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STAAD Foundation Advanced

V8i

User Manual
DAA039840-1/0001 Last updated: 3 November 2011

Copyright Information
Trademark Notice
Bentley, the "B" Bentley logo, STAAD Foundation are registered or nonregistered trademarks of Bentley Sytems, Inc. or Bentley Software, Inc. All other marks are the property of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice
2011, Bentley Systems, Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Including software, file formats, and audiovisual displays; may only be used pursuant to applicable software license agreement; contains confidential and proprietary information of Bentley Systems, Incorporated and/or third parties which is protected by copyright and trade secret law and may not be provided or otherwise made available without proper authorization.

Acknowledgments
Windows, Vista, SQL Server, MSDE, .NET, DirectX are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, the Acrobat logo are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Restricted Rights Legends


If this software is acquired for or on behalf of the United States of America, its agencies and/or instrumentalities ("U.S. Government"), it is provided with restricted rights. This software and accompanying documentation are "commercial computer software" and "commercial computer software documentation," respectively, pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 12.212 and 227.7202, and "restricted computer software" pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19(a), as applicable. Use, modification, reproduction, release, performance, display or disclosure of this software and accompanying documentation by the U.S. Government are subject to restrictions as set forth in this Agreement and pursuant to 48 C.F.R. 12.212, 52.227-19, 227.7202, and 1852.227-86, as applicable. Contractor/Manufacturer is Bentley Systems, Incorporated, 685 Stockton Drive, Exton, PA 19341- 0678. Unpublished - rights reserved under the Copyright Laws of the United States and International treaties.

End User License Agreements


User Manual i

To view the End User License Agreement for this product, review: eula_ en.pdf.

ii STAAD Foundation

Table of Contents
What's New Section 1 Getting Started
1.1 Welcome 1.2 Fundamentals 1.3 Application Window Layout

1 7
7 8 15

Section 2 General Foundations


2.1 Introduction 2.2 Global Data 2.3 Job Setup group 2.4 Local Data 2.5 Grouping Foundation Designs

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71 72 112 117 216

Section 3 Plant Foundations


3.1 Introduction 3.2 Starting a new plant setup job 3.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation 3.4 Heat Exchanger Foundation 3.5 Tank Foundation 3.6 Drilled/Driven Pier Foundation

217
217 217 219 239 259 275

Section 4 Foundation Toolkit


4.1 Introduction 4.2 Starting a new foundation toolkit project 4.3 Isolated/Block Foundation 4.4 Combined Footing 4.5 Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation 4.6 Drilled Pier 4.7 Pile Cap 4.8 Ribbed Beam Footing

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287 287 290 301 311 317 326 338

Section 5 Creating Reports and Drawings


5.1 Creating Detailed Calculations Sheets

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5.2 Create Drawing Files for use with CAD software

352

Section 6 Integration with External Programs


6.1 Working with STAAD.Pro 6.2 Working with spreadsheet programs 6.3 Working with Neutral Files

355
355 357 364

Section 7 Quick Tour


7.1 Isolated Footing Example 7.2 Mat Foundation Example 7.3 Pile Cap Example 7.4 Strip Footing Example 7.5 Conclusion

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367 378 396 402 407

Section 8 Technical Reference


8.1 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis 8.2 Element Load Specification 8.3 Theoretical Basis 8.4 Element Local Coordinate System 8.5 Output of Element Forces 8.6 Sign Convention of Element Forces 8.7 STAAD Foundation Program Theory 8.8 Isolated (Spread) Footing Theory 8.9 Pile Cap Theory 8.10 Mat (Raft) Foundation Theory 8.11 Combined (Strip) Footing Theory 8.12 Driller Pier Theory (Axial Load Analysis) 8.13 Pedestal Theory 8.14 Calculation of Loads 8.15 Crack Width Calculation 8.16 Strap Footing Design 8.17 Tank Foundation Design 8.18 Drilled Pier Lateral Analysis Theory

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409 410 410 411 412 413 416 417 423 427 430 431 436 437 441 442 442 445

iv STAAD Foundation

What's New
The Software Release Report for STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i contains detailed information on new features and enhancements made to the product. Thank you for your purchase of a STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i license! This new product is built upon the previous STAAD.foundation program but includes powerful new features and an improved user interface. The name change represents the extended feature set available in the program in comparison to the limited foundation design capabilities which are available with a license of STAAD.Pro V8i. Whether you are new to STAAD Foundation or have used STAAD.foundation in the past, then we suggest you spend some time reading this document and trying some of the examples in order to familiarize yourself with the program. Even if you've used previous versions STAAD.foundation before, we feel that you'll benefit from learning the new user interface. The following list provides describes new features for users of STAAD Foundation (the previous version of this product).

General Program Features


The following features have been added to the program as general features:

Ribbon interface
The user interface has been updated with a new tabbed toolbar setoften referred to as a Ribbonsimilar to that found in Microsoft Office 2007 and later. This provides better organization of tools and features as well as exposes many features which often hard to locate.

File operations, such as creating new files, opening existing files, saving files, and printing are included on the Application menu, which is accessed by click the Application menu button located in the top-left corner of the program window.

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All other tools are located on a series of Ribbon tabs, which are grouped by feature. Commonly used tools can be added to the Quick Access toolbar, which is visible from just below the Ribbon and remain the same regardless of which Ribbon tab is selected.

Export of detailed output to Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet file


You can now export detailed output to a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet file for the following types of general foundations:
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Isolated footings (US and Indian codes) Combined footings (US and Indian code) Strap foundations (US code Only) Octagonal foundations (US Code only)

From the Footing job branch in the Main Navigator pane, select the Detailed Output option. A Windows Save As dialog opens to save the detailed design information for each footing in the current job to an .XMLfile in the Excel XMLformat, which can then be opened in Microsoft Office Excel.

2 STAAD Foundation

What's New

Plant Mode
The following features have been added to the Plant foundation mode in STAAD Foundation:

Tank Footing
A new parametric wizard has been added to parametrically model and design a ring foundation supporting a tank vessel for US and Indian codes. Tank foundation design complies to:
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ASCE 7 ACI 318 PIP (Process Industry Practices) STE03350 Seismic loads per API 650, Section E IS 456 and IS 875 Part 3

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Drilled/Driven Pier foundations


A new parametric wizard has been added to design drilled shaft or driven pier foundations used to resist axial and lateral loads. The pier can have any number of sections along its length and essentially any number of soil layers can be modeled.

4 STAAD Foundation

What's New

Group Horizontal Vessel Footings


The foundations at each end of a Heat Exchanger/Horizontal Vessel foundation can be designed as identical. This option will then only allow input for the "Left" Footing and design both foundations for the maximum requirements. Simply set the Identical Footings option on the Footing Geometry page when Isolated Footings are being designed.

Self Weight for Ultimate Loads


The option to include the foundation self weight for ultimate loads (concrete design) under the Global Settings dialog box is now respected for Plant foundation jobs as well as foundation jobs created under the General foundation mode. Simply click the Global Options tool found on the Home ribbon tab and set the option.

General Mode
The following features have been added to the General foundation mode in STAAD Foundation:

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Octagonal Footing
An isolated, octagonal footingsimilar to the option for the Vertical Vessel in Plant modecan be designed as a separate foundation job from the General mode. Parameters similar to other isolated footings are entered via property pane, as well as anchor bolt data for concrete design. This foundation types can be selected when creating a new foundation job in the General mode for US code design.

Strap Footing
A strap footingsimilar to the option for Heat Exchanger/Horizontal Vessel in Plant modecan be designed as a separate foundation job in the General mode. This foundation type consists of a grade beam between two isolated footings. This single job analyzes the beam and footing system and designs both elements. This foundation types can be selected when creating a new foundation job in the General mode for US code design.

Australian Code Modification


Several enhancements have been made to the design of foundations per the Australian code:
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Strength reduction factor, , from table 2.3: one-way shear, punching shear, and reinforcement Modified punching shear calculations per Sect. 9.2 Refined minimum percent of steel A revised calculation sheet

6 STAAD Foundation

Section 1

Getting Started
1.1 Welcome
Thank you for your purchase of STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i. STAAD Foundation is an exhaustive analysis, design, and drafting solution for a variety of foundations. These include general foundation types such as isolated, combined footings, mat foundations, pile caps, slab on grade, octagonal, strap, and slab on piles as well as plant foundation such as vertical vessel and heat exchanger foundations. A part of the STAAD family of products, STAAD Foundation can automatically import and update the geometry, loads, and reactions from a STAAD.Pro model and then accurately design isolated, pile cap, combined footing, mat, octagonal, and strap foundations and even perform pile arrangements for a pile cap. Spreadsheet data (e.g., such as that in Microsoft Office Excel) can be copied and then pasted in STAAD Foundation, increasing the efficiency and versatility of the program. STAAD Foundation not only analyzes and designs a myriad of foundation configurations, but will also produce production quality reports and detailed 3D rendering of your foundation structures. It also produces site-ready construction documents such as: detail drawings, general arrangement drawings, and schedule drawings. With full OpenGL graphics, engineers can

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clearly see the displaced shape, stress distribution, reinforcement layout, and force diagrams of their supporting structure. All models use physical objects including physical beams, physical slabs, automatic meshing, load distributions, and support generation. STAAD Foundation designs the physical slabs rather than individual elements. For mat foundation designs, STAAD Foundation utilizes a true finite element design using the individual element stresses rather than using column strips. STAAD Foundation can be used in a stand-alone mode or can be used in conjunction with STAAD.Pro where the support reactions from the main model and associated load cases are automatically brought in. Because STAAD Foundation provides a total solution for your foundation needs, a built-in project management system enables line and span of control, revision records and multi-job functionalities. This helps you reduce cost in assembling the technical and managerial information for your foundation. Full step-by-step calculations are also provided in XML form to verify each and every output provided by the program. These verification checks can be easily shared with your clients for approval. Also, the calculation sheets can be customized according user specification and entire foundation reporting can be standardized. We hope you enjoy your experience with STAAD Foundation. If you have any questions or problems with the program, please visit our product page at http://www.bentley.com/en-US/Products/Staad.foundation.

1.2 Fundamentals
1.2.1 Starting STAAD Foundation
There are several ways to initiate STAAD Foundation. 1.
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In the program group, double-click the STAAD Foundation icon.

or
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From the Windows Start menu, select All Programs > Bentley Engineering > STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i (Version 6.0) > STAAD Foundation 6.0 (default location).

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Section 1 Getting Started

or
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In Windows Explorer, double-click an AFS file icon (with the file extension .afs). or Drag a AFS file icon from Windows Explorer and drop it on the STAAD Foundation icon. or In the Windows Explorer, double-click the icon for the file, StaadFoundation.exe.

The STAAD Foundation window opens. Hint: Whether you are a first time user of STAAD Foundation or if you're familiar with STAAD.foundation (the previous product), we suggest that you read through the Application Window Layout section to familiarize yourself with the new user interface. You may also want to spend some time working some of the included Examples. Note: If you are using Windows Vista or Windows 7 operating systems, you may have to run the program as an administrator. Right click on the StaadFoundation.exe file and select Run as Administrator. Click Yes in the message dialog.

1.2.2 Exiting STAAD Foundation


As you work, STAAD Foundation prompts you to save all changes you make to the open STAAD Foundation project file to disk (assuming you have not turned off the default Enable Auto Save tool on the Home ribbon tab). After you close the STAAD Foundation project file, you can no longer undo changes with STAAD Foundation's Undo feature. Therefore, be sure to undo any unwanted changes to the STAAD Foundation project file before you exit. 1.
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Click the application window's Close icon. or Select Exit from the Application menu button. or From the application window menu, choose Close.

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1.2.3 Foundation Modes


STAAD Foundation can operation in three different modes, depending on the type of foundation you want to model, analyze, and design. You will select one of these modes when creating your project:
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General Foundation - Open modeling of common foundation types. Plant Foundation - Parametric modeling wizards for common foundations used in plant environments. Foundation Toolkit - Parametric modeling wizards for common foundation types.

1.2.4 Global and Local data


In STAAD Foundation, you start out by creating a Project to hold all your physical information, such as column locations, loads, etc. This physical information represents the structure that the foundation is intended to support. Unless the design of the structure is modified, these physical conditions generally remain constant throughout the life of the foundation design project. Your Project also contains Jobs, which are sets of constraints needed to tell the program how to perform a foundation design. Each job contains the local data for that specific foundation configuration. A job may represent separate foundation type which coexist on the same structure, several different foundation scenarios used to evaluate different solutions, or even different stages of construction. It is a flexible system but one that allows you to organize the project to meet your needs. The current job being evaluated can be selected using the Active Job dropdown found in the Standard Toolbar. Note: STAAD Foundation consists of two sets of data, global and local. Global data such as column reactions and column positions is shared throughout a project among both similar and different jobs. Local data such as design parameters is used only within a specific job type. For example, an Isolated Footing job type has local data within the design parameters group. A project may contain multiple jobs, making it easy for you to evaluate different design scenarios for a given set of physical conditions.

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1.2.5 Document Conventions


A number of typographical conventions are maintained throughout Bentley documentation, which makes it easier to identify and understand the information presented. Notes, Hints, and Warnings Items of special note are indicated as follows: Note: This is an item of general importance. Hint: This is optional time-saving information. Warning: This is information about actions that should not be performed under normal operating conditions. File Path/File Name.extension A fixed width typeface is used to indicate file names, file paths, and file extensions (e.g., C:/SProV8i/STAAD/Staadpro.exe) Interface Control A bold typeface is used to indicate user controls. Menu and sub-menu items are indicated with a series of > characters to distinguish menu levels. (e.g., File > Save As). User Input A bold, fixed width typeface is used to indicate information which must be manually entered. (e.g., Type DEAD LOAD as the title for Load Case 1). STAAD Page Controls A " | " character is used to represent the page control levels between pages and sub-pages. (e.g., Select the Design | Steel page).

Terminology
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Click - This refers to the action of pressing a mouse button. When not specified, click means to press the left mouse button. Select - Synonymous with Click. Used when referring to an action in a menu, drop-down list, list box, or other control where multiple options are available to you. pop-up menu - A pop-up menu is displayed typically with a right-click of the mouse on an item in the interface.

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Window - Describes an on screen element which may be manipulated independently. Multiple windows may be open and interacted with simultaneously. Dialog - This is an on screen element which (typically) must be interacted with before returning to the main window.

Mathematical Notation
Similar to spelling conventions, American mathematical notation is used throughout the documentation. A serif typeface is typically used to clarify numbers or letters which might otherwise appear similar.
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Numbers greater than 999 are written using a comma (,) to separate every three digits. For example, the U.S. value of Young's Modulus is taken as 29,000,000 psi. Warning: Do not use commas or spaces to separate digits within a number in a STAAD input file.

Numbers with decimal fractions are written with a period to separate whole and fraction parts. For example, a beam with a length of 21.75 feet. Multiplication is represented with a raised, or middle, dot (). For example, P = FA. Operation separators are used in the following order: 1. parenthesis ( ) 2. square brackets [ ] 3. curly brackets (i.e., braces) { } For example, Fa = [1 - (Kl/r)2/(2Cc2)]Fy / {5/3 + [3(Kl/r)/(8Cc)] [(Kl/r)3/(8Cc3)]}

1.2.6 Using Window Panes


The STAAD Foundation application window is split into multiple panes, each of which may be moved, closed, or "floated" outside the main window.

To float a window pane


1. Click in the window pane title bar. 2. While holding the mouse button down, drag the pane away from its docked location. 3. Release the mouse button to place the floated window.

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Alternate method - To float a window pane


1. Right click in the window pane title bar. 2. Select Floating from the pop-up menu.

To dock a window pane


1. Click in the window pane title bar. 2. While holding the mouse button down, drag the pane towards the edge of the application window or another docked window pane. A number of dock location indicators appear across the window.

3. Drag the window title bar over one of the dock location indicators to highlight where the window will be docked at. 4. Release the mouse button over one of the dock location indicators to dock the window in that location.

Alternate method - To dock a window pane


1. Right click in the window pane title bar. 2. Select Docked from the pop-up menu.

To close a window pane


1. Click the X located in the right side of the window pane title bar. or Select View >Toolbars ><Window pane name>.

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The check box next to each entry indicates whether or not the window pane is open.

Alternate method - To close a window pane


1. Right click in the window pane title bar. 2. Select Hide from the pop-up menu.

Toggle auto hide for a docked window pane


1. Click the pushpin icon ( ) located in the right side of the window pane title bar. The docked window pane collapses into a tab attached the application window edge it is docked into. Hovering the mouse pointer over this tab expands the window pane for use. Once the mouse is clicked outside the window pane, it will "auto hide" once again. Note: Clicking the window pane tab will show the window pane without pause. 2. Clicking the horizontal pushpin icon again will make the window pane "sticky" (toggle off auto hide).

Alternate method - Toggle auto hide for a docked window pane


1. Right click in the window pane title bar. 2. Select Auto Hide from the pop-up menu. The check box next to each entry indicates whether or not the window pane is in auto hide.

1.2.7 Graphical Input


You can use a mouse, digitizing tablet cursor, or similar pointing device with STAAD Foundation to enter graphical input.

Using a scrolling mouse


If your mouse has a wheel, you can use the mouse wheel middle button and as a wheel for scrolling to manipulate view windows. You can also use it to zoom

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in and out of graphic window tabs. The middle button can be pressed and held to place the mouse pointer into a pan mode (same as selecting the Pan tool from the Trans Rotate toolbar) Note: You must have the required drivers for your mouse already installed on your system.

1.3 Application Window Layout


The STAAD Foundation application window is split into multiple panes, each of which may be moved, closed, or "floated" outside the main window. The STAAD Foundation window contains the following sections by default: A. Application menu button B. Quick Access Toolbar C. Title Bar - displays the file name of the project that is currently open & active D. Ribbon - contains multiple menu items located at the top of the window. Toolbars E. Main Navigation pane F. Tabbed View window G. Data Input pane or Load pane H. Output Pane I. Status Bar - Provides prompts, context-sensitive assistance, and some interactive functionality.

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1.3.1 Application button and menu


The first item in the Ribbon is the Application button (a STAAD Foundation logo), which replaces the File menu found in many other Windows programs. Clicking on the Application button displays the application menu, which contains all of the file-level operations and program settings for the program. From here, you can create new models, save, or close current ones, along with similar file manipulations. Table 1-1: File group tools Tool What it does Opens a standard Windows file open dialog box, which is used to specify a file location and name. Keyboard Shortcut <Ctrl+N>

New

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Section 1 Getting Started

Tool

What it does Opens a standard Windows file open dialog box, which is used to select an existing STAAD Foundation project file. Closes the current model file and return you to the Start Page. This will save any changes made in the current model file since the previous save. Opens a Windows Save As dialog box, which is used to save the current model in a different location or with a different file name. Opens the Print dialog box, which is used to print the active document using current print settings.

Keyboard Shortcut

Open

Close Save

Save As

Print >Print

Print >Print Setup Opens the Print Settings dialog box, which is used to select a printer and change settings for the printer.

Print >Change the Printer and Printer Options

Create New Project dialog box


Used to create and open an empty STAAD Foundation project. Opens when New is selected from the Application menu.

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New tab
Project type list
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General Foundation Plant Foundation Foundation Toolkit

Open Opens the a new, untitled AFS file with the specified project type. Cancel Closes the dialog without opening a STAAD Foundation project file.

Existing tab
Offers the same controls as the Open dialog Existing tab.

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Recent tab
Offers the same controls as the Open dialog Recent tab.

Open Project dialog box


Used to open an existing .AFS file. Opens when File > Open is selected.

Existing tab
To open an existing project, navigate to the directory in which the project file is located and then select the file and click on Open. Look in Lists the drives and directories for selection. List box

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Lists files for selection. The files listed reside in the directory chosen in the Look in option menu, filtered according to the file type chosen in the Files of type option menu. Double-clicking a filename in the list box selects the file. File name Shows the name of the file that is selected in the list box, or you can key in a filename. The list box lists the name of the existing files in the directory. To bypass the Look in option menu, you can key in a complete path specification for a file in the File name field. Files of type Sets the type of file to open. STAAD Foundation can only read .AFS file formats directly. Use the Import feature to use data in a different file type. Open Opens the selected AFS file. If the filename in the Name field is the same as the name of an existing file, an alert box asks if you want to overwrite the existing file. If a AFS file is already open, it is closed before the newly selected AFS file is opened. Cancel Closes the dialog without opening a STAAD Foundation project file. Go to Last Folder Visited Returns to the last folder that you opened. Up One Level Moves up one directory from your current location. Create New Folder Creates a new folder with an editable name field. View Menu Allows you to select how to display the files in the directory.
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Thumbnails Shows a thumbnail image of the files in the directory. Tiles Displays the file by name, type and size of file. Icons Displays the files by the product-specific icon. List Shows a list of the files in the directory. Details Allows you to select what details you want to display for the files listed.

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Recent tab
The recent tab contains a list of recently opened STAAD Foundation project files. Select one from the list to re-open. Open Opens the selected AFS file. If the filename in the Name field is the same as the name of an existing file, an alert box asks if you want to overwrite the existing file. If a AFS file is already open, it is closed before the newly selected AFS file is opened. Cancel Closes the dialog without opening a STAAD Foundation project file.

STAAD Foundation Advanced File saving dialog box


Used to save a copy of the STAAD Foundation project file with a different name, in a different directory, or on a different disk. If just a different name is chosen, the copy becomes the active design file. Opens when Save As is selected from the Application menu.

To save a project, navigate to the directory in which you want to save the project, type in a file name for the project, and then click on Save.

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Hint: Refer to the documentation for your version of Windows for other common dialog controls. List box Sets the name of the STAAD Foundation file you want to save. The list box lists the names of the existing files in the directory. Different systems allow different numbers of characters in filenames. Some systems are case-sensitive (they differentiate between upper and lower case), others are not. If portability between different systems is a concern, filenames with a maximum of eight characters all in the same case are recommended. File name Sets the name of the STAAD Foundation file you want to save. Save as type Sets the type of file format. STAAD Foundation saves only in .AFS file format. Save Saves the selected STAAD Foundation project. Cancel Closes the dialog without saving the current project file.

Print dialog box


Used to print the active project report. Opens when either:
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Print is selected from the Application menu, or the Print tool is clicked in the Print Preview dialog.

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Printer Lets you choose the printer driver to use. Select any Windows system printer. Properties Used to set the properties for the selected printer. Print range
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All Prints the entire report Pages Enter from and to pages to specify a range within the report to print. Selection Prints only the pages selected before the dialog opened.

Number of copies Enter the Number of copies desired. Collate Select this option to print entire jobs together before beginning the next copy. OK Closes the dialog and sends the document to the selected printer. Cancel Closes the dialog without printing.

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Print Setup dialog box


You can specify a printer and connection to the printer here. Your default Windows printer is selected for your automatically, if available. Opens when Print > Print Setup is selected from the Application menu.

Name Selects the printer to be used.Only printers that have been installed are listed here.Additional information about the printer's Status, Type, and location are also displayed. Note: For more information refer to the Windows documentation. Properties Changes the printer settings from the printer selected in the Printers list. The options vary according to the printer driver installed. Note: Refer to the documentation for the selected printer for help on the options and settings. Paper Select the paper Size and Source from the options for the selected printer. Orientation Select the orientation that you want to use for the printed output.

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Network Connects the computer to a printer across a network. For more information refer to the Windows documentation or press Help in the Network dialog box. OK Applies the Print Setup options and closes the dialog. Cancel Closes the dialog without making any changes.

Print Preview window


Displays an on-screen preview of how the current input file will when printed, using the current Page Setup and Print Setup. Opens when Print > Print Preview is selected from the Application menu.

Print Preview toolbar The print preview toolbar offers you options to view either one or two pages at a time; move back and forth through the document; zoom in and out of pages; and initiate a print job. Print

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The same as selecting File >Print from the STAAD Foundation window. Once the file has been printed, the Print Preview window closes and returns to the STAAD Foundation window. Next Page Displays the following page of the printed input file. Prev Page Displays the previous page of the printed input file Two Page Toggles the Print Preview window to display either one or two pages simultaneously. Zoom In Magnifies the View of the Print Preview window. Same a clicking in the window when the pointer is a magnifying glass. Zoom Out Decreases the magnification of the Print Preview window. Close Exits the Print Preview window and returns to the STAAD Foundation window.

1.3.2 Quick access toolbar


Just to the right of the Application menu button is the Quick Access Toolbar, which provides you with a place to add often used tools. By default, the Save tool is included here. You can add any tool from any ribbon tab by right clicking and selecting Add to Quick Access Toolbar from the pop-up menu.

1.3.3 Ribbon toolbar


The traditional menus and toolbars have been replaced by the Ribbon, which shows relevant commands for a given action rather than every command at once. This allows you much more area on your screen to view models and the other panel areas that are described in the following sections. The pertinent tools for the current task are provided to you, collected in Groups. The Ribbon Menu bar is permanently located across the top portion of the program window. This style of menu will be familiar to users of Microsoft Office 2007, but is easy to learn for any user. Just think of the Ribbon tabs as visual menus. In the main Ribbon, you will see a series of tabs which access sets of commands grouped by the relevant task. The Home ribbon tab contains a set of most frequently used commands. There are more tabs which appear just to the right of the Home ribbon tab which display collected features when

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clicked. This way, most of STAAD Foundation's functionality is brought to the top level, reducing the number of mouse clicks and hunting around for specific features. Frequently used commands may also be added to the Quick Access Toolbar to customize the interface. Note: The Ribbon automatically resizes itself, the groups it displays, and the resolution of the icons within; all depending on the window size and the resolution of your screen. Therefore, your ribbon may often appear differently than what is shown in the documentation and help images.

Home tab
Contains many of the general tools you will use to control files, perform analysis &design. Table 1-2: File group tools Tool What it does Opens a standard Windows file open dialog box, which is used to specify a file location and name. Opens a standard Windows file open dialog box, which is used to select an existing STAAD Foundation project file. This will save any changes made in the cur- <Ctrl+S> rent model file since the previous save. Opens the STAAD Foundation Advanced File Saving dialog box, which is used to save the current model in a different location or with a different file name. Closes the current model file and return you to the Start Page. Keyboard Shortcut <Ctrl+N>

New

Open

Save Save As

Close

Set this option to enable the auto save feaEnable ture, which will remind you to save your Auto project on a scheduled cycle if changes Save have been made.

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Table 1-3: Design/Analysis group tools Tool What it does

Used to initiate an analysis and subsequent design of the active Design/Analysis foundation. Note: If the current job is of mat foundation type, this command will analyze the mat foundation.

Table 1-4: Import/Export group tools Tool Import STAAD.Pro Update What it does Imports reaction and geometry data from a STAAD.Pro model.

Used to update current projects input database with the changed STAAD.Pro output.

Opens the STAAD Foundation Advanced Excel Import Import dialog box, with the file filter set for Spreadsheet "Microsoft Excel (.xls)" files. See See "Import Foundation Input from a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet" on page 358 for additional information on this feature. Opens the STAAD Foundation Advanced Export to Export to Excel dialog box, with the file filter Spreadsheet set for "Microsoft Excel (.xls)" files. Table 1-5: Job/Load group tools Tool What it does Used to change load cases by selecting from a list of load cases available in the active project. To change load cases, simply select the load case you want to change to from the drop-down list box.

Current Load

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Tool

What it does If no load cases have been created for a project, the drop-down list box will be empty. Used to select a job from a list of jobs you have created for the active project. To change jobs, simply select the job you want to change to from the drop-down list box. If no jobs have been created for a project, the drop-down list box will be empty. Table 1-6: Settings group tools

Current Job

Tool Unit Setting

What it does Opens the Unit Setup dialog box, which is used to set output units and create default unit sets. Opens the Modeling View Options form in the Data Input pane. Opens the Global Settings dialog box, which is used to set global defaults for STAAD Foundation designs and output.. Opens the Scale Setup form in the Data Input pane. Opens the Drawing Notes dialog box, which is used add and customize text notes to a drawing based on their own specifications. Opens the Calculation Sheet Customization form, which is used to select the components of a foundation design report for inclusion

View Options

Global Options

Scale Setup Drawing Notes

Report Customization

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Tool in output.

What it does

Table 1-7: View group tools Tool Isometric View What it does (Default view) View the model from a positive, isometric angle.

View the foundation model from the positive Z Front View axis. View the foundation model from the negative Z Back View axis View the foundation model from the positive X Right View axis. View the foundation model from the negative X axis. View the foundation mode in plan; from the positive Y axis. View the foundation model from the negative Y axis.

Left View Top View Bottom View

STAAD.Pro File Import dialog box


Used to begin a new project by importing the support co-ordinates and forces/moments on the individual supports from Bentley's STAAD.Pro structural analysis software program. This feature allows you to import any analyzed STAAD.Pro file and update foundation input database if the STAAD.Pro file gets changed. Opens when the Import STAAD.Pro tool is selected from the Home tab.

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List box Lists files for selection. The files listed reside in the directory chosen in the Look in option menu, filtered according to the file type chosen in the Files of type option menu. Double-clicking a filename in the list box selects the file. File name Shows the name of the file that is selected in the list box, or you can key in a filename. The list box lists the name of the existing files in the directory. To bypass the Look in option menu, you can key in a complete path specification for a file in the File name field. Files of type Sets the type of file to open. STAAD Foundation can import STAAD.Pro input files (file extension .STD). Open Opens the Import STAAD.Pro File dialog, which is used to list all the available load cases found in the selected STD file. Cancel Closes the dialog without importing a STAAD.Pro project file.

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Global Settings dialog box


Used to set global defaults for STAAD Foundation designs and output. Opens when the Global Options tool is selected from the Home ribbon tab.

Reinforcement Spacing Increment For jobs with US code and English unit system (in inches) For other cases (in millimeters) Dimension Display Select either to Use Current Length Unit or Use Ft-In Unit for drawing output. Top Reinforcement Option Select to Always Calculate Top Reinforcement Based on Concrete and Soil Weight or to Calculate Top Reinforcement Only When Foundation is Subjected to Uplift Forces. The first option will always include top reinforcement, where as the latter will omit it if the calculations indicate it is not necessary due to applied forces. Ultimate Check Self weight Option Select this option to include the self weight of the footing, along with soil dead weight and buoyancy effect in concrete design check. This option is particularly useful when footing loses contact with the soil (uplift condition), as the concrete design tends to be very non conservative without consideration of self weight.

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Note: Using this option for concrete design might lead to failure for a footing checked with set dimensions. With the inclusion of self weight, soil bearing pressure for concrete design load cases increases, thus leading to higher shear forces and bending moments. OK Saves the settings and closes the dialog. Cancel Closes the dialog without saving any settings.

View tab
Contains tools used to control the model display in the view pane. Table 1-8: View group tools on the View tab Tool Isometric View What it does (Default view) View the model from a positive, isometric angle.

View the foundation model from the positive Z Front View axis. View the foundation model from the negative Z Back View axis View the foundation model from the positive X Right View axis. View the foundation model from the negative X axis. View the foundation mode in plan; from the positive Y axis. View the foundation model from the negative Y axis.

Left View Top View Bottom View

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Table 1-9: Rotation group tools on the View tab Tool Rotate Up Rotate Down Rotate Right Rotate Left Spin Left What it does Rotate the foundation model forward about the X axis. Rotate the foundation mode backward about the Xaxis. Rotate the foundation model backward about the Y axis. Rotate the foundation model forward about the Y axis. Rotate the foundation model forward about the Z axis.

Rotate the foundation model backward about Spin Right the Z axis. Table 1-10: Zoom/Pan group tools on the View tab Tool Zoom In Decrease the magnification of the view. Zoom Out Display all elements fit to the view window size. Zoom All Zoom Window Pan Window an area to zoom to the view to those extents. Move the view to a different portion of the model without changing the zoom or rotation. What it does Increase the magnification of the view.

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Table 1-11: Miscellaneous group tools on the View tab Tool What it does Toggle the display of construction grid lines. Show/Hide Grid Opens a Color dialog box to select a background color.

Change Background Color

Show Current Supports

Used to limit the display of supports to only those positions which are assigned to currently selected job.

Toggles the display of the Output pane. Show Output View Toggles the display of the Main Navigator pane. Show Main Navigator

Tools tab
Contains tools used to manipulating foundation models. Table 1-12: Selection Cursor group tools Tool Support What it does Used to select only support nodes with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored. Used to select only piles with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored.

Pile

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Tool Beam

What it does Used to select only physical members with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored. Used to select only mat boundary with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored. Used to select only plates with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored. Used to select only mesh nodes with your mouse cursor, causing all other objects to be ignored.

Boundary Region Plate

Meshed Node

Table 1-13: Mat Geometry tools group Tool What it does

Used to place column positions on grid interAdd Support section points using your mouse cursor. A grid is created using the Grid Setup page under the Foundation Plan group. Add Beam Used to add physical beams graphically. Select this cursor and then click on two support nodes to create a beam between those two nodes. Used to place pile positions on grid intersection points using your mouse cursor. A grid is created using the Grid Setup page under the Foundation Plan group. Used to create a mat boundary by clicking on grid intersection nodes. To close the polygon, simply click on right mouse button or click on the first point. If the mat slab is imported from STAAD.Pro, this icon allows you to create a mat boundary by clicking on plate nodes.

Add Pile

Add Polygonal Boundary

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Tool

What it does Note: Active only if the current job is of mat foundation type. Used to create a rectangular shaped mat boundary by clicking on grid intersection nodes. Click on the first point to define top, left corner of the rectangle and then draw a rubber band and release mouse on a grid intersection point which will define bottom right corner of the rectangle. Note: Active only if the current job is of mat foundation type.

Add Rectangular Boundary

Used to create a circular shaped mat Add Circular boundary by clicking on grid intersection nodes. Click on the first point to define the Boundary center of the circle. Drag the mouse and release on another grid intersection point on circle perimeter. The distance between center and this point will be the radius of the circle. Note: Active only if the current job is of mat foundation type. Used to delete piles outside the boundary for mat on piles. All the piles outside the selected boundary will be deleted from the project. Note: Active only if the current job is of mat foundation type. Opens the Mat Foundation Modeling wizard, which is used to rapidly model rectangular mat foundations. Opens the Move selected entities by Move User Manual 37

Delete Piles Outside Boundary

Rectangular Mat Wizard

Tool

What it does

Selected Enti- dialog box, which is used to move selected ties entities like support positions, beams and piles. Opens the Translational Repeat dialog, Translational which is used to duplicate objects in a model. Repeat Table 1-14: Loading tools group Tool Self Weight What it does Opens the Add Self Weight & Modify Dead Weight Factor dialog box.

Used to specify a circular load by clicking the Circular center and then the radius. The Add Circular PresPressure sure Load dialog box opens to provide load details. Used to specify a circular load by clicking and dragging a rectangular window. The Add Rectangular Quad Pressure Pressure Load dialog box opens to provide load details. Point Load Used to add point loads. The Add Point Load dialog box opens to provide load details.

Used to add point loads due to column reactions. Reaction The Add Reaction Load dialog box opens to provide load details. Load Line Load Used to add linear loads. The Add Line Load dialog box opens to provide load details.

Table 1-15: Grouping group tools on the Tools tab Tool Show What it does Draw all the designed footings to actual scale. This

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Tool Actual Sizes

What it does is useful for checking for interference. Also this step is the first step for creating footing groups. Select all the footings by clicking left mouse button while holding Ctrl key and the click on Create Group button on toolbar to make all those footings of one group.

Create a design group with the selected footings in Create schematic diagram mode. Newly created group will Group have maximum dimensions among all selected footings. Table 1-16: Pictures group tools on the Tools tab Tool What it does Takes a snapshot of the Graphics Window for use in the Report Setup.

Take Picture

Save Picture

Opens the Save Bitmap dialog box, which is used to save current screen to bitmap picture file.

Table 1-17: Dimension group tools on the Tools tab Tool Set Column Dimension What it does Opens the Set Column Dimension dialog box, which is used to create column or pedestal objects..

Move selected entities by dialog box


Used to move selected entities like support positions, beams, and piles. Opens when the Move Selected Entities too is selected from the Tools ribbon tab.

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Unit Select a unit of length in which values will be given. Delta X, Y, Z Specify distances along any or all of the global axis. These values are the distance by which the object(s) will be moved. OK Closes the dialog and moves the selected entity by the specified values. Cancel Closes the dialog without moving the entity.

Mat Foundation modeling wizard


Used to rapidly model rectangular mat foundations. The wizard generates a new mat foundation job, with a rectangle boundary and mesh. This skips many steps involved in Job Setup, creating a rectangular region, generating a mesh, and specifying slab properties. Opens when the Rectangular Mat Wizard tool is selected from the Tools ribbon tab.

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Job Setup
Job Name Used to uniquely identify each job. You can enter any string here. Length Unit Select a unit of length for all coordinates and lengths. Default Unit Type Used to setup default design parameters of the job. The program supports both FPS and SI unit systems. You can select any combination of design code and default unit type. In other words user can choose US design code with SI unit system. Design Code Used to define concrete code to be used. Current version supports 5 country codes which are
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US - ACI 318-05 Britain - BS 8110 Indian - IS 456-2000 Australian - AS 3600-2004 Candian - CSA 23.3-04 Chinese - GB50007-2002

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Support Assignment Used to assign supports to a job. There are three assignment methods
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Assign to All Supports - assigns all supports to new job. Assign to Selected Supports - assign all selected supports in the main view to the current job. Note: This selection must be made prior to opening the Mat Foundation Modeling wizard.

Meshing
Meshing Type Select a Quadrilateral or Triangle finite element shape. Element Size Specify a target element size, in the selected Length Unit.

