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Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

COURSE DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

A TERM PAPER Presented to the Dr. Eva Stephens THE UNIVERSITY OF TE AS SCHOO! OF NURSING AT GA!VESTON In Part"a# F$#%"##&ent O% the Re'$"re&ents %or the Co$rse GNRS ()** Ed$+ator, C$rr"+$#$& Des"-n ./ De0ra !. Morr"s1 ..S.N1 Ph.D. 2an$ar/ *31 *435

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

Course Design in Nursing Education In recent years, nursing education has been undergoing a revolution, fueled by many different things. One the foremost things is a change in the types of students that are being educated. Much of the traditional nursing curriculum was designed to meet the needs of a generation of students that were not part of the technological communication e plosion. !he Net "eneration#Millennials, born from $%&' to the present ()*iba + ,arton, '--./ have been educated in the age of instant information access. On the other hand, online education has ta*en hold and provides a ma0or educational e perience for established nurses who may not have as much technological e perience. !herefore, to have the greatest chance of success, course design in nursing education must ta*e into account principles of adult learning, general theories of learning as well as the learning environment. Even though there are various types of students, one common denominator is that they are all adult learners. !herefore, in designing a course, it is important to *eep in mind the principles of adult learning as delineated by 1nowles, 2olton, + )wanson ('-$'/. !he first principle is the need to *now. 3earning proceeds best if there is a clear delineation of why an individual needs to *now certain things. In a nursing curriculum, it is important to *eep providing the students with the rationale for the learning. Orienting the *nowledge with the underlying importance in patient safety is one method to achieve this ob0ective for clinically oriented courses. Even courses in research can be tied bac* to the need to *now how the *nowledge relates to patient safety. !he second principle is the learner4s self5concept, especially in terms of self5directed learning. One method to enhance this is to actively involve the students in the development of courses. In a recent survey of nursing students, the students thought it

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

important that they be included in the development of course syllabi although very few had been as*ed to participate ()chrader + Davis, '--&/. Establishing a partnership in course development between faculty and students is one method to enhance the learner4s self5concept. 6llen ('-$-/ states, 7Increased freedom brings about increased responsibility when faculty learn to share power with students8 (p. 9:59../. !his is clearly a shift in *nowledge ac;uisition form the old paradigm of college teaching to the new paradigm as reviewed by <in* ('-$9/. Considering the role of the learner4s e periences is also critical. One method for e panding this is the use of a storyboarding techni;ue (3illyman, "utteridge, + ,erridge, '-$$/ which allows for a dialogue between learners with different e periences. <inally, motivation to learn is critical for the adult learner. 6 common motivator for adult learners in nursing is to begin or advance in the nursing profession. !he advantages of a career in nursing can be integrated throughout the curriculum by having guest spea*ers from various positions in nursing including hospital, clinical, educational, and administrative positions. !he learning theories of 6lbert ,andura are especially applicable to course and curriculum design in nursing. One of the core concepts in the social learning theory of ,andura is self5efficacy. 6s described by 1iss, O4Malley, + 2endri ('-$-/, 7)elf5efficacy is defined as one4s confidence in performing a set of s*ills re;uired to be successful at a specific tas* or to accomplish a goal and is based on each person4s e pectation of his or her own capability.8 (p. $=-/. 3ow levels of self5efficacy have been associated with stress in learning situations (,raungart, ,raungart, + "ramet, '-$>/. 6 recent study investigated nurses4 self confidence in evaluating evidence5based practice (E,?/ before and after an intervention designed to increase s*ills and self5confidence (1iss, O4Malley, + 2endri , '-$-/. 6 similar learner evaluation could be instituted with the 7intervention8 being the course. !his type of approach gives the

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

learner another way to gauge their progress, rather than relying on more traditional methods of evaluation such as testing. 6nother approach is to encourage a community of practice which is defined by @hite ('-$-/ as 7a process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in a sub0ect or area collaborate over an e tended period of time, sharing ideas and strategies, determine solutions, and build innovations.8 (p.=%:/. Encouraging and developing communities of practice is another methodology that is founded in social learning theories. !he idea of a community of practice has even been proposed for a national clinical curriculum in 6ustralia ("realish + )male, '-$$/. In recent years, there has been a shift in the learning paradigm. In today4s information age, the traditional design of the teacher as the imparter of wisdom is dropping away. Educational in the modern world must shift to accommodate the concept of the learning5centered environment. )ynthesiAed information is available at the clic* of a mouse or the launching of an app. !eaching access to information to ma*e real time decisions is critical in any course design, including using hand5held devices (Murray, '-$9/ and databases available online. ,uilding on this information access is the ability to analyAe and integrate (E,?/ information. 6s recently as '--:, nurses in the wor*force did not use published information on E,? but instead sought information from a colleague (?ravifoff, !anner, + ?ierce, '--:/. !here have been many publications that deal with methodology and techni;ues for teaching E,? to students (Moch, Cron0e, + ,ranson, '-$-/. 6s stated by Dawley, ,loch, )uplee, Mc1eever, + )cherAer ('-$$/, 7)tudents need to be engaged in active learning of E,? so it becomes their 7methodical8 way of thin*ing through clinical issues8 (p. $$=/. 6ny course design should include an approach to teach E,? to students and help ma*e it a dynamic foundation for future practice. !his will include a paradigm shift that not only perceives students as recipients of E,? information but

