ation including t(e exc(ange of infor)ation bet7een )aster and pilot@ 2.#.8.8$ available port infor)ation+ including infor)ation pertaining to t(e availability of s(ore-based e)ergency response arrange)ents and e6uip)ent@ and 2.#.8. $ any additional ite)s pertinent to t(e type of t(e vessel or its cargo+ t(e particular areas t(e vessel 7ill traverse+ and t(e type of voyage or passage to be underta2en< 2.2$ On t(e basis of t(e above infor)ation+ an overall appraisal of t(e intended voyage or passage s(ould be )ade< 0(is appraisal s(ould provide a clear indication of all areas of danger@ t(ose areas 7(ere it 7ill be possible to navigate safely+ including any existing routeing or reporting syste)s and vessel traffic services@ and any areas 7(ere )arine environ)ental protection considerations apply< Return to Reg< BC !.$ Planning !.#$ On t(e basis of t(e fullest possible appraisal+ a detailed voyage or passage plan s(ould be prepared 7(ic( s(ould cover t(e entire voyage or passage fro) bert( to bert(+ including t(ose areas 7(ere t(e services of a pilot 7ill be used< !.2$ 0(e detailed voyage or passage plan s(ould include t(e follo7ing factors? !.2.#$ t(e plotting of t(e intended route or trac2 of t(e voyage or passage on appropriate scale c(arts? t(e true direction of t(e planned route or trac2 s(ould be indicated+ as 7ell as all areas of danger+ existing s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s+ vessel traffic services+ and any areas 7(ere )arine environ)ental protection considerations apply@ !.2.2$ t(e )ain ele)ents to ensure safety of life at sea+ safety and efficiency of navigation+ and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent during t(e intended voyage or

passage@ suc( ele)ents s(ould include+ but not be li)ited to? !.2.2.#$ safe speed+ (aving regard to t(e proxi)ity of navigational (a*ards along t(e intended route or trac2+ t(e )anoeuvring c(aracteristics of t(e vessel and its draug(t in relation to t(e available 7ater dept(@ !.2.2.2$ necessary speed alterations en route+ e<g<+ 7(ere t(ere )ay be li)itations because of nig(t passage+ tidal restrictions+ or allo7ance for t(e increase of draug(t due to s6uat and (eel effect 7(en turning@ !.2.2.!$ )ini)u) clearance re6uired under t(e 2eel in critical areas 7it( restricted 7ater dept(@ !.2.2.6$ positions 7(ere a c(ange in )ac(inery status is re6uired@ !.2.2.5$ course alteration points+ ta2ing into account t(e vessel/s turning circle at t(e planned speed and any expected effect of tidal strea)s and currents@ !.2.2.7$ t(e )et(od and fre6uency of position fixing+ including pri)ary and secondary options+ and t(e indication of areas 7(ere accuracy of position fixing is critical and 7(ere )axi)u) reliability )ust be obtained@ !.2.2.8$ use of s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s and vessel traffic services@ !.2.2.8$ considerations relating to t(e protection of t(e )arine environ)ent@ and !.2.2. $ contingency plans for alternative action to place t(e vessel in deep 7ater or proceed to a port of refuge or safe anc(orage in t(e event of any e)ergency necessitating abandon)ent of t(e plan+ ta2ing into account existing s(ore-based e)ergency response arrange)ents and e6uip)ent and t(e nature of t(e cargo and of t(e e)ergency itself< !.!$ 0(e details of t(e voyage or passage plan s(ould be clearly )ar2ed and recorded+ as appropriate+ on c(arts and in a voyage plan noteboo2 or co)puter dis2< !.6$ Eac( voyage or passage plan as 7ell as t(e details of t(e plan+ s(ould be approved by t(e s(ips/ )aster prior to t(e co))ence)ent of t(e voyage or passage< Return to Reg< BC 6.$ E9e5ution 6.#$ 5aving finali*ed t(e voyage or passage plan+ as soon as ti)e of departure and esti)ated ti)e of arrival can be deter)ined 7it( reasonable accuracy+ t(e voyage or passage s(ould be executed in accordance 7it( t(e plan or any c(anges )ade t(ereto< 6.2$ 3actors 7(ic( s(ould be ta2en into account 7(en executing t(e plan+ or deciding on any departure t(erefro) include? 6.2.#$ t(e reliability and condition of t(e vessel/s navigational e6uip)ent@ 6.2.2$ esti)ated ti)es of arrival at critical points for tide (eig(ts and flo7@ 6.2.!$ )eteorological conditions+ &particularly in areas 2no7n to be affected by fre6uent periods of lo7 visibility' as 7ell as 7eat(er routeing infor)ation@ 6.2.6$ dayti)e versus nig(t-ti)e passing of danger points+ and any effect t(is )ay (ave on position fixing accuracy@ and 6.2.5$ traffic conditions+ especially at navigational focal points<