Boundary Setup
X / Z Coordinate at Top left corner Specify coordinates for X1,Z1, in the selected Length Unit. This is the top-left corner of the rectangle when viewed in plan (View From Top in the Trans Rotate toolbar). This locates the rectangular region in plan. Length / Width Specify the length (rectangle dimension parallel to the X axis) and width (rectangle dimension parallel to the Z axis), in the selected Length Unit, to define the size of the rectangular region. Y Level Specify an elevation (Y coordinate for all points in the rectangular region), in the selected Length Unit.

Slab Property
Analysis Thickness Used for FEM analysis of mat foundation, in the selected Length Unit. Note: STAAD Foundation allows you to use different thickness for analysis and design. Design Thickness Used to design the mat slab, in the selected Length Unit.

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Subgrade Modulus Modulus of elasticity of soil supporting the mat foundation, in the selected units. Create Creates a new mat foundation job with the specified rectangular mesh region and slab properties. Cancel Closes the wizard without creating a new mat foundation job.

Set Column Dimension dialog box


Used to create column or pedestal objects. Opens when the Set Column Dimension tool is selected on the Tools ribbon tab.

Consider Pedestal Select this option if the object being created is to be considered as a pedestal. Column Type Specify the cross-section type of the column: either rectangular or circular. Unit Select a unit of length in which values will be given.

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Column Depth/Dia. Provide the strong axis dimension of the column. If the Column Type is circular, this field is the diameter. Column Width Provide the weak axis dimension of the column. If the Column Type is circular, this field is not active. Pedestal Height If the column is to be considered as a pedestal, provide a pedestal height. OK Closes the dialog and creates the column object. Cancel Closes the dialog without creating any objects.

Translational Repeat dialog box


Used to duplicate objects in a model. The command works similar to a copy command, except multiple copies of an object can be made at a time. In addition, objects may be linked to together with transverse members. In order to use Translational Repeat, you must first select at least one object before the command will become available.

No. of Steps Specify the number of copies to make. Link Steps Select this option to create a physical member between each new copy

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made, linking to the previous copy. X, Y, Z Increment The Increment group box allows you to specify the distance from the original object(s) to the copied object(s). When No. of Steps is greater than 1, the increment values will also specify the distance between the multiple copied objects. The increment unit used is specified in the Change Length Unit drop-down list box in the Tools toolbar. OK Closes the dialog and creates the copied objects and links, if selected. Cancel Closes the dialog without creating any copied objects.

Add Circular Pressure Load dialog box


Used to add a circular pressure load to the current load case. Note: Circular pressure is applicable only to mat foundations. Opens when the Circular Pressure Load tool is selected in the Standard toolbar.

To create the circular pressure load


1. Select the Add Circular Pressure Load tool.

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2. Click on any grid intersection point and that will become the center of the circle 3. Drag the mouse to the desired circular radius and release the mouse on a grid intersection node. Note: The distance between the first point and second point is the radius of the circle. If the mouse cursor is not released on a grid intersection point load will not be created. The Add Circular Pressure Load dialog opens. 4. Input Pressure value and select units 5. (Optional) Modify center and radius values if necessary. 6. Click the OK button.

Add Line Load dialog


This option allows user to add a line load on mat slab. Note: Line load is applicable only to mat foundations. Opens when the Add Line Load tool is selected in the Standard toolbar.

To add a Line Load to a Mat foundation


1. Select the Add Line Load tool. 2. Click on any grid intersection point This point becomes the first point of the line.

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3. Drag mouse cursor and click on second grid intersection point to complete the line segment. The Add Line Load dialog opens. 4. Input load value 5. (Optional) Modify the line segment end coordinates if necessary. 6. Click the OKbutton.

Add Point Load dialog


Used to create a point load on space. Note: This option is available only for mat foundation. Opens when the Add Point Load tool is selected in the Standard toolbar.

1. Select the Add Point Load tool.

2. Click on any grid intersection point and the program will add a point load at that point. The Add PointLoad dialog opens. 3. Input Force values for all six degrees of freedom in the selected Force/ Moment Units.

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4. (Optional) Edit Position coordinates as necessary. 5. Click the OKbutton.

Add Reaction Load dialog


Used to add point loads due to column reactions at support positions. Reaction loads will be added to the current load case. Opens when the Add Reaction Load tool is selected in the Standard toolbar.

To add a column reaction load to a support position


1. Select the Add Reaction Load tool.

2. Select any support node in the Main View window. The Add Reaction Load dialog opens. 3. Input Load values for all six degrees of freedom in the selected Force/ Moment Units 4. Click the OK button. 5. Repeat steps 2-4 to add additional column reaction loads to the active load case. 6. Select the Add Reaction Load tool again to stop adding loads.

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Add Rectangular Pressure Load dialog


Used to add a rectangular pressure load to the current load case. Note: Rectangular pressure is applicable only to mat foundations. Opens when the Add Rectangular Pressure Load tool is selected in the Standard toolbar.

To create the quadrilateral pressure load


1. Select the Add Rectangular Pressure Load tool.

2. Click on any grid intersection point and that will become the top left corner of the rectangle. 3. Draw the rubber band and release the mouse cursor on a grid intersection point which will be bottom right corner of the rectangle. The Add Rectangular Pressure Load dialog opens. 4. Input pressure value and select units. 5. (Optional) Modify coordinates as necessary. 6. Click the OK button.

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Unit Setup dialog box


Used to set output units and create default unit sets.

Dialog controls Length Unit Length unit is used in all tables and pages as appropriate. Column position, column dimension, pile position, slab thickness are some of the pages where length units are used. Forms for loading etc., output tables and calculation sheet also uses length unit. Force Unit Force unit is used for all input and output related force. Pressure or stress unit is determined combining length and force unit. Moment unit Moment unit is used wherever program needs to display moment. It could be in calculation sheet, load page or output table. Reinforcing Bar Diameter This unit is used in output table and calculation sheet to report reinforcing bar diameter. Reinforcing Bar Spacing

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This unit is used in output table and calculation sheet to report required and provided reinforcing bar spacing. Distributed Force This unit is primarily used for linear load on a mat foundation. Save as default Program now supports default display unit setup for both English and SI unit. To set the defaults for English unit, setup all the desired units and press English Unit button. It will save the selected defaults in INI unit. To set the defaults for SI unit, setup all the desired units and press SI Unit button. It will save the selected defaults in INI unit. Program will automatically set display units based on current job unit setup. OK Saves changes made and closes the dialog. Cancel Closes the dialog without saving any changes.

Help tab
Contains items for using online help. Tool What it does Opens the About STAAD Foundation window in which information about the product is displayed. Opens the Help window to display STAAD Foundation's Table of Contents. Opens the Help window to display the What's New topic. Contains a list of video tutorials that will open in Windows Media Player once selected.

About

Contents

What's New

Tutorial

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Tool

What it does Opens the STAAD Foundation Help window to the help topic relative to the currently selected feature. Opens the STAAD Foundation Verification Problems manual. Note: You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader or other software capable of reading .PDFfiles installed on you computer. Opens the STAAD Foundation wiki page which contains links to several video tutorials on using the product.

Context Sensitive

Verification Manual

Online Tutorials

About STAAD Foundation Advanced dialog box

Used to show information about STAAD Foundation. Opens when About is selected from the Help ribbon tab..

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l l

l l

STAAD Foundation version number registered user name, site or organization, and, if applicable, SELECTserver host name. copyright information trademark notice Closes the About STAAD Foundation window.

OK View "Read Me"Document Opens the Read Me document for this release of STAAD Foundation V8i in your default Web browser. Note: You must have Adobe Acrobat Reader or other software capable of reading .PDFfiles installed on you computer.

1.3.4 Main Navigator pane


Handles the program flow and display of forms, tables, dialog boxes etc. for entering your project data. It is organized in a hierarchal order, allowing you to complete a project by working from the top to the bottom.

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This pane is primarily a tree control where the whole tree is divided in several groups. The basic division is Global and Local data. Information which will be used all through the project is called global data. Column positions, column dimension and loading are global data. Data related to specific type of job like Isolated footing are known as local data. Design parameters, footing geometry are examples of local data. Selecting a "leaf" in the tree navigator either opens a form in the Data Input and Loads pane, opens a dialog, or performs a program action. The Main Navigator includes different sections, depending on the mode in which your project is in STAAD Foundation. Refer to the specific help sections on each mode for detailed information on using the individual Main Navigator items. General Foundations

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Plant Foundations Foundation Toolkit

1.3.5 Tabbed View window


The main view window contains tabbed pages for displaying graphics as well as design calculation output on screen. This window is a permanent fixture in the application window. The following tabbed pages are available:

Start Page tab


Provides you with access to common file operations for creating new projects, opening existing projects, or exploring the program.

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New File Opens the Create New Project dialog, which is used to create and open an empty STAAD Foundation project. Open File Opens the Open dialog, which is used to open an existing STAAD Foundation project. General Mode Starts a new General Foundation project. Same as selecting File > New > General Setup . Plant Mode Starts a new Plant Foundation project. Same as selecting File > New

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> Plant Setup . Toolkit Mode Starts a new Foundation Toolkit project. Same as selecting File > New > Toolkit Setup . Examples Opens the Open dialog with STAAD Foundation Examples folder loading in the browsing section. Tutorial Opens the STAAD Foundation Tutorials page in your default Web browser. Help Opens the Help window to display STAAD Foundation's Table of Contents RSS feed Displays a list of Bentley news items relating to STAAD Foundation. Here you can find news regarding training opportunities, program updates, and news items important to STAAD Foundation users. Clicking an item listed in the feed will open the related article in your default Web browser.

Geometry page
Used as the main graphical input for foundation models. Once a design has been performed, you can group foundations to reduce the total number of designs for a given job. Note: If you are not able to see the loads or other model entities properly, it may because the scaling value for the display is either too small or too big. Use the Scale Setup form to change the scale value.

Detail and Schedule Drawing tab


After a successful design, the detail drawing will be automatically created, complete with a title block. Detailed drawing sdisplays a schematic diagram of the footing elevation and reinforcement plan.

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Detail Drawing Controls


Drawing Type Select either a Detail Drawing to display a footing elevation and plan drawing or a Schedule Drawing to display a table of foundation details. Footing No. list Select the footing which is to be drawing in the Detail Drawing tab window. Options Displays the Drawing Options form in the Data Input pane, which is used to . Save Drawing As Opens the Save Drawing As dialog, which is used to save the detail drawing or schedule in a variety of formats, including DWG and DXF.

Drawing Options form


Used to control the appearance of drawing elements in the Detail Drawing. Opens when the Options button is clicked on the Detail Drawing tab of the Main View window.

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Dimension Line Options Set the Arrowhead Size and Dimension Line Offset using the size toggle controls. Dimension lines offset in outward direction from the view. The Dimension Line Visibility is toggled using the selector. Extension Line Options Extend of Extension Line: Extension line can be further extended passing the dimension line using this toggle.

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Extension of Line Offset: Extension lines offset from the view in outward direction using this toggle Extension Line Visibility: Extension line visibility can be turned on or off through this toggle. Text Options Dimension Text Height: Height of dimension text can be set through this toggle Distance Around Text: Text for dimension lines is offset in the text position direction when Dimension Text Position is set as Above. For Dimension Text Position is set as Center, it curtails the dimension line around the text. Dimension Text Alignment: Dimension text can be either aligned along with the dimension line or always horizontal using this toggle. Dimension Text Position: Position of dimension text can be set to above dimension line or aligned with dimension line using this toggle. Font Options Select the callout Font Size and set the Callout Arrowhead Size using these tools. Color Options For Dimension Lines Color, Extension Lines Color, and Dimension Text Color, click the associated button to open a Select Color dialog.

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Save As dialog box (drawings)


Controls in this dialog are analogous to those found in the standard Save As dialog.

Save as type Sets the type of file format. The drawing file is saved in this format. Type AutoCADDrawings R2004 File Extension .dwf Description Used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. Native for AutoCAD R2004 and many other CAD applications. Used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. Native for AutoCAD R2000 and many other CAD applications. Used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. Can User Manual 61

AutoCADDrawings R2000

.dwf

AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format R2004

.dxf

Type

File Extension

Description be read by a wide variety of CADapplications.

AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format R2000

.dxf

Used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. Can be read by a wide variety of CADapplications. Used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. Can be read by a wide variety of CADapplications.

AutoCAD Drawing Interchange Format R14

.dxf

Vdp FormatR4.x Vdraw Drawings R4.x

.vdp .vdf .vdi

Windows Metafile Enhanced Metafile Windows Bitmap Graphics Interchange Format Joint Photographic Experts Group Tagged Image File Format TARGA (Truevision Graphics Adapter) Portable Network Graphics

.wmf .emf .bmp .gif .jpg .tif .tga .png

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Drawing Notes dialog box


Used to add and customize text notes to a drawing based on their own specifications. The drawing and foundation type is pre-populated with common notes, but each may be edited or removed for your organization or project standards. Once user notes are edited, the changes are saved in the program; hence user notes editing is one time process. Opens when either:
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Save Drawing Notes is clicked on the Detail and Schedule Drawing tab of the View window, or the Drawing Notes tool is selected

Drawing Type Select either the Detail Drawing, GADrawing, or Schedule Drawing to add notes. Foundation Type Select any of the foundation types available in the program. User Notes Each line in the table represents an additional note.

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to add a line, click in the last (empty) User Note field and begin typing. To delete a line, select the its Index number and press the Delete key. Save User Note(s) Click to add or change the user notes to the selected drawing and foundation type. Refresh Drawing Click to update the drawing with the modified notes and close the dialog.

GA Drawing tab
Upon successful design, this tab produces a footing plan layout of analyzed footings drawn to scale, complete with a title block. Hint: This drawing is useful to check footing overlap or foundation clashing.

Save Drawing As

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Opens the Save As dialog, which is used to save the GADrawing in a variety of common CAD or image file formats. GADrawing Options Displays the GADrawing Options form in the Data Input pane.

GA Drawing Options form


Used to control the display of GADrawing elements. Opens when GA Drawing Options is clicked from the GADrawing tab in the View window.

Display Column no.s Select this option to display the column numbers in callouts on the GADrawing. Display Column Numbers in Schedule Table Select this option to display the column numbers in the footing schedule. Optimize Gridlines Select this option to allow the program to automatically control the display of column grildlines. Display Columns Only Select this option to toggle off the display of foundations and other non-column entities. Show GADrawing for current job only

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If you have multiple jobs in the same STAAD Foundation project, select this option to limit the GADrawing to display only the job currently selected in the Job Selection list in the Standard toolbar. Angle between GAdrawing north and true north Used to rotate the plan drawing for convenience. Refresh Click to update the GADrawing for any changes in the options or if a Create Group action has been performed.

Calculation Sheet tab


Provides a detailed set of foundation calculations and code checks once a successful design has been performed. Each footing element is presented with step by step calculation with relevant code clause numbers and equations. The heading of the calculation sheet includes the type of foundation which was designed as well as which code was used. The following set of sub-headings contain hyperlinks to the individual foundation element design results. This calculation sheet is web-enabled for real time checking. Refer to Creating Detailed Calculation Sheets for additional information.

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Print Calculation Sheet Located at the end of the calculation sheet. Opens the Print dialog, which is used to print hard copies of the calculation sheet.

Graphs tab
Used to display internal force graphs for a strip footing beam.

Select strip footing index Used to select the strip footing beam for which graphs are displayed. Select load case Used to select the load case for which graphs are displayed. Select Graph Graph Options Opens the Graph Drawing Options form in the Data Input pane, which is used to control the display of strip footing internal force graphs.

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Graph Drawing Options form


Used to control the display of strip footing internal force graphs Opens when the Graph Options button is clicked on the Graphs tab in the Main View window.

Choose Graph / Graph Paper Color Select a color from curves and background the drop-down gallery of colors. Set Font Size Click Choose Font to open a standard Font dialog, which is used to set font size, typeface, color, style, or effects. Line Width Specify a line width to use for the curves. Graph Division X / Y Specify a number of divisions to use in the horizontal and vertical axis of the graphs. Show Drawing Points Select this option to toggle on the discrete points for the graphs. Refresh Click to update the graphs with the selected options in this form.

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1.3.6 Data Input and Load pane


Used as the primary are for input and options selection for foundation jobs in the General Foundation mode. This is also used to edit some options for Plant Foundations or Foundation Toolkit jobs. All global data that is not imported is entered here. Input is done by in a series of forms, most of which are opened through either the Main Navigator pane or the Main View window. Both Data Input pane and Load pane are displayed here, with only the necessary pane being displayed for the currently selected form.

1.3.7 Output Pane


Lists design progress while designing or analyzing a foundation and displays output tables upon completion of a successful analysis.

Design Progress Report


Any warning or error messages will appear here during the design process.

Output tables
After a successful analysis/design, output tables will be shown in one or more tabs in the Output pane. Hint: The data within output tables can be copied and pasted into other programs, such as Microsoft Excel or Word. Highlight the table cells and press CTRL+C to copy their contents.

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Section 2

General Foundations
2.1 Introduction
In STAAD Foundation, you start out by creating a Project to hold physical information, such as column locations, column dimensions, piles, beams, and loads. The physical information represents the structure that a foundation is intended to support. Unless the design of the structure is modified, these physical conditions generally remain constant throughout the life of a foundation design project. Your project also contains Jobs, which are sets of constraints needed to tell STAAD Foundation how to perform a foundation design. Each project may contain multiple jobs, making it easy for you to evaluate different design scenarios for a given set of physical conditions. Note: STAAD Foundation does not display the entire tree all the time. Rather, it only displays groups and leaves that are relevant to the current status of the project. For example, when you begin a new project, only the Project Info, Foundation Plan, Loads and Factors and Job Setup groups will appear in the Navigator pane. These four groups allow you to specify the physical model upon which the foundation design is performed. It is only when you specify a Job (a set of constraints for STAAD Foundation to use

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in performing a foundation design) that the groups related to the design will appear.

2.2 Global Data


The main navigator pane Global Data groups are as follows:

2.2.1 Project Info


Used to add general info about a project, create a revision history for a project, and access view and scaling controls. The Project Info group is active by default when you open a new or existing project. Use of the Project Info group is optional. It is provided for your convenience. You can store relevant general information regarding a project and also create a revision history. Later on, you can instruct STAAD Foundation to display this information in reports and drawings. Table 2-1: Project Info group items Name General Information Description Opens the General Information form in the Data Input pane, which is used to store general project information used in your organization. Same Effect as Selecting

Review History Opens the Review History form in the Data Input pane, which is used to keep track of the progress of a project. Modeling View Options Opens the Modeling View View Options Options form in the data in the Home input pane, which is used ribbon tab to control graphics display by toggling the display of several model elements. Opens the Scale Setup Scale in the

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Name options

Description

Same Effect as Selecting

form in the data input Home ribbon pane, which is used to con- tab trol the scale at which displacements, loads, and drawing entities like footings and piles are displayed on the model.

General Information form


Used to store general information regarding a project. The information you input in the General Information form can later be used in reports and drawings. Note: The information in the General Information form is not required to design foundations but can helpful for records in your organization. Opens when Project Info > General Information is selected in the Main Navigator.

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Table 2-2: General Information form parameter descriptions Group Parameter Description Your organization's internal project identification number. Any text title which is helpful in identifying the project by name.

General Project ID Information Project Title

Site Location Any text title which is helpful in describing the physical location of the project. Client Organization These fields are used to record your client's information. Contact Person Phone Fax Email Address

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Group

Parameter

Description The name or initials of the staff member responsible for creating the project file. The name or initials of the supervisor or reviewer. Enter a date for the beginning of the project. This date defaults to the date the project file was created. Hint: When this cell is highlighted, clicking the down arrow to the right of the field will open a calendar tool which can be used to select a date.

Engineer's Designer Description Supervisor Start Date

Target Date

Enter a milestone or target completion date (can be changed at any time). This date defaults to the date the project file was created. Hint: When this cell is highlighted, clicking the down arrow to the right of the field will open a calendar tool which can be used to select a date.

Review History form


Used to keep track of the progress of a project. Opens when Project Info > Review History is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Review History table Each new revision is given a unique ID Number, starting from 1.
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Date - Input the date. Hint: When this cell is highlighted, clicking the down arrow to the right of the field will open a calendar tool which can be used to select a date.

Job Name - Add any text description. You may want to add all jobs which were worked on for a particular revision. Checked By - Add any text description. This is typically the name or initials of the reviewer.

Hint: Pressing [Return] or [tab] will skip to the next cell in the table. Arrow keys may also be used to navigate through the table in any order. Comments form Add any text description. This is typically a summary of the work performed for this revision or notes from a reviewer. Save Saves any changes made to the revision table and comments field.

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Comments will not be saved with the revision item unless the save button is clicked. Delete Removes the currently selected revision from the revision table. Note: Deleting a revision from the revision table also deletes the Comments that were stored with the deleted revision. Delete All Removes all revisions from the revision table.

Modeling View Options form


Used to control graphics display by toggling the display of several model elements. It also has options to change color of certain entities. Opens when:
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Project Info >Modeling View Options is selected in the Main Navigator pane, or the View Options tool is selected in the Home ribbon tab.

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Show Supports Toggles the view of supports. Show Support Numbers This option is used to display support numbers. Support numbers will not be displayed if Show Supports option is unselected. Show Piles This option is used to switch on/off display of piles in graphics area. Show Pile Numbers This option is used to display pile numbers. Pile numbers will not be displayed if Show Piles option is unselected. Show Load Arrows This option is used to display load arrows.

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Note: The color picker control to the right is used to select a color for load arrows graphics. Show Load Values This option is used to display load values next to the load arrows. Show Physical Beams This option is used to display physical beams if present in the project. The color picker control to the right is used to select a color for physical beam graphics. Draw Line/3D diagram Select this option to draw physical beam as a line or as a solid surface. Beam property will be used to draw the rectangular beam shape. Show Plates This option is used to display plate elements if present in current job. Note: The color picker control to the right is used to select a color for meshed plate graphics. Draw <x>D Plates This option gives user a choice to display plates as 2D surface or a solid 3D diagram. Show Plate Numbers This option is used to display plate numbers at the center of each plate. This option wont display plate numbers if Show Plates is unselected. Show Nodes This option is used to display plate nodes as blobs. This option is unselected by default. The color picker control to the right is used to select a color for plate node graphics. Show Node Numbers This option is used to display node numbers next to the plates nodes. This option wont display node numbers if Show Nodes is unselected. Show Boundary and Holes This option is used to display boundary and holes created for mat foundation.

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Scale Setup form


Used to control the scale at which displacements, loads, and drawing entities like footings and piles are displayed on the model. If the structures loads or deformed shape are not clearly visible in the Graphics Window when the options to display them are turned on, you may need to change the scaling values. Opens when:
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Project Info >Scale Setup Options is selected in the Main Navigator pane, or the Scale Setup tool is selected in the Home ribbon tab.

The following commands are available Results Scales: Displacement Used to change the displacement scale of a mat foundation. Displacement diagram is only available for mat foundation after a successful analysis.

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Note: You should decrease the scaling value to increase the amount of deflection or loading shown on the diagram. Why do you decrease the parameter value to increase the apparent size? The values in the dialog box represent the actual displacement or loading per unit distance on the graphic diagram. Therefore, if you reduce the amount of actual structural deflection required to display a unit distance of deflection on the diagram, you will see a larger apparent displacement on the diagram. Loading Scales This group allows you to change the display of load arrows. Concentrated force and moment for a point load has different scaling options. Distributed load scale is applicable to line load on mat and beam loads. Pressure load scale is applicable to quadrilateral and circular pressure load. Modeling Scales Used to change the display size of supports (Footing Width) and piles (Pile Length). Drawings of footing size are not scaled as the sizes are not known, so sometimes those entities may seem too big or small. Changing the scale user can control the sizes of those drawings. Set As Default Select this option to save the current scale setup for the default for the program. Refresh Click to redraw the View window with the current scale settings.

2.2.2 Foundation Plan


Used to specify basic information on support, such as Column Positions, Column Dimension. It also allows creating a grid to be used for defining column position, pile position, mat boundary etc. The Foundation Plan page contains the following sub-pages: Table 2-3: Foundation Plan group items Name Linear Grid Setup Description Opens the Linear Grid Setup and Table form in the Data Input pane, which is used to define a linear grid on which geometry can be graphically created.

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Name Radial Grid Setup

Description Opens the Radial Grid Setup and Table form in the Data Input pane, which is used to define a radial grid on which geometry can be graphically created. Opens the ColumnPositions table in the Data Input pane, which is a spreadsheet table used to input column positions in Cartesian (XYZ) coordinates.

Column Positions

Column Dimen- Opens the ColumnDimensions table in sions the Data Input pane, which is a spreadsheet table used to specify the depth and width of the columns at each support location and pedestal information, if any

Linear Grid Setup and Table form


Used to define a linear grid on which geometry can be graphically created. Opens when Foundation Plan > Linear Grid Setup is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Note: STAAD Foundation will display only a single grid in the Geometry tab of the main view window. Creating a new grid will replace any existing grid. Any foundations, loads, or other model objects placed on this grid will not be affected, though.

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Note: The display of grids can be toggled using the Grid Toggle tool found in the Trans Rotate toolbar.

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A grid allows you to specify your foundation geometry by snapping to the intersections of the grid lines. Origin X / Y / Z Specify the origin coordinates for the grid, in the specified units. Spacing X / Y Specify the uniform spacing to be used (in the length Unit specified for Origin). By default, the grid lines are spaced equally apart. Individual grid line spacing may be edited in the Linear Grid table. Lines left/right of origin Specify the number of linear grid lines to be generated along the X axis, either side of the origin (Left = negative x axis, Right = positive x axis). Lines top/bottom of origin Specify the number of linear grid lines to be generated along the Z axis, either side of the origin (top = negative z axis, bottom = positive z axis). Grid direction Toggles the values displayed in the Linear Grid table for the current grid. Select X or Z to display the grid line spacing along that axis. Show Grid Select Yes to toggle the grid on after it has been Generated. Note: The display of grids can be toggled using the Grid Toggle tool found in the Trans Rotate toolbar. Save as Default Save the linear grid settings as defaults for later use. Linear Grid table Displays the spacing between grid lines. Additional grid lines (rows in the table) can be added using the Insert After and Insert Before buttons. Generate Grid Click to generate the linear grid with the specified geometry. Insert After Click to insert new row of data in the table after the selected row. Insert Before Click to insert a new row of grid data in the table before the selected row. Delete Click to delete the selected table row(s).

Radial Grid Setup and Table form


Used to define a radial grid on which geometry can be graphically created.

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Opens when Foundation Plan > Radial Grid Setup is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Note: STAAD Foundation will display only a single grid in the Geometry tab of the main view window. Creating a new grid will replace any existing grid. Any foundations, loads, or other model objects placed on this grid will not be affected, though.

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Origin X / Y / Z

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Specify the origin coordinates for the grid, in the specified units. Inner / Outer radius Specify the radius values for the first and last circumferential grid line. Divisions along the circumference Specify the number of radial grid lines to be generated. Divisions along the radius Specify the number of divisions of the radius. Since all radius lines terminate at the specified origin (center), the number of circumferential grid lines will be one less than this value. Grid direction Toggles the values displayed in the Radial Grid table for the current grid.
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Radial - Displays the angle of each radial grid line, in degrees. Radial grid line spacing is measured counter-clockwise (anti-clockwise) from the positive X axis (from grid origin). Circumferential - Displays the radial spacing of each circumferential grid line, in the

Show Grid Select Yes to toggle the grid on after it has been Generated. Note: The display of grids can be toggled using the Grid Toggle tool found in the Trans Rotate toolbar. Save as Default Save the radial grid settings as defaults for later use. Radial Grid table Displays the spacing between grid lines. Additional grid lines (rows in the table) can be added using the Insert After and Insert Before buttons. Generate Grid Click to generate the radial grid with the specified geometry. Insert After Click to insert new row of data in the table after the selected row. Insert Before Click to insert a new row of grid data in the table before the selected row. Delete Click to delete the selected table row(s).

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Column Positions table


A spreadsheet table used to input column positions in Cartesian (XYZ) coordinates. Opens when Foundation Plan > Column Positions is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

After column coordinates are entered, the columns along with their respective node numbers are displayed in the Graphics Window. The tab key or arrow keys may be used to move from one cell to the next in the table. The coordinates in the table can be modified like any spreadsheet. In order to delete a column, select the column in the Graphics Window by clicking on it. Then either press the delete key on your keyboard or select Edit > Delete. Note: A column will not be shown in the Graphics Window until you press <Enter> or click outside of the row you are currently in. Note: Initially, all unassigned footings will appear as spread footings of uniform size in the Main View window. The graphics will update once the footing type has been assigned.

Column Dimensions table


A spreadsheet table used to specify the depth and width of the columns at each support location and pedestal information, if any. Column or pedestal dimensions are needed to check punching shear for a mat foundation. For all other footing types these dimensions will be used to calculate critical design forces. The unit used for this form is set through the Unit Setup tool on the Home ribbon tab.

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Note: This table allows you to quickly enter in data for multiple columns and pedestals. To provide data for a single column, you can use the Set Column Dimensions tool on the Home ribbon tab. Opens when Foundation Plan > Column Dimensions is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

If the column type is Circular, Column Width field will be grayed out. By default, the program considers that there is no pedestal. If a particular column location has a pedestal, you can select Yes radio button under Consider Pedestal field. Doing so makes depth and width columns editable. Note: For an Octagonal Footing in General Mode, only the following values are used: Column Depth/Dia , Pedestal Height, and Pedestal Depth/Dia (i.e., Column Widht and Pedestal Width are ignored).

2.2.3 Loads & Factors group


Used to define the loads on a foundation by creating load cases, loads, combination loads, and safety factors for load cases. Many of the elements in the Load &Factors group open items in the Load pane. See "Using Loads, Load Cases, and Load Combinations" on page 92 for additional information on using this window element. A "support" in STAAD Foundation is in fact a node where loads are transferred from the superstructure (analyzed in other software) to the substructure, analyzed and designed in STAAD Foundation. Loads in STAAD Foundation are generated as support reactions in structural analysis software (such as STAAD.Pro). The boundary conditions assumed during the analysis will dictate the loads which each support in STAAD Foundation receives. That is, pinned

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versus fixed (and any other boundary conditions) are inherent in the applied loads here and are not actually set in STAAD Foundation. Similarly, the type of analysis performed in the analysis software (i.e., static, dynamic, time history, etc.) does not matter to the loads input to STAAD Foundation. Table 2-4: Loads &Factors group items Name Create New Load Case Add a Column Reaction Load Add Load for Mat Foundation >Point Load Add Load for Mat Foundation > Line Load Description Opens the Create New Load Case form in the Load pane, which is used to create and edit load cases. Opens the Add a Column Reaction Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a nodal load acting on support. Opens the Add Point Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a point load on a mat foundation. Opens the Add Line Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a linear load on a mat foundation.

Add Load for Opens the Add Quadrilateral Load form Mat Founin the Load pane, which is used to create a dation quadrilateral load on a mat foundation. >Quadrilateral Load Add Load for Mat Foundation > Circular Pressure Load Add Member Load > Uniform Load Add Member Opens the Add Circular Pressure Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a circular load on a mat foundation.

Opens the Add Uniform Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a uniform member load. Opens the Add Concentrated Load form

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Name Load > Concentrated Load Add Member Load > Trapezoidal Load Apply Self Weight Load Safety Factor Table

Description in the Load pane, which is used to create a concentrated member load. Opens the Add Trapezoidal Load form in the Load pane, which is used to create a linearly varying member load. Opens the Self Weight dialog, which is used to add mat foundation element self weight. Opens the Applied Load Safety Factor form in the Load pane, which is used to assign safety factors for serviceability and design. Opens the Soil Bearing Capacity Factor form in the Load pane, which is used to assign safety factors. Opens the Create Load Combination form in the Load pane, which is used to create a new Load Combination. Opens the Load Combination Input dialog, which is used to generate a set of load combinations based on common Removes the current load case, load, or load combination selected in the Load Selector list (found in the Standard toolbar). A dialog opens to confirm the deletion. Warning: Deletion of Load Combinations cannot be undone. Note: The load can also be selected in the Load Description tree (Load pane).

Soil Bearing Capacity Factors Create New Load Combination Generate Load Combination Remove Load Case

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Using Loads, Load Cases, and Load Combinations


Load Selector List (Home ribbon tab)

Used to select the current load case. Click the down arrow to display a list of all load cases in the current job.

Load Description Tree

Located in the top portion of the Load pane. Used to display all load cases, loads, and load combinations contained in a project.

Assigning Loads
STAAD Foundation provides several different methods for assigning loads to foundation model objects. These tools are available in forms within the Load pane. Assignment Method list Used to choose the method of assignment and contains the following methods and commands:
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Assign to View - assigns the selected load to all relevant objects in the Graphics Window.

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Assign to Selection - assigns the selected load to only those relevant objects that are selected in the Graphics Window. Refer to Selection tools for how to select objects. Assign to Edit List - assigns the selected load to only those objects that are inputted in the column list edit box.

Assign Load Assigns the selected load using the Assignment Method chosen.

Adding a load using pop-up menu


1. Right click on a Load Case in the Load Description Tree. A pop-up menu opens to display a list of load actions. 2. Select the new load type to be added to this Load Case. 3. Enter in load parameters and add the load, similar to when an action is selected from the Loads & Factors group in the Main Navigator pane.

Deleting a load case from the active project file


Used to remove an entire Load Case or a specific load item from the project file. 1. Select the Load Case or load entry in the Load Description tree you wish deleted. 2. Click on Loads & Factors > Remove Load Case entry in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog opens to confirm you want to delete the selected load from the project file. 3. Click Yes. Warning: This action may not be undone.

Create New Load Case form


Used to create and edit load cases. Opens when Loads & Factors > Create New Load Case is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

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Add Click to create the new load case once all parameters have been set below. Assignment selection list Used to select which method used for assigning the selected load case. Assign Load Click to assign the selected load by the method selected. Column list Enter in a list of elements to assign the load case to. Load Title A title can be any text string to describe the load. Load Case Type Select one of the following load types to use:
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Primary - used for both serviceability and factored design. both the serviceability and design factors will automatically be set to unity (1).

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Service - used only for serviceability checks to calculate footing dimensions. Ultimate - used for shear checks and reinforcement design

Copy Load All load items from a previously defined load case will be copied into the new load case once Add is clicked. Enter the Load Case number into the Add Self Weight Select Yes to add self weight of Mat foundation for analysis. Note: This option is relevant for Mat foundation design. For all other footing types like Isolated, Combined; the program automatically calculates and adds self weight as appropriate.

Adding a new load case to a project


1. Select Create New Load Case in the Loads & Factors section of the Main Navigator pane. The Load Description pane opens. 2. Enter a Load Title and press the Enter key. 3. Select the Load Case Type and Loading Type. 4. (Optional) If you are copying an existing load, select the Load Case No to copy. 5. (For Mat Only) Specify Self Weight data. 6. Click Add. The new load case is automatically assigned a number and appears in the Load Description Tree (along with Title, if provided).

Add a Column Reaction Load form


Used to create or edit nodal load acting on support. Opens when Loads & Factors > Add a Column Reaction Load is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

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Creating a reaction load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Moment Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the forces (Fx, Fy, Fz) and moments (Mx, My, Mz). Hint: Press the Enter key after each value to lock the value in the field.Use the mouse to move the cursor from field to field, in any order. 4. Click Add. The load is added to the load case. Note: Load direction follows right hand rule, so a positive Fy value will create a tensile (or uplift) force at the support location.

Add a Point Load form


Used to create a concentrated load on a mat. Note: Point loads are for mat foundations only. Opens when Loads & Factors > Add Load for Mat Foundation > Point Load is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

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Creating a point load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Moment Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the forces (Fx, Fy, Fz) and moments (Mx, My, Mz) 4. Specify load positions (X, Y, Z) and coordinate units. 5. Click Add. The load is added to the load case. Note: The Y Loading Position must correspond to the elevation of the foundation supports.

Add a Quadrilateral Load form


Used to create a quadrilateral load. Quadrilateral Loads are plate pressure load and only applicable to mat foundations. Note: Quadrilateral loads are for mat foundations only.

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Opens when Loads & Factors > Add Load for Mat Foundation > Quadrilateral Load is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

Creating a quadrilateral load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Pressure and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the uniform Pressure. 4. Define the area (footprint) of the load by specifying coordinates of the quadrilateral figure (x1, x2, x3, x4, z1, z2, z3, z4). 5. Specify a Y Position value to indicate the elevation at which the load is applied. Note: The Y Loading Position must correspond to the elevation of the foundation supports. 6. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Add a Circular Pressure Load form


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Note: Circular Pressure loads are for mat foundations only. Opens when Loads & Factors > Add Load for Mat Foundation > Circular Pressure Load is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

Creating a circular load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Pressure and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the uniform pressure. 4. Define the area (footprint) of the load by specifying enter coordinates (Center X, Center Z) and a Radius for the circle. 5. Specify a Y Position value to indicate the elevation at which the load is applied. Note: The Y Loading Position must correspond to the elevation of the foundation supports. 6. Specify the No. of Divisions by which the circle will be divided.

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Note: STAAD Foundation does not actually create a true circular boundary for a Circular Load. Instead, the program simulates a circle through the use of pie-shaped wedges as shown in the figure below.

7. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Add a Line Load form


Used to create a Line Load. Line Loads are distributed linear load and only applicable to mat foundations. Note: Point loads are for mat foundations only. Opens when Loads & Factors > Add Load for Mat Foundation > Line Load is selected in the Main Navigation pane.

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Creating a line load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the uniform Force. 4. Define start and end points of the line by specifying the Starting X, Starting Z, Ending X, Ending Z. 5. Specify a Y Position value to indicate the elevation at which the load is applied. Note: The Y Loading Position must correspond to the elevation of the foundation supports. 6. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Add Uniform Load form


Clicking on the Add Uniform Load leaf opens a form in data area pane that allows you to create a uniform load on physical beams. Note: Uniform loads are for physical members only.