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

has them entering clinical situations and enabling and promoting of E,? (Moch, Cron0e, + ,ranson, '-$-/. !he nurse educator must also become a facilitator of *nowledge employing innovative teaching techni;ues such as narrative teaching, problem5based teaching and reflection teaching (Croo*es, Croo*es, + @alsh, '-$9/. !he educator must also be familiar with the social media options available in today4s learning environments. <or e ample, <aceboo* was recently used as the course management software (3aBue, '-$'/. One should not overloo* the psychosocial climate of the classroom, however. In a recent study of students in a traditional ,)N program, teachers with the highest rating of responsiveness had students who reported greater organiAation, focus, involvement (Bowbotham, '-$-/. !he instant accessibility of information is intimately involved with changes in education. It is imperative that educators in all fields, including nursing, change to meet the learning patterns and demands that e ist now. 6 paradigm shift in education is in progress. It is better to greet it with open arms rather that wish for the way things used to be. !his does not mean that all former teaching techni;ues need to be dropped. 2owever, given the changes that have occurred, no techni;ue or approach should be considered without e amining it in light of the new information age and the learners that are present in it.

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

Beferences

6llen, ). ('-$-/. !he revolution of nursing pedagogyC 6 transformational process. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, :, 9959&. doiC $-.$-$.#0.teln.'--%.-=.--$ ,raungart, M.)., ,raungart, B.", + "ramet, ?.B ('-$>/. 6pplying learning theories to healthcare practice. In ). ,. ,astable, (Ed./, Nurse as educator (pp. .>5$$-/. ,urlington, M6C Dones and ,artlett 3earning. Croo*es, 1., Croo*es, ?. 6., + @alsh, 1. ('-$9/. Meaningful and engaging teaching techni;ues for student nursesC 6 literature review. Nurse Education in Practice, $9, '9%5>9. doiC $-.$-$.#0.nepr.'-$9.->.--& Dawley 1., ,loch, D.B., )uplee, ?.D., Mc1eever, 6., + )cherAer, ". ('-$$/. Esing a pedagogical approach to integrate evidence5based teaching in an undergraduate woemn4s health course. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, )econd Fuarter, $$.5$'9. doiC $-.$$$$#0.$=>$5.=&=.'-$-.--'$-. <in*, 3. D. ('-$9/ Creating significant learning experiences. )an <rancisco, C6C Dosey5,ass. "realish, 3. + )male, 3. 6. ('-$$/. !heory before practiceC Implicit assumptions about clinical nursing education in 6ustralia as revealed through a shared critical reflection. Contemporar Nurse, 9%($/, :$5.>. 1iss, !. 3., O4Malley, M., + 2endri , !. D. ('-$-/. )elf5efficacy5based training for research literature appraisal. !ournal for Nurses in "taff #evelopment, '. (>/, $=-5==. doiC $-.$-%=#NND.-b-$9e9$&$%aa$>'

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

1nowles, M. ), 2olton, E. <. III + )wanson B. 6. ('-$'/. The adult learner. New Gor*, NGC Boutledge. 3aBue, E. M. ('-$'/. Esing <aceboo* as course management softwareC 6 case study. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, =, $=5''. doiC $-.$-$.#0.teln.'-$$.-=.--> 3illyman, )., "utteridge, B., + ,erridge, ?. ('-$$/. Esing a storyboarding techni;ue in the classroom to address end of life e periences in practice and engage student nurses in deeper reflection. Nurse Education in Practice, $$, $=%5$&:. doiC $-.$-$.#0.nepr.'-$-.-&.--. Moch, ). D., Cron0e, B. D., + ,ranson, D. ('-$-/. ?art I. Enderstanding nursing evidence5based practice educationC Envisioning the role of students. !ournal of Professional Nursing, '.($/, :5$9. doiC $-.$-$.#0.profnurs.'--%.-$.-$: Murray, !. 6. ('-$9/. Innovations in nursing educationC !he state of the art$ !ournal of Nursing %egulation, 9 (>/, ':59$. ?ravi*off, D. )., !anner, 6. ,., + ?ierce, ). !. ('--:/. Beadiness of E.). nurses for evidence5 based practice. &merican !ournal of Nursing, $-: (%/, >-5:$. Bowbotham, M. 6. ('-$-/. !eacher perspectives and the psychosocial climate of the classroom in a traditional ,)N program. 'nternational !ournal of Nursing Education "cholarship, = ($/, $5$>. doiC $-.''-'#$:>&5%'9H.$&-& )chrader I., + Davis, ). ('--&/. Opinions of adult learners about negotiating syllabi rules in a baccalaureate nursing program. !ournal of Nursing Education, >= ($'/, :.95...

Running head: CURRICULUM DESIGN IN NURSING EDUCATION

)*iba, D.D., + ,arton, 6.D. ('--./. 6dapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners. (nline !ournal of 'ssues in Nursing, $$ ('/, $'?. @hite, C. ('-$-/. 6 socio5cultural approach to learning in the practice setting. Nurse Education Toda , 9-, =%>5=%=. doiC $-.$-$.#0.nedt.'-$-.-'.--'