6.!$ !t is i)portant for t(e )aster to consider 7(et(er any particular circu)stance+ suc( as t(e forecast of restricted visibility in an area 7(ere position fixing by visual )eans at a critical point is an essential feature of t(e voyage or passage plan+ introduces an unacceptable (a*ard to t(e safe conduct of t(e passage@ and t(us 7(et(er t(at section of t(e passage s(ould be atte)pted under t(e conditions prevailing or li2ely to prevail< 0(e )aster s(ould also consider at 7(ic( specific points of t(e voyage or passage t(ere )ay be a need to utili*e additional dec2 or engine roo) personnel< Return to Reg< BC 5.$ Monitoring 5.#$ 0(e plan s(ould be available at all ti)es on t(e bridge to allo7 officers of t(e navigational 7atc( i))ediate access and reference to t(e details of t(e plan< 5.2$ 0(e progress of t(e vessel in accordance 7it( t(e voyage and passage plan s(ould be closely and continuously )onitored< Any c(anges )ade to t(e plan s(ould be )ade consistent 7it( t(ese #uidelines and clearly )ar2ed and recorded< #o to A""ED .C E MCA #uidance "otes for Voyage Planning ANNEX 25 - Guidelines For Voyage Planning - IMO Resolution A.8 !"2#$ %ON&EN&' Resolution text Annex- Draft guidelines for Voyage Planning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Objectives Appraisal Planning Execution Monitoring RE04R" 0O RE#< BC

RE'O()&ION A.8 !"2#$ ado*ted on 25 No+e,-er # Guidelines For Voyage Planning &.E A''EM/(01 RECA !"# Article $%&j' of t(e Convention on t(e !nternational Mariti)e Organi*ation concerning t(e functions of t(e Asse)bly in relation to regulations and guidelines concerning )ariti)e safety and t(e prevention and control of )arine pollution fro) s(ips+ RECA !"# A ,O section A-V!!!-.+ Part . &Voyage planning' of t(e ,eafarers/ 0raining+ Certification and 1atc(2eeping Code+

RECA !"# 34R05ER t(e essential re6uire)ents contained in t(e !nternational Convention on ,tandards of 0raining+ Certification and 1atc(2eeping for ,eafarers and t(e !nternational Convention for t(e ,afety of ife at ,ea concerning voyage planning+ including t(ose relating to officers and cre7+ s(ipborne e6uip)ent+ and safety )anage)ent syste)s+ RECO#"!8!"# t(e essential i)portance for safety of life at sea+ safety of navigation and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent of a 7ell planned voyage+ and t(erefore t(e need to update t(e $9:; #uidance on voyage planning issued as ,"-Circ<9.+ "O0!"# t(e re6uest of t(e Asse)bly in resolution A<:9=&$9' t(at t(e Mariti)e ,afety Co))ittee consider t(e issue of voyage planning in conjunction 7it( its revie7 of t(e Code for t(e ,afe Carriage of !rradiated "uclear 3uel+ Plutoniu) and 5ig(- evel Radioactive 1astes in 3las2s on >oard ,(ips &!"3 Code'+ and t(e Co))ittee/s decision t(at consideration of t(e issue of voyage planning s(ould not be restricted to vessels carrying )aterials subject to t(e !"3 Code but s(ould apply to all s(ips engaged on international voyages+ 5AV!"# CO",!DERED t(e reco))endation )ade by t(e ,ub-Co))ittee on ,afety of "avigation at its forty-fift( session? #.$ ADOP0, t(e #uidelines for voyage planning set out in t(e Annex to t(e present resolution@ 2.$ !"V!0E, #overn)ents to bring t(e annexed #uidelines to t(e attention of )asters of vessels flying t(eir countries/ flag+ s(ipo7ners+ s(ip operators+ s(ipping co)panies+ )ariti)e pilots+ training institutions and all ot(er parties concerned+ for infor)ation and action as appropriate@ !.$ REA4E,0, t(e Mariti)e ,afety Co))ittee to 2eep t(e said #uidelines under revie7 and to a)end t(e) as appropriate< Return to Reg< BC ANNEX 2ra3t Guidelines For Voyage Planning #.$ O-4e5ti+es #.#$ 0(e develop)ent of a plan for voyage or passage+ as 7ell as t(e close and continuous )onitoring of t(e vessel/s progress and position during t(e execution of suc( a plan+ are of essential i)portance for safety of life at sea+ safety and efficiency of navigation and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent< #.2$ 0(e need for voyage and passage planning applies to all vessels< 0(ere are several factors t(at )ay i)pede t(e safe navigation of all vessels and additional factors t(at )ay i)pede t(e navigation of large vessels or vessels carrying (a*ardous cargoes< 0(ese factors 7ill need to be ta2en into account in t(e preparation of t(e plan and in t(e subse6uent )onitoring of t(e execution of t(e plan< #.!$ Voyage and passage planning includes appraisal+ i<e< gat(ering all infor)ation relevant to t(e conte)plated voyage or passage@ detailed planning of t(e 7(ole voyage or passage fro) bert( to bert(+ including t(ose areas necessitating t(e presence of a pilot@ execution of t(e plan@ and