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Creating a uniform beam load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the uniform Force (W) and Direction in which to apply the force. Note: Direction can be in either global or local coordinates. 4. Define start and end locations along the member by specifying the Start Distance (d1) and End Distance (d2). If left both are left as zero, the load is placed along the entire length of the beam. 5. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Add Concentrated Load form


Used to create a concentrated load on physical beams. Note: Uniform loads are for physical members only.

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Creating a concentrated load on a beam


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the concentrated Force (P) and Direction in which to apply the force. Note: Direction can be in either global or local coordinates. 4. Define the distance from the start of the beam to the load in the Position field. 5. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Add Trapezoidal Load form


Used to create a trapezoidal load on physical beams. Note: Uniform loads are for physical members only.

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Creating a trapezoidal beam load


1. Select a load case either in the Load Description tree or using the Load Case Selector list in the Standard toolbar. 2. Select the Force and Position Units to use for the load. 3. Specify the magnitude of the force at start (Force (W1)) and end ( Force (W2)) of the load, along with the Direction in which to apply the force. Note: Direction can be in either global or local coordinates. 4. Define start and end locations along the member by specifying the Start Distance (d1) and End Distance (d2). If left both are left as zero, the load is placed along the entire length of the beam. 5. Click the Add button. The load is added to the load case.

Applied Load Safety Factors form


Used to assign serviceability and design factors for each load case in a project. The serviceability factor will be applied when checking the base pressure of a foundation (geotechnical design). The design factor will be used for shear and reinforcement design.

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Note: By default, STAAD Foundation assigns values for the safety factors depending on the load type. Opens when Loads & Factors > Load Safety Factor Table is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

The default values can be changed by inputting new values into the table like any spreadsheet. Hint: The tab key or arrow keys may be used to move from one cell to the next in the table. Load types are defined as the following:
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Primary, both the factors will be 1.0. Allowable load cases will have Service factor as 1.0 but design factor as 0.0 Ultimate load cases will have Ultimate factor as 1.0 but service factor as 0.0

Soil Bearing Capacity Factors form


A spreadsheet table used to assign serviceability and design factors for each load case in a project.

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By default, STAAD Foundation will assign value as 1 for soil bearing factors depending on the load type. The default values can be changed by inputting new values into the table like any spreadsheet. The tab key or arrow keys may be used to move from one cell to the next in the table. Based on this table increase or decrease in soil bearing capacity for particular load case can be achieved. For example, consider than for earthquake load cases, in many cases by standard practices and code provisions, soil bearing capacity can be increased by 33%. This can be achieved by entering 1.33 in Soil Bearing Capacity Factor (Multiplier) column. Note: Soil bearing Capacity Factors are not applicable to mat foundation module

Load Combination form


Used to create factored algebraic load combinations. These combinations are automatically numbered and will appear in the Load Description Tree after all primary Load Cases.

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Load Case No This field is automatically incremented with each new load combination. Load Combination Title Enter a description for the new combined load such as Dead Load + Live Load. Combination Type Select Allowable Stress of Ultimate Strength type. Available Primary Load Cases list Includes all load cases created in the active project file.

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Table 2-5: Load Selector tools Click this button to

Include load cases selected in the Available Primary Load Cases list in the Load Combination Definition list below. Include all available load cases in the Load Combination Definition list below. All primary load cases will have the same Factor applied. Remove the selected load cases from the Load Combination Definition list below. Remove all load cases in the Load Combination Definition list below. Factor Specify the factor with which the selected Primary Load Cases are to be multiplied.

Load Combination Input dialog box


Used to automatically generate sets of load combinations based on design codes.

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Load Combination Table Select either of the two code specified load combinations or input your own.
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ASCE 7-05 NBCC 05 Indian British Australian GB50001-2001 User defined

Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table.

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Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Allowable load combinations are load combinations used to check soil pressure and optimize footing plan dimensions. Ultimate load combinations are load combinations used to check for shear and design for reinforcement. The cells represent the factors to be added with the primary load cases, depending upon the rules of the US Standard. Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. Hint: Custom Load types can be created using User Type <#>. Up to six custom types may be used. Generate Load Combination Adds the load combinations with the specified factors from the associated table to the Load Description Tree. The child node of each load combination node will represent the Load Case and the factors multiplied with it.

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Note: A dialog opens to confirm that the set of load combinations have been generated. Load Combination No The load combination number starts from 101 and you can also give load combination number of your own choice. If the number exists, the load combination number is automatically incremented with each new load combination as Load Comb and the number.

Add Self Weight & Modify Dead Weight Factor dialog box
Used to toggle self weight for the selected or all load cases and to specify self weight factors. This self weight definition is only applicable for Mat foundation as the program does not add self weight of the mat slab by default. For other types of footing like isolated or combined footing program automatically adds self weight for all service load cases. This self weight definition may be used to override default self weight settings for load cases including dead loads.

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Select All Set this option to include all primary load cases. OK Closes the dialog and instruct the program to consider self weight for any load cases with Include option set. Cancel Closes the dialog without considering self weight in any load cases. Add self weight to mat foundations 1. Select Loads & Factors > Apply Self Weight from the Main Navigation pane. or Select the Self Weight tool from the Tools ribbon tab. The Add Self Weight & Modify Dead Weight Factor dialog box opens containing a list of all load cases. 2. Select the Include check box for each load case to have Self Weight included. Hint: At the bottom of the dialog there is a control to toggle the selection of all load cases. 3. Specify a Factor by which to multiply the program-calculated self weight and/or dead weight. This is set to unity (1) by default. Factor values will be used to for load combinations. For service load combinations self weight will be multiplied by the corresponding factor of that load combination. This factor governs both the foundation self weight as well as the weight of soil above a mat foundation. 4. Click on OK to assign/un-assign self weight. Hint: Self Weight and factors can also be set for individual load cases when load cases are created or selected in the Load Description Tree.

2.3 Job Setup group


The link between global and local data is Job Setup, where you can create different footing job types. You can create as many jobs as needed within a single project file, including multiple jobs with same footing type. 112 STAAD Foundation

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Table 2-6: Items in the Job Setup Item Description

Create Opens the Job Info and Loading forms in the Data a New Input pane, which are used to input basic job data for Job creating a new foundation job. Edit Job Opens the Job Info and Loading forms in the Data Input pane, which are populated with the basic job and load data for the current job.

Delete Opens the Delete Job form in the Data Input pane, Job which is used to remove jobs from the project file.

2.3.1 Creating a New Job


1. Click on Job Setup > Create a New job entry in the Main Navigation pane. The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Input pane. 2. Specify Job Name, Job Type, Design Code, and Default Unit Type in the Job Info form. 3. Select the project supports to be included in the new job. 4. Select load cases to be included in the new job. 5. Click Create Job. The newly created job is set as the current job.

Job Info form


Used to input basic job data for creating a new foundation job. The job data consists of the Job Info and Loading forms. Opens when either Create a New Job or Edit Current Job is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Job Name Used to uniquely identify each job. You can enter any string here. Job Type Used to define the foundation type for the new job. In current version we support 5 different types of footing which are
l l l l

l l

Isolated - Create a spread footing at each selected support node. Pile Cap - Create a pile cap at each selected support node. Mat - Create a matt Combined - Create strip footings from two or more support nodes. A single job can contain multiple strip footings. Octagonal Strap

Design Code Used to define concrete code to be used. The following codes are supported:
l l l l l l l

US - ACI 318-05 Britain - BS 8110 Indian - IS 456-2000 Australian - AS 3600-2004 Canadian - CSA 23.3-04 Chinese - GB50007-2002 Europe - Eurocode 2 (EN1992 Design of concrete structures)

Default Unit Type Used to setup default design parameters of the job. The program supports both FPS and SI unit systems. You can select any combination of design code and default unit type. In other words user can choose US

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design code with SI unit system. Support Assignment Used to assign supports to a job. There are three assignment methods
l l

Assign to All Supports - assigns all supports to the current job Assign to Selected Supports - assign all selected supports in the main view to the current job Assign to Listed Supports - When selected, the Listed Supports field becomes active.

Listed Supports Used in conjunction with the Assign to Listed Supports method for Support Assignment. Type the support numbers to be assigned to the current job.

Loading form
Available Load Cases list Includes all load cases created in the active project file. Table 2-7: Load Selector tools Click this button to

Include load cases selected in the Available Load Cases list in the Selected Load Cases list below. Include all available load cases in the Selected Load Cases list below. Remove the selected load cases from the Selected Load Cases list below. Remove all load cases in the Selected Load Cases list below. Selected Load Cases list Loads added to this will be available for the new job. Create Job Creates a new job a new job with the specified parameters.

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Strip Footing list


If the selected Job Type is Combined or Strap , an additional set of controls become available which will be used to define a strip footing from individual supports. These controls become active once the Create Job is clicked for a Combined footing.

Create from Selected Nodes Select two or more collinear supports in main view and then click on Create from Selected Nodes button to add those supports as strip footing. Delete Removes a selected strip/combined footing from the job. Delete All Removes all strip/combined footings from the job.

2.3.2 Editing the current job


1. Select the job you want to edit in the Job Selection list found in the Standard toolbar. 2. Click on Job Setup > Edit Current job entry in the Main Navigation pane. The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Input pane. 3. Change any parameter except for Job Type. 4. Select the project supports to be included in the new job. Note: No matter what method you initially used to assign supports, the current supports will given in a list. 5. Select load cases to be included in the new job. 6. Click Change Job. 116 STAAD Foundation

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2.3.3 Deleting a job from the active project file


1. Click on Job Setup > Delete Job entry in the Main Navigation pane. The Delete job form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. Select the Job name which you want to delete in the job list. 3. Click Delete Job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to delete the selected job from the project file. 4. Click Yes.

Delete Job form


Used to remove jobs from the project file.

Jobs list Displays a list of all jobs contained within the active project file. Delete Job Deletes the selected job from the project file. A dialog opens to confirm. Warning: This action may not be undone.

2.4 Local Data


Local Data are specific to job types. Each foundation type has its own unique local data types. Design parameters such as concrete cover, rebar specifications, soil parameters and footing geometry are typical examples of design parameters. The following foundation types are available in the General Foundation mode:

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2.4.1 Isolated Footing job


Isolated footing job type has a unique group for local data called Design Parameters. This group allows you to specify design parameters for the selected isolated footing and is only active for isolated footing job types. Note: STAAD Foundation Isolated Footings are assumed to be rectangular in plan. Isolated footings with irregular shapes can be designed through as Mat foundation jobs. STAAD Foundation performs Isolated Footing analysis and design based on rigid analysis methods, for flexible analysis, please model isolated footings using the Mat Foundation module. The Design Parameters group contains the following elements: Table 2-8: Isolated Footing group items Name Concrete and Rebar Description Opens the Concrete and Rebar form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input concrete and rebar properties for the current isolated footing job. Opens the Cover and Soil form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input cover parameters, and soil characteristics, and footing Bottom or Top Fixed option. Opens the Footing and Geometry form in the data input pane, which is used to input isolated footing geometry for the current isolated footing job. Opens the Sliding and Overturning form in the data input pane, which is used to input stability safety factors for the current isolated footing job. Initiates the design of the current isolated footing job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed. (US and Indian codes only) Opens the STAAD Foundation Export to Excel file

Cover and Soil

Footing and Geometry

Sliding and Overturning

Design

Detailed Output

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Name

Description dialog, which is used to save the design output for the isolated footing job in a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel XML file format, with an .xml file extension).

Concrete and Reinforcement form (Isolated Footing)


Used to input concrete and rebar properties for the current isolated footing job. Opens when Isolated Footing Job > Design Parameters > Concrete and Rebar is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. User Manual 119

Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the appropriate bar sizes used in the selected Design Code. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Isolated Footing: Concrete and Rebar parameters.

Cover and Soil form (Isolated Footing)


Used to input cover parameters and soil characteristics. Opens when Isolated Footing Job > Design Parameters > Cover and Soil is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Soil Type Select the type of soil supporting the foundation:


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Drained Condition Undrained Condition

Bottom Clear Cover

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Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable bearing capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Above Footing Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Type of Depth Used to select the direction for incremental depth in design:
l

Fixed Top Top of Footing is fixed in this option, footing thickness is incremented (if needed) downwards. Fixed Bottom Bottom of Footing is fixed in this option, footing thickness is incremented (if needed) upwards. Increase in Footing Thickness reduces soil depth.

Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, Cohesion (Drained soil type) Specify a cohesion pressure, in the selected units. Undrained Shear Strength (Undrained soil type) Specify a shear strength for the soil, in the selected units. Min % of Contact Area Specify a minimum percent of footing surface area that must remain in contact with the supporting soil. This is used to limit uplift or overturning. Enter zero (0) to direct the program to skip this check. Note: If these requirements are not met, footing design is reported as failure. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for

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new Isolated Footing: Cover and Soil parameters.

Footing Geometry form (Isolated Footing)


Used to input isolated footing geometry for the current isolated footing job. Opens when Isolated Footing Job > Design Parameters > Footing Geometry is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Design Type There are two types of design one is calculate dimension another is set dimension:
l

Calculate Dimension - The footing size will be checked and resized to the smallest size which meets all specified loads; ranging between the minimum and maximum dimensions provided (inclusive). Calculate dimension is set by default. Set Dimension - then the minimum dimensions will constitute the only footing size checked. Fixed Width - The Width value is set and the length value will be optimized. Fixed Length - The Length value is set and the width value will be optimized.

Hint: Separate jobs can be created to design different footings using different design types. Minimum Length (Fl) Specify the minimum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used

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for the footing design, along with unit. Minimum Width (Fw) Specify the minimum width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Minimum Thickness (Ft) Specify the minimum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Maximum Length (Fl) (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Fw) (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Maximum Thickness (Ft) (Calculate only) Specify the maximum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Plan Dimension Inc. (Calculate only) Specify the length and width increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. This allows you control over how to step footing sizes in design results. Thickness Increment (Calculate only) Specify the thickness increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. Offset X / Z Direction (Oxd / Ozd) If the loads do not pass through the CG of the footing, specify the offset dimension in the X and Z directions (parallel to length and width, respectively), along with unit. Offsets are measured from the centroid of the foundation plan. Note: These values may be entered as negative, so the support offset can be placed in any quadrant of the isolated footing. Overturning checks for the governing direction automatically by the program. Length Width Ratio (Calculate Dimension only) Specify a plan aspect ratio to control the relative length and width of the footing design.

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For example, a value of one results in a square footing where as a value of two results in a footing twice as long along the X axis as the Z axis width. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Isolated Footing: Footing Geometry parameters.

Sliding and Overturning form (Isolated Footing)


Used to input stability safety factors for the current isolated footing job. Opens when Isolated Footing Job > Design Parameters > Sliding and Overturning is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Coefficient of Friction Specify a coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete. Factor of Safety Against Sliding Specify a factor of safety against sliding. Factor of Safety against Overturning

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Specify a factor of safety against overturning.

National Annexure form (Isolated Footing)


Used to input concrete and rebar properties for the current isolated footing job. Opens when Isolated Footing Job > Design Parameters > National Annexure is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

AlphaCC Specify the coefficient to account for the long term effects on the compressive strength of concrete and any unfavorable effects due to the method of application of external loads. CRdc Used to calculate the design shear resistance as per equation 6.2.a of the code. If not specified, a default value of 0.18/c is used. Vmin Specify a minimum shear strength value if necessary, per section 6.2.2.1 of the code. If none is provided, then the shear resistance is calculated per the equations provided in EC2. AlphaCT Specify the coefficient to account for the long term effects on the tensile

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strength of concrete and any unfavorable effects due to the method of application of external loads. fctk The characteristic axial tensile strength of concrete used in calculating development length of reinforcing bars. Min % of Steel Specify a minimum steel ratio .

Designing an isolated footing


1. Select Isolated Footing Job > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool on the Home ribbon tab. The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. When the design is complete, a summary of the design is displayed on the Isofoot Design Summary tab in the Output pane and the Calculation Sheet is opened to review the design calculations. Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

2.4.2 Pile Cap job


The Pile Cap Job group allows you to specify pile arrangement for each pile cap and design parameters and is only active for pile cap job types. The Pile Cap Job group contains the following elements: Table 2-9: Pile Cap group items Name Design Parameters Description Opens the Design Parameters form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input standard design control parameters for use in designing pile caps. Opens the Pile Cap (Predefined) form in the Data Input pane, which is used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap using a set of predefined pile layout. Using the predefined layouts, the program can auto-

Pile Layout (Predefined)

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Name

Description matically choose the best possible pile arrangement.

Pile Layout (Parametric)

Opens the Pile Cap (Parametric) form in the data input pane, which is used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap by specifying a rectangular or circular pile arrangement. Initiates the design of the current pile cap job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed.

Design

Design Parameters form (Pile Cap)


Used to input standard design control parameters for use in designing pile caps. Opens when Pile Cap Job > Design Parameters is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Side Cover (Cs) Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the sides of the pile cap reinforcement, in the selected units. Bottom Clear Cover (Cb) Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of pile cap reinforcement above the piles, in the selected units. Pile in Pile Cap (Cp) The distance from the bottom of the pile cap to the top of the piles, in the selected units. Initial Thickness 128 STAAD Foundation

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The minimum thickness used in design, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Pile Cap: Design Parameters.

Pile Layout (Predefined) form (Pile Cap)


Used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap using a set of predefined pile layout. Using the predefined layouts, the program can automatically choose the best possible pile arrangement. Opens when Pile Cap Job > Design Parameters > Concrete and Rebar is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Pile Arrangement for Support Select a support from the current job for which you would like to input pile arrangement.

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Pile Capacity The Pile Capacity group box allows you to input the forces that a pile is meant to bear. Unit Select the force unit used for Pile Capacity parameters. Lateral Specify the lateral force a pile is meant to bear. Vertical Specify the vertical force a pile is meant to bear. Uplift Specify the uplifting force a pile is meant to bear. Pile Dia Diameter of a pile, in the selected units. Spacing Spacing between piles, in the selected units. Edge Distance Distance between the edges of the pile cap and edge piles, in the selected units. Show Loading on Support Opens the Load Table for Support <#> dialog, which displays the total loading on the support for each load case selected under Support for Pile Arrangement. Pile Arrangement Type Select to have the program generate an Auto Arrangement list or to specify a Manual Arrangement in the pile arrangement table. The Pile Arrangement Type group box allows you to input the coordinates for a pile arrangement or have STAAD Foundation calculate a pile arrangement automatically. Auto Arrangement The Auto Arrangement radio option allows you to have STAAD Foundation calculate the pile arrangement. Manual Arrangement pile arrangement table

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This table displays the plan distances from the center of the column (at local origin) to the center of each pile. When the Manual Arrangement option is selected, each pile location must be manually entered. If the Auto Arrangement is selected, the table displays the local pile coordinates for the selected arrangement. Calculate When Auto Arrangement has been selected, this button opens the Predefined Pile Arrangement dialog, which is used to select one of the predefined pile arrangements selected for the specified loads, pile geometry, and pile capacity. Pile arrangements correspond to the pile loads in all the load cases according to the BOCA standard.

Delete Selected Rows Removes the selected rows from the pile arrangement table Select Arrangement Assigns the current pile arrangement for the design of the pile cap. Note: If you are using the predefined pile layout method, do not enter any values into the Pile Layout (Parametric) page. Simply click Finish. Show Pile Reactions Opens the Pile Reactions Table for Support <#>dialog for the selected support and pile arrangement.

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Load Table for Support No <#> dialog


Displays the load vectors, by load case, for a selected support. Opens when Show Loading on Support is clicked in the Pile Arrangement Predefined form.

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Pile Layout (Parametric) form (Pile Cap)


Used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap by specifying a rectangular or circular pile arrangement. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Default Properties is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Note: If a circular arrangement is chosen, the program will design an octagonal pile cap.

Pile Arrangement for Support

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Used to select a support from the current job for which you would like to input pile arrangement. Spacing selection Select to use either a Row Spacing or Column spacing for Rectangular layout. Pile Data Used to input the forces that a pile is meant to bear. Unit The Unit drop-down list box allows you to select the force unit used for Pile Capacity and length unit used for spacing, diameter, edge distance etc. Lateral Specify the lateral capacity of a pile. Vertical Specify the vertical capacity of a pile. Uplift Specify the uplifting capacity of a pile. Dia Diameter of a pile. Edge The Edge Distance field allows you to specify the distance between the edges of a pile. Arrangement Type Pile arrangement can be either rectangular or circular. Pile cap having circular arrangement will be design as octagonal pile cap. Rectangular arrangement needs following inputs,
l l l l

Number of Rows Number of Columns Row Spacing Column Spacing

By default program will create symmetric pile arrangement from the above input but user can change the default setup by editing the table below. Both row and column grid lines can be adjusted by selecting appropriate radio button. Circular arrangement needs following inputs as shown below.

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l l

Number of Piles Total number of piles, excluding the center pile (if option is selected). Number of Layers Number of concentric circles in the circular arrangement. Pile Spacing Minimum spacing between piles Use Center Pile Select this option to add a pile at center of pile arrangement.

By default, program will try to assign equal number of piles for all concentric circular layers. The arrangement can be edited using the table below. Create Pile Arrangement Creates the pile layout and opens a dialog box to display the pile coordinates table and a figure. Note: Pile coordinates in this table are editable.

Delete Row - Click to delete the current row from the pile coordinate table and figure. Select Current Arrangement Once a satisfactory pile layout has been found, click the Select Current Arrangement button to select and apply that layout. The program will check the pile reaction against pile capacity to make sure pile reactions do not exceed pile capacity values. Show Pile Reactions The Show Pile Reactions button opens a table displaying the reaction on each pile. The figure below shows the pile reaction table.

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spacing type and table Once a pile arrangement is started, the table displays the spacing for each row, column, layer, or circumference; depending on what arrangement type and table spacing type is selected.

Designing a Pile Cap


1. Select Pile Cap Job > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool in the Standard toolbar. The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. When the design is complete, a summary of the design is displayed on the Pile Cap Design Summary tab in the Output pane and the Calculation Sheet is opened to review the design calculations.

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Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

2.4.3 Mat Foundation group


Used to create mat boundary, meshing and specify analysis and design parameters to analyze and design mat slab. Mat module uses finite element analysis technique for accurate results. The modeling of mat foundations is done through physical modeling.

Note: Rectangular Mat foundation jobs can also be created quickly using the Mat Foundation Modeling wizard. The Mat foundation Job group contains following groups:

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Table 2-10: Project Info group items Group Name Default Properties Description Opens the Default Properties form in the Data Input pane, which is used to define default physical model object properties. Opens the Physical Beam table in the Data Input pane, which is used to add beams to a mat foundation for additional stiffness and load transfer. Opens the Pile Position table in the Data Input pane, which is used to input pile locations by coordinates. Opens the Rectangular Pile Arrangement parametric form in the data input pane, which is used to create rectangular pile layout by specifying arrangement parameters. Opens the Circular Pile Arrangement parametric form in the data input pane, which is used to create circular pile layout by specifying arrangement parameters.

Physical Beam table

Pile Layout

Pile Position table

Rectangular Pile Arrangement Wizard (Parametric)

Circular Pile Arrangement Wizard (Parametric)

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Group Mesh Generation

Name

Description

Add meshing Opens the Using Polyline regions >Using form in the Data Input Polyline pane, which is used to create irregularly shaped regions. Add meshing regions >Rectangular Opens the Rectangular Region form in the Data Input pane, which is used to create rectangular regions. Opens the Circular Region form in the Data Input pane, which is used to create circular regions. Opens the Regular Polygon Region form in the Data Input pane, which is to create regular shaped convex polygonal region. Opens the Meshing Setup form in the Data Input pane, which is used to organize meshing regions to define finite element boundaries and to generate meshes.

Add meshing regions >Circular Add meshing regions > Regular Polygon

Meshing Setup

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Group Analysis Properties

Name Slab Thickness

Description Opens the Slab Thickness form in the Data Input pane, which is used to change the element thickness for the plate elements in a mesh. Opens the Soil Properties form in the Data Input pane, which is used to change and assign soil properties for the design of mat foundations. Opens the Pile Spring Definition table in the Data Input pane, which is used to edit the pile spring constant values for all the piles present in the current job.

Soil Properties

Pile Spring

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Group Mat slab analysis/ design options

Name Analyze

Description Initiates the analysis of the current mat foundation job using the STAAD.Pro engine. An analyze/design confirmation dialog opens to verify you want to proceed.

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Group Output View Options

Name Opens the Output View Options form in the Data Input pane, which is used to control the display of different sets of output.

Description

Moment Envel- Opens the ope Generation Moment Envelope Generation form in the Data Input pane, which is used to choose longitudinal reinforcement directions and a generate moment envelope. Design Parameters Opens the Design Parameters form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input design parameters, design current panel and review design results. Opens the Reinforcing User Manual 143

Reinforcing Zoning

Group

Name Zoning form in the Data Input pane, which is used to .

Description

Cut slab by a line

Opens the Cut Slab by a Line form in the Data Input pane, which is used to draw a stress diagram along a specified section line and then design slab along that line.

Moment Capac- Opens the ity Check Moment Capacity Check form in the Data Input pane, which is used to check the capacity of existing mat slab.

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Group Calculation Sheet

Name Displays the calculation sheet in the main view window, which is used to review design steps, analysis results and load values. (US and Indian codes only) Opens the STAAD Foundation Export to Excel file dialog, which is used to save the design output for the mat foundation job in a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel XML file format, with an .xml file extension).

Description

Detailed Output

Mesh Generation
As Mat foundation module is based on FEA analysis, program needs to generate plate elements. STAAD Foundation has automatic mesh generation tools and it can generate both quadrilateral and triangular mesh for any shape and size. Mesh regions are used to create mat boundaries, holes, control regions etc.

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Note: Any shape of pedestal can be generated using control regions. Although pedestal reinforcement (vertical reinforcement) for mat foundation is not reported by the program.

Delete a mat region


If the mat region has been defined as a boundary, hole, or control region, you must first delete this definition from the Meshing Setup form. 1. Click the Select Mat Boundary/Region tool in the Select toolbar.

Hint: Mat Regions can be selected using the default pointer, but this tool limits the selection to only boundaries or regions, reducing the likelihood of accidental deletions of other model elements. 2. Click anywhere along the boundary edge of the region you want to delete. The regions is highlighted in red. 3. Click the Delete tool in the Standard toolbar. or Press the [Delete] key. An delete confirmation dialog opens to verify you want to proceed. 4. Click Yes. Warning: This action may not be undone.

Slab Design
Slab design of a mat foundation is performed using the following Main Navigation pane entries:
l l l

Moment Envelope Generation Design Parameters Reinforcing Zoning

Note: Punching shear is checked automatically and reported in the Calculation Sheet. One way shear is not checked by the program.

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Default Properties form (Mat Foundation)


Used to define default physical model object properties. The STAAD.foundation mat foundation module is based on physical modeling environment. So, whenever a physical entity is created, properties associated with that entity will also be created. For example if we create a mat boundary, properties like slab thickness and soil properties will also be created and associated to the newly created boundary automatically. While creating these properties STAAD.foundation takes advantage of default properties setup options. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Default Properties is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Slab analysis thickness This thickness will be used during the slab FEA analysis. This parameter can have its own unit. This property is especially useful if we you want to simulate pedestal etc. for stiffness analysis but use the actual slab thickness for design. This can also be used to input uncracked thickness for analysis. Slab design thickness This thickness will be used during slab design. This parameter can have

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its own unit. This property is especially useful if we you want to simulate pedestal etc. for stiffness analysis but use the actual slab thickness for design. This can also be used to input cracked thickness for slab design. Subgrade modulus Subgrade modulus is a soil property available from geotechnical report. Program uses this value to calculate spring stiffness under each support node by multiplying this value with the nodal tributary area. Beam sectional property This property will be used to define cross sectional property of the physical beams added to mat foundation. Current version of the program can only have rectangular property. Pile spring values If the mat is supported by piles you need to create pile layout by adding piles to mat foundation. Program uses pile as spring support for analysis. So, program needs to know spring constant for those pile supports. Ky represents vertical spring constant. Kx and Kz represent lateral spring constants for respecting X and Z direction.

Physical beam table (Mat Foundation)


Used to add beams to a mat foundation for additional stiffness and load transfer. These are referred to as "Physical" beams because you provide model input as they would physically be constructed. The program will internally decompose these physical beams in analytical entities for the model. Physical beams are created between two support nodes. As you enter two support nodes a physical beam will be created and the default beam sectional property as set in Default Properties form is assigned. Those values can be edited as required. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Physical Beam table is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Note: The input unit for cross sectional property is displayed in the column heading. The length unit can be changed by selecting the Set Input/Output Units tool in the Standard toolbar.

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After adding a beam the beam will be displayed in main view area.

Pile Position table (Mat Foundation)


Used to add piles by specifying their (x,y,z) coordinates. As many piles as needed can be added to a mat foundation job. Whenever a new pile is created, the program will automatically create default spring values for that pile. Newly created pile will be displayed in graphics view. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Pile Layout > Pile Position table is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Hint: When pasting pile position data from an external source (such as a spreadsheet file), the piles can be arranged according to the pile group to simplify pile properties assignment.

Rectangular Pile Arrangement Parametric form (Mat Foundation)


Used to create rectangular pile layout by specifying arrangement parameters.

Unit Select the length Unit for used for pile row and column spacing. Number of Rows

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Specify the number of rows (piles in a line in the X direction) in the pile arrangement. Number of Columns Specify the number of columns (piles in a line in the Y direction) in the pile arrangement. Row Spacing Minimum spacing between two piles in the same row, in the selected length Unit. Column Spacing Minimum spacing between two piles in the same column, in the selected length Unit. Pile Table By default program will create symmetric pile arrangement from the above input. Select either Row Spacing or Column Spacing to display in the table. The first column represents either the Row or Column number and the second column displays the spacing between that row/column and the next. Origin X / Y / Z Generated pile coordinates will be in local coordinate system where first pile is at 0,0,0 position. You need to move pile group to the right location by inputting Origin X, Origin Y and Origin Z. Apply Transfers pile layout to graphics and add to the current mat foundation job. Please do remember to input appropriate origin coordinates to move the whole pile group to the right position.

Circular Pile Arrangement Parametric form (Mat Foundation)


Used to create circular pile layout. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Pile Layout > is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Unit Select the length Unit for used for pile spacing. Number of Piles Total number of piles in pile group. Number of Circular layers Number of concentric circular pile layers. Pile Spacing Minimum spacing between two piles, in the selected length Unit. Pile Table Displays the spacing values used between concentric pile layers. Each row represents a layer number and the number of piles within that layer. The program will try to evenly divide the total Number of Piles to all the layers. Edit these fields to redistribute the piles.

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Center Piles Select this option to add a pile at the center of the circle (coordinate 0,0,0). If you check this box program will automatically add an extra piles to the total count of number of piles. By default program will create symmetric pile arrangement from the above input. It will attempt to place equal number of piles to all layers. It will create an additional layer for the remainder of piles. User can change the default setup by editing the layers table as shown below. Origin X / Y / Z Generated pile coordinates will be in local coordinate system where center of the circle is at 0,0,0 position. You need to move pile group to the right location by inputting Origin X, Origin Y and Origin Z. Apply Transfers pile layout to graphics and add to the current mat foundation job. Please do remember to input appropriate origin coordinates to move the whole pile group to the right position.

Add Meshing Region > Using Polyline form (Mat Foundation)


Used to create irregularly shaped regions, which can be used to represent slab edges in the Meshing Setup. Opens when Mat Foundation job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing Region > Using Polyline is selected. Note: Polyline regions may be drawn in graphically using the Mat Boundary by Polyline tool, found in the Select toolbar.

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No. of Boundary Points The number of vertices in the polyline boundary. Generate Table Populates the table with a number of rows equal to the No. of Boundary Points specified. Unit Select a unit of length for all coordinates in the table. Polyline coordinates table Each row represents a polyline vertex. The X,Y, and Z coordinates for each poly line vertex. Note that coordinates should be specified in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction to prevent the polyline from crossing itself (which will in turn produce an error during meshing). Add Region Creates a meshing region in the job. The new region will be displayed in a light blue outline in the View window. Create a mesh region using the polyline vertex coordinates 1. Select Mat Foundation job >Mesh Generation>Add Meshing Region >Using Polyline in the Main Navigation pane. 2. Specify the No. of Boundary Points (polyline vertices). 3. Click the Generate Table button. The table is populated with a number of rows equal to the number of boundary points specified. 4. Specify a unit of length to be used for coordinate values. 154 STAAD Foundation

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5. Enter the coordinate values in the Polyline vertex coordinates table. Note: Data in the table can be pasted from Microsoft Excel. 6. Click the Add Region button. The boundary region is added in the View window. Draw a mesh region using the Polyline tool 1. Click the Mat Boundary by Polyline tool in the Select toolbar. The mouse pointer changes to the Polyline tool pointer. 2. Click the first vertex of the polygon. A line is "rubber banded" to the initial point from your mouse pointer. This indicates the potential new region edge for the subsequent point. At times, this will also jump to key points (such as supports) to ensure they are enclosed. Clicked points will override this behavior. 3. Click, in sequence, on the points on the grid going in either a clockwise or a counter-clockwise order. Hint: Only linear or radial grid points may be selected. 4. Once you have clicked on all the points that define the boundary of your slab, return to your starting point or right-click.

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Add Meshing Region > Add Rectangular Region form (Mat Foundation)
Used to create rectangular regions, which can be used to represent slab edges in the Meshing Setup. Opens when Mat Foundation job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing Region > Add Rectangular Region is selected. Note: Rectangular regions may be drawn in graphically using the Create Rectangular Mat Boundary tool, found in the Select toolbar. Note: Rectangular Mat foundation jobs can also be created quickly using the Mat Foundation Modeling wizard.

Unit Select a unit of length for all coordinates and lengths. X / Z Coordinate at Top left corner Specify coordinates for X1,Z1, which is the top-left corner of the rectangle when viewed in plan (View From Top in the Trans Rotate toolbar). This locates the rectangular region in plan. Length / Width Specify the length (rectangle dimension parallel to the X axis) and width

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(rectangle dimension parallel to the Z axis) to define the size of the rectangular region. Y Level Specify an elevation (Y coordinate for all points in the rectangular region). Add Region Creates a meshing region in the job. The new region will be displayed in a light blue outline in the View window. Create a rectangular mesh region parametrically 1. Select Mat Foundation job >Mesh Generation>Add Meshing Region >Add Rectangular Region in the Main Navigation pane. 2. Specify a unit of length to be used for coordinate and length values. 3. Specify X and Z coordinates of the top left corner (in plan). 1 1 4. Specify a Length and Width of the rectangular region. 5. Specify an elevation of the rectangular region. Hint: This is typically left as zero for most jobs. 6. Click the Add Region button. The boundary region is added in the View window. Draw a rectangular mesh region 1. Click the Create Rectangular Mat Boundary tool in the Select toolbar. The mouse pointer changes to the Rectangle tool pointer. 2. Click the first vertex of the rectangle and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is "rubber banded" to the initial point from your mouse pointer. This indicates the potential new region edge for the subsequent point. Hint: Only linear or radial grid points may be selected. 3. Drag the mouse diagonally to the furthest corner of the rectangle.

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4. Release the mouse button over the second point.

Add Meshing Region >Circular Boundary form (Mat Foundation)


Used to create circular regions, which can be used to represent slab edges in the Meshing Setup. Opens when Mat Foundation job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing Region > Add Circular Region is selected. Note: Circular regions may be drawn in graphically using the Create Circular Mat Boundary tool, found in the Select toolbar.

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Unit Select a unit of length for all coordinates and lengths. X / Z Coordinate at center Specify coordinates for X,Z, which is the center of the circular region when viewed in plan (View From Top in the Trans Rotate toolbar). This locates the circular region in plan. Radius Specify the radius to define the size of the circular region. Y Level Specify an elevation (Y coordinate for all points in the circular region). Add Region Creates a meshing region in the job. The new region will be displayed in a light blue outline in the View window. Create a circular mesh region parametrically 1. Select Mat Foundation job >Mesh Generation>Add Meshing Region >Add Circular Region in the Main Navigation pane. 2. Specify a unit of length to be used for coordinate and length values. 3. Specify the X and Z coordinates of the center (in plan). 4. Specify a radius of the circular region. 5. Specify an elevation of the circular region. Hint: This is typically left as zero for most jobs. 6. Click the Add Region button. The boundary region is added in the View window. Draw a circular mesh region 1. Click the Create Circular Mat Boundary tool in the Select toolbar.

The mouse pointer changes to the Circle tool pointer. 2. Click the center of the circle and hold down the left mouse button. A circle is "rubber banded" to the initial point from your mouse pointer. This indicates the potential new region edge for the subsequent point.

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Hint: Only linear or radial grid points may be selected. 3. Drag the mouse to a grid point to define the edge of the circle. 4. Release the mouse button over the second point.

Add Meshing Region >Regular Polygon form (Mat Foundation)


Used to create regular shaped convex polygonal regions, which can be used to represent slab edges in the Meshing Setup. Opens when Mat Foundation job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing Region > Regular Polygon is selected.

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Center X / Y / Z Specify coordinates for X and Z, which are the center of the polygon when viewed in plan (View From Top in the Trans Rotate toolbar). This locates the rectangular region in plan. The Y coordinate is to specify an elevation of the polygon. Input in the default length units. Radius Circular radius of the polygon where radius is the distance measured between center and each vertex of the polygon. Input in the default length units. Number of Sides Number of polygon sides. For example enter 8 for an octagonal shaped polygon. Orientation Angle Rotation angle of the polygon. Enter in a value directly or use the up/down arrows to increment the value in the field. Generate

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Creates a preview of the polygon for display in the Region Preview area below. Add Region Creates a meshing region in the job. The new region will be displayed in a light blue outline in the View window. Create a regular polygon mesh region parametrically 1. Select Mat Foundation job >Mesh Generation>Add Meshing Region >Regular Polygon in the Main Navigation pane. 2. Specify X and Z coordinates of the center (in plan). 3. (Optional) Specify a Y coordinate if the region will be added a different elevation. 4. Specify a radius of the regular polygon region. 5. Specify the Number of Sides of the regular polygon region. 6. (Optional) Specify an orientation angle if the regular polygon is rotated. 7. Click Generate. The boundary region is displayed in the Region Preview. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to make changes, if needed. 8. Click Add Region. The boundary region is added in the View window.

