You are on page 1of 42

Chapter 6

Cellular Respiration

Muscle Types
Red Fiber vs. White Fiber

Photosynthesis

Producers and Consumers


Autotroph Heterotroph

Respiration vs Photosynthesis
C6H12O6 + O2 6H2O + CO2 +E

6H2O + CO2 +E C6H12O6 + O2

Sunlight energy enters ecosystem

C6H12O6 Glucose O2 Oxygen

Photosynthesis CO2 Carbon dioxide

H2O Water

Cellular respiration

ATP drives cellular work Heat energy exits ecosystem

Figure 6.2

Cellular Respiration
Breathing for Gas exchange O2 H from food Forms H2O and in the process ATP is formed. Definition: An aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules

Respiration Review
6H2O + CO2 +E C6H12O6 + O2 Up to 38 ATP molecules produced from one glucose molecule

Redox Reactions
Loss of electrons = Oxidation Gain of electrons = Reduction LEO the lion says GER

Book keeping by Hydrogen


Gain a Hydrogen = reduction
(Why?) Loss of Hydrogen = oxidation (Why?)

Oxidation Glucose loses electrons (and hydrogens) C6H12O6 Glucose 6 O2 Oxygen 6 CO2 Carbon dioxide Reduction Oxygen gains electrons (and hydrogens) 6 H 2O Water

Figure 6.UN02

Energy Flow
As H is attracted to O, there is a release of energy. Once bonded, the Oxygen is in a reduced form and H2O is the result.

Adding H to O is explosive, so we do this in baby steps

H2

1 2 O2

Release of heat energy

H 2O
Figure 6.4

NADH & Electron Transport Chains


NAD+ is reduced to NADH NADH hands the H off to the electron transport system NAD+ is formed (oxidation)

e e Electrons from food e e NADH

NAD

Stepwise release of energy used to make ATP

2 H

2 e

2 e 2 H 1 2 O2

Hydrogen, electrons, H2O and oxygen combine to produce water

Figure 6.5

Electron Thief
Coenzyme Q steals the electron from Hydrogen and hand it down a chain of molecules. With each hand off, the amount of energy in the electron is reduced. Oxygen is the last electron grabber

Overview of Cellular Respiration


Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport System

Mitochondrion Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm

Animal cell Cytoplasm

Plant cell

Mitochondrion

High-energy electrons carried by NADH Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid

High-energy electrons carried mainly by NADH Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport

ATP

ATP

ATP

Figure 6.6

Glycolysis

Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport

ATP

ATP

ATP

Figure 6.UN03

Glycolysis
Glucose to Pyruvic Acid

INPUT

OUTPUT

2 ATP

2 ADP

Glucose Key Carbon atom Phosphate group High-energy electron

Energy investment phase

Figure 6.7-1

INPUT NADH NAD 2 ATP

OUTPUT

2 ADP

Glucose Key Carbon atom Phosphate group High-energy electron NAD NADH

Energy investment phase

Energy harvest phase

Figure 6.7-2

INPUT NADH NAD 2 ATP 2 ADP 2 ATP

OUTPUT

2 ADP 2 Pyruvic acid

Glucose Key Carbon atom Phosphate group High-energy electron NAD NADH 2 ADP 2 ATP

Energy investment phase

Energy harvest phase

Figure 6.7-3

Intermediate Step
Pyruvic Acid enters a mitochondrion

Pyruvic Acid loses CO2 and becomes Acetic Acid

INPUT (from glycolysis) NAD Oxidation of the fuel generates NADH NADH

OUTPUT (to citric acid cycle)

CoA

Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid loses a carbon as CO2

Acetic acid CO2 Coenzyme A

Acetic acid attaches to coenzyme A

Acetyl CoA

Figure 6.9

Citric Acid Cycle


Acetic acid (carbons) joins with Cozenzyme A to form-- Acetyl-coenzyme A This combine with a 4 carbon atom to form Citric Acid (6 carbon molecule)

INPUT

Citric acid

OUTPUT

Acetic acid

2 CO2

ADP P

ATP Citric Acid Cycle

NAD

NADH

FAD

FADH2

Acceptor molecule
Figure 6.10

Loss of Carbons, Oxygens, & capture and transport of Hydrogen's


1. 6 carbon molecule loses a CO2 to form a 5 carbon molecule 2. 5 carbon molecule loses a CO2 to form a 4 carbon molecule

3. Hydrogens captured by NAD+ and FAD+ along the way

Electron Transport
NADH and FADH deliver H to the electron transport system that are drawn to Oxygen.

Electrons stolen form Hydrogen by coenzyme Q Hydrogens pumped between mitochondrial membranes.

H concentration rises between membranes H leaves through specialized channels following diffusion gradient. Pass through gates that act as turbines At end ATP synthetase turns ADP into ATP

Space between membranes Electron carrier Protein complex

H H H H H H H H H H H H H

Inner mitochondrial membrane


Electron flow FADH2 FAD H
1 2

O2 2 H

H2O ADP P ATP H ATP synthase

NADH H Matrix H

NAD H Electron transport chain H

Figure 6.11

Space between H membranes Electron carrier Protein complex Inner mitochondrial membrane

H H H H H H H H H H H

Electron flow

FADH2

FAD

H
1 2

O2 2 H

H2O ADP P ATP H ATP synthase

NADH H

NAD H Electron transport chain H

H Matrix

Figure 6.11a

End Result
Electrons and Hydrogens reunite ina reduced energy state with Oxygen Metabolic H2O is formed as well as ATP

Cyanide
Blocks passage of Hydrogens to Oxygen No ATP made Cell (and organism) dies

Other Fuels
Fats (can get acetate from fat) Proteins (amino acids can enter at various poinst in cycle)

Food

Polysaccharides

Fats

Proteins

Sugars

Glycerol Fatty acids

Amino acids

Glycolysis

Acetyl CoA

Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport

ATP
Figure 6.12

ATP Yields
Glycolysis: 2 ATP net gain Aerobic respiration 34-26 ATP net gain Total 36-38 ATP per glucose

Cytoplasm Mitochondrion NADH NADH 6 2 Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 2 Acetyl CoA NADH FADH2

Citric Acid Cycle

Electron Transport Maximum per glucose: About 34 ATP by ATP synthase About 38 ATP

2 ATP by direct synthesis

2 ATP by direct synthesis

Figure 6.13

Anaerobic Respiration
15 second run (anaerobic respiration) Lactic acid production

INPUT

2 ADP 2 P

OUTPUT
2 ATP

Glycolysis
2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD 2 Pyruvic H 2 acid

Glucose

2 Lactic acid

Figure 6.14a

Ethanol Production

INPUT

2 ADP 2 P

OUTPUT
2 ATP

Glycolysis
2 NAD 2 NADH 2 NADH 2 NAD 2 Pyruvic H 2 acid

Glucose

2 Lactic acid

Figure 6.14a