t(e )onitoring of t(e progress of t(e vessel in t(e i)ple)entation of t(e plan< 0(ese co)ponents of voyage-passage planning are analysed belo7< Return to Reg< BC 2.$ A**raisal 2.#$ All infor)ation relevant to t(e conte)plated voyage or passage s(ould be considered< 0(e follo7ing ite)s s(ould be ta2en into account in voyage and passage planning? 2.#.#$ t(e condition and state of t(e vessel+ its stability+ and its e6uip)ent@ any operational li)itations@ its per)issible draug(t at sea in fair7ays and in ports@ its )anoeuvring data+ including any restrictions@ 2.#.2$ any special c(aracteristics of t(e cargo &especially if (a*ardous'+ and its distribution+ sto7age and securing on board t(e vessel@ 2.#.!$ t(e provision of a co)petent and 7ell-rested cre7 to underta2e t(e voyage or passage@ 2.#.6$ re6uire)ents for up-to-date certificates and docu)ents concerning t(e vessel+ its e6uip)ent+ cre7+ passengers or cargo@ 2.#.5$ appropriate scale+ accurate and up-to-date c(arts to be used for t(e intended voyage or passage+ as 7ell as any relevant per)anent or te)porary notices to )ariners and existing radio navigational 7arnings@ 2.#.7$ accurate and up-to-date sailing directions+ lists of lig(ts and lists of radio aids to navigation@ and 2.#.8$ any relevant up-to-date additional infor)ation+ including? 2.#.8.#$ )ariners/ routeing guides and passage planning c(arts+ publis(ed by co)petent aut(orities@ 2.#.8.2$ current and tidal atlases and tide tables@ 2.#.8.!$ cli)atological+ (ydrograp(ical+ and oceanograp(ic data as 7ell as ot(er appropriate )eteorological infor)ation@ 2.#.8.6$ availability of services for 7eat(er routeing &suc( as t(at contained in Volu)e D of t(e 1orld Meteorological Organi*ation/s Publication "o< 9'@ 2.#.8.5$ existing s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s+ vessel traffic services+ and )arine environ)ental protection )easures@ 2.#.8.7$ volu)e of traffic li2ely to be encountered t(roug(out t(e voyage or passage@ 2.#.8.8$ if a pilot is to be used+ infor)ation relating to pilotage and e)bar2ation and dise)bar2ation including t(e exc(ange of infor)ation bet7een )aster and pilot@