Meshing Setup (Mat Foundation)


Used to organize meshing regions to define finite element boundaries and to generate meshes. Regions of any shape can be used for generating mat boundaries, holes, or control regions. Moment generated due to local stresses (such as reentrant corners) is considered for reinforcement design, corner and hole reinforcement detailing can be done through zones.

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Meshing Setup tree This tree displays the hierarchy of all regions which have been added as boundaries, holes, or control regions. Region types
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Boundary - Add region as the main mat boundary. It is the outermost region of the mat foundation. You can have as many boundaries as needed. Boundaries can be connected or isolated. Hole- Specify a hole within a mat boundary. You can add as many holes as needed. Please note, holes must not intersect each other or the boundary or any control region. Control Region - Specify a special region within a mat boundary which might have a different slab thickness or soil property. You can add as many control regions as needed. Please note, these regions must not intersect each other or the boundary or any hole.

Region identifier It is a unique identifier of the region to be added. Any string can be used. Add Click on this button to add the selected region in the main view to the current job Select Boundary

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Select the boundary to which the hole or control region will be added. This option will be active only when the region type will be selected as Hole or Control Region. Target maximum element size Its the size of one side of a plate element to be created. This parameter will be used by mesh generation engine to generate plates. This option allows you to control meshing density and plate counts which in turn control analysis run time and output size. Optimize based on area (Triangular only) Select to have the program use an optimization technique based on area. By default, program optimize meshing based on element size. Generate Mesh Opens the Meshing Options dialog, which is used to generate mesh of the selected bounding region. Edit Selected Region Opens the Edit Meshing region dialog. Delete Selected Region Removes the selected region from the meshing setup tree. Add a meshing region in to the Meshing Setup tree 1. Select that region to be added in the View window. The region is highlighted in red.

2. Select the type of region to use. 3. Specify a unique Region Identifier to use for the new mesh region. 4. (Hole or Control Region) Select the previously defined boundary name into which the Hole or Control Region will be add. 5. Specify a target maximum element size (with units).

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6. Select to optimize the meshing for area. 7. Click the Add button. Generate a mesh for a boundary region 1. Select the previously defined boundary name in the meshing setup tree. 2. Specify a Target maximum element size in the selected units. 3. (Option) Select to Optimize based on area if you want to use area in lieu of element size for optimization. 4. Click the Generate Mesh button. The Meshing Options dialog opens. 5. Select the finite element shape and other options you wish the meshing engine to use. 6. Click OK to generate a mesh for the selected boundary. The mesh is displayed in the Graphics window.

Edit a boundary region geometry 1. Select a previously defined boundary, hole, or control region in the meshing setup tree. 2. Click the Edit Selected Region button. The Edit Meshing Region dialog opens. 3. Make any needed changes to the region geometry. 4. Click the OK button.

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Delete a boundary region from the meshing setup tree 1. Select a previously defined boundary, hole, or control region in the meshing setup tree. 2. Click the Delete Selected Region button. The selected region is removed from the meshing setup tree. Warning: This operation cannot be undone and there is no confirmation dialog.

Meshing Options dialog


Used to control to the automated finite element mesh generator for mat foundation boundary regions. Opens when Generate Mesh is clicking in the Meshing Setup form.

Meshing shape A Quadrilateral Mesh works well for slabs with quadrilateral boundaries and when there is no hole or control region. A Polygonal Mesh is the better choice for slabs with irregular shapes, like a Y-shaped slab, or slabs with round holes, irregular-shaped holes, round edges, etc.
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Quadrilateral Meshing Mixed Quad and Triangle Meshing Triangular Meshing -

Create node at column support positions This option sets a control point at supports, ensuring that a node will be located there. Although it is not mandatory to create a node below

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support, program smartly distributes support loading on plates corner based on location of support on the plate. Optimization level Select a level for engine optimization (from 1 to 10), which is used to control how precise meshing setup needs to be. Higher optimization level implies program will try to precise the mesh with higher number of iterations. For larger mats higher optimization level will lead to substantially large computer processing time. Internal nodes spacing factor Also used to control plate size. Internal Nodes Spacing Factor is inversely proportional to node density inside the mesh. OK Sets the meshing options and generates the finite element mesh for the selected Cancel Closes the dialog without generating a new mesh.

Edit Meshing Region dialog


Used to edit the geometry for a meshing region. Opens when the Edit Selected Region button is clicked in the Meshing Setup form.

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Unit Select a length unit to be used for all dimensions. Region geometry table This table displays the geometry parameters (coordinates, lengths, etc.) for the selected region. OK Update the selected region's geometry and close the dialog. Cancel Closes the dialog without making any changes.

Analysis Properties >Slab Thickness form (Mat Foundation)


Used to change the element thickness for the plate elements in a mesh you are using to model a mat foundation. As slab is added as a physical entity in STAAD Foundation, default slab thickness property will be automatically created and assigned to each slab region. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Analysis Properties > Slab Thickness is selected.

The first row of the table is to select unit for thickness. You can have only one unit for all slab thickness. Second row onwards will be list of slab thickness properties. Left most cells of each row will show the region identifier name as specified in Meshing Setup operation. STAAD.foundation allows you to use different thickness for analysis and design. Analysis thickness will be used for FEM analysis of mat foundation and design thickness will be used to design the mat slab. This is particularly important in modeling a pedestal, where you may want to use excess thickness for stiffness modeling but want to use slab thickness for design.

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Analysis Properties >Soil Property form (Mat Foundation)


Used to change and assign soil properties for the design of mat foundations. Each soil boundary region can have different soil support properties or support a different height of soil above using the table in this form. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Analysis Properties > Soil Property is selected.

As slab is added as a physical entity in STAAD.foundation, default soil property will be automatically created for each slab region. But by default soil property will not be assigned to the region as the mat foundation could be supported on piles only. Note: For foundation on soil, the soil is assumed elastic with the specified modulus of elasticity. Density Provide a density value. This is used to calculated weight for soil above the mat which acts as dead weight. Use Soil Spring If the soil spring is not assigned to the region, value for subgrade modules will be shown in red. Select this option to include soil spring and to assign the soil property to the region. If selected, the value for subgrade modulus will be shown in blue color. Soil Height Specify a height of soil above the mat foundation to be considered as dead weight.

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Analysis Properties >Pile Spring Definition table(Mat Foundation)


Used to edit the pile spring constant values for all the piles present in the current job. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Analysis Properties > Pile Spring is selected.

Pile The number of the pile. Kx Spring constant K value for the X-Direction. Ky Spring constant K value for the Y-Direction. Kz Spring constant K value for the Z-Direction.

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Analyze (Mat Foundation)


Initiates an analysis of the a mat foundation. All data relevant to performing an analysis, including slab boundary, plate thickness and soil properties, must be entered prior to selecting this command, otherwise you will not obtain a successful analysis. After successful analysis, program will convert analytical results to physical entity based results to allow user to review output and design slab. To analyze a mat foundation job 1. Select Mat Foundation Job > Mat slab analysis/design options > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool in the Standard toolbar. The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. The program will launch the analysis engine to perform the FEManalysis.

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When the analysis is complete, a number of results tables are displayed in tabs in the Output pane. The main view window Geometry page will display the deformed shape of the mat.

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Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

Output View Options form (Mat Foundation)


Used to control the display of different sets of output like displacement diagrams, soil pressure contour, plate stress contour etc. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Mat slab Analysis/ design options > Output View Options is selected.

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Show Nodal Displacement Select this option to show displacement diagram for current load case in graphic area. The color picker control next to this check box allows user to select a suitable color to be used to draw the displacement diagram. Use Average Normal This option is used to draw 3D displacement diagram where lighting will be applied to the average normal direction. Show Beam Displacement Selecting this option will allow user to draw beam displacement diagram if present in current job. The color picker control at right side of this checkbox allows user to choose a suitable color which will be used to draw beam displacement diagram. Drawing options Displacement diagrams can be drawn as wireframe or as a true 3D solid diagram. Draw line diagram option will draw a wireframe diagram of the displaced shape. Draw 3D diagram will draw plates and beam displacements as 3D solid diagram. Stress Contour There are three types of contours available:

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Plate Stress Beam Stress Soil Pressure

If you select Show Plate Stress contour, Select Stress Type drop down box will be enabled allowing you to choose stress type to display. By default program shows stress type as None. Two categories of plate stress contours are available. One set displays contour for plate local axis system and the other set shows global plate moment. Local stresses are:
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Max Absolute Max Top Max Bottom Max Von Mis Max Von Mis Top Max Von Mis Bottom SX SY SXY MX MY MXY SQX SQY

Global moments are available for both MX and MZ. After selecting suitable stress type program will display contour in graphics window along with a legend.

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Show Soil Pressure If you choose stress contour type as Show Soil Pressure, program will display soil pressure contour for the selected load case along with a legend. Note: Soil pressure values are directly related to soil bearing capacity. If the maximum pressure exceeds soil bearing capacity you need to increase mat dimension and run the analysis again. Base pressure for each node is calculated dividing the reaction of a plate node by the tributary area of that node.

Show Beam Stress This option is available only if the mat foundation includes physical beams. After selecting show beam stress, Select Stress Type under beam

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stress setup group will be enabled. Select any stress type to view the contour along with a legend. Available beam stress types are:
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Axial stress Bending Y stress Bending Z stress Combined stress

Show Legend Use this option to switch on/off legend display Plot contour on deflected shape Select this option to draw stress contour on the deflected shape.

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Moment Envelope Generation form(Mat Foundation)


Used to choose longitudinal reinforcement directions and a generate moment envelope. Please note, longitudinal axis is a vector direction. Mat slab is a physical entity in STAAD.foundation, so to design the slab, program uses a unique technique. It first divides the slab into finite number of discrete points and then calculates stress on those nodes to create moment envelope. Please note that program automatically transforms stresses to the specified longitudinal direction. To generate moment envelope you first need to define longitudinal reinforcement direction. You can define X,Z coordinate to define an axis or click on any two points on the screen.

Select Current Panel If you have multiple boundaries you need to choose current panel to be designed. By default program selects the first created boundary. Longitudinal Axis Setup There are two methods to define the longitudinal axis. You can setup the axis either by defining two X,Z coordinates or by clicking on two points on the screen.

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By drawing a line on slab Select this option to click on two points on the screen to define longitudinal axis. Once the first point is clicked program will draw a line from the first point to the mouse point to show the axis. After second point is clicked on the screen, program will calculate the X,Z coordinates of those points and fill up the form start and end coordinates. By specifying coordinates Select this option to input X,Z coordinates of the start and end points of the axis. By default program shows a global X axis as longitudinal axis. Division along longitudinal axis Number of slab divisions along longitudinal axis. It must be a positive number. Program uses 60 divisions as default value. Division along transverse axis Number of slab divisions along transverse axis. It must be a positive number. Program uses 60 divisions as default value. Select load type Shear and reinforcement design for foundation are done only for ultimate (factored) load combinations. User has the option here to choose only load cases defined as ultimate or all load cases assigned to the current job. Generate Moment envelope Creates a grid and calculates the moment envelope on the grid intersection points.

Design Parameters form (Mat Foundation)


Used to input design parameters, design current panel and review design results. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Mat slab Analysis/ design options > Design Parameters is selected.

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Grades:Fy Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ), in the selected y units. Grades:Fc Specify the ultimate (crushing)strength of the concrete (f' ), in the selected c units. Top Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the top-most layer of mat reinforcement, in the selected units. Bottom Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of mat reinforcement, in the selected units. Min. / Max. bar size Minimum and maximum rebar size to be used. Max. / Min. spacing Maximum and minimum rebar spacing, respectively, in the selected units.

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Consider Wood and Armer moments Select this option to consider Mxy moment to design the slab. This is a method published by Wood and Armer where Mxy moment is transformed to Mx and My moment. Ignore check for minimum reinforcement Instructs the program to design the slab without considering check for minimum reinforcement Design Initiates the design of the slab. When the design operation is completed, a message box will appear. Result summary Open a table which will show maximum reinforcement requirement condition for all slab faces and direction. The table shows four rows for longitudinal top, longitudinal bottom, transverse top and transverse bottom reinforcement requirement. Details report Opens the Mat Slab Design dialog, which is used to .

Mat Slab Design dialog


Used to add design parameters for specific locations in the slab for both moment design and punching shear. It lists all the grid points created to design the slab. It shows X,Y,Z coordinates for each point, moment for that face and direction and the corresponding reinforcement requirements. Opens when the Details Report button is clicked on the mat foundation job Design Parameters form.

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Reinforcing Zoning form (Mat foundation)


As design is performed on thousands of points it will be tedious to go through all those numbers and create a reinforcement layout. STAAD Foundation has a tool to create reinforcement zones much like a reinforcement contour plot. The number of zones may be specified but, by default, the program use three zones. The program will attempt to select appropriate reinforcing zones automatically. This can be overridden using the controls in this form.

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Choose Slab Face Select the required slab face from drop down list. Reinforcement zoning is done for one face at a time. So this step needs to be repeated four times to detail both faces in both directions. Upon completion of a successful design, the reinforcement calculations will be available in the calculation sheet if Reinforcement Zoning is performed for a particular face. Preferred Zone Reinforcement Count Specify how many different sizes of reinforcing steel bars (rebar) you want the program to allow in the slab design. The program divides the slab into the number of zones you designate. Each zone will contain only one size of reinforcing steel. Note: If a minimum reinforcement criterion is needed for the entire mat, mat reinforcement is categorized in single zone irrespective of the preferred zone reinforcement count selected. Create Zone Click this button to create the number of reinforcing zones specified by the Preferred Zone Reinforcement Count number. For example, the following figure shows how the display might appear when three zones are created.

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A colored dot in the center of each mesh element indicates the reinforcing zone to which that element belongs. Reinforcement detail for each zone is displayed at top left corner of Geometry view. Zones created by the program are based on real time stresses subjected on mat. For practical zoning layout, refer to Zone Editing. Create Block Click this button to divide the slab into block-shaped areas, based on the reinforcement zones generated using the Create Zones button. These rectangular areas are created to allow a practical layout of the various sizes of reinforcing steel.

Zone Report

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Provides reinforcement details for all zones for a particular Slab Face. First Column displays number of zones assigned, reference to zone number and color code can be seen at top left corner of Geometry view. Second column displays maximum moment (in per length unit) magnitude occurred in the zone. Third column displays critical load case for the maximum moment, each zone might have a different governing load case. Fourth and fifth column displays location of maximum moment. Sixth column displays critical reinforcement area required for particular zone, followed by seventh column displaying reinforcement area provided. Eighth column shows actual reinforcement detail. View Options Used to view zoning based on requirement reinforcement area or provided reinforcement area. Further user can see the grid line used for zoning, zoning block from Show drop down menu. By default Show menu is set to control Nodes. Zone Editing Used to customize the zones per their needs. As mentioned in Create Zones help menu, automated zone generated by program are based on real time stresses. Practical zone assignment is possible through this feature. From Current Zone Drop down box, select a zone that needs to be reset. Click on Select Nodes button, then select control points from geometry view which needs to be assigned under the current zone. Once selection is done, click on Reset Zones button. This process does not disturb the nodes which were outside of selection. To create detached blocks in same zone, repeat Zone Editing process for all blocks individually.

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In above sketch, blue zone is set in two different blocks; this type of zoning can be achieved by selecting left upper small block first then resetting zones and selecting the right block later and resetting zones one more time. Lock Higher Zone check box makes sure that when zones are reset, lower reinforcement zone does not overwrite higher reinforcement zone. By disabling the check box, higher zones can be overwritten by lower zones.

Cut Slab by a Line form (Mat Foundation)


Used to draw a stress diagram along a specified section line and then design slab along that line. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Mat slab Analysis/ design options > Cut Slab by a line is selected.

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Slab cut options The cut line or the line on the slab can be drawn either by inputting two coordinates or by clicking at two points on the screen.
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By drawing a line on slab - Using this option will allow user to draw a line in the graphics by clicking on two points. Click on first point and then stretch the line to next point and click again. It will transfer coordinates of those two points to the form under start and end points. By specifying coordinates - Input the Starting X, Starting Z, Ending X, and Ending Z coordinate values.

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Graph Scale Factor Changes the vertical exaggeration factor of the stress diagram in the View window. Stress Type Select the type of plate stress you want to view graphed along the cut line. Insert a new Cut Line Click to display the stress values along the cut line in the View window.

Cut line list Displays all cut lines for the current mat foundation job. Select one of these to design the reinforcing steel perpendicular to the cut line. Design Selected Line Opens the Design Report Along a Cut Line dialog, which is used for designing bending reinforcement perpendicular to a cut line.

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To delete a cut line 1. Select the entry in the Cut line list for the cut line you want to delete. 2. Press the Delete key.

Design Report Along a Cut Line dialog box


Used to perform and review the reinforced concrete design for a mat foundation slab section. Opens when the Design Selected Line button is clicked in the Cut Slab by a Line form.

Select Graph Type

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Moment Envelope Req'd Reinforcement Area - Only available after a design has been performed on the cut line.

Moment Envelope:Wood and Armer

Set Design Parameters Opens the Design Parameters dialog (Mat Foundation slab design), which is used to input and verify the reinforced concrete design parameters. Design Calculates the required reinforcement area for each element along the cut line. The graph type is then changed to Reqd. Reinforcement Area. Design for Ultimate load type only Select this option to limit the design for factored loads only. Moment graph and table

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Displays a graphical and tabular representation of the selected Graph Type. Print Opens the Print dialog, which is used to print the graph and table for the current required reinforcement area results. Close Closes the dialog.

Moment Capacity Check form (Mat Foundation)


Used to check the capacity of existing mat slab. This form is used to to define reinforcement layout and program calculates moment capacity of the slab based on slab thickness, covers, reinforcement layout etc. You can plot capacity diagram, actual moment diagram and then compare those two diagrams and plot failure (or unity check) diagram. If at any portion of the slab, actual moment is more than the moment capacity, program will identify that portion with red color and plot failure diagram as shown below. Opens when Mat Foundation Job > Mat slab Analysis/ design options > Moment Capacity Check is selected.

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Grades:Fy Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ), in the selected y units. Grades:Fc Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f' ), in the selected units. c Top Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the top-most layer of mat reinforcement, in the selected units. Bottom Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of mat reinforcement, in the selected units. Bar Size Specify a reinforcing bar size to use for the capacity check. Spacing Specify a reinforcing bar center-to-center spacing, in the selected units. Choose Slab Face This check must be performed for one slab face at a time. So, for all four faces the check should be performed for four times. Plot Capacity Diagram A two-dimensional Moment Capacity graph is displayed over the surface of the mat. The legend indicates values of moment capacity by color.

Plot Moment Diagram Moment Capacity diagram plot for Longitudinal Top, actual moment diagram plot for Longitudinal Top

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Plot Failure Diagram Displays the graphical results of a unity check, where green indicates OK (passes check) and red indicates No Good (fails check).

Mat Foundation - Output Tables


Once a mat foundation job has been successfully analyzed, a series of additional tabs will be added to the Output pane. Each tab includes a table of results for the analysis.

Displacement tab
Used to view node displacement table for all nodes for current load case as

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selected in the current load case in the Standard toolbar. Note: Clicking on any row of the table will highlight that node in the graphics. The Show Nodes option must be toggled on in the Modeling View Options form.

Disp Summary tab


Used to view node displacement summary table among all load cases. Displays 12 rows where each row shows either maximum or minimum value for a particular degree of freedom. It also displays corresponding displacement values for other degrees of freedom on that row. The table first lists three translational degrees of freedom and then three rotational degrees of freedom. First row of each degree of freedom starts with maximum value. Please note, here minimum and maximum are algebraic signed values.

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Reaction tab
Used to review support reaction results. This option is available only if the mat is supported on soil. In case of mat supported by soil each plate node of the mat region will have one soil spring attached to it. Reaction tab shows support reactions for current job for current load case only. Please select your desired load case from Select Current Load icon in toolbar. The table shows reactions for all six degree of freedom for all nodes. Clicking on any row will highlight the corresponding node in graphics.

Reaction Summary tab


Used to review support reaction summary results. This option is available only if the mat is supported on soil. Reaction summary table displays maximum and minimum reaction forces for all directions among all load cases. Each row displays either a maximum or minimum value of a particular DOF along with node and load case number. Clicking on any row will highlight corresponding node in the graphics.

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Contact Area tab


Used to review slab and soil contact information. The table displays area in contact and area out of contact with the soil for each load case. This option is available only for Mat slab supported by soil.

Note: Stability checks for rigid foundations is done automatically, for any shape of mat foundation. In case of overturning check, program gives contact area summary based on which stability of mat can be determined. And for sliding resistance, program gives reaction summary in lateral direction which further can be used for sliding check.

Pile Reaction tab


Used to review reaction forces on all piles present in current job. Piles are treated as spring support where all rotational degrees are released. So, the table displays three translational reactions for each pile. Note: The Pile Reaction tab only appears in the Output pane if the analyzed mat foundation job is supported on piles.

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Pile Reaction Summary tab


Note: The Pile Reaction Summary tab only appears in the Output pane if the analyzed mat foundation job is supported on piles.

Plate Stress tab


Click on Plate Stress tab to open plate stress table. It displays 8 basic stress types for current load case. The stress types are
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SQX SQY SX SY SXY MX MY MXY

These stresses are based on plate local coordinate system. During slab design program will automatically transform these local stresses to global axes system.

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Plate Stress Summary tab


Displays minimum and maximum stress of all stress types among all load cases along with plate and load number.

2.4.4 Combined Footing


Used to create a combined footing with two supports or a strip footing with more than two supports.

The Combined Footing group contains the following items: Table 2-11: Combined Footing group items Name Concrete & Rebar Description Opens the Concrete and Rebar form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input concrete and rebar properties for the current isolated footing job.

Cover, Soil, and Opens the Cover, Soil, and Safety form in Safety the Data Input pane, which is used to input cover parameters, soil characteristics, and factor of safety values.

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Name

Description

Footing Geome- Opens the Footing and Geometry form in try the data input pane, which is used to input isolated footing geometry for the current isolated footing job. Design Initiates the design of the current isolated footing job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed.

To create a combined footing job


1. Create two or more linear supports and add support loads.

2. Select Job Setup >Create a New Job in the Main Navigation pane. 3. In the Job Info form: a. Give a suitable Job Name. b. Select Job Type as Combined. c. Select a Design Code and Default Unit Type. d. Select which supports will be included in the Combined Footing job. Note: At least two supports are required to create a combined footing. e. Select loads to for the Selected Load Case list. 4. Click Create Job.

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Some additional controls are added to the Job Info form for creating strip footings between support nodes.

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To create a combined footing


1. (Optional) If the Job Info form is not displayed in the Data Input pane, select Job Setup >Edit Current Job in the Main Navigation pane. 2. Select the supports in the View window: Geometry tab by clicking and dragging the mouse to form a box around the supports you want to include.

The selected supports are highlighted in the View window.

3. Click Create from Selected Nodes in the Job Setup form. A tree view of the combined footing with included supports is displayed.

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The strip footing is shown graphically connecting the included supports in the View window.

Note: Multiple supports must be collinear to become a part of a combined footing. An error will be displayed if you attempt to create a combined footing from non-collinear supports. No combined footing will be created.

To delete a combined footing


Select the footing from the tree, click on Delete. Deletion of support from a combined footing is not allowed. You need to recreate the combined footing to edit it. This will generate the following error message.

Delete All To delete all the combined footing at a click, simply click on Delete All button.

Concrete and Rebar form (Combined footing)


Used to specify concrete and reinforcement bar to be used for the design of a combined footing. Opens when Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Concrete and Rebar is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be

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used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the appropriate bar sizes used in the selected Design Code. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Concrete and Rebar parameters.

Cover, Soil, and Safety form (Combined footing)


Used to input cover parameters, soil characteristics, and factor of safety values. Opens when Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Cover, Soil, and Safety is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

Pedestal Clear Clover

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Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the pedestal reinforcement, in the selected units. Footing Clear Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Above Footing Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, leave this value blank. Factor of Safety against Overturning Specify a factor of safety against overturning. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Cover, Soil, and Safety parameters.

Footing Geometry form (Combined footing)


Used to input the geometrical parameter used for design. Opens when Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Footing Geometry is selected in the Main Navigator pane.

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Design Type There are two types of design one is calculate dimension another is set dimension:
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Calculate Dimension - The footing size will be checked and resized to the smallest size which meets all specified loads; ranging between the minimum and maximum dimensions provided (inclusive). Calculate dimension is set by default. Set Dimension - then the minimum dimensions will constitute the only footing size checked.

Fixed Width / Left Overhang / Right Overhang Select if these values are fixed lengths or if they will be optimized during

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the design. Minimum Left / Right Overhand Specify the minimum overhang length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Minimum Width Specify the width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Minimum Thickness Specify the thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Maximum Length (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Z axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Thickness (Calculate only) Specify the maximum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Length Increment (Calculate only) Specify the length and width increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. This allows you control over how to step footing sizes in design results. Thickness Increment (Calculate only) Specify the thickness increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Footing Geometry parameters.

Designing a Combined footing


1. Select Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool on the Home ribbon tab.

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The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. When the design is complete, a summary of the design is displayed on the Strip Footing Design Summary tab in the Output pane and the Calculation Sheet is opened to review the design calculations. A graphical report of Bending Moment and Shear Force for the footing will be generated in the Graphs tab of the main view window. Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

2.4.5 Octagonal Footing job


Used to create an isolated, octagonal footing. Table 2-12: Octagaonal Footing group items Name Design Parameters Description Opens the Design Parameters form in the Data Input pane, which is used to specify concrete, reinforcement bar, and general safety parameters to be used for the design of an octagonal footing.

Footing Geome- Opens the Footing Geometry form in the try Data Input pane, which is used to specify general footing geometry parameters to be used in the design of an octagonal footing. Anchor Bolt Details Opens the Anchor Bolt Details form in the data input pane, which is used to specify anchor bolt pattern parameters to be used in the design of an octagonal footing. Initiates the design of the current octagonal footing job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed. (US and Indian codes only) Opens the STAAD Foundation Export to Excel file dialog, which is used to save the design output for the octagonal footing job in a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel XML file format, with an .xml file

Design

Detailed Output

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Name extension).

Description

Design Parameters form


Used to specify concrete, reinforcement bar, and general safety parameters to be used for the design of an octagonal footing. Opens when Octagonal Footing Job > Design Parameters > Design Parameters is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Footing Clear Cover Value of clear cover, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the appropriate bar sizes used in the selected Design Code. Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Unit Weight of Soil Specify the density of soil supporting the foundation, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Value of allowable bearing pressure used for design, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, leave this value blank. Stability ratio

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Value of minimum stability ratio used for design. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Concrete and Rebar parameters.

Footing Geometry form


Used to specify general footing geometry parameters to be used in the design of an octagonal footing. Opens when Octagonal Footing Job > Design Parameters > Footing Geometry is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Unit Select the units of length to use in this form. Min / Max Footing Diameter Specify the range of sizes used for checking in the design. The diameter is that of a circle on which the octagonal foundation is circumscribed in plan. The minimum diameter is first checked in the design process. If it is not adequate, then subsequent sizes are checked, up to the maximum diameter, until the design reaches the safety limit. Min / Max Footing Thickness Enter the minimum height which will be used in starting the design and will be checked up to the maximum value until the design reaches the safety limit. Footing Dimension Increment This input is for increment interval for width/ length or diameter of the footing.

Anchor Bolt Details form


Used to specify anchor bolt pattern parameters to be used in the design of an octagonal footing. Opens when Octagonal Footing Job > Design Parameters > Anchor Bolt Details is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Unit Select the unit of length (this page only). Bolt Circle Diameter (BCD) Bolt circle diameter along which bolt will be placed Number of Anchor Bolt (Nb) Count of total anchor bolts. This parameter is used to calculate An as

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defined in appendix of PIP standard Bolt Diameter (BD Nominal diameter of individual bolt. This parameter is used to calculate An as defined in appendix of PIP standard. Sleeve Diameter (SD) Anchor Bolt Effective Embedment Depth

Designing an octagonal footing


1. Select Octagonal Footing Job > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool on the Home ribbon tab. The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. When the design is complete, a summary of the design is displayed on the Octagonal Footing Design Summary tab in the Output pane and the Calculation Sheet is opened to review the design calculations. Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

2.4.6 Strap Footing job


Used to create a strap footing, which consists of a grade beam between two isolated footings. This single job analyzes the beam and footing system and designs both elements. These foundations are similar those designed for horizontal vessels in the Plant mode. Note: This feature requires STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i (release 6.0) or higher. Table 2-13: Strap Footing group items Name Concrete & Rebar Description Opens the Concrete and Rebar form in the Data Input pane, which is used to specify concrete and reinforcement bar to be used for the design of a strap footing.

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Name Cover, Soil, & Safety

Description Opens the Cover, Soil, and Safety form in the Data Input pane, which is used to input cover parameters, soil characteristics, and factor of safety values.

Footing Geome- Opens the Footing Geometry form in the try data input pane, which is used to input the geometrical parameter used for design. Other Parameters Design Opens the Other Parameters form in the data input pane, which is used to input the geometrical parameter used for design. Initiates the design of the current isolated footing job. A dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed. (US and Indian codes only) Opens the STAAD Foundation Export to Excel file dialog, which is used to save the design output for the strap footing job in a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel XML file format, with an .xml file extension).

Detailed Output

Concrete and Reinforcement form


Used to specify concrete and reinforcement bar to be used for the design of a strap footing. Opens when Strap Footing Job > Design Parameters > Concrete & Reinforcement is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units.

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Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the appropriate bar sizes used in the selected Design Code. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Concrete and Rebar parameters.

Cover, Soil, & Safety form


Used to input cover parameters, soil characteristics, and factor of safety values. Opens when Strap Footing Job > Design Parameters > Cover, Soil & Safety is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Pedestal Clear Clover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the pedestal reinforcement, in the selected units. Footing Clear Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for

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new Combined Footing: Cover, Soil & Safety parameters.

Footing Geometry form


Used to input the geometrical parameter used for design. Opens when Strap Footing Job > Design Parameters > Footing Geometry is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Identical Footings Set this option if both of the isolated footings have the same dimensions. Length Specify the length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Width Specify the width (direction parallel to the Z axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Height Specify the thickness (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Length (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Z axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Minimum Height Specify the thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Offset X / Z Specify the offset dimension parallel to the X and Z axis between the center of the footing and the pedestal. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Footing Geometry parameters.

Other Parameters form


Used to input the geometrical parameter used for design.

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Opens when Strap Footing Job > Design Parameters > Other Parameters is selected in the Main Navigator pane. Footing plan increment Specify an increment interval for width and length of the footing, in the selected units. Footing thickness increment Specify an increment interval for the thickness of the footing, in the selected units. Beam Width Width of the beam above the spread footing, in the selected units. Beam Depth Enter the range of beam depth permissible for design, in the selected units. The design process will begin with the minimum depth and iterate designs up to and including the maximum depth specified. Note: Beam depth is taken from top of grade beam to bottom of spread footing. Overturning Safety Factor Specify a factor of safety against overturning. Sliding Safety Factor Specify a factor of safety against sliding. Coefficient of Friction Specify a coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete. Set as Default Select Yes to have the current parameter values set as the defaults for new Combined Footing: Cover, Soil & Safety parameters.

Designing a strap footing


1. Select Strap Footing Job > Design. or Click the Design / Analysis tool on the Home ribbon tab. The Design Progress Report is displayed in the Output pane. When the design is complete, a summary of the design is displayed on the Strap Footing Design Summary tab in the Output pane and the Calculation Sheet is opened to review the design calculations.

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Note: After a successful analysis/design, you may want to print the calculation sheet.

2.5 Grouping Foundation Designs


Foundation groups are useful to limit the number of designs. By default, STAAD Foundation optimizes each foundation design for the loads at that support only. This can (and typically does) result in as many different designs as their are supports. Often, it is more practical to limit the number of designs to one or few sizes and reinforcing steel configurations. The following procedure is used to group foundation designs: 1. Run the analysis for a file for preliminary sizing of foundations. 2. Make sure the Geometry tab in the Main View window is selected. 3. Select the Create Schematic Diagram tool in the Standard toolbar. The footings are re-drawn to scale. 4. In the main view window, select footings you want to group together in a single design. Note: Use the CTRLkey to select multiple footings individually. 5. Select the Create Group tool in the Standard toolbar. The Detail Drawing and Schedule Drawing all update to reflect the grouped footings. The GADrawing updates when Refresh button is clicked in the GA Drawing Options form. A new job is created with the footings from this group (the previous job is still maintained, with all footings included). All the footings in the new group/job are re-sized to reflect the governing size of the selected footings.

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Plant Foundations
3.1 Introduction
Plant foundations allow you to parametrically model both Vertical Vessel foundations and Heat Exchanger (Horizontal Vessel) foundations. Both foundation modules are completely wizard guided. You will be able to skip to any point in the process using the module navigation tree. Foundations are designed to comply with IS456, IS 1893 Part I, and IS 875 Part III for Indian codes. Note: This feature requires STAAD Foundation 4.0 or later.

3.2 Starting a new plant setup job


1. Either
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Select Plant Mode from the Start Page. or Select File >New >Plant Startup, select Plant Foundation in the Create New Project dialog, and click Open

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or Press <CTRL+N>, select Plant Foundation in the Create New Project dialog, and click Open. The program window opens a new project in the Plant Foundation mode (displayed in the Main Navigation Window).
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2. (Optional) Select either General Information or Review History in the Project Info section of the Main Navigation Window to enter general project or review data. 3. Select one of the following options in the Project Info section of the Main Navigation Window:
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Create Vertical Vessel Foundation Create Heat Exg/Horz Vessel Foundation Create Tank Foundation Create Drilled/Driven Foundation

The corresponding wizard dialog opens. 4. Once you have completed the wizard, a new leaf is entered into the Main Navigation Window for the new foundation.

5. Repeat steps 1 through 3 to add additional jobs to the project. Select the current job using the Job Selection list found in the Standard toolbar.

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Note: Different footing types may be added to the same project to explore different footing scenarios or to contain all footing types to be used within a single structure.

3.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation


Three types of foundation are allowed to design for vertical vessel. They are octagonal footing on soil, square pile cap and octagonal pile cap. Vertical vessel foundation design complies to:
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ASCE 7 ACI 318 PIP (Process Industry Practices) STE03350 IS 456 IS 1893 Part I IS 875 Part III

3.3.1 Vertical Vessel Job page


Used to specify general job information for a Vertical Vessel job.

Vertical Vessel ID Specify a unique job title for this vertical vessel job. Unit System

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Select either English or SI units to use in the wizard and for the job design and output. Design Code Select either US or Indian design codes. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.2 Geometry page


Used to input all the geometric parameters. STAAD Foundation can model both square and octagonal footings for vertical vessels.

Unit Select the unit of length (this page only). Foundation Type Select either Octagonal Foundationand Square foundation for the vertical vessel. Hint: For vessels larger than 5 ft. in diameter, an octagonal foundation is typically more economical (this practice varies from user to user). Foundation Support Type 220 STAAD Foundation

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Select whether the foundation is to be supported on a Soil Foundation or on a Pile Cap Foundation. Note: If Pile Cap Foundation is selected, the Pile Cap Geometry page is added to the wizard.

Vessel Geometry
Effective Diameter (Dve) The effective diameter is the diameter that will be used to calculate the wind pressure on the vessel. Effective Height (Hve) The effective height is the effective height of the vessel that will be used to calculate the wind pressure and the seismic effect on the vessel.

Pedestal Geometry
Diameter (Dp) Input pedestal diameter which will be used for shear check and pedestal design (as shown in the input page sketch). Thickness (Tp) Height of the pedestal from top of footing (as shown in the input page sketch) Bottom Of Footing Elevation (B.O.F) Bottom of footing elevation is used for detail drawing purpose. Based on this input elevation at top of concrete (T.O.C.), elevation at top of soil (T.O.S) and elevation at top of pedestal (T.O.P.) are displayed in detail drawing.

Footing Geometry
Diameter (Df) Min / Max (Octagonal type) Specify the range of sizes used for checking in the design. The diameter is that of a circle on which the octagonal foundation is circumscribed in plan. The minimum diameter is first checked in the design process. If it is not adequate, then subsequent sizes are checked, up to the maximum diameter, until the design reaches the safety limit. Footing Dimension Increment

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This input is for increment interval for width/ length or diameter of the footing. Length Min / Max (Square type) Specify the range of sizes used for checking in the design. The minimum length is first checked in the design process. If it is not adequate, then subsequent sizes are checked, up to the maximum length, until the design reaches the safety limit. Height (Tf) Min / Max Enter the minimum height which will be used in starting the design and will be checked up to the maximum value until the design reaches the safety limit.

Overburden and Buoyancy


Depth of Water Table (Dw) Depth of the water tables measured from the ground level. This level is used to calculate buoyant force on the footing. Soil Depth (Ts) Depth of soil above the foundation measured from the top face of the footing base. Soil depth is used to calculate weight of soil over the footing < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.3 Anchor Bolt Geometry page


This page allows user to input their pedestal geometry and anchor bolt arrangement. If the pedestal diameter required for anchor bolt arrangement is more than the given pedestal diameter, program will automatically adjust pedestal diameter. Note: STAAD Foundation does not design the anchor bolts. Note: This page is based on PIP STE03350.