2.#.8.8$ available port infor)ation+ including infor)ation pertaining to t(e availability of s(ore-based e)ergency response arrange)ents and e6uip)ent@ and 2.#.8. $ any additional ite)s pertinent to t(e type of t(e vessel or its cargo+ t(e particular areas t(e vessel 7ill traverse+ and t(e type of voyage or passage to be underta2en< 2.2$ On t(e basis of t(e above infor)ation+ an overall appraisal of t(e intended voyage or passage s(ould be )ade< 0(is appraisal s(ould provide a clear indication of all areas of danger@ t(ose areas 7(ere it 7ill be possible to navigate safely+ including any existing routeing or reporting syste)s and vessel traffic services@ and any areas 7(ere )arine environ)ental protection considerations apply< Return to Reg< BC !.$ Planning !.#$ On t(e basis of t(e fullest possible appraisal+ a detailed voyage or passage plan s(ould be prepared 7(ic( s(ould cover t(e entire voyage or passage fro) bert( to bert(+ including t(ose areas 7(ere t(e services of a pilot 7ill be used< !.2$ 0(e detailed voyage or passage plan s(ould include t(e follo7ing factors? !.2.#$ t(e plotting of t(e intended route or trac2 of t(e voyage or passage on appropriate scale c(arts? t(e true direction of t(e planned route or trac2 s(ould be indicated+ as 7ell as all areas of danger+ existing s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s+ vessel traffic services+ and any areas 7(ere )arine environ)ental protection considerations apply@ !.2.2$ t(e )ain ele)ents to ensure safety of life at sea+ safety and efficiency of navigation+ and protection of t(e )arine environ)ent during t(e intended voyage or passage@ suc( ele)ents s(ould include+ but not be li)ited to? !.2.2.#$ safe speed+ (aving regard to t(e proxi)ity of navigational (a*ards along t(e intended route or trac2+ t(e )anoeuvring c(aracteristics of t(e vessel and its draug(t in relation to t(e available 7ater dept(@ !.2.2.2$ necessary speed alterations en route+ e<g<+ 7(ere t(ere )ay be li)itations because of nig(t passage+ tidal restrictions+ or allo7ance for t(e increase of draug(t due to s6uat and (eel effect 7(en turning@ !.2.2.!$ )ini)u) clearance re6uired under t(e 2eel in critical areas 7it( restricted 7ater dept(@ !.2.2.6$ positions 7(ere a c(ange in )ac(inery status is re6uired@

!.2.2.5$ course alteration points+ ta2ing into account t(e vessel/s turning circle at t(e planned speed and any expected effect of tidal strea)s and currents@ !.2.2.7$ t(e )et(od and fre6uency of position fixing+ including pri)ary and secondary options+ and t(e indication of areas 7(ere accuracy of position fixing is critical and 7(ere )axi)u) reliability )ust be obtained@ !.2.2.8$ use of s(ips/ routeing and reporting syste)s and vessel traffic services@ !.2.2.8$ considerations relating to t(e protection of t(e )arine environ)ent@ and !.2.2. $ contingency plans for alternative action to place t(e vessel in deep 7ater or proceed to a port of refuge or safe anc(orage in t(e event of any e)ergency necessitating abandon)ent of t(e plan+ ta2ing into account existing s(ore-based e)ergency response arrange)ents and e6uip)ent and t(e nature of t(e cargo and of t(e e)ergency itself< !.!$ 0(e details of t(e voyage or passage plan s(ould be clearly )ar2ed and recorded+ as appropriate+ on c(arts and in a voyage plan noteboo2 or co)puter dis2< !.6$ Eac( voyage or passage plan as 7ell as t(e details of t(e plan+ s(ould be approved by t(e s(ips/ )aster prior to t(e co))ence)ent of t(e voyage or passage< Return to Reg< BC 6.$ E9e5ution 6.#$ 5aving finali*ed t(e voyage or passage plan+ as soon as ti)e of departure and esti)ated ti)e of arrival can be deter)ined 7it( reasonable accuracy+ t(e voyage or passage s(ould be executed in accordance 7it( t(e plan or any c(anges )ade t(ereto< 6.2$ 3actors 7(ic( s(ould be ta2en into account 7(en executing t(e plan+ or deciding on any departure t(erefro) include? 6.2.#$ t(e reliability and condition of t(e vessel/s navigational e6uip)ent@ 6.2.2$ esti)ated ti)es of arrival at critical points for tide (eig(ts and flo7@ 6.2.!$ )eteorological conditions+ &particularly in areas 2no7n to be affected by fre6uent periods of lo7 visibility' as 7ell as 7eat(er routeing infor)ation@ 6.2.6$ dayti)e versus nig(t-ti)e passing of danger points+ and any effect t(is )ay (ave on position fixing accuracy@ and

6.2.5$ traffic conditions+ especially at navigational focal points< 6.!$ !t is i)portant for t(e )aster to consider 7(et(er any particular circu)stance+ suc( as t(e forecast of restricted visibility in an area 7(ere position fixing by visual )eans at a critical point is an essential feature of t(e voyage or passage plan+ introduces an unacceptable (a*ard to t(e safe conduct of t(e passage@ and t(us 7(et(er t(at section of t(e passage s(ould be atte)pted under t(e conditions prevailing or li2ely to prevail< 0(e )aster s(ould also consider at 7(ic( specific points of t(e voyage or passage t(ere )ay be a need to utili*e additional dec2 or engine roo) personnel< Return to Reg< BC 5.$ Monitoring 5.#$ 0(e plan s(ould be available at all ti)es on t(e bridge to allo7 officers of t(e navigational 7atc( i))ediate access and reference to t(e details of t(e plan< 5.2$ 0(e progress of t(e vessel in accordance 7it( t(e voyage and passage plan s(ould be closely and continuously )onitored< Any c(anges )ade to t(e plan s(ould be )ade consistent 7it( t(ese #uidelines and clearly )ar2ed and recorded< #o to A""ED .C E MCA #uidance "otes for Voyage Planning

Anne9 26 - Voyage Planning 0(e Annex to !MO Resolution A<;9B&.$' &,ee A""ED .%'+ F#uidelines for Voyage PlanningG+ s(ould be follo7ed on all vessels< 0(e 2ey ele)ents of t(e Voyage Plan are? A**raising all relevant infor)ation Planning t(e intended voyage E9e5uting t(e plan ta2ing account of prevailing conditions Monitoring t(e vesselHs progress against t(e plan continuously 0(ese notes s(ould be read in conjunction 7it( t(e !MO #uidelines for Voyage Planning< #.$ General !nvestigations s(o7 t(at (u)an error contributes to ;=I of navigational accidents and t(at in )any cases essential infor)ation t(at could (ave prevented t(e accident 7as available to but not used by t(ose responsible for t(e navigation of t(e vessels concerned< Most accidents (appen because of si)ple )ista2es in use of navigational e6uip)ent and interpretation of t(e available infor)ation+ rat(er t(an because of any deficiency in basic navigational s2ills or ability to use e6uip)ent< Masters+ s2ippers and 7atc(2eepers s(ould t(erefore ad(ere to t(e !MO #uidelines ta2ing t(e follo7ing )easures to ensure t(at t(ey appreciate and reduce t(e ris2s to 7(ic( t(ey are exposed? a$ ensure t(at all t(e vesselHs navigation is planned in ade6uate detail 7it( contingency

plans 7(ere appropriate@ -$ ensure t(at t(ere is a syste)atic bridge organisation t(at provides for? i$ co)pre(ensive briefing of all concerned 7it( t(e navigation of t(e vessel@ ii$ close and continuous )onitoring of t(e vesselHs position ensuring as far as possible t(at different )et(ods of deter)ining t(e position are used to c(ec2 against error in any one syste)@ iii$ cross-c(ec2ing of individual (u)an decisions so t(at errors can be detected and corrected as early as possible@ i+$ infor)ation available fro) plots of ot(er traffic is used carefully to ensure against over-confidence+ bearing in )ind t(at ot(er vessels )ay alter course and-or speed 5$ ensure t(at opti)u) and syste)atic use is )ade of all appropriate infor)ation t(at beco)es available to t(e navigational staff@ and d$ ensuring t(at t(e intentions of a pilot are fully understood and acceptable to t(e vesselHs navigational staff< 2.$ Res*onsi-ility 3or Voyage *lanning !n )ost deep-sea vessels t(e )aster delegates t(e initial responsibility for preparing t(e plan for a voyage to t(e officer responsible for navigational e6uip)ent and publications &(ereafter referred to as t(e navigating officer<' On s)aller vessels+ including fis(ing vessels+ t(e )aster or s2ipper )ay (ave t(e responsibility of t(e navigating officer for voyage planning purposes< Prior to departure t(e navigating officer 7ill prepare t(e detailed voyage plan fro) bert( to bert( in accordance 7it( t(e #uidelines and to t(e )asterHs re6uire)ents< !f t(e port of destination is not 2no7n or is subse6uently altered+ t(e navigating officer )ust extend or a)end t(e original plan as appropriate< !.$ Prin5i*les o3 Voyage *lanning 0(e four stages of Appraisal+ Planning+ Execution and Monitoring logically follo7 eac( ot(er< An appraisal of all infor)ation available )ust be )ade before detailed plans can be dra7n up and a plan )ust be in existence before tactics for its execution can be decided upon< Once t(e plan and t(e )anner in 7(ic( it is to be executed (ave been decided+ )onitoring )ust be carried out to ensure t(at t(e plan is follo7ed< 6.$ A**raisal is t(e process of gat(ering all infor)ation relevant to t(e proposed voyage+ including ascertaining ris2s and assessing its critical areas< 0(e #uidelines list t(e ite)s t(at s(ould be ta2en into account< An overall assess)ent of t(e intended voyage s(ould be )ade by t(e )aster+ in consultation 7it( t(e navigating officer and ot(er dec2 officers 7(o 7ill be involved+ after all relevant infor)ation (as been gat(ered< 0(is appraisal 7ill provide t(e )aster and (is bridge tea) 7it( a clear and precise indication of all areas of danger+ and delineate t(e areas in 7(ic( it 7ill be possible to navigate safely ta2ing into account t(e calculated draug(t of t(e vessel and planned under-2eel clearance< >earing in )ind t(e condition of t(e vessel+ (er e6uip)ent and any ot(er circu)stances+ a balanced judge)ent of t(e )argins of safety 7(ic( )ust be allo7ed in t(e various sections of t(e intended voyage can no7 be )ade+ agreed and understood by all concerned< Once a full appraisal (as been carried out t(e navigating officer carries out t(e Planning process+ acting on t(e )asterHs instructions< 0(e detailed plan s(ould cover t(e 7(ole voyage+ fro) bert( to bert(+ and include all 7aters 7(ere a pilot 7ill be on board< 0(e