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Unit Select the unit of length (this page only). Bolt Circle Diameter (BCD) Bolt circle diameter along which bolt will be placed Number of Anchor Bolt (Nb) Count of total anchor bolts. This parameter is used to calculate An as defined in appendix of PIP standard Bolt Diameter (BD Nominal diameter of individual bolt. This parameter is used to calculate An as defined in appendix of PIP standard. Sleeve Diameter (SD) Nominal diameter of the anchor bolt sleeve. Anchor Bolt Effective Embedment Depth Nominal embedment of the anchor bolt. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.4 Primary Load page


Used to input the primary loads (loads other than wind load and seismic load). User Manual 223

Unit Select the input unit for vertical force, base shear and base moment; for this page only. Standard Loads For vertical vessels, the standard loaded conditions are:
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Empty condition Operating condition Test condition Erection condition

Vertical (Axial) Force, Base Shear, and Base Moment may be entered for each of these loading conditions. Note: Sign conventions for the applied loads are explained in Primary Load Cases page sketch. Applied load at top of the pedestal are calculated based on PIP STE03350. User Defined Load This table is used for entering non-standard loads. By default first load in user defined load table is set to Live. More User defined load can be entered in the same table. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step.

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Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.5 Wind Load Generation page


Used to input wind load parameters. There are two methods for specifying wind load on a vertical vessel:
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Directly input the shear force & moment values The program can calculate those values using ASCE 7-2005 (US)or IS-875 III (Indian). The inputs are described in the page, along with code section and/or table numbers for reference.

User Defined Wind Load


Shear Value Specify a base shear due to wind, in the selected units. Moment Value Specify a base moment due to wind, in the selected units.

Calculated Wind Load - US Code


Wind Speed You need to input the wind speed provided in the code in miles per hour unit. Kd (Wind Directional Factor)

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Click on the Table 6.6 button to open the table of code Kd values.

Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. Kz (Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient) This is described in section 6.5.6.4 and Table 6.5. Choose the required combination of combo boxes for them. Kzt (Topographic Factor) This is defined in section 6.5.7.2 and determined from figure 6.2. I (Importance Factor) Importance is defined in section 6.5.5 and determined from figure 6.1. Click on the Table 6.1 button to open a table of code I values.

Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. G (Gust Effect Factor) This is the Gust Effect Factor and it is user defined. Cf (Net Force Coefficient)

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Value of Cf according to table T6-10.

Program Calculated Wind Load - Indian Code


Wind Speed Specify the wind speed provided in the code in meters per second. No of Years (N) Specify the mean probable design life of the structure. Risk Level (Pn) The risk level in N consecutive years. Cf Force coefficient. K3 Topography factor as defined in section 5.3.3 of IS-875 III Site Class Select the site classification as defined in Section 5.3.2.1 of IS-875 III. Terrain Category Select the category which describes the surrounding terrain as defined in Section 5.3.2.2 of IS-875 III. Partial Wind Case % This value represents percentage of full wind speed used in case of test load or erection load combination. As probability of getting full wind speed while test is being carried out is very low. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.6 Time Period page


Inputs in this page are basically required for wind load and seismic load calculation according to ASCE 7-05. There are three ways to enter/calculate time period:
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Direct Input Mass Table Program Calculated

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Time Period Calculation Select the method you want to use for determining the time period.

Direct Input
Fundamental Period (T) Specify the fundamental time period of the vessel.

Mass Table
The time period is calculated using Von Mises Theorem equation:

Where:
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H = Overall height in feet, D = Diameter of each section in feet, w = Distributed weight per foot of each section, W = Weight of each concentrated mass, t = Shell thickness of each section in inches, E = Modulus of elasticity for each section in millions of psi, a,b and g = Are coefficient for a given level depending on hi/H(the ratio of height of the level above grade to the overall height). Da and Dg are

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the difference in the values of a and g,from the top to the bottom of each section of uniform weight, diameter and thickness. b is determined for each concentrated mass. Units Specify the values of Length, Force/Length, and Force used in both tables on this page to describe the mass of the vessel. Distributed Mass table This table is used to describe how the mass is distributed over one or more vertical sections of the vessel. Mass/Length Specify a mass per unit of vertical height for this section of mass. Height (Top / Bot) Specify the top and bottom heights, respectively, above base of this section of mass. Diameter The diameter of the vertical vessel for this section. Thickness The wall thickness of the vessel for this section. Concentrated Mass table This table is used to specify point masses in the vessel, such as ladders, platforms, etc.. Mass Specify the amount of lumped mass. Height The height above base where the lumped mass is centered. Calculate Time Period The program calculates the Fundamental Period and enters this value for the Fundamental Period(T) (non-editable).

Program Calculated
Fundamental Period is calculated by using formula as described below,

Where:
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w = Weight of the structure, kips L = Length of the structure, inch E = Modulus of Elasticity, ksi

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I = Moment of Inertia, in4 g = Gravitational acceleration

Long-Period Transition Period Long-period transition period (TL), in seconds, determined in ASCE Section 11.4.5 < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.7 Seismic Load Generation page


Used to input seismic load dataeither directly or by parameters which the program will then use to calculate code-specified seismic loads. The following codes are supported:
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ASCE 7-2005 (US) IS-1893 Part 1 (Indian)

Seismic Load Generation calculation

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Directly Input Seismic Loads - specify values for shear force and moment Mass Table C.G. - (US code only)If mass data has been entered in the Time Period page for the calculation of the vessel's fundamental period, that data can also be used by the program to determine the center of gravity. User Defined C.G. - Specify the center of gravity of the vertical vessel.

Directly Input Seismic Loads


Depending on the load combination, operating seismic or empty seismic will be taken into consideration. Operating Seismic Load seismic load subjected at top of pedestal for operating conditions. Empty Seismic Load seismic load subjected at top of pedestal for empty conditions.

Mass Table C.G. - US Code


The program will calculate seismic loads per ASCE7-2005 for you. You have the option to use database mapped acceleration values based on Zip code or to specify values directly.
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Select using Zip Code- Populates the Select Zip combo box with all U.S. zip codes. Choosing any one of them will (or simply type in the value to select faster) will selected mapped acceleration values for that geographic location. Enter Value Manually- Specify values for S1 and Ss in the respective fields.

City / Latitude / Longitude (non editable) Displayed for the specified zip code to verify location. S1 / Ss The 1-second and short period acceleration values from ASCE 7 maps. Site Class Value of Fa and Fv, which are functions of Site Class and mapped acceleration values. Note: If Site Class is selected as F, Fa and Fv may be entered manually. Response Modification Factor (R)

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Select the response modification factor (either 2 or 3). Occupancy Importance Factor (I) Select the importance factor for the structure (1.00, 1.25, or 1.50)

User Defined C.G. - Indian Code


The program will calculate the seismic loads per IS-1893 Part 1 for you. You have the option to select a mapped acceleration value based on a Indian city or to specify values directly. Seismic Zone Selection Set the option to either Select City from a list of Indian cities or Enter Value Manually to select the Zone (Z) from a list. Average Response Acceleration Coefficient Set the option to either Select Soil Type from a list of soil descriptions or Enter Value Manually to type the Sa/g value directly. Response Reduction Factor (R) Select the reduction factor from the list as defined in Table 7 of IS 1893 Part 1. Importance Factor (I) Select the importance factor from the list as defined in Table 6 of IS 1893 Part 1.

User Defined C.G.


C.G. of Vessel Specify the center of gravity of the vertical vessel above the finished surface, in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.8 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Load Combination Table Select either of the two code specified load combinations or input your own.
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ASCE 7-05 PIP STC01015 User defined

Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type,

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each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue. To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.3.9 Design Parameters page


Design parameter is grouped under three categories. They are Material Density, Bearing and Stability and Concrete Design Parameters

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Water Density Density of water with unit to use for a Buoyancy Check, in the selected units. Buoyancy Check Select this option to have the program perform a check for buoyancy. Concrete Density Specify a density to be used for concrete (w ), in the selected units. C Soil Density Density of soil supporting the foundation, in the selected units. Allowable Bearing Pressure Value of allowable bearing pressure used for design, in the selected units. Minimum Stability ratio Value of minimum stability ratio used for design. Bar Type Types of bar used for the design (e.g. Imperial or Metric). Cover Value of clear cover, in the selected units. Fc Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f' ), in the selected units. c Fy Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ), in the selected units. y Minimum / Maximum Bar Dia Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > (for Pile Cap foundation only) Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job. Finish (for Soil Foundation only) Closes the Wizard and creates the Vertical Vessel Footing job in the current project.

3.3.10 Pile Cap Geometry page


Used to define Pile Cap geometry and individual pile data. When the Pile Cap Foundation option is selected on the Geometry page, this page is added to the wizard.

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Unit Choose Units for force and length, these units are only applicable to Pile Cap Geometry Page. Minimum Pile cap Depth Lateral Specify the lateral capacity of a pile. Vertical Specify the vertical capacity of a pile. Uplift Specify the uplifting capacity of a pile. Dia Diameter of a pile. Edge The Edge Distance field allows you to specify the distance between the edges of a pile. In Pile Data, enter Lateral, Uplift, Vertical capacities of pile from geotechnical report. Arrangement Type Pile arrangement can be either rectangular or circular. Pile cap having circular arrangement will be design as octagonal pile cap. For octagonal foundation, pile arrangement is automatically set as circular. Rectangular arrangement needs following inputs,

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l l l

Number of Rows - Usually for vertical vessel foundation, pile cap is kept as square pile cap. To do so, enter same number of rows and column with same row and column spacing. Number of Columns Row Spacing Column Spacing

By default program will create symmetric pile arrangement from the above input but user can change the default setup by editing the table below. Both row and column grid lines can be adjusted by selecting appropriate radio button. Circular arrangement needs following inputs as shown below.
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Number of Piles Total number of piles, excluding the center pile (if option is selected). Number of Layers Number of concentric circles in the circular arrangement. Pile Spacing Minimum spacing between piles Use Center Pile Select this option to add a pile at center of pile arrangement.

By default, program will try to assign equal number of piles for all concentric circular layers. The arrangement can be edited using the table below. Create Pile Arrangement Creates the pile layout and opens a dialog box to display the pile coordinates table and a figure. Note: Pile coordinates in this table are editable.

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Delete Row - Click to delete the current row from the pile coordinate table and figure. Select Arrangement Once a satisfactory pile layout has been found, click the Select Current Arrangement button to select and apply that layout. The program will check the pile reaction against pile capacity to make sure pile reactions do not exceed pile capacity values. Show Pile Reactions The Show Pile Reactions button opens a table displaying the reaction on each pile. The figure below shows the pile reaction table.

Note: To get the pile reaction, the file needs to be run once. Once you have designed the Vertical Vessel Foundation job, select Vertical Vessel Footing > Edit to return to this page to view the Pile Reaction table. spacing type and table

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Once a pile arrangement is started, the table displays the spacing for each row, column, layer, or circumference; depending on what arrangement type and table spacing type is selected. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job. Finish Closes the Wizard and creates the Vertical Vessel Footing job in the current project.

3.4 Heat Exchanger Foundation


Six different configurations of Heat Exchanger foundations can be designed in STAAD Foundation. For both Stacked Exchanger and Single Exchanger, the foundation may be a combined footing, isolated footings, or footings connected by a strap beam. Horizontal vessel foundation design complies to:
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ASCE 7 ACI 318 PIP (Process Industry Practices) STE03350 IS 456 and IS 875 Part 3

3.4.1 Heat Exchanger Job page


Used to specify general job information for a Heat Exchanger job.

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Heat Exchanger ID Specify a unique job title for this Heat Exchanger job. Unit System Select either English or SI units to use in the wizard and for the job design and output. Design Code Select either US or Indian design codes. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Vertical Vessel Footing job.

3.4.2 Exchanger Geometry page


Used to input all the geometric data for the Heat Exchanger. Hint: Clicking on any input fields creates a description of the corresponding field below the diagram.

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Exchanger / Vessel Type Select either a Single Exchanger or Stacked Exchanger, for the type of heat exchanger vessel will be supported by the foundation. Footing Type
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Combined Footing - footing will be designed as monolithic footing connecting two piers. Design philosophy is same as combined footing from General Mode. Isolated Footing - footing will be designed as two isolated footing supporting each pier. These footing can be made identical from footing geometry page. Design philosophy is same as isolated footing from General Mode.

Strap Beam (Isolated Footing type only) Exchanger footing will be designed as two isolated footing below the piers connected by a strap beam. Bottom of Footing Elevation (B.O.F.) Bottom of footing elevation is used for detail drawing purpose. Based on this input elevation at top of concrete (T.O.C.), elevation at top of soil (T.O.S) and elevation at top of pedestal (T.O.P.) are displayed in detail drawing Unit Unit of length for all the input in this page only. Heat Exchanger Length (L) Length of the heat exchanger.

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Upper Exchanger Diameter (UD) (Stacked Exchanger only) Diameter of the upper exchanger. Lower Exchanger Diameter (LD) Diameter of the lower exchanger or, if a Single Exchanger, the diameter of the sole exchanger. Height from Pier Top to Upper Exchanger (H) Height from the top of the pier to the center line of the upper exchanger. For a single exchanger, the height is measured to the center line of the single vessel. Soil Depth (SD) Depth of soil from top of the footing. Height of Pier Top from Base (B) Height from the top of the pier to the base of the foundation. Spacing of Exchanger (S) (Stacked Exchanger only) Spacing of the central line of the exchanger in case of stacked exchanger. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.3 Footing Geometry page


This page will have a different set of parameters displayed depending on the Footing Type selected on the Exchanger Geometry page.

Combined Footing
Here you have to input the geometrical data relate to the footing.

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Unit Choose the length dimension unit. Pier to Pier Distance Distance of the central lines of the pier. Pier Width Width of the pier. Pier length Breadth of the pier. Right Overhang Length of the right overhang from the central line of the right pier. Choose Yes from the combo box right next to it if you want to make it fix else No if you want to allow it to increase by the design engine. Left Overhang Length of the left overhang from the central line of the left pier. Choose Yes from the combo box right next to it if you want to make it fix else No if you want to allow it to increase by the design engine. Width Minimum width of the footing. Choose Yes from the combo box right next to it if you want to make it fix else No if you want to allow it to increase by the design engine. Width (Max) The maximum width allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. Thickness Minimum thickness of the footing.

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Thickness (Max) The maximum thickness allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. The rate increment will have to be given on the right Increment input field. Length (Max) The maximum total length allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. The rate increment will have to be given on the right Increment input field. Thickness Increment This input is for increment interval for thickness of the footing. Length / Width Increment This input is for increment interval for width and length of the footing.

Isolated Footing
The dialog displays the following

Unit Choose the length dimension unit. Pier to Pier Distance Distance of the central lines of the pier. Water Table Depth Depth of water table from top of soil. This input is used to calculate buoyant forces on foundation. Pier Width

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Width of the pier. Pier length Breadth of the pier. Width Minimum width of the footing. Choose Yes from the combo box right next to it if you want to make it fix else No if you want to allow it to increase by the design engine. Width (Max) The maximum width allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. Thickness Minimum thickness of the footing. Thickness (Max) The maximum thickness allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. The rate increment will have to be given on the right Increment input field. Length (Max) The maximum total length allowed up to which it will be incremented by the design engine. The rate increment will have to be given on the right Increment input field. Thickness Increment This input is for increment interval for thickness of the footing. Length / Width Increment This input is for increment interval for width and length of the footing. Identical Footings Option By making this option ticked, both isolated footing will be identical.

Strap Beam
Note: Beam geometry can be entered through the beam geometry page. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

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3.4.4 Beam Geometry page


Used to specify grade beam geometry for isolated footings connected by a strap beam.

Here UDL with unit over beam option is available. Max & Min Depth Range of Beam, Width of Beam (with unit input), Main Bar Range, Stirrup Bar Range, Stirrup Type (Number of legs), Stirrup Spacing Range ( with input) are available in this page. Beam Loading - UDL On Beam Specify a uniform dead load applied over the length of the grade beam, in the selected units. For example, this may be the weight of a wall load over the beam. Min / Max Depth Enter the range of beam depth permissible for design, in the selected units. The design process will begin with the minimum depth and iterate designs up to and including the maximum depth specified. Note: Beam depth is taken from top of grade beam to bottom of spread footing. Beam Width Width of the beam above the spread footing, in the selected units. Min / Max Bars Size (Main Bar)

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Specify the range of permissible longitudinal reinforcing bar sizes. Min / Max Bars Size (Stirrup) Specify the range of permissible stirrup sizes. Min / Max Spacing of Stirrup Specify the permissible range of stirrup spacing, in the selected units. Type of Stirrup Select the number of stirrup legs present in a cross section. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.5 Primary Load page


Used to input the primary loads other than wind load and seismic load. Note: In case of stacked exchangers, primary loads entered in this page are for the entire heat exchanger assembly not for single exchanger

Force Unit

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Select a unit for all axial loads specified on this page. Moment Unit Select a unit for all moment loads specified on this page. Heat Exchanger Loads Six types of axial forces are used for input. They are:
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l l

Empty Load - Exchanger assembly Weight in empty condition Operating Load - Exchanger assembly weight with fluids at operating level condition Test Load - Exchanger assembly weight with fluids at test level condition Live Load - Superimposed live load on exchanger assembly e.g. platform live load attached to the exchanger Erection Load - Construction loading on exchanger assembly e.g. crane loading Miscellaneous Axial Load Thermal load - Load generated by thermal expansion of exchanger assembly, thermal load is entirely applied at fixed end Bundle Pull - Axial couple loading is considered on piers for Bundle pull force. Lateral load imposed on exchanger assembly under maintenance procedure, program distributes bundle pull force equally on piers.

Application of all primary load is in accordance with PIPSTE03360 The program generates axial, lateral forces and moments based on primary load input. Additional loading can be entered through user defined moment. User Defined Moment Four types of moments are used for input. They are:
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Empty Moment Operating Moment Longitudinal Miscellaneous Moment Transverse Miscellaneous Moment

Note: Direct inputs are always applied at top of pedestal (bottom of base plate), it is per industry standards. Vendors provide the loads at bottom of base plate of vessel. All program generated loads are applied at center of vessel. Pedestal Load Distribution % Give the load distribution percentage for Shell End and Channel End.

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Channel End is usually considered as sliding end and Shell End is considered as fixed end. Note: Vertical loads are not affected by pedestal type (fixed or sliding). Vertical loads are distributed per pedestal load distribution percentage. Conventionally channel end is heavier than shell end. Standard percentage of distribution for vertical loads is - Channel End 60% & Shell End 40%. Design Self Weight This option enables user to select self weight of the footing, self weight of the pedestal and self weight of the soil above footing to be considered for reinforcement design or not. Note: Self weight is always considered for service checks. Self Weight Factor Coefficient of calculated self weight for use in dead load cases. Further to design self weight option, self weight considered can be modified using this factor. Slide Plate Parameter Sliding plate coefficient only affects the seismic loads on exchanger assembly. Slide plate coefficient of friction is used to determine % longitudinal lateral loads distributed on Shell End and Channel End. Per PIPSTE03360 4.3.2.3, for low friction plates (0.2) entire earthquake load is applied on fixed pier (Shell End). In case of high friction plates ( 0.2), 70% of earthquake load applied on fixed pier. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.6 Wind Load Generation page


Used to input wind load parameters. There are two methods for specifying wind load on a vertical vessel:

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l l

Directly input the shear force & moment values The program can calculate those values using ASCE 7-2005 (US)or IS-875 III (Indian). The inputs are described in the page, along with code section and/or table numbers for reference.

User Defined Wind Load


Shear Specify a base shear due to wind in both X and Z global directions, in the selected units. Moment Specify a base moment due to wind about both X and Z global directions, in the selected units.

Program Calculated Wind Load - USCode


Wind Speed Specify the wind speed provided in the code in miles per hour. Kd The Wind Directional Factor: Click on the Table 6.6 button to open the table of code Kd values.

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Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. Kz for Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient, which is described in section 6.5.6.4 and Table 6.5. Choose the required combination of combo boxes for them. Kzt Topographic Factor, which is defined in section 6.5.7.2 and determined from figure 6.2. I Importance Factor, which is defined in section 6.5.5 and determined from figure 6.1. Click on the Table 6.1 button to open a table of code I values.

Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. G The Gust Effect Factor. Cf

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Net Force Coefficient, which is defined in Table T6-10. Partial Wind Load % This value represents percentage of full wind speed used in case of test load or erection load combination. As probability of getting full wind speed while test is being carried out is very low.

Program Calculated Wind Load - Indian Code


Wind Speed Specify the wind speed provided in the code in meters per second. No of Years (N) Specify the mean probable design life of the structure. Risk Level (Pn) The risk level in N consecutive years. Cf along X Force coefficient along the global X axis. Cf along Z Force coefficient along the global Z axis. K3 Topography factor as defined in section 5.3.3 of IS-875 III Site Class Select the site classification as defined in Section 5.3.2.1 of IS-875 III. Terrain Category Select the category which describes the surrounding terrain as defined in Section 5.3.2.2 of IS-875 III. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.7 Seismic Load Generation page


Used to input seismic load dataeither directly or by parameters which the program will then use to calculate code-specified seismic loads. The following codes are supported:
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ASCE 7-2005 (US) IS-1893 Part 1 (Indian)

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Directly Input Seismic Loads Select this option to specify values for shear force and moment. Otherwise, seismic load generation parameters are required to generate loads.

Directly Input Seismic Loads


Depending on the load combination, operating seismic or empty seismic will be taken into consideration. Empty Load Case seismic load subjected at top of pedestal for empty conditions. Operating Load Case seismic load subjected at top of pedestal for operating conditions.

Program Calculated - USCode


The program will calculate seismic loads per ASCE 7 for you. You have the option to use database mapped acceleration values based on Zip code or to specify values directly.
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Select using Zip Code Populates the Select Zip combo box with all U.S. zip codes. Choosing any one of them will (or simply type in the value to select faster) will selected mapped acceleration values for that geographic location. Enter Value Manually Specify values for S1 and Ss in the respective fields.

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City / Latitude / Longitude (non editable) Displayed for the specified zip code to verify location. S1 / Ss The 1-second and short period acceleration values from ASCE 7 maps. Site Class Value of Fa and Fv, which are functions of Site Class and mapped acceleration values. Note: If Site Class is selected as F, Fa and Fv may be entered manually. Response Modification Factor (R) Select the response modification factor (either 2 or 3). Note: The value may be selected from the drop-down list a custom value may be entered manually. Occupancy Importance Factor (I) Select the importance factor for the structure (1.00, 1.25, or 1.50) Note: The value may be selected from the drop-down list a custom value may be entered manually. Transverse Direction Fundamental Period (T) in the direction transverse to the length of the horizontal heat exchanger vessel(s). Longitudinal Direction Fundamental Period (T) in the direction parallel to the length of the vessel(s). Long-Period Transition Period (TL) The Period for Long Transition defined in section 11.4.5.

Program Calculated - Indian Code


The program will calculate the seismic loads per IS-1893 Part 1 for you. You have the option to select a mapped acceleration value based on a Indian city or to specify values directly. Note: Refer to USCode above for description of other common parameters.

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Seismic Zone Selection Set the option to either Select City from a list of Indian cities or Enter Value Manually to select the Zone (Z) from a list. Average Response Acceleration Coefficient Set the option to either Select Soil Type from a list of soil descriptions or Enter Value Manually to type the Sa/g value directly. Response Reduction Factor (R) Select the reduction factor from the list as defined in Table 7 of IS 1893 Part 1. Importance Factor (I) Select the importance factor from the list as defined in Table 6 of IS 1893 Part 1. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.8 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Load Combination Table Select either of the two code specified load combinations or input your own.
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ASCE 7-05 PIP STC01015 User defined

Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination.

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toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job.

3.4.9 Design Parameters page


Used to enter design parameters for the Heat Exchanger footing; including reinforced concrete, soil, and safety factors.

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Unit First give the units for three types of dimensions, density, length and stress.

Concrete and Rebar


Concrete Unit Weight Specify a density to be used for concrete (w ). C Fc Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f' ). c Fy Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ). y Max / Min Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars. Max / Min Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design.

Cover and Soil


Pedestal Clear Cover

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Specify clear cover distance between face of pedestal and edge of reinforcing bars. Footing Bottom Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement. Soil Unit Weight Specify a density to be used for the soil. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable bearing capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Soil Depth Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing. Load Surcharge Specify a surcharge loading above the footing. Minimum Permissible Area in Contact With Soil Specify a percentage of area of contact between footing and soil.

Sliding and Overturning


Coefficient of Friction Specify a coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete. Factor of Safety (Sliding) Specify a factor of safety against sliding. Factor of Safety (Overturning) Specify a factor of safety against overturning. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Heat Exchanger Footing job. Finish Closes the Wizard and creates the Heat Exchanger Footing job in the current project.

3.5 Tank Foundation


This foundation wizard is used to parametrically model and design a ring foundation supporting a tank vessel. Tank foundation design complies to:
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ASCE 7 ACI 318 PIP (Process Industry Practices) STE03350

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Seismic loads per API 650, Section E IS 456 and IS 875 Part 3

3.5.1 Tank Foundation page


Used to input all the geometric parameters.

Tank ID Type a unique title for the tank foundation job. Unit System Select between English customary and SI system of units. Design Code Select either US or Indian design codes Foundation Type Increment interval for width/ length or diameter of the footing. Weight Input Select a method for inputting the tank weights on the Primary Load cases page. Select the Direct Weight Input method to specify a total weight. Select the Tank Fluid Volume Input to specify a volume and fluid density. Sliding Check Set this option to instruct the design process to check sliding stability. Overturning Check

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Set this option to instruct the design process to check overturning stability. Tank Orientation Type an angle between the drawing north and true north (in degrees) to orient the tank. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.2 Tank Foundation Geometry page


Used to input all the geometric parameters.

Geometry Unit Select the primary unit of length (this page only). Increment Unit Select the secondary unit of length (this page only). Bottom of Footing Elevation Bottom of footing elevation is used for detail drawing purpose. Based on this input elevation at top of concrete (T.O.C.), elevation at top of soil (T.O.S) and elevation at top of pedestal (T.O.P.) are displayed in detail drawing.

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Dimension Increment Width / Depth Increment interval for width/ length or diameter of the footing.

Ringwall Geometry
Eccentricity from Tank Diameter to Footing Centerline Type the eccentricity value taken from the tank wall to the centerline of ring foundation. Width (Fw) Min. / Max. Type the minimum and maximum values, respectively, to be used for the design of the tank ring foundation. Height (Fh) Type the value of height (vertical thickness) to be used for design of the tank ring foundation.

Miscellaneous Inputs
Concrete Slab Thickness Type the value of thickness for the concrete slab-on-grade beneath the tank floor. Compact Granular Fill (Ds) Height of the pedestal from top of footing (as shown in the input page sketch) Bottom Of Footing Elevation (B.O.F) Bottom of footing elevation is used for detail drawing purpose. Based on this input elevation at top of concrete (T.O.C.), elevation at top of soil (T.O.S) and elevation at top of pedestal (T.O.P.) are displayed in detail drawing. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.3 Tank &Fluid Properties page


Used to input parameters for the tank structure.

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Tank Geometry
Geometry Unit Select the units of length used in Tank Geometry parameters. Internal Tank Diameter (Di) Type the internal diameter of the tank. Height of Tank Shell (Hs) Type the maximum height of the tank shell.

Tank Thickness
Tank Thickness Unit Select the units of length used in Tank Thickness parameters. Avg. Thick. of Tank Shell (Tavg) Type the value for the average thickness of the tank shell. Thick. of Tank Bottom (Tbot) Type the value for the thickness of the tank bottom. Thick. of Tank Roof (Trf) Type the value for the thickness of tank roof. Insulation Thickness (Tins) Type the value of the thickness of insulation.

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Tank Material Properties


Tank Material Unit Select the units of length used in Tank Material parameters. Yield Strength of Bottom Plate (Fby) Type the yield strength of the bottom plate. Elastic Modulus of Tank Shell (Es) Type the modulus of elasticity for the tank shell. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.4 Primary Load Cases page


Used to input parameters for loads due to product contained in the tank and any loads present on the tank roof.

Units Select the units of Tank Weight Force, Fluid Volume, Internal Pressure, and Pressure Load used in tank Loading parameters.

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Internal Pressure Type values for Internal Pressure at both Operating Level (normal conditions) and Test Level in selected units for internal pressure.

Tank Weight
Specify these values when the Direct Weight Input option is set on Tank Foundation Job page. Operating Fluid Weight Type a value of total fluid weight under normal operating conditions. Test Fluid Weight Type a value of total fluid weight under testing conditions. Liquid Height Units Select the units used to enter liquid height parameters. Liquid Height (Operating) Type a value of fluid height under normal operating conditions. Liquid Height (Test) Type a value of fluid height under testing conditions.

Fluid Properties
Specify these values when the Tank Fluid Volume Input option is set on Tank Foundation Job page. Operating Product Volume Type the volume of liquid contained in the tank under normal operating conditions. Test Product Volume Type the volume of liquid contained in the tank under testing conditions. Specific Gravity of Product Type the unit weight of the liquid.

Pressure Load
These define the loads distributed over the roof of the tank. Roof Snow Load Type a pressure value for the snow load (if any) on the tank roof. Snow Importance Factor (Isnow)

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Type the importance factor used for the snow load. Miscellaneous Dead Load Type the composite dead load on the tank roof (excluding the self weight of the tank roof). Live Load Type the composite live load on the tank roof. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.5 Wind Load Generation page


Used to input wind load parameters. There are two methods for specifying wind load on a vertical vessel:
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Directly input the shear force & moment values The program can calculate those values using ASCE 7-2005 (US)or IS-875 III (Indian). The inputs are described in the page, along with code section and/or table numbers for reference.

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User Defined Wind Load


Shear Specify a base shear due to wind in both X and Z global directions, in the selected units. Moment Specify a base moment due to wind about both X and Z global directions, in the selected units. Partial Wind Load % This value represents percentage of full wind speed used in case of test load or erection load combination. As probability of getting full wind speed while test is being carried out is very low.

Program Calculated Wind Load - USCode


Wind Speed Specify the wind speed provided in the code in miles per hour. Kd The Wind Directional Factor: Click on the Table 6.6 button to open the table of code Kd values.

Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. Kz for Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient, which is described in section 6.5.6.4 and Table 6.5. Choose the required combination of combo boxes for them. Kzt

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Topographic Factor, which is defined in section 6.5.7.2 and determined from figure 6.2. I Importance Factor, which is defined in section 6.5.5 and determined from figure 6.1. Click on the Table 6.1 button to open a table of code I values.

Select a value and then click the OK button to use it. Note: You may manually enter in any value to override the codespecified table values. G The Gust Effect Factor. Cf Net Force Coefficient, which is defined in Table T6-10.

Program Calculated Wind Load - Indian Code


Wind Speed Specify the wind speed provided in the code in meters per second. No of Years (N) Specify the mean probable design life of the structure. Risk Level (Pn) The risk level in N consecutive years. Cf Force coefficient. K3 Topography factor as defined in section 5.3.3 of IS-875 III Site Class Select the site classification as defined in Section 5.3.2.1 of IS-875 III.

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Terrain Category Select the category which describes the surrounding terrain as defined in Section 5.3.2.2 of IS-875 III. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.6 Seismic Load page


Used to input seismic load dataeither directly or by parameters which the program will then use to calculate code-specified seismic loads. The following codes are supported:
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ASCE 7-2005 (US) IS-1893 Part 1 (Indian)

Direct Seismic Load Input Set this option to manually input seismic load values. Shear Unit (Direct entry) Select the units of force used for shear values.

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Moment Unit (Direct entry) Select the units of moment used for shear values.

Convective Seismic Load / Impulsive Seismic Forces


The simplified model for seismic loads is that of a two component spring/mass. A short period, impulsive mode is assumed as the primary response mode. A secondary convective mode is assumed to account for the sloshing of fluid. Operating Shear Type the lateral shear force due to the convective or impulsive force, respectively, under normal operating conditions. Test Shear Type the lateral shear force due to the convective or impulsive force, respectively, under testing conditions. Operating Moment Type the moment value due to the convective or impulsive force, respectively, under normal operating conditions. Test Moment Type the moment value due to the convective or impulsive force, respectively, under testing conditions.

Seismic Ground Motion Values - US Code


The program will calculate seismic loads per ASCE7-2005 for you. You have the option to use database mapped acceleration values based on Zip code or to specify values directly.
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Select using Zip Code- Populates the Select Zip combo box with all U.S. zip codes. Choosing any one of them will (or simply type in the value to select faster) will selected mapped acceleration values for that geographic location. Enter Value Manually- Specify values for S1 and Ss in the respective fields.

City / Latitude / Longitude (non editable) Displayed for the specified zip code to verify location. S1 / Ss The 1-second and short period acceleration values from ASCE 7 maps.

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Site Class Value of Fa and Fv, which are functions of Site Class and mapped acceleration values. Note: If Site Class is selected as F, Fa and Fv may be entered manually.

Seismic Parameters
These values are specified when the Direct Seismic Load Input option is not set. Seismic Use Group Select the use group as defined in ASCE7. Damping Adjustment Factor Type the damping adjustment factor. This may be varied to account for different fluids or soil conditions. Long-Period Transition Period (TL) Type the value for TL. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.7 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Load Combination Table Select either of the two code specified load combinations or input your own.
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ASCE 7-05 PIP STC01015 User defined

Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination.

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toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.5.8 Design Parameters page


Used to enter design parameters for the tank foundation; including reinforced concrete, soil, and safety factors.

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Soil Properties
Allowable Soil Bearing Capacity Type the allowable bearing capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Coefficient of Friction Type the coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete.

Material Densities
Concrete Density Type the unit weight to be used for concrete (w ). C Soil Density Type the unit weight to be used for the soil. Water Density Type the unit weight to be used for water (buoyancy calculations).

Safety Ratios
Factor of Safety (Sliding) Type a factor of safety against sliding. Factor of Safety (Overturning) Type a factor of safety against overturning.

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Concrete and Reinforcement


Fc Type the ultimate strength of the concrete (f' ). Fy
c

Type the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ). y Clear Cover Type clear cover distance between face of foundation and edge of stirrup bars. Stirrup Spacing Increment Type the distance increment to use in selecting a stirrup spacing. Min Stirrup Spacing Type the minimum distances to be allowed between stirrups. Min / Max Stirrup Size Type the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars. Min / Max Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Tank Foundation job.

3.6 Drilled/Driven Pier Foundation


Drilled shaft or driven pier foundations used to resist axial and lateral loads can be designed using this parametric wizard. The pier can have any number of sections along its length and essentially any number of soil layers can be modeled.

3.6.1 Drilled Pier Job page


Used to input all the geometric parameters.

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Project Info
Pile/Pier ID Type a unique title for the pier job. Project Name (Optional)Type a descriptive name for the project associated with this pier. Client / Engineer / Checker Name (Optional)Type the identification (i.e., names, initials, etc.) of personnel or organizations associated with project.

Specifications
Pile Type Select if the pile is a Driven Pile or Drilled Shaft. Unit System Select between English customary and SI system of units. Design Code Only USdesign code is currently supported. Loading Type Select either a Static or Cyclic loading on the pier. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel 276 STAAD Foundation

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Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled/Driven Pier job.

3.6.2 Pier Section page


Used to provide section information for pier at various elevations. The parameters entered here depend on whether a drilled shaft or driven pier was selected on the Drilled Pier Job page.

Drilled Shaft sections

Unit Select the unit of length (this page only). Bolt Circle Diameter (BCD) Bolt circle diameter along which bolt will be placed Number of Anchor Bolt (Nb) Count of total anchor bolts. This parameter is used to calculate An as defined in appendix of PIP standard Bolt Diameter (BD Nominal diameter of individual bolt. This parameter is used to calculate An as defined in appendix of PIP standard. Sleeve Diameter (SD) Nominal diameter of the anchor bolt sleeve. Anchor Bolt Effective Embedment Depth

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Nominal embedment of the anchor bolt.

Driven Pier section

Pier Ht Above Ground (PG) Extension of pier (pile) above ground level when driven to depth. Water Level (WL) Distance from ground level down to water table, in the selected units. Section list A list of pile sections available. Create Section Click to provide section parameters for a custom pile section. Add Section After custom section parameters are entered, click to add to the list. Delete Section Click to remove the selected section from the Sections list. Section Name / section parameter fields Displays the relevant section data for the selected section in the Sections list. If the Create Section button is clicked, respective values must be typed in each of these fields before clicking Add Section to save a custom section to the Sections list. Section Length

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Type the total length of pile, in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled/Driven Pier job..

3.6.3 Soil Section page


Used to define the number of soil layers in the range of the pier and to provide geotechnical data for each layer.

soil layers list A list of pile sections available. Add Layer Above / Below Click either to add a new soil layer above or below the currently selected soil layer in the list. Delete Layer Click to remove the selected soil layer from the list. Layer Type Select the soil type that best describes the layer. Layer Depth

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Type a thickness for the soil layer, in the selected units.

Soil Properties
Soil Density Average soil density for the soil layer. Note: If the water table is located within a soil layer, soil layer should be split into two parts with different soil densities. Epsilon 50 Soil strain which corresponds to 50% of the maximum principle stress. Some typical values for 50taken from EI 02C097are shown in the following table. Table 3-1: Representative values of Avg. Undrained Consistency Shear of Clay Strength (ksf) Soft Medium Stiff 1-2 2-4 4-8
50

50

0.020 0.010 0007 0.005 0.004

Cohesion Undrained shear strength of a cohesive soil. J Parameter An empirical, dimensionless parameter. A value of 0.5 is frequently used (soft clay). A value of 0.25 can be used for a medium clay. Initial Soil Stiffness Slope, k, to use for the initial, straight-line portion of the p-y curve representing static, linear loading. Some typical values for ktaken from EI 02C097are shown in the following table.