plan s(ould be co)pleted and include all t(e relevant factors listed in t(e #uidelines< 0(e appropriate c(arts s(ould be )ar2ed clearly s(o7ing all areas of danger and t(e intended trac2 ta2ing into account t(e )argins of allo7able error< 1(ere appropriate+ due regard s(ould be paid to t(e need for advanced 7arning to be given on one c(art of t(e existence of a navigational (a*ard i))ediately on transfer to t(e next< 0(e planned trac2 s(ould be plotted to clear (a*ards at as safe a distance as circu)stances allo7< A longer route s(ould al7ays be accepted in preference to a s(orter )ore (a*ardous route< 0(e possibility of )ain engine or steering gear brea2do7n at a critical )o)ent )ust not be overloo2ed< Additional infor)ation 7(ic( s(ould be )ar2ed on t(e c(arts include? All radar-conspicuous objects and RACO"s+ 7(ic( )ay be used in radar position fixing< Any transit )ar2s+ clearing bearings or clearing ranges &radar' 7(ic( )ay be used to advantage< !t is so)eti)es possible to use t7o conspicuous clearing )ar2s 7(ere a line dra7n t(roug( t(e) runs clear of natural dangers 7it( t(e appropriate )argin of safety@ if t(e vessel proceeds on t(e safe side of t(is transit s(e 7ill be clear of t(e danger< !f no clearing )ar2s are available+ a line or lines of bearing fro) a single object )ay be dra7n at a desired safe distance fro) t(e danger@ provided t(e vessel re)ains in t(e safe seg)ent+ it 7ill be clear of t(e danger< Parallel index lines s(ould also be dra7n 7(ere appropriate<

!f an electronic c(art syste) is used to assist voyage planning t(e plan s(ould also be dra7n up on t(e paper c(arts< 1(ere official &E"C' vector data is available an ECD!, provided 7it( fully co)pliant E"C data for t(e vesselHs voyage )ay be used instead of paper c(arts< Raster C(art Display ,yste)s &RCD,' using official and up to date Raster c(arts can be used in conjunction 7it( paper c(arts to assist voyage planning and route )onitoring< 5a*ards s(ould be )ar2ed on t(e RCD, as 7ell as on t(e paper c(art< ,yste)s t(at use unofficial c(art data s(ould not be used for voyage planning or navigation< Depending on circu)stances+ t(e )ain details of t(e plan s(ould be )ar2ed in appropriate and pro)inent places on t(e c(arts to be used during t(e voyage< 0(ey s(ould also be progra))ed and stored electronically on an ECD!, or RCD, 7(ere fitted< 0(e )ain details of t(e voyage plan s(ould also be recorded in a bridge noteboo2 used specially for t(is purpose to allo7 reference to details of t(e plan at t(e conning position 7it(out t(e need to consult t(e c(art< ,upporting infor)ation relative to t(e voyage+ suc( as ti)es of (ig( and lo7 7ater+ or of sunrise or sunset+ s(ould also be recorded in t(is noteboo2< !t is unli2ely t(at every detail of a voyage 7ill (ave been anticipated+ particularly in pilotage 7aters< Muc( of 7(at 7ill (ave been planned )ay (ave to be adjusted or c(anged after e)bar2ing t(e pilot< 0(is in no 7ay detracts fro) t(e real value of t(e plan+ 7(ic( is to )ar2 out in advance+ areas 7(ere t(e vessel )ust not go and t(e appropriate precautions 7(ic( )ust be ta2en+ and to give initial 7arning t(at t(e vessel is standing into danger< 5.$ E9e5ution of t(e finalised t(e voyage plan s(ould be carried out ta2ing into account t(e factors listed in t(e #uidelines< 0(e Master s(ould ta2e into account any special circu)stances 7(ic( )ay arise+ suc( as c(anges in 7eat(er+ 7(ic( )ay re6uire t(e plan to be revie7ed or altered< 7.$ Monitoring of t(e vesselHs progress along t(e pre-planned trac2 is a continuous process< 0(e officer of t(e 7atc(+ 7(enever in any doubt as to t(e position of t(e vessel

or t(e )anner in 7(ic( t(e voyage is proceeding+ s(ould i))ediately call t(e )aster and+ if necessary+ ta2e appropriate action for t(e safety of t(e vessel< 0(e perfor)ance of navigational e6uip)ent s(ould be c(ec2ed prior to sailing+ prior to entering restricted or (a*ardous 7aters and at regular and fre6uent intervals at ot(er ti)es t(roug(out t(e voyage< Advantage s(ould be ta2en of all t(e navigational e6uip)ent 7it( 7(ic( t(e vessel is fitted for position )onitoring+ bearing in )ind t(e follo7ing points? a.$ positions obtained by electronic positioning syste)s )ust be c(ec2ed regularly by visual bearings and transits 7(enever available@ -.$ visual fixes s(ould+ if possible+ be based on at least t(ree position lines@ 5.$ transit )ar2s+ clearing bearings and clearing ranges &radar' can be of great assistance@ d.$ it is dangerous to rely solely on t(e output fro) a single positioning syste)@ e.$ t(e ec(o sounder provides a valuable c(ec2 of dept( at t(e plotted position@ 3.$ buoys s(ould not be used for position fixing but )ay be used for guidance 7(en s(ore )ar2s are difficult to distinguis( visually@ in t(ese circu)stances t(eir positions s(ould first be c(ec2ed by ot(er )eans@ g.$ t(e c(arted positions of offs(ore installations s(ould be c(ec2ed against t(e )ost recent navigational notices@ :.$ t(e functioning and correct reading of t(e instru)ents used s(ould be c(ec2ed@ i.$ account )ust be ta2en of any syste) errors and t(e predicted accuracy of positions displayed by electronic position fixing syste)s@ and 4.$ t(e fre6uency at 7(ic( t(e position is to be fixed s(ould be deter)ined for eac( section of t(e voyage< Eac( ti)e t(e vesselHs position is fixed and )ar2ed on t(e c(art in use+ t(e esti)ated position at a convenient interval of ti)e in advance s(ould be projected and plotted< 1it( ECD!, or RCD, care s(ould be ta2en to ensure t(at t(e display s(o7s sufficient Floo2a(eadG distance and t(at t(e next c(art can be readily accessed< Radar can be used to advantage in )onitoring t(e position of t(e vessel by t(e use of parallel indexing+ 7(ic( is a si)ple and )ost effective 7ay of continuously )onitoring t(at a vessel is )aintaining its trac2 in restricted coastal 7aters< Parallel indexing can be used in any situation 7(ere a radar-conspicuous navigation )ar2 is available and it is practicable to )onitor continuously t(e vesselHs position relative to suc( an object< !t also serves as a valuable c(ec2 on t(e vesselHs progress 7(en using an electronic c(art< 8.$ Pilotage 0(e Plan covers t(e voyage fro) bert( to bert( and t(erefore includes t(e Pilotage stage< 0(e !MO #uidelines do not give specific advice on t(is i)portant stage t(erefore t(e follo7ing notes s(ould be ta2en into consideration 7(en planning and executing t(e pilotage stages< Pilots )a2e a significant contribution to t(e safety of navigation in t(e confined 7aters and port approac(es of 7(ic( t(ey (ave up to date 2no7ledge+ but it )ust be stressed