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Table 3-2: Representative values of k for stiff clays Avg. Undrained Shear Strength (ksf) 1-2 2-4 4-8 P Multiplier Scale factor for P values in p-y curve. Y Mulitplier Scale factor for Y values in p-y curve. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled/Driven Pier job.. k k s c (lb/in. (lb/in. 3) 3) 500 1,000 2,000 200 400 800

3.6.4 Loads page


Used to input the lateral, axial, and rotation loads.

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loads list A list of individual loads applied to the top of the pier. Add Load Click to add a new load to the list. Delete Load Click to remove the selected load from the list. Force/Deflection Select to specify either a Shear Force or an enforced lateral Deflection value for the selected load. Shear If Shear Force is selected, type a value for the Shear force, in the selected units. Lateral Deflection If Deflection is selected, type a value for the enforced lateral deflection, in the selected units. Moment/Rotation Select to specify either a Moment or enforced Rotation value for the selected load. Moment If Moment is selected, type a value for the moment, in the selected units. Rotation If Rotation is selected, type a value for the rotation, in the selected units. Axial Load

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Type a value for the axial load, in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled/Drive Pier job.

3.6.5 Design Parameters page


Design parameter is grouped under three categories. They are Material Density, Bearing and Stability and Concrete Design Parameters

Reinforcement
Reinforcement Strength Type the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (f ), in the selected units. y Modulus of Elasticity Type the Young's Modulus of steel reinforcing bars (E), in the selected units. Min / Max Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design.

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Max Spiral Type the maximum size to use for spiral confinement steel.

Concrete
Concrete Strength Type the ultimate strength of the concrete (f' ), in the selected units. c Modulus of Elasticity (Concrete) Type the Young's Modulus of concrete (E), in the selected units. Concrete Density Specify a density to be used for concrete (w ), in the selected units.
C

Critical Depth for Axial Capacity


Critical Depth Ratio Calculation Select to either have the program Calculate the critical depth or to type the value as User Input. Critical Depth Ratio (User Input only) Soil depth at which vertical stress appears to become constant is known as the Critical Depth. This value is the ratio of critical depth to the pier diameter. Typical range of critical depth ratio lies from 10 to 20.

Pile Condition
Pile Batter Angle For battered piles, type the angle between vertical and the centerline of the pile, in degrees. Ground Slope Angle Type the angle between horizontal and the surrounding ground slope, in degrees. Number of Increments Along the Pile Type the number of discrete sections along the length of the pile at which a analysis is performed.

Axial Load Parameters


F.S. End Bearing Factor of safety for base resistance. F.S. Skin Friction

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Factor of safety for side resistance. Tip Resistance % for Axial Capacity Percentage of base resistance (end bearing) force to be considered in axial capacity. Skin Resistance % for Axial Capacity Percentage of the maximum skin friction that is being developed as a function of downward deflection of the pile, where that downward deflection has been normalized to units of pile diameters. Neglected Top Soil Layer for Skin Friction For top layer skin friction, typically first five feet are neglected. Additionally, any backfill layer should be neglected for skin friction. Note: Neglected soil zone at top at bottom are regions excluded from skin friction calculation. Neglected Bottom Soil Layer for Skin Friction For bottom layer skin friction, in case of Straight pier profile typically soil layer equal to one pier diameter thickness is neglected and in the case of Belled pier profile, a soil layer equal to sum of bell periphery and pier diameter is neglected. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled/Driven Pier job. Finish Closes the Wizard and creates the Drilled/Driven Pier job in the current project

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Section 4

Foundation Toolkit
4.1 Introduction
The foundation toolkit allows you to parametrically model a variety of common foundation types such as combined footings, drilled piers, dead man anchor guys, etc. These foundation modules are completely wizard guided. You will be able to skip to any point in the process using the module navigation tree. Note: This feature requires STAAD Foundation V8i, release 5.0 or later.

4.2 Starting a new foundation toolkit project


1. Either
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Select Toolkit Mode from the Start Page. or Select New from the Application menu button, select Foundation Toolkit in the Create New Project dialog, and click Open User Manual 287

or Press <CTRL+N>, select Foundation Toolkit in the Create New Project dialog, and click Open. The program window opens a new project in the Foundation Toolkit mode (displayed in the Main Navigation Window).
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2. (Optional) Select either General Information or Review History in the Project Info section of the Main Navigation Window to enter general project or review data. 3. Select one of the following options in the Project Info section of the Main Navigation Window:
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Create Isolated Footing / Block Create Combined Footing Create Dead Man Anchor / Guyed Tower Foundation Created Drilled Pier Create Pile Cap Job Create Ribbed (Beam) Footing

The corresponding wizard dialog opens. 4. Once you have completed the wizard, a new leaf is entered into the Main Navigation Window for the new foundation. 5. Repeat steps 1 through 3 to add additional jobs to the project. Select the current job using the Job Selection list found in the Standard toolbar. Note: Different footing types may be added to the same project to explore different footing scenarios or to contain all footing types to be used within a single structure. This will create the GUI for Foundation Toolkit. In the left side of the window there will be a tree control in the Foundation Toolkit Menu pane as the following figure shows.

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In Main Navigator five new leafs are added Create Isolated Footing/Block, Create Combined Footing, Create Dead Man Anchor guy Tower foundation, Create Drilled Pier and Create Pile Job. Click on a specific leaf will help you to create the job. You can create more than one job for each of them (Create isolated Footing/Block, Create Combined Footing, Create dead man Anchor, Create Drilled pier, Create Pile Job). The created jobs will be listed in the tree view as following.

Edit Delete and Design These three features of a particular job helps the user to edit the fields after creation and click on Delete deletes the job. Design will design the corresponding foundation.

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4.3 Isolated/Block Foundation


The Isolated Footing Wizard is a step-by-step process to parametrically create an isolated footing. Complete the data fields on each page and then click Next to proceed. Once you are finished, click the Finish button to complete the wizard.

To create an Isolated Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Project Info > Create Isolated Footing / Block in the Main Navigator pane. The Data Input Wizard for an Isolated Footing opens. 2. Input the parameters on each page and click Next > to proceed. Hint: You may jump to any step using the table of contents found on the left side of each wizard dialog page or move to the prior page by clicking < Previous. 3. Repeat through all input pages until the Finish button is enabled. 4. Click the Finish button to exit the wizard. The new Isolated Footing job is added to the project in the Main Navigator pane.

To design an Isolated Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Isolated Footing Job > Isolated Footing Job: <job name> > Design in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms you want to proceed with designing the Isolated Footing job. 2. Click Yes.

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The progress of the foundation design is displayed in the Output pane. The Status bar also provides feedback on the progress of each step. Once the process is complete, the program will automatically display a Design Summary table in the Output pane and the detailed design calculations in the Calculation Sheet tab of the View window.

To edit an individual Isolated Footing dimension


Individual isolated footing dimensions can be edited. 1. Click the Geometry tab in the Graphics Window. 2. Click one of the dimensions on the drawing. A dimension dialog opens to display the current value and their units.

3. Make changes as needed. 4. Click the OK to accept the changes and dismiss the dialog.

To edit an Isolated Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Isolated Footing Job > Isolated Footing Job: <job name> > Edit in the Main Navigation pane. The Data Input Wizard re-opens to allow for any changes. 2. Click the Edit button to exit the wizard and save the changes. The job is re-loaded with changes. The job must be re-designed for output to be updated with any changes.

To delete an Isolated Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Isolated Footing Job > Isolated Footing Job: <job name> > Delete in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms the removal of the Isolated Footing job. 2. Click Yes.

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4.3.1 Isolated Footing Job page


Used to input general job data. The unit type selected will be applied through the remaining wizard pages.

Job Name This should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as "Isolated Job." Design Code The following countries' design codes are available:
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US (default) British India Australia Canadian Chinese

Default Unit Type There are two types of Unit Type.


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English (default) SI

Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel

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Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.2 Concrete and Rebar page


Used to input geometrical and material data. Unit types and bar sizes available in drop-down lists reflect the choices made on the Isolated Job page.

Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the appropriate bar sizes used in the selected Design Code. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next >

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Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.3 Cover and Soil page


Used to input the soil properties and soil type. Unit types available in dropdown lists reflect the choices made on the Isolated Job page.

Soil Type Select the type of soil supporting the foundation:


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Drained Condition Undrained Condition

Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable bearing capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Above Footing Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, 294 STAAD Foundation

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Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units. Cohesion (Drained Condition only) For footings in a drained condition, specify a cohesion pressure, in the selected units. Undrained Shear Strength (Undrained Condition only) Specify a shear strength for the soil, in the selected units. Bottom Clear Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Friction Angle (Drained Condition only) Specify a angle of internal friction for the soil, in degrees. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.4 Footing Geometry page


Used to input geometry parameters used in design or checking.

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Design Type There are two types of design one is calculate dimension another is set dimension:
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Calculate - The footing size will be checked and resized to the smallest size which meets all specified loads; ranging between the minimum and maximum dimensions provided (inclusive). Calculate dimension is set by default. Set Dimension - then the minimum dimensions will constitute the only footing size checked.

Minimum Length Specify the minimum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Minimum Width Specify the minimum width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Minimum Thickness Specify the minimum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or outof plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Maximum Length (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Maximum Thickness (Calculate only) Specify the maximum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Plan Dimension Inc. (Calculate only) Specify the length and width increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. This allows you control over how to step footing sizes in design results. Thickness Increment (Calculate only) Specify the thickness increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. Offset X / Z Direction If the loads do not pass through the CG of the footing, specify the offset

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dimension in the X and Z directions (parallel to length and width, respectively), along with unit. Length Width Ratio (Calculate only) Specify a plan aspect ratio to control the relative length and width of the footing design. For example, a value of one results in a square footing where as a value of two results in a footing twice as long along the X axis as the Z axis width. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.5 Sliding and Overturning page


Used to provide stability factors of safety and column/pedestal parameters.

Coefficient of Friction Specify a coefficient value of friction between the soil and concrete. Factor of Safety Against Sliding Specify a factor of safety against sliding. Factor of Safety against Overturning User Manual 297

Specify a factor of safety against overturning. Pedestal Height If a pedestal is used a this support, specify a height, in the selected units. Note: Pedestal Design is support for US (ACI 318) code only. Column / Pedestal Depth Specify a column (or pedestal, if height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units. Column / Pedestal Width Specify a column (or pedestal, if height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the Z axis), in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.6 Load page


Used to provide support force and moment values applied to the isolated footing.

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Moment / Force Unit Units for force and Moment. Load table Each line of the load table represents a separate primary load case. Note: Refer to the sketch on the load page for applied load sign conventions. In particular, note that negative Y represents applied gravity load.
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Fx- Value of Load applied to the X direction. Fy - Value of Load applied to the Y direction. Fz- Value of Load applied about the Z direction. Mx- Value of Moment applied about the X direction. Mz - Value of Moment applied about the Z direction. Loading Type - Select a class of load (i.e. - dead, live, wind, seismic, etc.) from the drop-down list.

< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.3.7 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell.

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Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue. To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job. Finish Completes the Wizard and adds the new Isolated Footing Job to the active project file.

4.4 Combined Footing


The Combined Footing Wizard is a step-by-step process to parametrically create a combined footing. Complete the data fields on each page and then click Next to proceed. Once you are finished, click the Finish button to complete the wizard.

To create an Combined Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Project Info > Create Combined Footing in the Main Navigator pane. The Data Input Wizard for an Combined Footing opens.

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2. Input the parameters on each page and click Next > to proceed. Hint: You may jump to any step using the table of contents found on the left side of each wizard dialog page or move to the prior page by clicking < Previous. 3. Repeat through all input pages until the Finish button is enabled. 4. Click the Finish button to exit the wizard. The new Combined Footing job is added to the project in the Main Navigator pane.

To design an Combined Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Combined Footing Job > Combined Footing Job: <job name> > Design in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms you want to proceed with designing the Combined Footing job. 2. Click Yes. The progress of the foundation design is displayed in the Output pane. The Status bar also provides feedback on the progress of each step. Once the process is complete, the program will automatically display a Design Summary table in the Output pane and the detailed design calculations in the Calculation Sheet tab of the View window.

To edit an individual Combined Footing dimension


Individual Combined Footing dimensions can be edited. 1. Click the Geometry tab in the Graphics Window. 2. Click one of the dimensions on the drawing. A dimension dialog opens to display the current value and their units.

3. Make changes as needed. 4. Click the OK to accept the changes and dismiss the dialog.

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To edit an Combined Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Combined Footing Job > Combined Footing Job: <job name> > Edit in the Main Navigation pane. The Data Input Wizard re-opens to allow for any changes. 2. Click the Edit button to exit the wizard and save the changes. The job is re-loaded with changes. The job must be re-designed for output to be updated with any changes.

To delete an Combined Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Combined Footing Job > Combined Footing Job: <job name> > Delete in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms the removal of the Combined Footing job. 2. Click Yes.

4.4.1 Combined Footing Setup page


Used to input general job data. The unit type selected will be applied through the remaining wizard pages.

Job Name This should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as

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"Combined Job." Design Code The following countries' design codes are available:
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US (default) British India Canadian Chinese Australia

Default Unit Type There are two types of Unit Type.


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English (default) SI

Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.4.2 Concrete and Rebar page


Used to input geometrical and material data. Unit types and bar sizes available in drop-down lists reflect the choices made on the Combined Job page.

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Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.4.3 Cover, Soil, & Safety page


Used to input the soil properties and soil type. Unit types available in dropdown lists reflect the choices made on the Combined Job page.

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Factor of Safety Against Overturning Specify a factor of safety against overturning. Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Above Footing Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable (?) capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units. Bottom Clear Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, Pedestal Dimensions table Table rows represent supports with the same numbers. Provide the pedestal dimensions for the corresponding support.
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Ped Ht - If a pedestal is used a this support, specify a height, in the selected units. Ped Depth - Specify a column (or pedestal, height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units. Ped Width - Specify a column (or pedestal, height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units.

Note: Pedestal Design is support for US (ACI 318) code only. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

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4.4.4 Footing Geometry page


Used to input geometry parameters used in design or checking.

Design Type There are two types of design one is calculate dimension another is set dimension:
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Calculate Dimension - The footing size will be checked and resized to the smallest size which meets all specified loads; ranging between the minimum and maximum dimensions provided (inclusive). Calculate dimension is set by default. Set Dimension - then the minimum dimensions will constitute the only footing size checked.

Minimum Left / Right Overhand Specify the minimum overhang length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Fixed Width / Left Overhang / Right Overhang Select if these values are fixed lengths or if they will be optimized during the design. Column Distance Specify the distance between the columns (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Width User Manual 307

Specify the width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Thickness Specify the thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Maximum Length (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Z axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Thickness (Calculate only) Specify the maximum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Length Increment (Calculate only) Specify the length and width increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. This allows you control over how to step footing sizes in design results. Thickness Increment (Calculate only) Specify the thickness increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.4.5 Load page


Used to provide support force and moment values applied to the combined footing. Both supports have a load table.

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Moment / Force Unit Units for force and Moment. Load tables Each line of the load table represents a separate primary load case. Note: Refer to the sketch on the load page for applied load sign conventions. In particular, note that negative Y represents applied gravity load.
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Fx- Value of Load applied to the X direction. Fy - Value of Load applied to the Y direction. Fz- Value of Load applied about the Z direction. Mx- Value of Moment applied about the X direction. Mz - Value of Moment applied about the Z direction. Loading Type - Select a class of load (i.e. - dead, live, wind, seismic, etc.) from the drop-down list.

< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.4.6 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job. Finish Completes the Wizard and adds the new Combined Footing Job to the

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active project file.

4.5 Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation


The Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation Wizard is a step-by-step process to parametrically create a reinforced concrete dead man anchor block footing, typically used in tower guy anchors. Complete the data fields on each page and then click Next to proceed. Once you are finished, click the Finish button to complete the wizard.

4.5.1 Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation Job page


Used to input general job data. The unit type selected will be applied through the remaining wizard pages.

Job Name

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This should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as "Dead Man Anchor Guy Job." Design Code Dead man anchors may only be designed using the US code. Default Unit Type There are two types of Unit Type.
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English (default) SI

Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation Job.

4.5.2 Design Parameters page


Used to input geometrical and material data. Unit types and bar sizes available in drop-down lists reflect the choices made on the Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation Job page.

Concrete Strength Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Rebar Steel 312 STAAD Foundation

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Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Guy Rod Steel Strength Specify the yield strength of steel guy rod, in the selected units. Size of Top Rebar Select the size of reinforcing bar to be used along the top face of the dead man anchor. Size of Rebar Ties Select the size of reinforcing bar to be used in the ties (stirrups). Size of Rebar in Front Face Select the size of reinforcing bar to be used along the front face of the dead man anchor. Quantity of Top Rebar Specify the number of reinforcing bars to be used along the top face of the dead man anchor. Quantity of Rebar in Front Face Specify the number of reinforcing bars to be used long the front face of the dead man anchor. Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the rebar ties, in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Dead Man Anchor Foundation Job.

4.5.3 Load page


Used to input loads on foundation and factor of safety for design.

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Force Unit Select the type of units in which the force is given. Load options There are two methods for entering in the load: by magnitude and direction (By Slope) or by vector components (By Force).
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By Slope - Specify the Tension Force value, in selected units, and Slope, in degrees. By force - Specify Horizontal and Vertical components of force subjected to foundation, with selected force units.

Uplift Safety Factor Specify a factor of safety against uplift Horizontal Safety Factor Specify a factor of safety against sliding. Ultimate Load Factor Specify a factor of safety against ultimate (factored) loads. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Dead Man Anchor Foundation Job.

4.5.4 Footing Geometry page


Used to input geometry of the footing.

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Dead Man Block Height Vertical dimension of dead man anchor block, in the selected units. Dead Man Block Width Horizontal dimension of dead man anchor block, in the selected units. Dead Man Block Length Out-of-page/screen dimension of dead man anchor block, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Depth from finished grade to the water table, in the selected units. Depth of Bottom of Dead Man Depth from finished grade to the bottom of the dead man anchor, in the selected units. Dimension of Toe Specify the dimension of toes, in the selected units. Soil Wedge Angle Specify the angle of soil wedge, in degrees. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Dead Man Anchor Foundation

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Job.

4.5.5 Soil Profile page


Used to input a Soil Profile.

Unit Units for Soil Layer Depth, Soil Cohesion (undrained shear strength) and Soil Density. Soil Layers table The soil profile is input via a table, with each row representing a different layer of soil. Soil Type - Select the type that best describes the contents of the selected layer. Depth - Depth for each soil layer is measured from Ground Elevation (GE, by default 0ft) to top of the ground surface to the bottom of each layer. Friction Angle - This is an input for Effective Friction Angle (Soil-Pile Friction Angle) for cohesionless soil layer (such as sand, gravel, or rock). The unit of Friction Angle is in degrees.

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Note: It is assumed that the soils Angle of Internal Friction equal to the Effective Friction Angle. Cohesion - The undrained shear strength of the soil. For cohesion soils, such as clays and silts. Average Density - This is an input for average soil density for the respective soil layer. Note: If the water table is located within a soil layer, soil layer should be split into two parts with different soil densities. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Dead Man Anchor Foundation Job.

4.6 Drilled Pier


STAAD Foundation can design reinforced concrete drilled pier foundations capable of carrying axial load only using the Toolkit. Shafts may be straight or have a sloped bell.

For information on the methodology used by STAAD Foundation on the capacity checks used for drilled piers, refer to Section 8.12.

4.6.1 Drilled Pier Job page


Used to input general job data.

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Job Name Should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as Drilled Pier Job. Design Method There are three methods for analyzing/designing drilled pier:
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API Method (based on API RP 2A-WSD) FHWA 1999 Method (based on FHWA-IF-99-025) Vesic method (based on Design of Pile Foundations, by A.S. Vesic, 1977 - National Transportation Research Board, National Research Council)

Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled Pier Job.

4.6.2 Drilled Pier Geometry page


Used to input geometry of the drilled pier.

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Shaft Profile STAAD Foundation can design both Straight and (angle) Belled drilled piers. The BD, ST, and BT dimensions are only used for Belled shafts. Pier Ht Above Ground (PG) Measured from ground elevation to top of shaft, with selected units. Shaft Diameter (SD) Diameter of main shaft, with selected units. Pier Height (PH) Total pier height, measured from top of shaft above ground to bottom of bell (if present) or shaft bearing end, , with selected units. Water Level (WL) Measured from Ground Elevation (GE), with selected units. Ground Elevation (GE) Arbitrary elevation value, with selected units. Bell Diameter (BD) (Belled only) Diameter of belled shaft end, with selected units. Slope Thickness (ST) (Belled only) The height of the sloped portion of the bell, with selected units. Bell Thickness (BT) (Belled only) Height of bell from bottom to toe of sloped portion, with selected units. < Previous

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Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled Pier Job.

4.6.3 Soil Profile page


Used to input all the relevant Soil Profile data.

Elasticity of Soil Young's modulus for soil in the layer containing the tip (bearing)(Es), in the selected units. Note: The default value of 0.3 ksi may be high for some loose sands or soft clays, but is generally conservative for most soils used for drilled pier tips. Number of Layers Specify the number of soil layers to be added to the table. Note: If the water table is located within a soil layer, soil layer should be split into two parts. Generate Table 320 STAAD Foundation

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Click to generate a table with a number of rows corresponding to the No. of Layers specified. Warning: If data has already been added to the table, clicking this button again will delete the current data and rebuild the table. Depth / Cohesion / Density Unit Units used for Soil Layer Depth, Soil Cohesion (undrained shear strength) and Soil Density in the Soil Profile table cells. All cells in a column must be entered in the same type of units. Soil Profile Table Column Soil Type Description Select the soil type that best describes the layer
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(API Method) Select from Clay, Silt, Sand, Gravel, Sand-Silt and Others (FHWA Method) Select from Clay and Sand. Clay is selected in case of cohesive soil and either of Silt, Sand, Gravel, Sand-Silt is chosen for Cohesionless soil.

Density Type

(API method) Select soil density from Very Loose, Loose, Medium, Dense, Very Dense. Selection is used to determine Nq values from Table 6.4.3-1 "Design Parameters for Cohesionless Siliceous Soil"

Depth

Depth for each soil layer is measured from Ground Elevation (GE, by default 0ft) to top of the respective soil layer. Effective Friction Angle (Soil-Pile Friction Angle) for cohesionless soil layer, in degrees. It is assumed that the soils Angle of Internal Friction equal to the Effective Friction Angle.

Friction Angle

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Column Cohesion Avg. Density

Description Undrained shear strength of a cohesive soil. Average soil density for the respective soil layer. Note: If the water table is located within a soil layer, soil layer should be split into two parts with different soil densities.

N60

(FHWA Method) Input for design value for SPT (Standard Penetration Test) blow count, taken as average value within the soil layer. Unit for N60 is B/ft (Blows/ft).

< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled Pier Job.

4.6.4 Load page


Used to input load, factors of safety and resistance parameters.

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Axial Load Load along axial direction, in the selected units. Note: A positive value indicates a compressive force and a negative value indicates an uplift force. End bearing Factor of safety for base resistance. Skin Friction Factor of safety for side resistance. Tip Resistance for Axial Capacity Percentage of base resistance (end bearing) force to be considered in axial capacity. Skin Resistance for Axial Capacity Percentage of the maximum skin friction that is being developed as a function of downward deflection of the pile, where that downward deflection has been normalized to units of pile diameters. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled Pier Job.

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4.6.5 Design Parameter page


Used to input the Material Properties, Critical Depth, & Neglected Soil Resistance parameters.

Rebar parameters
Rebar Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Modulus of Elasticity (Steel) Young's modulus for steel reinforcing bars (ES), in the selected units. Max Rebar Size Specify the maximum size of reinforcing bar to be used in the longitudinal reinforcement. Min Rebar Size Specify the minimum size of reinforcing bar to be used in the longitudinal reinforcement. Max Spiral Reinf Size Specify the maximum size of reinforcing bar to be used in the spiral ties.

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Concrete parameters
Concrete Strength Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'C ), in the selected units. Modulus of Elasticity (Concrete) Young's modulus for steel reinforcing bars (EC), in the selected units. Concrete Density Specify a unit weight to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Concrete Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for spiral ties, in the selected units.

General Parameters
Critical Depth Ratio calculation Select Calculate to have the program determine the Critical Depth Ratio or User Input to specify a Critical Depth Ratio in the following field. Critical Depth Ratio (User Input only)Soil depth at which vertical stress appears to become constant is known as the Critical Depth. This value is the ratio of critical depth to the pier diameter. Typical range of critical depth ratio lies from 10 to 20.

Neglected Soil Resistance Zone


Neglected soil zone at top at bottom are regions excluded from skin friction calculation. Neglected Top Soil Layer for Skin Friction For top layer skin friction, typically first five feet are neglected. Additionally, any backfill layer should be neglected for skin friction. Neglected Bottom Soil Layer for Skin Friction For bottom layer skin friction, in case of Straight pier profile typically soil layer equal to one pier diameter thickness is neglected and in the case of Belled pier profile, a soil layer equal to sum of bell periphery and pier diameter is neglected. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel User Manual 325

Exits the Wizard without creating a new Drilled Pier Job. Finish Completes the Wizard and adds the new Drilled Pier Job to the active project file.

4.7 Pile Cap


The Pile Cap Wizard is a step-by-step process to parametrically create a foundation supported on piles. Complete the data fields on each page and then click Next to proceed. Once you are finished, click the Finish button to complete the wizard.

4.7.1 Pile Cap Job page


Used to input general job data. The unit type selected will be applied through the remaining wizard pages.

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Job Name This should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as Pile Cap Job. Design Code The following countries' design codes are available:
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US (default) British Indian

Default Unit Type There are two types of Unit Type.


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English (default) SI

Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job.

4.7.2 Load page


Used to provide support force and moment values applied to the pile cap.

Moment / Force Unit Units for force and Moment.

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Load table Each line of the load table represents a separate primary load case. Note: Refer to the sketch on the load page for applied load sign conventions. In particular, note that negative Y represents applied gravity load.
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Fx- Value of Load applied to the X direction. Fy - Value of Load applied to the Y direction. Fz- Value of Load applied about the Z direction. Mx- Value of Moment applied about the X direction. Mz - Value of Moment applied about the Z direction. Loading Type - Select a class of load (i.e. - dead, live, wind, seismic, etc.) from the drop-down list.

< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job.

4.7.3 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

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Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
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Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell.

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Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue. To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job.

4.7.4 Design Parameters page


Used to input geometrical and material data. Unit types and bar sizes available in drop-down lists reflect the choices made on the Pile Cap Job page.

Column / Pedestal Depth

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Specify a column (or pedestal, if height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units. Note: Pedestal Design is support for US (ACI 318) code only. Column / Pedestal Width Specify a column (or pedestal, if height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the Z axis), in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Wt of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete (wC), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Side Cover (Cs) Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the sides of the pile cap reinforcement, in the selected units. Bottom Clear Cover (Cb) Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of pile cap reinforcement above the piles, in the selected units. Pile in Pile Cap (Cp) The distance from the bottom of the pile cap to the top of the piles, in the selected units. Initial Thickness The minimum thickness used in design, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Pedestal Height Height of a pedestal used at the support, taken from top of pile cap, in the selected units. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel

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Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job.

4.7.5 Pile layout (Predefined) page


Used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap using sets of predefined pile layouts. These allow the program to automatically choose the best possible pile arrangement.

Pile Arrangement for Support Select a support from the current job for which you would like to input pile arrangement.

Pile Capacity
The Pile Capacity group box allows you to input the forces that a pile is meant to bear. Unit Select the force unit used for Pile Capacity parameters. Lateral Specify the lateral force a pile is meant to bear. Vertical Specify the vertical force a pile is meant to bear. Uplift Specify the uplifting force a pile is meant to bear.

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Pile Dia Diameter of a pile, in the selected units. Spacing Spacing between piles, in the selected units. Edge Distance Distance between the edges of the pile cap and edge piles, in the selected units. Show Loading on Support Opens the Load Table for Support <#> dialog, which displays the total loading on the support for each load case selected under Support for Pile Arrangement.

Pile Arrangement Type


The Pile Arrangement Type group box allows you to input the coordinates for a pile arrangement or have STAAD Foundation calculate a pile arrangement automatically. Auto Arrangement The Auto Arrangement radio option allows you to have STAAD Foundation calculate the pile arrangement. In order to have STAAD Foundation calculate the pile arrangement, select Auto Arrangement and click on the Calculate button. A window will appear displaying all possible pile arrangements corresponding to the pile loads in all the load cases according to the BOCA standard. Calculate Opens a window displaying all possible pile arrangements corresponding to the pile loads in all the load cases according to the BOCA standard when the Auto Arrangement radio option is selected. Given below is the figure of possible pile arrangement.

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Show Pile Reactions The Show Pile Reactions button opens a table displaying the reaction on each pile. The figure below shows the pile reaction table.

Select Arrangement The Select Arrangement button allows you to select the current pile

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arrangement for the design of the pile cap. If you do not want to use the current pile arrangement, recalculate the arrangement. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Note: If you are using the predefined pile layout method, do not enter any values into the Pile Layout (Parametric) page. Simply click Finish. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job.

4.7.6 Pile layout (Parametric) page


Used to specify pile arrangement for a pile cap by entering rectangular and circular pile arrangements. Note: If circular arrangement is chosen, the program will design that pile cap as Octagonal Pile Cap.

Pile Arrangement for Support Used to select a support from the current job for which you would like to

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input pile arrangement. Spacing selection Select to use either a Row Spacing or Column spacing for Rectangular layout. Pile Data Used to input the forces that a pile is meant to bear. Unit The Unit drop-down list box allows you to select the force unit used for Pile Capacity and length unit used for spacing, diameter, edge distance etc. Lateral Specify the lateral capacity of a pile. Vertical Specify the vertical capacity of a pile. Uplift Specify the uplifting capacity of a pile. Dia Diameter of a pile. Edge The Edge Distance field allows you to specify the distance between the edges of a pile. Arrangement Type Pile arrangement can be either rectangular or circular. Pile cap having circular arrangement will be design as octagonal pile cap. Rectangular arrangement needs following inputs,
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Number of Rows Number of Columns Row Spacing Column Spacing

By default program will create symmetric pile arrangement from the above input but user can change the default setup by editing the table below. Both row and column grid lines can be adjusted by selecting appropriate radio button. Circular arrangement needs following inputs as shown below.
l

Number of Piles Total number of piles, excluding the center pile (if option is selected).

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Number of Layers Number of concentric circles in the circular arrangement. Pile Spacing Minimum spacing between piles Use Center Pile Select this option to add a pile at center of pile arrangement.

By default, program will try to assign equal number of piles for all concentric circular layers. The arrangement can be edited using the table below. Create Pile Arrangement Creates the pile layout and opens a dialog box to display the pile coordinates table and a figure. Note: Pile coordinates in this table are editable.

Delete Row - Click to delete the current row from the pile coordinate table and figure. Select Current Arrangement Once a satisfactory pile layout has been found, click the Select Current Arrangement button to select and apply that layout. The program will check the pile reaction against pile capacity to make sure pile reactions do not exceed pile capacity values. Show Pile Reactions The Show Pile Reactions button opens a table displaying the reaction on each pile. The figure below shows the pile reaction table.

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< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Pile Cap Job. Next > Completes the Wizard and adds the new Pile Cap Job to the active project file.

4.8 Ribbed Beam Footing


The Ribbed Beam Footing Wizard is a step-by-step process to parametrically create a Ribbed Beam footing. Complete the data fields on each page and then click Next to proceed. Once you are finished, click the Finish button to complete the wizard.

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To create an Ribbed Beam Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Project Info > Create Ribbed(Beam) Footing in the Main Navigator pane. The Data Input Wizard for an Ribbed Beam Footing opens. 2. Input the parameters on each page and click Next > to proceed. Hint: You may jump to any step using the table of contents found on the left side of each wizard dialog page or move to the prior page by clicking < Previous. 3. Repeat through all input pages until the Finish button is enabled. 4. Click the Finish button to exit the wizard. The new Ribbed Beam Footing job is added to the project in the Main Navigator pane.

To design an Ribbed Beam Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Ribbed Beam Footing Job > Ribbed Beam Footing Job: <job name> > Design in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms you want to proceed with designing the Ribbed Beam Footing job. 2. Click Yes. The progress of the foundation design is displayed in the Output pane. The Status bar also provides feedback on the progress of each step. Once the process is complete, the program will automatically display a Design Summary table in the Output pane and the detailed design calculations in the Calculation Sheet tab of the View window.

To edit an individual Ribbed Beam Footing dimension


Individual Ribbed Beam Footing dimensions can be edited. 1. Click the Geometry tab in the Graphics Window. 2. Click one of the dimensions on the drawing. A dimension dialog opens to display the current value and their units. User Manual 339

3. Make changes as needed. 4. Click the OK to accept the changes and dismiss the dialog.

To edit an Ribbed Beam Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Ribbed Beam Footing Job > Ribbed Beam Footing Job: <job name> > Edit in the Main Navigation pane. The Data Input Wizard re-opens to allow for any changes. 2. Click the Edit button to exit the wizard and save the changes. The job is re-loaded with changes. The job must be re-designed for output to be updated with any changes.

To delete an Ribbed Beam Footing job using the toolkit


1. Select Edit Ribbed Beam Footing Job > Ribbed Beam Footing Job: <job name> > Delete in the Main Navigation pane. A dialog confirms the removal of the Ribbed Beam Footing job. 2. Click Yes.

4.8.1 Design Philosophy


In current release of the program Grade beam (ribbed beam) foundation is only supported for Indian code. For Grade Beam (Ribbed Beam) footing, Service Design, soil bearing check and overturning check is same as combined footing(only the self wt of Beam and & UDL on beam are considered and volume of beam projected inside soil is excluded to calculate soil weight properly) For ultimate design (factored design), entire longitudinal moment (Sagging & Hogging) and shear force are resisted by beam. Slab portion only resist transverse moment & shear force (As an inverted cantilever slab projected from both side face of Beam)

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Beam Design is strictly done as Balanced Section Design. Over Reinforced Section is not allowed. Program will automatically choose single layer/double layer Reinforcement according to the requirement. Stirrup Calculation is done when shear force is more than c.b.d. For other case only nominal stirrup would be provided. Concrete & Steel Bond safety is checked in working stress method.

4.8.2 Ribbed (Beam) Footing Job Setup page


Used to input general job data. The unit type selected will be applied through the remaining wizard pages.

Job Name This should be unique for each job. By default Job Name is set as "Ribbed(Beam) Footing." Design Code Ribbed beams may only be designed using the Indian code. Default Unit Type Ribbed beams may only use SI units. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Ribbed Beam Footing Job.

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4.8.3 Concrete And Rebar page


Used to input geometrical and material data. Unit types and bar sizes available in drop-down lists reflect the choices made on the Ribbed Beam Job page. Note: Only Metric rebar sizes are available for ribbed beam foundation.

Unit Weight of Concrete Specify a density to be used for concrete, in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Spacing Specify the minimum and maximum distances to be allowed between reinforcing bars, in the selected units. Strength of Concrete Specify the ultimate strength of the concrete (f'c), in the selected units. Yield Strength of Steel Specify the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars (fy), in the selected units. Minimum / Maximum Bar Size Select the minimum and maximum allowed reinforcing bar sizes to be used in the design. Sizes listed correspond to the < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step.

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Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.8.4 Cover, Soil, and Safety page


Used to input the soil properties and soil type. Unit types available in dropdown lists reflect the choices made on the Ribbed Beam Job page.

Factor of Safety Against Overturning Specify a factor of safety against overturning. Unit Weight of Soil Specify a density to be used for the soil, in the selected units. Depth of Soil Above Footing Specify the depth from soil surface to the top of footing, in the selected units. Soil Bearing Capacity Specify the allowable (?) capacity of the soil, in the selected units. Surcharge for Loading Specify a surcharge loading above the footing, in the selected units.

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Note: For surcharge calculation only the cantilever portion of slab projected from each side of beam are to be considered. While calculation of soil weight above footing STAAD Foundation engine automatically excludes beam volume and pedestal volume for accurate estimation of soil weight. Bottom Clear Cover Specify a concrete clear cover distance to be used for the bottom-most layer of footing reinforcement, in the selected units. Depth of Water Table Specify the depth from soil surface to the water table, in the selected units. If water table is not to be considered for this footing, Pedestal Dimensions table Table rows represent supports with the same numbers. Provide the pedestal dimensions for the corresponding support.
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Ped Ht - If a pedestal is used a this support, specify a height, in the selected units. Ped Depth - Specify a column (or pedestal, height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units. Ped Width - Specify a column (or pedestal, height is specified) depth (dimension parallel to the X axis), in the selected units.

Note: Pedestal Design is support for US (ACI 318) code only. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Isolated Footing Job.

4.8.5 Footing Geometry page


Used to input spread footing geometry parameters used in design or checking.

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Design Type There are two types of design one is calculate dimension another is set dimension:
l

Calculate Dimension - The footing size will be checked and resized to the smallest size which meets all specified loads; ranging between the minimum and maximum dimensions provided (inclusive). Calculate dimension is set by default. Set Dimension - then the minimum dimensions will constitute the only footing size checked.

Minimum Left / Right Overhand Specify the minimum overhang length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Fixed Width / Left Overhang / Right Overhang Select if these values are fixed lengths or if they will be optimized during the design. Column Distance Specify the distance between the columns (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Width Specify the width (direction parallel to the Y axis) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Thickness User Manual 345

Specify the thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. For a Calculate Dimension design, this is used as the minimum dimension to check. Maximum Length (Calculate only) Specify the maximum length (direction parallel to the X axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Width (Calculate only) Specify the maximum width (direction parallel to the Z axis) to be used for the footing design, along with unit. Maximum Thickness (Calculate only) Specify the maximum thickness (direction parallel to the Z axis; or out-of plan dimension) to be used for the footing, along with unit. Length Increment (Calculate only) Specify the length and width increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. This allows you control over how to step footing sizes in design results. Thickness Increment (Calculate only) Specify the thickness increments to be used when performing footing design, along with unit. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Ribbed Footing Job.