t(at t(e responsibilities of t(e vesselHs navigational tea) and t(e officer of t(e 7atc( do not transfer to t(e pilot< After boarding t(e vessel+ in addition to being advised by t(e )aster of t(e )anoeuvring c(aracteristics and basic details of t(e vessel for its present condition+ t(e pilot s(ould be clearly consulted on t(e voyage plan to be follo7ed< 0(e general ai) of t(e )aster s(ould be to ensure t(at t(e expertise of t(e pilot is fully supported by t(e vesselHs bridge tea)< Attention is dra7n to t(e follo7ing extract fro) !MO Resolution A<.;% &V!!!'? FDespite t(e duties and obligations of a pilot+ (is presence on board does not relieve t(e officer of t(e 7atc( fro) (is duties and obligation for t(e safety of t(e vessel< 5e s(ould co-operate closely 7it( t(e pilot and )aintain an accurate c(ec2 on t(e vesselHs position and )ove)ents< !f (e is in any doubt as to t(e pilotHs actions or intentions+ (e s(ould see2 clarification fro) t(e pilot and if doubt still exists (e s(ould notify t(e )aster i))ediately and ta2e 7(atever action is necessary before t(e )aster arrives<G 8.$ ;eat:er Routeing 'er+i5es Regulation BC<.<B specifies Fadverse 7eat(er conditionsG as one of t(e principal considerations t(at s(ould be used by )asters 7(en for)ulating t(e voyage plan< 1eat(er Routeing ,ervices are available to )ariners but t(ey are largely unregulated and in so)e cases operate as an en(ance)ent for co))ercial expedience rat(er t(an directly as a safety precaution< ,afer use of 1eat(er Routeing ,ervices can be ac(ieved by increased dialogue bet7een s(ipHs )asters and t(eir 7eat(er routeing service providers and t(roug( a continuous revie7 of t(e infor)ation t(at is provided by t(e)< M,C-Circ<$=JB ite)ises t(e )ini)u) standards t(at s(ould be ad(ered to for t(e provision of 1eat(er Routeing ,ervices< .$ ',all +essels and *leasure 5ra3t Regulation BC applies to all vessels but t(e degree of voyage planning )ay sensibly be less for s)all vessels and pleasure craft< 0(ere is still a need for prior planning but t(e plan need not be 7ritten do7n< 0(e follo7ing s(ould particularly be ta2en into account 7(en planning a boating trip? 7eat(er? before you go boating+ c(ec2 t(e 7eat(er forecast and get regular updates if you are planning to be out for any lengt( of ti)e< tides? c(ec2 t(e tidal predictions for your trip and ensure t(at t(ey fit 7it( 7(at you are planning to do< li)itations of t(e vessel? consider 7(et(er your boat is up to t(e proposed trip and t(at you (ave sufficient safety e6uip)ent and stores 7it( you< navigational dangers? )a2e sure t(at you are fa)iliar 7it( any navigational dangers you )ay encounter during your boating trip< 0(is generally )eans c(ec2ing an up to date c(art and a current pilot boo2 or al)anac< contingency plan? al7ays (ave a contingency plan s(ould anyt(ing go 7rong< >efore you go+ consider bolt (oles and places 7(ere you can ta2e refuge s(ould conditions deteriorate or if you suffer an accident or injury< >ear in )ind t(at your #P, set is vulnerable and could fail at any ti)e< !t is sensible and good practice to )a2e sure t(at you are not over-reliant on your #P, set and t(at you can navigate yourself to safety 7it(out it s(ould it fail you< infor)ation as(ore? )a2e sure t(at so)eone as(ore 2no7s your plans and 2no7s

7(at to do s(ould t(ey beco)e concerned for your 7ell being< 0(e Coastguard Voluntary ,afety !dentification ,c(e)e &co))only 2no7n as C#JJ' is also free and easy to join< Alt(oug( Regulation BC only applies 7(en proceeding to sea+ s)all craft users s(ould ad(ere to t(e voyage planning principles 7(en also sailing in categorised 7aters< #<. Ot:er *u-li5ations !n addition to t(e !MO #uidelines )ariners are also referred to t(e follo7ing publications 7(ic( contain valuable advice on bridge 7atc(2eeping in general and voyage planning in particular? Bridge Team Management - A practical guide publis(ed by t(e "autical !nstitute and Bridge Procedures Guide publis(ed by t(e !nternational C(a)ber of ,(ipping<