4.8.6 Beam Geometry page


Used to input grade beam geometry parameters used in design or checking.

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Beam Loading - UDL On Beam Specify a uniform dead load applied over the length of the grade beam, in the selected units. For example, this may be the weight of a wall load over the beam. Min / Max Depth Enter the range of beam depth permissible for design, in the selected units. The design process will begin with the minimum depth and iterate designs up to and including the maximum depth specified. Note: Beam depth is taken from top of grade beam to bottom of spread footing. Beam Width Width of the beam above the spread footing, in the selected units. Min / Max Bars Size (Main Bar) Specify the range of permissible longitudinal reinforcing bar sizes. Min / Max Bars Size (Stirrup) Specify the range of permissible stirrup sizes. Stirrup Type Select the number of stirrup legs present in a cross section. Min / Max Spacing of Stirrup Specify the permissible range of stirrup spacing, in the selected units. < Previous

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Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Combined Footing Job.

4.8.7 Load page


Used to provide support force and moment values applied to the ribbed footing.Both supports have a load table

Moment / Force Unit Units for force and Moment. Load tables Each line of the load table represents a separate primary load case. Note: Refer to the sketch on the load page for applied load sign conventions. In particular, note that negative Y represents applied gravity load.
l l l l

Fx- Value of Load applied to the X direction. Fy - Value of Load applied to the Y direction. Fz- Value of Load applied about the Z direction. Mx- Value of Moment applied about the X direction.

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l l

Mz - Value of Moment applied about the Z direction. Loading Type - Select a class of load (i.e. - dead, live, wind, seismic, etc.) from the drop-down list.

< Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Next > Proceeds the Wizard to the next step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Ribbed Footing Job.

4.8.8 Load Combination page


Used to generate combinations of primary load cases for use in analysis and design. Two types of load combinations are used here. They are Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. You can create any number of load combinations.

Update Table Default load combinations are saved in external data files (ACILOAD.INI files). Clicking the Update Table button saves any changes made to the associated table to the file as a default. Otherwise, any changes are saved in the active project file only. Delete

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Removes the selected row (load combination) from the associated table. Note: To delete any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after deleting. Allowable Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination tables Each row in a table represents the ID for a different load combination.
l

Index - The first column indicates the index of the load combination. toggle - Select the check boxes of the combination which you want to use. Load Type columns - Primary Load cases are assigned a load type, each of which is represented by a separate column in the load combination tables. Enter the load combination factor for a given load type in the cell. Hint: The cell with zero values appears in gray color where as with values other than zero it appears in blue.

To add a new load combination to the table, add factors to the last (empty) row. Note: To add or change any combination from the default list (kept in an external .INI file) you need to click the Update Table button after making changes. < Previous Steps the Wizard to the previous step. Cancel Exits the Wizard without creating a new Ribbed Footing Job. Finish Completes the Wizard and adds the new Ribbed Footing Job to the active project file.

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Creating Reports and Drawings


5.1 Creating Detailed Calculations Sheets
STAAD Foundation creates a set of detailed calculations for each design. These include equations and code references for each check performed. These can be output to hard copy. Hint: If changes have been made to a job, you will need to re-analyze and/or re-design the job before printing the calculations. Otherwise, these changes will not be reflected in the output.

5.1.1 Printing a set of calculations


1. Perform an analysis/design on the job for which you want to print calculations. 2. Click Calculation Sheet tab in the View window. 3. Scroll to the bottom of the Calculation Sheet.

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4. Click Print Calculation Sheet. The Print dialog box opens. 5. Click the OK button.

5.2 Create Drawing Files for use with CAD software


STAAD Foundation can generate construction drawings for use in your organization's deliverables. These drawing are produced using tools found in the Main View window Detail Drawing and GADrawing tabs.

5.2.1 Creating a detail plan and elevation drawing for a foundation


1. Create a foundation job. 2. Perform the design. Hint: You can group isolated footings to control the number of different designs. 3. Select the Detail Drawing tab in the Main View window. 4. Select the option for Detail Drawing. 5. Select the footing you want to display (if multiple footings are included in this job). 6. (Optional) Click Save Drawing Notes to customize the Detail Drawing notes for the foundation type. 7. Click Save Drawing As. The Save Drawing As dialog opens. 8. Specify a name for the drawing and select the location where it will be saved. 9. Click Save.

5.2.2 Creating a foundation schedule (table) for a foundation job


1. Create a foundation job. 2. Perform the design.

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Hint: You can group isolated footings to control the number of different designs. 3. Select the Detail Drawing tab in the Main View window. 4. Select the option for Schedule Drawing. 5. (Optional) Click the Save Drawing Notes button to customize the Detail Drawing notes for the foundation type. 6. Click Save Drawing As. The Save Drawing As dialog opens. 7. Specify a name for the drawing and select the location where it will be saved. 8. Click Save.

5.2.3 Creating a general arrangement drawing for a foundation job


1. Create a foundation job. 2. Perform the design. Hint: You can group isolated footings to control the number of different designs. 3. Select the GADrawing tab in the Main View window. 4. Click Save Drawing As. The Save Drawing As dialog opens. 5. Specify a name for the drawing and select the location where it will be saved. 6. Click Save.

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Section 6

Integration with External Programs


6.1 Working with STAAD.Pro
In most cases the forces and moments on the foundation are given by the analysis of the superstructure. To ensure a seamless and efficient integration with the analysis software, STAAD Foundation includes an Import facility built into the program. This option allows you to import the support co-ordinates and forces/moments on the individual supports from a structural analysis software program. Similarly, STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) release 20.07.07 and later include a Foundation Design mode which can be used to export and update structural model data into STAAD Foundation. This option can be used to exchange the same data as the import Note: You must first perform an analysis and design on a STAAD.Pro model in STAAD.Pro before importing the model into STAAD Foundation.

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6.1.1 Things to Consider When Using STAAD.Pro


When a STAAD.Pro model is imported, the reaction signs are as per STAAD.Pro. STAAD.Pro does not report signs for SRSS method, hence there is no way for STAAD Foundation to have signs for SRSS load case. Importing from different STAAD models in one foundation file is possible providing node numbers for supports are different, once the first model is imported, use the update model command to import remaining model. Hint: For rigid foundations (i.e., isolated, combined, pilecap, etc.) the supported nodes in the STAAD.Pro model should be oriented to the top of the footing. However, for mat foundations, the supported nodes in the STAAD.Pro model should be modeled at the bottom of the footing.

6.1.2 Copy and paste STAAD.Pro load type using Excel


Using Excel is very advantageous as you can drag and drop load type for multiple loads. 1 in the first column stands for ticked checkbox, you can simply exclude the load cases by setting the value in first column as 0.

6.1.3 Initiating STAAD.Pro import from the Command Line


If you are programming routines and want to automate the import of STAAD.Pro output into STAAD Foundation, you can do so through the Windows Command Line. The following syntax is used: <location of STAAD Foundation executable> <location of the STAAD.Pro input file> So, for example, if you STAAD Foundation program is located in C:\STAAD Foundation V5.2\ and your STAAD.Pro input file is C:\SproV8i\STAAD\Examp\US\examp08.std, the following command may be used: C:/STAAD Foundation v5.2/staadfoundation C:/SproV8i\STAAD\Examp\US\examp08.std

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6.1.4 Importing data from STAAD.Pro


1. Select the Import STAAD.Pro file tool from the Home ribbon tab.

Note: You may be asked to save any changes made to the current STAAD Foundation project. The STAAD.Pro File Import dialog box opens. 2. Select the STAAD input file (file extension .std) from which you want to import data. 3. Click Open.

6.1.5 Exporting from Within STAAD.Pro


The following procedure is used to export all supports and load cases to STAAD Foundation from within STAAD.Pro. Options are available to export portions of the structure or only select loads. 1. Perform a successful analysis in STAAD.Pro. 2. Select Mode > Foundation Design. or Select the Foundation Design mode tab. The Foundation page opens. 3. In the Foundation Design Options dialog, select the Use All Supports option is it is not already selected. 2. Click the Include All button to transfer all Available Load Cases to the Selected Load Cases List. 3. Click the Start button to open STAAD Foundation and import all STAAD.Pro support data and results Note: For additional information on using the Foundation Design mode, refer to section 6 of the STAAD.Pro Graphical Environment help.

6.2 Working with spreadsheet programs


Spreadsheets are one of key formats used by structural engineers to exchange data, produce results, process data, etc. STAAD Foundation incorporates this need with a tight integration with spreadsheet formats.

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STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i supports Microsoft database format. With this feature, STAAD Foundation files (file extension .afs) can be linked to various Microsoft Office components. STAAD Foundation also includes a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet file which can be used to setup single or multiple jobs through a spreadsheet program (capable of reading/writing the Microsoft Office Excel 2003 .xls file format). Detailed program output can be saved in a spreadsheet file in the Excel XMLformat (file extension .xml) for post-processing and detailed results verification. Copy and paste to and from spreadsheets is supported in tables within the program.

This also can be used as a means to input data from various CAD programs or analysis packages. The data can output to those programs and then copy from the spreadsheet and then pasted into STAAD Foundation.

6.2.1 Import Foundation Input from a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet


STAAD Foundation includes a set of tools which can be used as an alternate interface to quickly enter in multiple jobs simultaneously for a General Foundation mode project. Note: You may download a new copy of the spreadsheet from the Be Communities site at http://communities.bentley.com/products/structural/structural_ analysis___design/m/structural_analysis_and_design_ gallery/default.aspx. This feature can be used as flexible means to import geometry, loads, and other data from virtually any structural analysis & design software. By creating Microsoft Office Excel macros, this process can be streamlined for reuse in your organization.

Input data into the spreadsheet


1. Open the Multiple Jobs Excel Input.xls spreadsheet. 2. (Optional) Save the file in a new location.

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Hint: You may want to save the file under a different name (e.g., the physical project's name or your companies job number). 3. Select the Units you want to use on the Units tab. 4. Global data is entered on the first set of spreadsheet tabs: a. Set the number and location of X- and Z- axis grids on the Grid Tables tab. Hint: The correct number of grids will be highlighted in both tables. Values in gray cells will not be imported into STAAD Foundation. b. Node coordinates and column / pedestal data are entered on the Support Data tab. c. Load case data is entered on the Load Table tab. d. Column reaction loads are entered on the Loads tab. 5. Enter the local data for all of the job types you want to add to your STAAD Foundation project. Data entry is analogous to the type of foundation for each tab: l Isolated Foundation l Combined Foundation l Mat Foundation l Pile Cap Job Hint: Right click and delete tabs for foundation types you won't need in your project to prevent any unnecessary data being imported. 6. Save the spreadsheet and exit Excel.

Import multiple job datasets into a STAAD Foundation project


STAAD Foundation follows predefined format for importing data from spreadsheets. 1. Select the Import Excel tool. A Windows open dialog opens, with the filter set for Microsoft Office Excel Files (.XLS file extension). 2. Navigate to the folder where the copy of Multiple Jobs Excel Input.xls was saved.

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Note: If you have not saved a copy of Multiple Jobs Excel Input.xls, it will be located in the save folder where STAAD Foundation was installed. The default directory path is C:\Staad.foundation 6\ Warning: It is recommended to save a copy of Multiple Jobs Excel Input.xls to a different location on your computer or network so as the original may be re-used as a template. 3. Click Open. The project data is imported. For each foundation type tab included in the spreadsheet, a new job is created.

Export data into a spreadsheet


The current STAAD Foundation project can be exported to a spreadsheet file. This can be useful to easily make large amounts of changes to the input data (structure, geometry, loads, etc.). The resulting input can be re-imported into your STAAD Foundation project file or used to create a new project file. 1. Click the Export to Spreadsheet tool on the Home ribbon tab. The STAADFoundation Export to Excel File dialog box opens. 2. Select a location an type a name for your file, with the file extension .xml. 3. Click Open. Exported file is saved in the Excel XML format and can be opened using Microsoft Office Excel.

6.2.2 Detailed Output to Spreadsheets


STAAD Foundation offers detailed output in spreadsheet format for Isolated, Combined, Octagonal, and Strap foundations. The program analysis and design results for each load case are made available through detailed output. This features enables you to verify foundation design results at every single design step. For example, for each isolated footing STAAD Foundation Detailed Output provides tables showing each load case results for the following:
l l

Soil Bearing Pressure Overturning Pressure

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l l l

One Way Shear Punching Shear Moment and Reinforcement

6.2.3 Manually Inputting Data from an Excel spreadsheet


STAAD Foundation tables support copy and paste of spreadsheet data. This provides you with the ability to save commonly used data sets in an external spreadsheet file for re-use. Spreadsheets also offer greater power in creating complex relationships between values; thus allowing you to generate data points based on complex geometrical patterns.

The copied data must have same number of columns as the STAAD Foundation input table.

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Valid Data Types


The following tables contained in Data Input data or dialogs can be used to paste data:
l l l l l

l l l l l l

Linear grid Radial grid Column position Column dimension Add Self Weight - Multiplier values may be pasted from spreadsheet application. Applied Load Safety Factor Mat Foundation: Physical Beam table Mat Foundation:Pile Position table Mat Foundation: Pile Spring table Mat Foundation: Polyline region Mat Foundation: Edit Meshing region - Once a mat region has been created, it can then be transformed to any arbitrary shape by pasting coordinates into the Edit Meshing region dialog. Load Combination table - The checkbox column can also be manipulated by using a 1 to signify selected (checked) and 0 to signify unselected in the spreadsheet data. Hint: This facility can be particularly useful when importing a large number of load combinations from analysis software.

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Copying and pasting data from a spreadsheet to STAAD Foundation


1. Highlight the extents of the data in the spreadsheet program.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Copy the cell contents. Switch to the STAAD Foundation program. Open the form or dialog containing the table where data will be pasted. Select first cell of input table in either the Data Input form or dialog. Note: Make sure the whole cell is selected (blinking text line should not appear). Clicking the cell field away from the number

6. Press <CTRL+V> to paste the data into the table. Please refer to document for Neutral file format (xml read and write function) to explore more connectivity options with other software.

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Copying and pasting data from STAAD Foundation to a spreadsheet


Output tables generated by a successful analysis/design can be copied and pasted into a spreadsheet. 1. Perform an analysis/design on the STAAD Foundation job. Output tables are displayed on one or more tabs in the Output pane. 2. Select the cells, columns, or rows you want to copy. Hint: The entire table can be selected by clicking the top-left most heading cell. 3. Press <CTRL+C>. 4. Switch to the spreadsheet application. 5. Paste the contents into the spreadsheet.

6.3 Working with Neutral Files


STAAD Foundation V8i supports Neutral file (xml) format. With this feature, STAAD Foundation files (file extension .afs) can be exported to or imported from neutral file (.xml). This feature is developed focusing on integration of STAAD Foundation with any other program supporting xml format. With some programming help, STAAD Foundation can be seamlessly integrated with any in-house or third party package. e.g. Loading and geometry input from a piping software can be imported to STAAD Foundation using XML technology, batch import is also possible. STAAD Foundation V8i supports full import/export of isolated footing job to xml format, including design parameters. For other jobs, loading and geometry data can be imported/exported. Note: This feature can be further extended based on the user request. Please contact us through a service ticket at http://selectservices.bentley.com/en-US/

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6.3.1 Detailed Output


Several foundation types in the General mode are capable of saving detailed output to the open Microsoft Office Excel Excel XMLformat (.xml file extension). These files can be read by Microsoft Office Excel for post processing and use in custom reports. Hint: You can use various file conversion features of Microsoft Office Excel to save the detailed output into other formats, as well.

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Section 7

Quick Tour
The following is a short tutorial on using the General Foundations mode of STAAD Foundation. If this is the first time you have ever used the program, it is recommended that you perform this exercise to familiarize yourself with the program. This Quick Tour is a set of short example exercises that illustrate how to use STAAD.foundation to design several different types of foundations. The procedure for importing support co-ordinates and forces/moments on the individual supports from STAAD.Pro is also discussed.

7.1 Isolated Footing Example


In this example, you will create a new project to illustrate the process for designing an isolated foundation.

7.1.1 Creating a new general foundation project


1. Start STAAD Foundation, if you have not already done so. 2. Create a new General Foundation project file by either:

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Selecting New from the Application menu button or Press <CTRL+N> or Click the General Mode shortcut on the Start Page (in which case, step 3 is not used).

The Create New Project dialog box opens. 3. Select General Foundation, and click Open. The program window opens an empty project file in the General Foundation mode.

7.1.2 Entering Support Coordinates


1. To enter the coordinates for supports that construct the foundation plan of a project, click on the leaf called Column Position under Foundation Plan group in Main Navigator pane.

The Column Position table opens in the Data Area pane.

2. Input the support coordinates (0,0,0), (10,0,0), (10,0,10), (0,0,15),

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(14,0,0) and (5,0,5) for position numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively. The tab key or the arrow keys may be used to move from one cell to the next in the table. Hint: Make sure length unit is set as ft. To change/set current length unit, click the Set Input/Output Unit tool found in the Standard toolbar. Note: The supports along with their respective node numbers are displayed in the Graphics Window once you click on a cell outside of the row you are currently in.

7.1.3 Defining the Loads


This section uses the Loads &Factors leaf in the Main Navigator pane in conjunction with the Data area for entering load data.

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Create a Load Case


1. In order to define loads, please click on the Loads & Factors group in the Main Navigator pane.

The Load Description page opens in the Data Area pane. This page allows you to define loads for load cases, as well as assign loads. 2. Select Loads & Factors > Create New Load Case entry in Main Navigator. A form under the load description area will appear allowing you to create a new load case.

3. Enter Load Case 1 for Load Title. The Load Title allows you to give each load case a descriptive name to help identify between load cases. Leave the Load Type set as Primary. Note: Three load types are available: Primary, Service, and Ultimate. Primary loads can be further used to create combination loads.

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Service loads are not factored and are used for soil bearing pressure checks. Ultimate loads are factored and are used for shear and reinforcement design. 4. While creating a new load case, load items from an existing load case can be copied. As there are no defined load case yet, leave the Load Case No field as None. 5. Select No for the Add Self Weight field. 6. Click on the Add button to have the load case created. The new load case appears in the Load Description Tree in the Load pane.

7. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 and create a similar load cased titled Live Load.

Specify the loads imposed on our foundation by the columns.


1. Select the Loads & Factors > Add a Column Reaction Load entry in Main Navigator. or Right click on Load Case 1: Load Case 1 entry in the Load Description Tree and select Add Column Reaction Load from the pop-up menu. The Load Data pane opens a form for entering nodal load information.

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2. Enter a value of 5 for Fx, and a value of 5 for Fy field. 3. Then click on the Add button to accept the load input. Note: Negative and positive values follow the sign conventions of the axis system. Negative values are downward, compressive forces and positive values are upward, tensile forces. The load will now appear under the Column Reaction Loading folder in the Load Description pane. 4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 to add a column reaction load to the "Live Load" case with Fz = 10 kip.

Assign the load to all supports


1. Select the new column load in the Data Area pane by clicking on it.

2. Click the Assign button to have the load assigned to all the supports in the project. 3. Then select Assign To View from the drop-down list as the assignment method.

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The assigned loadings are displayed on the nodes in the graphics window. 4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 and assign the Live Load case to all supports in the view. Note: Alternatively, we could have selected all the supports in the Graphics window by clicking on them and then selected Assign To Selection. Or, we could have selected Assign To Edit List and then typed in the list of nodes for each support.

Load Combinations
If you have multiple load cases and want to combine them, you can use the Load Combination feature. 1. Click on the Create New Load Combination leaf under the Loads & Factors group in Main navigator pane. 2. To define serviceability and design factors for each load case in a project, you may use the Safety Factor Table. To bring up the Safety Factors page, click on the Safety Factors leaf under Loads and Factors group in Main Navigator pane. A table allowing you to input serviceability and design factors for each load case will be displayed in the Data Area pane.

By default, STAAD Foundation will assign values for the safety factors depending on the load type. Refer to section 4.3.3.2 for a detailed explanation of the default values. The default values can be changed by inputting new values into the table like any spreadsheet. The tab key or arrow keys may be used to move from one cell to the next in the table. The serviceability factor will be applied when checking the base pressure of a foundation (geotechnical design). The design factor will be used for design.

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7.1.4 Create an Isolated Footing Jobs


Now that all the global project data has been inputted, you have the ability to design the foundation using Isolated Supports, Pile Caps, Strip Footing or you could support the entire structure on a single Mat Foundation. You will not have to create separate input files for entering all this information. All you have to do is to create separate jobs under the same project. Use the following procedure to create a job: 1. Click on Job Setup > Create a New Job in the Main Navigator pane.

The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Area pane.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Enter the following values in the Job Info form (top half of the Data area): Enter Job1 for the Job Name. Select Isolated for the Job Type. Select Assign to all support for the Support Assignment method.

6. Click the Select All ( ) button to move all the load cases over to the Selected Load Cases list on the bottom of the page. 7. Click Create Job. A new leaf is added to the Main Navigation pane for the Isolated Footing job. Note: When there are multiple jobs and load cases in a project, you can quickly switch between jobs or loads using the tools in the Standard

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toolbar. Job settings of the selected job may be edited by clicking the Edit Current Job leaf under job setup group in Main Navigator pane.

7.1.5 Entering Design Parameters


When you begin a new project, only the Project Info, Foundation Plan, Loads and Factor and Job Setup groups will appear in the Main Navigator pane. The first three groups allow you to specify the physical model upon which the foundation design is to be performed. This data is global to all jobs which are created within a single project file. A fourth group (Job Setup) allows you to create a new job or edit an existing job. It is only when you create a New Job (a set of constraints for the program to use in performing a foundation design) that groups related to the current design process will appear. Now that you have created a job, a new group called Isolated Footing Job is created in the Main Navigator pane. This group allows you to enter design parameters like footing geometry, concrete cover, soil parameters etc. The data contained within this job is local to this isolated footing, but will make use of the common global data available to all jobs in the project file. For the purposes of this example, you can use the default values provided for all design parameter sections. The parameter sections are explained in detail in the General Foundation section.

Note: STAAD Foundation gives you the flexibility to check an existing foundation by specifying footing geometry like Length, Width and Thickness or design a new foundation where the program will calculate footing dimension.

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7.1.6 Performing an Isolated Footing Design


1. Either
l

select the Design/Analysis tool on the Home ribbon tab or select the Isolated Footing Job >Design Parameters >Design in Main Navigator pane.

A warning dialog opens to confirm you want to proceed with the design. 2. Click Yes. The progress of the foundation design is displayed in the Output pane. The Status bar also provides feedback on the progress of each step.

Once the process is complete, the program will automatically display a Design Summary table in the Output pane and the detailed design calculations in the Calculation Sheet tab of the View window.

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3. Either
l

select Save As from the Home ribbon tab or Press <CTRL-S>

to save the project. Provide a file name and locate the file where you would like it stored before clicking Save.

7.2 Mat Foundation Example


Note: STAAD.Pro must be installed on your computer before proceeding with this exercise. You will use STAAD.Pro US Example No. 8 for this example. STAAD Foundation will use the imported geometry and support reactions to design a mat foundation for the structure. You can only import a STAAD.Pro model that has been successfully analyzed, because you will want to have the support reactions available for the foundation design. So, if you have not already run the analysis for STAAD.Pro U.S. Example No. 8 open the example in STAAD.Pro (C:\Spro2007\STAAD\Examp\US\Examp\ Examp08.std), run the analysis, and then return to this Quick Tour.

7.2.1 Creating a New Job for a Mat Foundation


1. Click on Job Setup > Create a New Job in the Main Navigator pane. The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Area pane. 2. Enter a job name, choose Job Type as Mat, and Design Code as US.

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3. Click the button to include all the Load Cases. 4. Click the Create Job button. The new Mat Foundation job is added to the Main Navigator pane.

7.2.2 Defining the Mat Boundary


Now we would like to define the boundary of the mat. 1. Select Mat Foundation Job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing region > Add a rectangular region in the Main Navigator pane.

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The Rectangular Boundary form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. Set Unit as inch and input X1,Z1 as -30,-30. Enter a Length of 515 inches and Width of 345 inches. Leave the Y level as 0.0 as our support columns are all at the same elevation.

3. Click the Add Region button to create the mat boundary.

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Note: To make the rectangular boundary easier to see, you may want to toggle off the grid if it is currently displayed. Use the Toggle grid tool in the Standard toolbar or the Linear Grid setup form. Hint: Now it would be a good idea to save your model, since you have done a substantial amount of work to get to this point. Select File > Save or press CTRL+S.

7.2.3 Creating a Mesh


Now we are ready to add the boundary and create the mesh. 1. Select Mat Foundation Job > Mesh Generation > Meshing Setup in the Main Navigator pane.

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The Meshing Setup form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. In the Main View window, select the rectangular boundary region created in the previous step. The boundary is highlighted in red.

3. Select the Boundary option and specify a title for the boundary as the Region Identifier.

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Note: In this example project we will not create any holes in the mesh. 4. Click the Add Region button to add the rectangular region as a meshing boundary. 5. Select the Region Identifier name you entered from the Meshing setup tree. 6. Specify a maximum element size of 12 inches. 7. Click the Generate Mesh button. The Meshing Options dialog opens.

8. Select the option for Quadrilateral Meshing since our boundary is rectangular. Leave other options as their default. 9. Click OK. The mesh is automatically generated.

7.2.4 Specifying Slab Thickness


As this is a physical modeling system, slab thickness and soil properties are automatically assigned to the slab with default values. 1. Select Mat Foundation Job > Analysis Properties > Slab Thickness in the Main Navigation pane.

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The Slab Thickness form is displayed in the Data Input pane. 2. Specify an Analysis Thickness of 1.0 ft and a Design Thickness of 0.9167 ft (12 inches). 3. Select Mat Foundation Job > Mesh Generation > Soil Property in the Main Navigator pane.

The Soil Property form opens in the Data Input pane. 4. Select the option to Use Soil Spring.Leave the default value for the Subgrade Modulus.

7.2.5 Analyzing the Slab


We are ready to analyze the slab.

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Hint: Save your work one more time. 1. Select either: Mat Foundation job > Mat Slab analysis/design options > Analyze in the Main Navigator pane. or The Analyze / Design tool in the Standard toolbar. The progress of the analysis process is displayed in the Status Bar along with the steps being performed by the program in the Design Progress Report of the Output pane.

The analysis engine opens to display the progress of the finite element analysis.

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Once the analysis process is complete, the deformed shape of the slab is displayed.

2. By default the deformed plates showing the node displacements appear

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in the graphics display window. If the slabs deformed shape is not apparent in your graphics display, you may need to change the scaling values. Click on the toolbar for changing scale which will bring up Scale Setup page in data area pane.

3. Under the Result Scales category, decrease the Displacement value to increase the amount of deflection shown. Hint: Why do you decrease it to increase the deflection? The Displacement value in the dialog box is the actual displacement of the structure per unit distance on the graphic diagram. Therefore, if you reduce the amount of actual structural deflection required to display a unit distance of deflection on the diagram, you will see a larger apparent displacement on the diagram. After a successful analysis, the program will add several tables in the output pane below. 4. Click on the Displacement tab to view nodal displacement for current selected load case.

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This table lists the node displacement for the three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. 5. Click on Disp Summary tab to view node displacement summary for all six degrees of freedom among all load cases. Note: Maximum positive displacement in Y direction is 0.049418 in and maximum negative displacement is .792751 in.

6. Click on the Support Reactions tab to view soil pressure for the current load case. To view the maximum reaction among all load cases please click on Reaction Summary tab.

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7. To view soil pressure contour, please click on the Output View Options leaf under Mat slab design options group in main navigator pane.

The Output View Options form opens in the Data pane. 8. Select the Show Soil Pressure option to view the soil pressure contour in the View window.

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A soil pressure legend will be displayed at the left of the view pane along with the soil pressure contour. Please note, the maximum soil pressure for load case 1 is 4.556 kip/ft2. Also, minimum soil pressure is 0.0 which means that some part of the mat has lost contact with the soil and the program has distributed the pressure of that portion to the rest of the mat slab.

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9. We can easily verify the slabs loss of contact with the soil by reviewing Contact Area table. Please note for both load cases more than 80% of total area is in contact with the soil.

To review plates stresses please click on the Plate Stress and Plate Stress Summary pages. Please note that the stress summary page displays a maximum value 68.636 kip-ft/ft. Please note that all plate stress values are based on plate local axis system.

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10. To view plate stress contours please click on the Output View Options leaf under Mat slab design options group

A form will appear at data area pane. Please select Show Plate Stress radio button and then choose Global Mx stress type.

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The screen will look like the following figure. Please note that this contour is based on the global X axis.

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7.2.6 Slab Design


Now we go for designing the slab. Slab design in STAAD Foundation has three distinct parts. First step is to generate moment envelope. Next step is to design the slab and the last step is to create reinforcement zones for reinforcement layout. 1. Select Mat Foundation job > Mat slab analysis/design options > Moment envelope generation in the Main Navigator pane.

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The Moment Envelope Generation form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. Define the longitudinal axis of the slab by specifying Starting X / Z coordinates of 0,0 and Ending X/ Z coordinates of 100, 0.

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3. Select Use all load cases for the Select load type list. 4. Click the Generate Moment Envelope button to generate moment envelope. The program generates a finite number of discrete points which are used as design points. 5. Select Mat Foundation job >Mat slab analysis/design options >Design Parameters in the Main Navigator pane.

7.3 Pile Cap Example


In this example, you will create a new job inside this same project to illustrate the process for designing a pile cap.

7.3.1 Create a New Pile Cap Job


1. Click on Job Setup > Create a New Job in the Main Navigator pane. The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Area pane. 2. Enter a job name, choose Job Type as Pile Cap , and Design Code as US.

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3. Select support node 1 in Main View window. Support assignment type will be automatically switched to Assign to selected support. 4. Click the button to include all the Load Cases.

5. Click the Create Job button. The new Pile Cap Foundation job is added to the Main Navigator pane. The new job name also appears in the Job selection list in the Standard toolbar.

7.3.2 Entering Pile Data


To create pile arrangement please click on the Pile Layout(Predefined) leaf.

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1. Select Mat Foundation Job > Mesh Generation > Add Meshing region > Add a rectangular region in the Main Navigator pane

The Pile Arrangement Predefined form opens in the Data Input pane.

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2. Select support number 1 as the Support for Pile Arrangement 3. Input the following values for Pile Capacity: vertical = 60 kips, lateral = 40 kips, and uplift = 40 kips. 4. Input the following values for pile geometry data: pile diameter = 10 inches, Spacing = 36 inches, and Edge Distance = 24 inches Hint: The total loading on the support is shown if we click on the Show Loading On Support button. 5. Select Auto Arrangement and click the Calculate button. A pop-up list opens containing all possible regular pile arrangements which satisfy pile capacity criteria.

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6. Choose 4 Pile Arrangement in the list and click OK. The pile arrangement table is populated with the selected pile arrangement.

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7. (Optional) Click the Show Pile Reactions button to review the reaction on each pile. 8. Click the Select Arrangement button to select the arrangement for the design of this support's foundation.

7.3.3 Enter Pile Cap Design Parameters


1. Select Pile Cap Job > Design Parameters in the Main Navigator pane.

The Design Parameters form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. Enter the following design parameters in the form, ensuring that the correct units are displayed for each:
l l l l l l l l

Strength of Concrete: 4 ksi Yield Strength of Steel: 60 ksi Minimum Bar Size: 6 Maximum Bar Size: 11 Side cover (Cs): 4 in Bottom Cover (Cb): 3 in Pile in Pile Cap (Cp): 4 in Initial thickness: 18 in

7.3.4 Performing a Pile Cap Design


Now that the design parameters are entered, we are ready to perform the design. Hint: Now is a good time to save your work, if you haven't already done so.

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1. Select either: Pile Cap Job > Design in the Main Navigator pane. or The Analyze / Design tool in the Standard toolbar. The progress of the analysis process is displayed in the Status Bar along with the steps being performed by the program in the Design Progress Report of the Output pane. Once the analysis process is complete, a results table appears in the Output pane showing the pile cap dimensions and the bar size and spacing in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Note: The results are for only one of the six supports in the project because pile arrangements were selected for only support 1. The Calculation Sheet opens in the Main View window for reviewing the detailed code checks.

7.4 Strip Footing Example


In this example, you will create a new job inside this same project to illustrate the process for designing a strip footing.

7.4.1 Creating a Strip Footing Job


Now let us create a new job inside this same project to illustrate the process for designing a combined footing. 1. Click on Job Setup > Create a New Job in the Main Navigator pane. The Job Info and Loading forms open in the Data Input pane. 2. Enter job name as Strip1. 3. Choose Job type as Combined and design code as US.

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4. Click the

button to include all the Load Cases.

5. Click the Create Job button to create a new combined footing job. The new Strip Footing job is added to the Main Navigator pane. The new job name also appears in the Job selection list in the Standard toolbar. Additionally, strip footing controls appear in the Job Info form. 6. Select node 2 and 3 in Main View window. Nodes will be shown as selected as shown below.

7. Click Create from Selected Node in the . A tree view showing the support assignment will appear.

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The strip footing is graphically added between the two selected supports.

7.4.2 Entering Strip Footing Design Parameters


Now we need to input suitable design parameters. The input for both Concrete & Rebar and Cover, Soil, & Safety are as same as the previous isolated footing example. We will use the default parameters included in the program 1. Select Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Footing Geometry in the Main Navigator pane.

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The Footing Geometry form opens in the Data Input pane. 2. Select Calculate Dimensions for the Design Type. 3. Specify other footing dimensions as follows:
l l l l l l l

Minimum Left over hang length = 36 in Minimum Right over hang length = 36 in Minimum Width = 48 in Minimum Thickness = 12 in Maximum Length = 400 in Maximum Width = 400 in Maximum Thickness = 36 in

7.4.3 Performing a Strip Footing Design


Hint: Now is a good time to save your work, if you haven't already done so. 1. Select either: Combined Footing Job > Design Parameters > Design in the Main Navigator pane. or The Analyze / Design tool in the Standard toolbar. The progress of the analysis process is displayed in the Status Bar along with the steps being performed by the program in the Design Progress Report of the Output pane.

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Once the analysis process is complete, a results table appears in the Output pane showing the pile cap dimensions and the bar size and spacing in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Note: The results are for only one of the six supports in the project because pile arrangements were selected for only support 1. The Calculation Sheet opens in the Main View window for reviewing the detailed code checks. 2. Click the Graphs tab in the Main View window to display both Bending Moment and Shear Force diagrams.

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7.5 Conclusion
We hope you have enjoyed this Quick Tour of STAAD Foundation. If you would like additional assistance in learning how to use STAAD Foundation, there are many resources available to you. Within the Online Help facility, you will find documentation describing the program theory and a detailed description of every command in the program. You may also view a number of animated movie files that demonstrate how to perform various tasks. Additional STAAD Foundation learning resources are available at Bentley Systems, Inc. Web site at http://www.bentley.com/enUS/Products/STAAD.foundation/.

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Finally, we strongly encourage you to take advantage of Bentleys technical support service. Our support staff is most eager and willing to help you learn to use the program correctly. You may contact our STAAD Foundation technical support staff by visiting http://www.bentley.com/serviceticketmanager We hope you enjoy using the program and hope that it adds value and efficiency to your engineering endeavors. If you have any comments regarding the program, or suggestions on how it could be improved to better serve your needs, we would very much like to hear from you.

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8.1 Introduction to Finite Element Analysis
If you want to model a surface entity like a wall, a roof, or a slabwhere the load is distributed in more than one directionyou must use a surface entity to carry that kind of loading. The kind of entity that is used to model a beam or a column cannot be used to model a slab. A different entity referred to as a finite element is required. In a finite element analysis, a wall or a slab is subdivided into smaller parts consisting of triangles or quadrilaterals. Note: Finite elements are often referred to as plates. These two words may be used interchangeably for this purpose. The difference between a beam and a plate is a load that is applied to the beam must pass to one or both ends (supports).

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Figure 8-1: Beam model load distribution

In a plate, load is distributed through the elements to the edges, resulting in multiple load paths.
Figure 8-2: Plate model load distribution

STAAD Foundation uses plate elements in the modeling of mat foundations.

8.2 Element Load Specification


The following load specifications are available:
l

Joint loads at element nodes in global directions. Concentrated loads at any user specified point within the element in global or local directions. Uniform pressure on an element surface in global or local directions. Partial uniform pressure on a user specified portion of an element surface in global or local directions. Linearly varying pressure on an element surface in local directions.

8.3 Theoretical Basis


The STAAD plate finite element is based on hybrid finite element formulations. A complete quadratic stress distribution is assumed. For plane stress action, the assumed stress distribution is as follows.

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Figure 8-3: Assumed stress distribution

Complete quadratic assumed stress distribution:


1 x y 0 0 0 0 x 2 2xy 0 = 0 0 0 1 x y 0 y2 0 2xy 2 2 0 y 0 0 0 x 1 2 xy y x a1 a2 a3 M a10

sx sy txy

Where: a1 through a10 = constants of stress polynomials.

8.4 Element Local Coordinate System


The precise orientation of local coordinates is determined as follows:
l

The vector pointing from "A" to "B" is defined to be parallel to the local Xaxis. The cross product of vectors "AB" and "AC" defines a vector parallel to the local Z-axis, i.e., z = AB x AC. The cross product of vectors z and x defines a vector parallel to the local Yaxis, i.e., y = z x x. The origin of the axes is at the center (average) of the 4 joint locations (3 joint locations for a triangle).

Figure 8-4: STAAD plate element orientation for both Quatdrilateral and Triangular elements

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The sign convention of output force and moment resultants is illustrated in Section 2.6.

8.5 Output of Element Forces


ELEMENT FORCE outputs are available at the following locations:
l l l

Center point of the element. All corner nodes of the element. At any user specified point within the element.

The following is a list of the items included in the ELEMENT STRESS output: SQX, SQY Shear stresses (Force/ unit len./thk.) SX, SY, SXY Membrane stresses (Force/unit len./thk) MX, MY, MXY Bending moments per unit width (Moment/unit len.) SMAX, SMIN Principal stresses (Force/unit area) TMAX Maximum shear stress (Force/unit area) ANGLE Orientation of the principal plane (Degrees) VONT, VONB Von Mises stress, where
VM = 0.707 (SMAX - SMIN)2 + SMAX 2 + SMIN 2

TRESCAT, TRESCAB Tresca stress, where


SMAX - SMIN TRESCA = MAX SMAX SMIN

8.5.1 Notes
l

All element stress output is in the local coordinate system. The direction and sense of the element stresses are explained in Section 2.6. To obtain element stresses at a specified point within the element, the user must provide the coordinate system for the element. Note that the

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origin of the local coordinate system coincides with the center node of the element. Principal stresses (SMAX & SMIN), the maximum shear stress (TMAX), the orientation of the principal plane (ANGLE), the Von Mises stress (VONT & VONB), and the Tresca stress (TRESCAT & TRESCAB) are also printed for the top and bottom surfaces of the elements. The top and the bottom surfaces are determined on the basis of the direction of the local Z-axis.

8.6 Sign Convention of Element Forces


Figure 8-5: General sign conventions of element forces

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Figure 8-6: Bending moments Mx and My

Mx is the Bending moment on the local x face. the local x-face is the face perpendicular to the local x-axis. My is the Bending moment on the local y face. the local y-face is the face perpendicular to the local y-axis.
Figure 8-7: Stress caused by M
x

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Figure 8-8: Stress caused by M

Figure 8-9: Stress caused by Torsion (M )


z

Figure 8-10: Membrane stresses S and S


x

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Figure 8-11: In plane shear stresses S

xy

and S

yx

Figure 8-12: Out-of plane shear stresses SQ and SQ


x

8.7 STAAD Foundation Program Theory


STAAD Foundation performs structural design of foundations in accordance with one of the following codes, based on selection:
l l l l l

ACI 318-05 IS 456-2000 BS 8110-97 AS3600 2001 CSA A23.3.-04

The available foundation types are:


l l l

isolated spread footing pile cap strip footing

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l l l l l l l l l l l

mat foundation vertical vessel octagonal foundation on soil vertical vessel octagonal soil on piles vertical vessel square footing on soil vertical vessel square footing on piles stacked/single heat exchanger combined footing stacked/single heat exchanger isolated footing stacked/single heat exchanger strap beam footing guyed tower foundation drilled pier foundation ribbed beam foundation.

These footings are further explained in following topics in help file.

8.8 Isolated (Spread) Footing Theory


The program uses the following criteria:
l l

Soil bearing capacity Shear and flexural strength of footing (no shear reinforcing assumed)

1. Determine footing plan geometry based on loading and bearing resistance of the soil. Self weight of footing, self weight of pedestal is automatically considered in foundation design. The final thickness of the footing is considered for the design self weight. Soil self weight, overburden pressure, buoyancy effect is calculated based on user input specified in design parameters. Stress distribution under the footing is assumed to be linear. The average corner pressure is taken as the algebraic average of the pressures at corners 1 through 4, as labeled in the following figure. For eccentrically loaded footings, the stresses may become tensile under part of the foundation. In such cases the program sets stress values in uplift zones to zero and calculates new values elsewhere for the revised equilibrium condition.
Figure 8-13: Corner pressure locations

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The program is also capable of handle biaxial moments for footings subjected to uplift (see the following section). The program checks the footing for sliding and overturning in both orthogonal directions for all service load cases. Coefficient of friction is used to calculate sliding resistance. Passive pressure resistance for sliding will be considered in future versions. The final plan dimensions of the footing are established iteratively from the condition that the maximum stress should not exceed the factored bearing resistance of the soil and foundation should be stable in sliding and overturning. 2. Development length is checked for straight rebar. If development criterion is not met by the footing geometry a warning message is displayed in the calculation sheet, user can go for other detailing options like bent bars. Future release of STAAD Foundation will take bent up bars into consideration. 3. Calculate footing thickness based on structural capacity in shear and bending. Structural design of the footing consists of the following:
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Punching shear check, in accordance with ACI 318 Section 11.12.2 (for US Job). One-way shear (beam action), in accordance with ACI 318 Section 11.1 through 11.5 (for US Job), at a distance of d from the face of the pedestal, in both orthogonal directions. The critical plane is assumed to extend over the entire width/length of the footing. Bending, in accordance with Sections 15.4.2 and 10.3.4 (for US code), with the critical planes located at both orthogonal faces of the pedestal and extending across the full width/length of the footing.

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Design output displays applicable code sections used for foundation design for all codes. Eccentricity in both direction (X & Z, +ve as well as ve) is considered for isolated footing. If the footing thickness is revised at any step while the concrete checks are being performed, the program recalculates service checks (Soil Bearing and Stability checks) with the revised thickness.

8.8.1 Biaxial Moment Distribution


The program uses Finite Differential Method to calculate resultant eccentricity and calculates soil pressure based on:
P 1 A

6ex Lx

6e y Ly

The program results are verified against Biaxial moment (including loss of contact) with ASCE research paper Bearing Pressures for Rectangular Footings with Biaxial Uplift

8.8.2 Punching Shear


The tributary area used for punching shear is taken a distance of d/2 from the pedestal (refer to the following figure). The critical section comprises four straight-line segments, parallel to the corresponding sides of the pedestal. When expressed in equation form, this is: Length of Footing * Width of Footing ( Length of Column + effective depth) * ( Width of Column + effective depth)
Figure 8-14: Critical section for punching shear

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8.8.3 Isolated Footing Design per AS 3600 2001


STAAD Foundation can design Isolated & combined footing comparable to Australian Code.

Service Load
Service design simply means whether the loading transferred to bottom soil from footing would be done properly uniformly & safely. In Isolated footing service loads are used for check against bearing capacity/ uplift/sliding & overturning. For combined footing service loads would be used for resistance against bearing capacity/overturning. Program can automatically check whether any arrangement is appropriate or not for a particular type of loading. Program does the check for all load cases and reports for the critical case (corresponding to the type of check) After the design passes for service design (for all service load cases) program proceeds towards the design check for ultimate design (with factored load cases)

Factored Load
Factored design signifies whether the footing itself is capable to withstand the load safely and transfer it to bottom soil.

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Necessary checks are check against bending moment/ shear/punching.

Bending Moment
Per Cl. 8.1.2.2: = 0.85 - 0.007 (fc - 28) Where: 0.85 0.65 ku = 0.34(1 - 0.2) 0.4 ku,max taken per Cl.8.1.3
R u ,max = 0.85fcgk u 1

gk u 2

moment = 0.8, Strength reduction factor per Cl. 2.3 and Table 2.3 MRx = momentRu,max bw d2 The bending moment demand due to applied loads is then compared to the moment resistance. If demand exceeds the resistance, then the depth is increased and the process is repeated. Otherwise, the section is deemed adequate for bending in the particular direction.

Development Length of Main bars


Checked per Cl. 13.1.2 in both longitudinal and transverse directions:
L d , reqd =
k 1k 2fyA b

(2a + d b)

fc

25k 1d b

Where: k1 = 1.25 if d > 300 mm, = 1 otherwise. k2 = 1.7 (for bars and slabs) Ab = area of bar a = clear cover The code required development length is compared to the available development length:
L d , available =
b w bc 2

Where:

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bw = footing dimension bc = column dimension

Reinforcement Calculations
Calculated Cl. 8.1.5 and 6.2.1: Calculate the neutral axis to depth ratio, Kr, for actual bending moment:
a=
4 Mu 1.7f cb w d 2

If a > 1, then the section depth is increase and the process is repeated. Required reinforcement ratio per Cl. 7.2.1, 7.3.1, 7.6.8.3, and Table 2.3: Ast = bw d Where:
r= 1 1 a e inffy
0.85fc

reinf. = Strength reduction factor = 0.8 for L, 1.0 for N fy = Design strength of steel Minimum steel per Cl. 9.1.1.c: Ast = 0.002 bw d Maximum steel spacing is determined per Cl. 9.4.1b and is taken equal to the minimum of 300 mm, 2x the total depth, or a user-defined maximum spacing.

One-way Shear
Shear Force is calculated at a distance d from the face of the column. For each direction Shear Force is calculated at a distance, d, from both left & right face of column and checked which one is greater. So for each direction one critical shear is available now.
tv =
V b wd

Where: V = shear force bw = width d = effective depth

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The shear resistance for one-way action is given by:


As f t c = shearb1b 2b 3 c wd

1/ 3

Where: shear = Strength reduction factor = 0.7


b1 = 1.1 1.6

d 1, 000

1.1

2 = 1 3 = dispersion factor = 1

Punch Shear
Punching Shear Force is calculated at a distance, d/2, from all face of the column. Section design process is code dependent. Therefore while using AS-36002001 it is necessary to use relevant equations. The use of equations with the help of AS-3600- 2001 is discussed below:
tv =
V d vb 0

Where: V = punching shear b0 = perimeter of failure line at the critical distance, d/2, away from the face of the column = 2(bc + wc + 2d) The shear resistance for punching shear is given by:
1 shear0.34 fc when 2 bh 2 tc = 2 shear0.17 1 + 0.85fc otherwise b h

Where: shear = Strength reduction factor = 0.7 h = column length divided by column width (aspect ratio in plan)

8.9 Pile Cap Theory


The program produces the following design output: User Manual 423

Required pile quantity and layout to satisfy loading applied to the footing and self weight of pile, based on bearing, uplift and lateral pile capacity. Moments are also being considered for lateral loads applied at top of pile cap. Moment arm used in case of lateral loads is (Pedestal height + Pile cap thickness). Pile reactions are calculated based on Bolt Theory. Geometry of the pile cap based on shear and bending strength requirements at critical sections of the footing. 1. Pile Arrangement The user provides the following pile properties: capacity (bearing, uplift, and lateral), diameter, spacing, and edge distance. Based on these parameters, the program determines the required pile configuration as well as plan dimensions of the footing from the condition, that the force, along with the self weight of pilecap, transferred to any pile should not exceed its capacity. For a general case of vertical and horizontal forces, and bending moments acting on the cap, that stipulation is equivalent to satisfying the following two equations: Hpile Happl / N
Vpile
Vappl N M x , applR y I xg M y , applR x I yg

Where: Hpile = Single pile horizontal capacity Vpile = Single pile vertical capacity Happl = Total horizontal load applied Vappl = Total vertical load applied N = Total number of piles in footing Mx,appl = Applied bending moment about X-axis My,appl = Applied bending moment about Y-axis Rx = Distance from Y-axis to the farthest pile Ry = Distance from X-axis to the farthest pile Ixg = pile group moment of inertia about X-axis Iyg = pile group moment of inertia about Y-axis Note: X and Y-axes above are centroidal axes of the pile group, Ixg and Iyg are calculated treating each pile as a unit, and are equal (1*yi2) and (1*xi2), respectively.

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The program includes a library of possible pile layouts for quantities from 2 to 25 piles. Based on the user input, the program recommends the most economical (least number of piles) layout. The user may select any other layout/quantity if desired, however. In addition, changing the coordinates of individual piles may modify the selected pile layout. Alternatively, the user may input the entire configuration by hand. The layout recommended by the program is guaranteed to satisfy the load/capacity ratio for all piles. Should the user-modified or manually input layouts result in pile overstressing, the program will flag this deficiency in the design output. 2. Design of Pile Cap Proportioning of the pile cap involves satisfying the shear (one and two way) and bending requirements at applicable critical sections, in accordance with Chapter 15 of ACI 318-02 (for US job). One way shear is checked in two areas: At outer piles, with the critical section located at a min. distance d from the face of a corner pile or faces of a pile group along the edge of the footing, l At the distance d from two orthogonal faces of the pedestal. The critical shear plane is assumed along a shortest straight line connecting free edges of the footing. The design is then performed for the total pile reaction force on one side of the shear plane, in accordance with Sections 11.1 through 11.5.
l

Two way shear is checked in three areas:


l

At outer piles, with the critical section located at a min. distance d/2 from the face of a corner pile or faces of a pile group along the edge of the footing. The critical plane is assumed to be positioned along a straight and curved line, so that the total section length is minimized.

At the distance d/2 around the pedestal. The section comprises four straight-line segments, parallel to corresponding sides of the column. l At the distance d/2 around a pile. The design is performed for the total pile reaction force acting within the perimeter of the critical section, in accordance with ACI 318 Sections 11.12.2 through 11.12.6 (for US job).
l

Development length is checked for straight rebar. If development criterion is not met by the footing geometry a warning message is

User Manual 425

displayed in the calculation sheet, user can go for other detailing options like bent bars. Flexure is checked for critical planes located at both faces of the pedestal. The bending moment is calculated as an aggregate of moments due to pile reactions on one side of the plane. Determination of an individual pile contribution to the forces at a critical section is based on whether the pile is outside this section (full reaction value assumed), inside the section (reaction ignored), or at an intermediate location (partial reaction assumed), as per Section 15.5.4(for US job). Pilecap design through IS Code
l

Three Pile Combination Design method in IS code is not similar with other combinations. The design philosophy followed in STAAD Foundation is explained belowPile cap module is following rigid method. Pile Reaction calculation is done using Bolt Theory. For combinations other than 2/3 pile, Moment is calculated at column face in both direction (Considering each pile reaction and pile location. If any pile area is intersected by section line taken for moment calculation, partial reaction of the respective pile is considered). Same thing is done for shear but at a dist of deffective from column face. For three piles, although pile reactions calculation are done using bolt theory but shear force & bending moment calculations are slightly different for IS code. Instead of considering whole triangular slab, two beams are considered; one beam extends from one pile to another pile and another beam extends from third pile

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to center of first beam. In plan these beams make T shape. These beams are named as BASE BEAM & ALTERNATE BEAM.

Two Pile Combination Designed only for axial load and Moment along longitudinal direction; program does not consider transverse moment in design. Two Pile reactions are calculated from Rivet theory, pilecap design is done as a beam (shear force and bending moment along longitudinal direction) Only minimum steel is provided in transverse direction.

Design output displays applicable code sections used for foundation design for all codes.

8.10 Mat (Raft) Foundation Theory


Analysis and design of mats is based on finite element method (FEM) coupled8.10 Mat (Raft) Foundation Theory with slab-on-elastic-subgrade principles. First, you will create a finite element model of the proposed mat foundation. This may be accomplished in many ways: Importing a STAAD.Pro file of the superstructure, thus providing reference points for initial mat set-up and load information, and defining boundaries of

User Manual 427

the mat, or by creating the foundation slab from scratch and inputting loading information manually or copy-pasting coordinates from MS Excel. Any shape of mat (raft) can be modeled in STAAD Foundation. Various methods to create mat (raft) model are explained in Quick Tour and STAAD Foundation graphical environment. Any shape of hole or control region can be added to the mat (raft boundary). STAAD Foundation follows physical modeling concept for mesh generation. By which you only have to specify the boundary for mat (raft) and program will generate plate mesh based on boundary geometry, loading, pile locations etc. Program will also convert finite elements analysis results to global axis irrespective of plate orientations. Modeling of foundation involves choosing meshing meshing type (quadrilateral, triangular or mixed), Internal Nodes Spacing Factor, Optimization Level. As with any FEM project, the denser the grid (smaller elements), the more precise results will be obtained. In addition to the slab, the raft may include a number of beams between the column locations. Since the beams would normally be part of the foundation, the slab polygonal meshing algorithm accounts for the presence of the beam and ensures that they become continuously integrated with the slab. New nodes are purposely created on the centerline of the beam and the beam is split between those points into a number of segments. Meshing setup can be further refined using Optimization Level and Internal Nodes Spacing Factor. Higher optimization level implies program will try to precise the mesh with higher number of iterations. For larger mats higher optimization level will lead to substantially large computer processing time. Internal Nodes Spacing Factor is inversely proportional to node density inside the mesh. Once the mat is defined and all material/soil properties are input, the program may proceed with the analysis of the structure. It is performed by the state-of-the-art STAAD Analysis Engine. Realistic soil response is achieved by employing non-linear (compression only) spring supports to model subgrade reactions. Pile reactions, if present, are proportional to linear displacements of the supported node and include both compression and tension (uplift). Using control regions different soil properties can be assigned a single mat model. Also mat can be partially resting on soil and pile supports.

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The program calculates internal forces and deflections for all slab and beam elements of the foundation. This information is then used in the design stage of the program to: Establish the required top and bottom flexural reinforcing in two orthogonal directions, check punching shear capacity at column locations. The flexural design is done in accordance with ACI 318 Chapter 10 of the Code (for US jobs). The reinforcement areas are computed for a notional band one unit of length wide. The program allows the designer, as an option, to use the Wood-Armer equations for reinforcement calculations, as follows: Mx, My, and Mxy are fetched or calculated, as described above. They are used to compute the values of design moments, Mxd and Myd. For top reinforcement, the program computes: Mx1 = Mx + abs(Mxy) My1 = My + abs(Mxy) Mx2 = Mx + abs(Mxy2 / My) My2 = My + abs(Mxy2 / Mx) If both Mx1 and My1 are positive, Mxd = Mx1 and Myd = My1. If both Mx1 and My1 are negative, Mxd = 0 and Myd = 0. If Mx1 is negative and My1 positive, Mxd = 0 and Myd = My2. If My1 is negative and Mx1 positive, Mxd = Mx2 and Myd = 0. For bottom reinforcement: Mx1 = Mx - abs(Mxy) My1 = My - abs(Mxy) Mx2 = Mx - abs(Mxy2 / My) My2 = My - abs(Mxy2 / Mx) If both Mx1 and My1 are positive, Mxd = 0 and Myd = 0. If both Mx1 and My1 are negative, Mxd = Mx1 and Myd = My1. If Mx1 is negative and My1 positive, Mxd = Mx2 and Myd = 0. If My1 is negative and Mx1 positive, Mxd = 0 and Myd = My2. Mxd and Myd are then used in lieu of Mx and My for calculations of the required reinforcing. Use of the modified bending moments brings about more accurate distribution of the reinforcing, better matching critical areas of the slab.

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8.10.1 Notes
Flexural design notes (for US jobs): Reinforcement calculations for slab panels are based on Chapter 10 of ACI 318-02. The minimum-reinforcing ratio complies with the limits prescribed for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement in Section 7.12. Maximum spacing of rebar is 18 in. The maximum reinforcing ratio corresponds to the net tensile strain at nominal strength equal to 0.004 (Clause 10.3.5). Strength reduction factor is established in accordance with Section 9.3.2. Punching shear design notes (for US jobs): Design for two-way shear is carried out in accordance with Section 11.12. The unbalanced moment transfer by eccentricity of shear is based on Clause 11.12.6. Shear strength of concrete is based on Clause 11.12.2.1. Strength reduction factor used is 0.75, in accordance with Section 9.3.2. The program computes shear stress values at four corners of the rectangular critical section located at the distance of d/2 from edges of a column. The calculations include the unbalanced moment transfer effect, if applicable, in accordance with 11.12.6.2. Design output displays applicable code sections used for foundation design for all codes. As program supports any shape for mat foundation design, it does not perform a check for sliding and overturning. However, the program does provide contact area summary with which the overturning stability of the mat can be determined. For sliding resistance, the program provides a reaction summary in lateral directions which can be used to check sliding.

8.11 Combined (Strip) Footing Theory


The program uses the following criteria:
l l l

Soil bearing capacity, Shear and flexural strength of footing (no shear reinforcing assumed), Compressive and flexural strength of pedestal

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Section 8 Technical Reference

8.11.1 Procedure for Design


1. Determine footing plan geometry based on loading, self weight of the footing, weight of soil on top of footing, buoyant forces based on water level, and bearing resistance of the soil. The stress distribution under the footing is assumed to be linear. For eccentrically loaded footings, the stresses may become tensile under part of the foundation. In such cases, the program sets stress values in uplift zones to zero and calculates new values elsewhere for the revised equilibrium condition. Stability checks in both orthogonal directions are performed. The final plan dimensions of the footing are established iteratively from the condition that the maximum stress should not exceed the factored bearing resistance of the soil. 2. Development length is checked for straight rebar. If development criterion is not met by the footing geometry a warning message is displayed in the calculation sheet, user can go for other detailing options like bent bars. Calculate footing thickness based on structural capacity in shear and bending.

8.11.2 Capacity Checks


Structural design of the footing consists of the following:
l

Punching shear check, in accordance with ACI 318 Section 11.12.2 (for US jobs), at a distance of d/2 from the pedestal. The critical section comprises four straight-line segments, parallel to the corresponding sides of the pedestal. One-way shear (beam action), in accordance with Sections 11.1 through 11.5, at a distance of d from the face of the pedestal, in both orthogonal directions. The critical plane is assumed to extend over the entire width/length of the footing. Bending, in accordance with ACI 318 Sections 15.4.2 and 10.3.4 (for US jobs), with the critical planes located at both orthogonal faces of the pedestal and extending across the full width/length of the footing.

Design output displays applicable code sections used for foundation design for all codes.

8.12 Driller Pier Theory (Axial Load Analysis)


The following methods are used by the program to determine the axial capacity of a drilled pier.

User Manual 431

8.12.1 8.12.1 APIMethod


API method is based on American Petroleum Industry Guideline RP 2A-WSD. This method supports Sand, Sand-Silt, Silt, Gravel and clayey soil. Axial capacity of drilled pier is calculated based on API eq 6.4.1-1. Qd = Qf + Qp Where: Qf = skin friction resistance,lb (kN) Qp = total end bearing, lb (kN)

Skin Friction Resistance Calculation


For cohesive soils, skin friction is calculated based on API eq 6.4.2-1 f=c Where: = a dimensionless factor c = undrained shear strength of the soil at the point in question For cohesionless soils, skin friction is calculated based on API eq 6.4.3-1 f = K po tan() Where: K=coefficient of lateral earth pressure (ratio of horizontal to vertical normal effective stress) po =effective overburden pressure lb/ft 2 (kPa)at the point in question

End Bearing Resistance Calculation


End bearing is calculated from geometry of pier. Qp=q Ap Where: q = unit end bearing capacity,lb/(ft 2 )(kPa) Ap = gross end area of pier, ft 2 (m2)

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For cohesive soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on API eq 6.4.2-3 q=9c Where: c = undrained shear strength of the soil at the point in question For cohesionless soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on API eq 6.4.3-2 q = po Nq Where: po =effective overburden pressure lb/ft 2 (kPa)at the point in question Nq = dimensionless bearing capacity factor

Effect of water table


The water table depth is used to calculate buoyant forces on the pier. Buoyant forces are deducted from total axial capacity of the pier

Self weight of the pier and factors of safety


Pier self weight is taken into consideration while calculating the axial capacity. The end bearing safety factor is applied to tip resistance and skin friction safety factor is applied to side resistance. Total axial capacity is calculated as, Total Axial Capacity = (End bearing resistance Pier self weight)/(End bearing Safety factor) + (Skin friction resistance Buoyant force )/(Skin Friction Safety factor) The program also offers % of skin friction and end bearing contributing to axial capacity through user input.

8.12.2 8.12.2 FHWA Method


FHWA method is based on Federal Highway Administration publication FHWA-IF-99-025. Methodology for calculating axial capacity runs same as API method mentioned above. Axial capacity of drilled pier is calculated based on FHWA-IF-99-025 Eq 1.1 RT= RB+ RS Where:

User Manual 433

RT= total calculated or nominal ultimate axial resistance of the drilled shaft RB= nominal ultimate base resistance RS= nominal ultimate side resistance An allowable load is the calculated as: RA= RT/F Where: RA= allowable resistance F = global factor of safety

Skin Friction Resistance Calculation


For cohesive soils, skin friction is calculated based on FHWA-IF-99-025 Eq 11.16 f = * su Where: = dimensionless correlation coefficient su= design value for undrained shear strength for the layer being considered For cohesionless soils, skin friction is calculated based on FHWA-IF-99-025 Eq 11.17 f= i* vi Where: i=dimensionless correlation factor between vertical effective stress and maximum stress limit vi=vertical effective stress at the middle of Layer i

End bearing Resistance Calculation


End bearing is calculated from geometry of pier. RB = qmax Ap Where: qmax= unit end bearing capacity, lb/(ft 2 )(kPa)

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Ap = gross end area of pier, ft 2 (m2) For cohesive soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on FHWA-IF99-025 Eq 11.1, 11.2 &11.3 q=9 su Where: su= design value for undrained shear strength for the layer being considered For cohesionless soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on FHWAIF-99-025 Eq 11.4 q=57.5NSPT Where: NSPT = design value for SPT blow counts

8.12.3 8.12.3 Vesic Method


The Vesic method is a slight modification of FHWA method. Skin friction calculation for Vesic method is same as that of FHWA method.

End bearing Resistance Calculation


End bearing is calculated from geometry of pier. RB=qmax Ap Where: qmax=unit end bearing capacity,lb/(ft 2 )(kPa) Ap = gross end area of pier,ft 2 (m2) For cohesive soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on q = Fr Ncp*su Where: su = design value for undrained shear strength for the layer being considered Nqp = cohesion factor Fr = Reese and O'Neill factor For cohesionless soils, unit end bearing capacity is calculated based on:

User Manual 435

q = po* Nqp Where: po = effective overburden pressure lb/ft 2 (kPa) at the point in question Nqp = surcharge factor

8.13 Pedestal Theory


STAAD Foundation 5.2 or later can design pedestals for isolated footings complying with US, British and Indian code. Pedestal design is performed same as a design of short column. STAAD Foundation can design pedestal subjected with:
l l l

Axial Load only Axial Load & Uni-axial bending Axial Load & Bi-axial bending

STAAD Foundation follows limit state method for section design.

8.13.1 Indian Code Pedestal Design Theory


Pedestal design for the Indian code is based on IS 465 2000 and SP: 16. STAAD Foundation checks minimum area of reinforcement provided per IS 456 -2000 Section 26.5.3.1 (Clause 26.5.3.1.a to Clause 26.5.3.1.h). Program checks minimum bar size for longitudinal and main reinforcement. Pedestal spacing requirements are also checked per Indian code. Minimum eccentricity subjected on pedestal is considered per IS 456 2000. For Axial Load only pedestal design done per IS 456 2000 Section 39. For uni-axial and bi-axial moments, pedestal design follows SP16.

8.13.2 British Code Pedestal Design Theory


Pedestal design for the British code is based on per BS 8110-1 Section 3. STAAD Foundation checks minimum area of reinforcement provided per BS 81100-1 Section 3. Program checks minimum bar size for longitudinal and main reinforcement. Pedestal spacing requirements are also checked per British code.

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Minimum eccentricity subjected on pedestal is considered per BS 8110-1 Section 3.8.2.4. For axial load only, uni-axial and bi-axial moments, pedestal design follows BS 8110-1 Section 3.

8.14 Calculation of Loads


This section discusses some of the parametric load generation facilities in STAAD Foundation.

8.14.1 Seismic Load Generation


Automated parametric seismic load generation facilities in STAAD Foundation.

Wind Loads per IS 875 Part 3


For plant structures designed under Indian codes, the program calculates the wind load per IS 875 Part 3 Wind Load on Buildings and Structures, Fourth Revision (2002). A static wind pressure is applied to the structure by the program using the following general procedure. 1. Calculate Basic Wind Speed, V , based on mapped values (Figure 1 in Secb tion 5) or the table supplied in Appendix A of IS 875. 2. Calculate Probability Factor (risk coefficient), k , from Table 1 in Section 5 1 of IS 875. 3. Calculate the k Factor (Table 2 in IS 875) based on structure height and 2 terrain category. Separate k2 values are determined at different height intervals for vertical vessels as well as for each horizontal vessel in a stacked configuration. 4. Calculate the Topography Factor, k per Appendix C in IS 875. 3 5. Calculate the Design Wind speed for each height considered (IS875, Clause 5.3) as:
Vz = Vb k 1k 2k 3

Note: The cyclonic factor, k4 , is typically not significant for foundations and is assumed as 1.0 by the program. However, the Cf value can be multiplied by the desired k4 value to effectively account for structures in cyclonic regions. 6. Calculate the wind pressure for each height considered (IS875, Clause 5.4) as:

User Manual 437

2 pz = 0.6V z

7. Calculate the design wind pressure for each height as:


pd = K aK d K cpz

Where: Kd = wind directionality factor, as determined in Cl. 5.4.1. Ka = area averaging factor, as determined in Cl. 5.4.2. Kc = combination factor, taken from Table 19 in Section 6. 8. For each height, the exposure area, A, is consider. This area is calculated differently for vertical and horizontal vessels.
Figure 8-15: Exposure areas for vertical and horizontal vessels

9. Calculate Force coefficient, C , which is considered for structures without f

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Section 8 Technical Reference

openings. Note: For vertical vessel, the equipment is symmetric and thus the wind load need only be evaluated from only one direction. Therefore, only one set of Cf is calculated. For a horizontal vessel, the wind is considered from both the longitudinal (x) and transverse (z) directions. So, two sets of Cfn are calculated. 10. Calculate the Wind force, F , from Clause 6.3.3.2 of IS 875 for each wind n height considered as:
Fn = Cfn pd K A

Where K = 1 for horizontal and vertical vessels.

8.14.2 Wind Load Generation


Automated parametric wind load generation facilities in STAAD Foundation.

Seismic Loads per IS 1893 P1 - 2002


For plant structures designed under Indian codes, the program calculates the seismic load per IS 1893 Part 1 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings, Fifth Revision (2002). A static, seismic base shear is calculated using the following general procedure and applied to top of the foundation. 1. Calculate Zone factor Z on the basis of 6.4.2 & Annex E or the mapped value. This can be directly specified or selected from a list of Indian cities. 2. Calculate Importance factor I on the basis of 6.4.2 & Table 6 3. Calculate Response Reduction factor R on the basis of 6.4.2 & Table 7 4. Calculate Sa/G from 6.4.2 & 6.4.5. This can be directly specified or can be calculated by the program based on code parameters. 5. Calculate Design Horizontal Seismic Coefficient Ah (Clause 6.4.2)
Ah =
Z I S a 2R g

6. Calculate of building weight, W.

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Two conditions are considered by the program for each vessel: a) empty and b) operating. For vertical vessels, 7. Calculate Design Seismic Base Shear Vb (Clause 7.5.3)
Vb = Ah W
Figure 8-16: Base shears for vertical and horizontal vessels

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8.15 Crack Width Calculation


8.15.1 Indian or British Codes
IS 456 - 2000 Annex F and BS 8110 Part II, Clause 3.8 include the same method for determining the nominal crack width for design. This procedure is based on work by Andrew Beeby. The crack width determined by this method represents a best-fit for experimental data where the stress in the tension steel is limited to 0.8x Fy. The following assumptions are made for this method:
l l l

Sm = 1.5 acr W is a funciton of S and mean m m Wmax = 2x Wmean

The following procedure is then used by the program to evaluate the crack width for design: 1. Calculate the modular ration, m as: m = Ec/Es Where: Es = 20,000 N/mm2 (IS 456 - 2000, Annex F) Ec = 5,000(fc) (Cl. 6.2.3.1 of IS 456 - 2000) 2. Calculate the depth of the neutral axis, x, per the limit state method (IS 456 - 2000 Annex G and BS 8110 Part I Cl. 3.4.4.4) 3. Calculate the moment of inertia of the equivalent section, I . eff 4. Calculate the effective modulus of elasticity of concrete, E . eff
Eeff =
Ec 1+c

Where: c = safety factor taken as 1.0. 5. Calculate the average steel strain at the depth considered (e.g., the centerline of rebar), , based on the absolute value of the critical bending 1 moment. 6. Calculate the average strain, , at the point of interest as: m
m = 1
b (h x )(a 1 x ) 3EsA st(d x )

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7. Calculate Crack Width W_cr from IS 456 -20000 BS 8110 Part II


Wcr =
1+ 3a cr m 2(a cr C min)
h x

Where: acr = distance from the point of interest to the surface of the nearest longitudinal bar h = total depth of the section Cmin = clear cover to longitudinal steel 8. Check whether the crack width value is safe or not depending upon the maximum allowed range defined by codes (IS 456 2000 & BS 8110 Part II)

8.16 Strap Footing Design


A strap footing between two block foundations can be design in the general foundation design mode and in the plant foundation mode, for horizontal vessel foundations. The strap footing is a strap beam (i.e., grade beam) which connects two otherwise isolated footings. When a strap footing is present between two footings, any moment which is the result of loads acting in the longitudinal direction of the beam are then resisted by the beam. The beam's size and reinforcement is calculated accordingly to resist this moment. For example, for forces acting parallel to the longitudinal axis of the beam, the resulting moment, Mz, is considered to be resisted by the strap beam alone. If two footings at the end nodes of the strap beam are designating to be Identical Footings on the Footing Geometry page, then both two footing will both be designed for the same critical condition occurring in either footing.

8.17 Tank Foundation Design


STAAD Foundation offers ringwall foundation design for self-anchored, nonrefrigerated, above ground liquid storage tanks. In most cases, a ring wall foundation is preferable for tanks more than 20 feet in diameter. A ringwall is also provided when significant soil or differential settlement is anticipated.

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Ringwall size should be appropriately selected so that soil the bearing below ringwall equals the soil pressure under the confined earth at the same depth as the bottom of the ringwall. The program designs ringwall foundations per the following codes/guidelines:
l l l l

API650- Appendix E PIP STE03020 ACI 318, ASCE 7-05 for US Code design IS 456, IS 875 III for Indian Code design

For ringwall minimum dimensions, refer to Section 5 from PIP STE03020 guideline.

8.17.1 Load Generation


For US code, Wind load is generated based on ASCE7-05 For IS code, Wind load is generated based on IS 875 III Seismic load for both US and IS code is generated based on API650 Appendix E. Convective and impulsive portion of load is calculated separately and then combined using API 650 E.6.1.5

8.17.2 Design Philosophy


1. First, the tank stability is checked based on J factor specified in API 650. Note: If the tank is determined to be unstable, you may need to design the tank as mechanically anchored tank, which is not covered in STAAD Foundation. 2. Internal Soil bearing is checked for soil inside ringwall.

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3. Ringwall soil bearing is checked based on PIP STE03020 and API 650 using following diagram,

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4. If tank stability checks are selected as an input, slab moment generated based on API650 appendix E is used as disturbing force. 5. Forces for hoop steel and twist steel are calculated per PIP STE03020 and concrete design is performed per ACI 318.

8.18 Drilled Pier Lateral Analysis Theory


STAAD Foundation performs lateral analysis of drilled pier based on a nonlinear pile and p-y Model for soil (more conceptual information is available from EI 02C097).

8.18.1 Nonlinear Pile


STAAD Foundation calculates nonlinear bending stiffness of pile.
Figure 8-17: Example plot of nonlinear bending stiffness of pile

8.18.2 P-Y Curve Method


The p-y curve method was suggested in 1958 by McCelland and Focht. It is a very practical approach to deal with complex lateral resistance behavior of different soils. Field tests using strain gauges were carried out for different soil and based on experimental data correlation between soil parameters and lateral response is derived. User Manual 445

Figure 8-18: Typical P-Y curve for clay soil type using Unified Clay Method for both cyclic and static loading

Figure 8-19: Conceptual spring representation of soil resistance at various depths

A solution is derived by converging pile and soil nonlinearity.

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Index
A ACI 318-05 416

E Element Load Specification 410 End bearing Resistance 434435 432 365

American Petroleum Industry Guideline432 End Bearing Resistance API RP 2A-WSD 432 ExcelML format AS3600 2001 B Biaxial Moment Distribution419 Biaxial Uplift Bolt Theory BS 8110 BS 8110 Part II C Clashing Combined Footing recreate Coordinate System CSA A23.3.-04 current load case D deflection increase Delete All design design factor Detail Drawing diagram 387 202 367 373 57 387 Live Load Import From STAAD.Pro IS 1893 IS 456 - 2000 IS 465 2000 IS 875 L 202 411 416 197 Combined Footing Theory 430 64 GA Drawing generate Grouping H Heat Exchanger Horizontal Vessel I 419 424 416, 436 441 416 F FHWA-IF-99-025 Finite Element Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Method forces/moments foundation Foundation Toolkit G

433 410 409 427 367 367 287

64 202 216

217 217

30 357 439 441 416, 436 437

design several different types367

107 User Manual 447

Index: Load Case Strip Footing Theory

Load Case New M Main Navigator Mat Foundation Theory Move O One-way shear Open Orientation Output Element Force Element Stress Output View Options form Overlap P Pedestal Design Theory BS 8110 IS 456-2000 Pile Arrangement Pile Cap Theory Plane Stress Plant Foundations Plate Element Polyline Punching Shear Check Punching Shear Design Q Quick Tour 448 STAAD Foundation 367 436 436 436 424 423 410 217 410 153 431 430 412 412 173 64 431 197 412 368 427 39 Safety Factor 95

R Raft Foundation Theory recreate Rivet theory S 373 373 373 104 57 373 367 367 413 239 432, 434 146 169 436 359-360 360 30 239 410 197 430 427 202 427

Reinforcement Spacing Increment32

Safety Factor Table safety factors Safety Factors Schedule Drawing serviceability short example exercises set Sign Convention Single Exchanger Skin Friction Resistance Slab Design Soil Above Foundation SP- 16 Spreadsheet input output STAAD.Pro Import Stacked Exchanger Stress Distribution stress types Strip Footing Theory

Index: structural Wood and Armer

structural structure Support Deletion support co-ordinates supports T table table allowing Theoretical Basis Translational Repeat Tresca Stress types U Unit Units use Safety Factor Table use STAAD.foundation

387 387 367 202 367 367

197, 373 373 410 44 412 197

387 50 373

design several different types367 V Verification Manual Vertical Vessel foundation Vesic method Von Mises stress W Wood and Armer 190 52 217 435 412

User Manual 449

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