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muscle
works on a
principle of
tension for
generating
mechanical
force

how did we
get and idea
to built a
machine in the
first place?

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biological
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neuron
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miniscule
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3+1 D+2.1, ,D4@ 23 2 9103247 /183+' I3 4, 7#3 $7#D7 D+13+10 3+16
293-2..6 /# 9#@@-749231 D43+ 129+ #3+10 #%10 %106 B0123 /4,32791,> "-3 4;
3+16 /# 3+16 @-,3 "1 47 @-9+ 3+1 ,2@1 801/492@173 2, 27 2,30#72-3 #7
O20,' E+1 ,811/ #; ,#-7/ 47 D2310 4, ,-9+ 3+23 43 D#-./ 32$1 7120.6 3D#
+#-0, ;#0 3+1 ,#7B 3# 302%1. 290#,, 3+1 ?3.27349 A9127 27/ ;#0 2 018.6 3#
013-07' I ,-BB1,3 3+4, 2, 27 1C8.27234#7 ;#0 3+1 ;293 3+23 ,#@1 D+2.1,
/1.4%10 2 9#7347-#-, ,#.4.#]-6> D43+#-3 01812347B 3+1@,1.%1,> ;#0 2 ;-..
14B+3 @47-31,' E+16 3+17 B# "29$ 3# 3+1 "1B47747B #; 3+1 ,#7B 27/ 018123
43 2.. #%10 2B247> @276 34@1, #%10> 129+ 9#@8.131 969.1 .2,347B 2"#-3 14B+3
@47-31,'
E+1 ?7/0#@1/27, #; 3+1 ,3#06 /4/ 3+1 ,2@1 3+47B' J4791 3+101 D2, 7#
8#473 47 D24347B ;#0 2 018.6> 3+16 2,,1@".1/ 1%1063+47B 3+16 D2731/ 3#
,26 473# #71 +-B1 -7"0#$17 @1,,2B1> 27/ 3+17 3+16 "0#2/92,3 43 #-3 473#
,8291> #%10 27/ #%10 2B247> D43+ 2 969.1 34@1 #; ,1%102. @#73+,' E+140
@1,,2B1 D2, %106 /4;;10173 ;0#@ 3+23 #; 3+1 D+2.1,> +#D1%10' I3 9#7,4,31/
#; 9#/1/ 47,30-934#7, ;#0 3+1 "-4./47B 27/ 80#B02@@47B #; 2 B4273
9#@8-310' A; 9#-0,1 3+1 47,30-934#7, D101 47 7# +-@27 .27B-2B1> "-3
2.@#,3 276 9#/1 927 "1 "0#$17 "6 2 ,$4..1/ 90683#B028+10> 1,81942..6 4;

3+1 /1,4B710, #; 3+1 9#/1 47317/1/ 43 3# "1 12,4.6 "0#$17' N49$1/ -8 "6
3+1 :#/01.. =27$ 02/4# 31.1,9#81> 3+1 @1,,2B1 D2, 1%173-2..6 /19#/1/>
3+1 9#@8-310 "-4.3> 27/ 3+1 80#B02@ 0-7' E+1 01,-.3, D101 7120.6
/4,2,30#-, ;#0 @27$47/> ;#0 3+1 4731734#7, #; 3+1 ?7/0#@1/27, D101 7#3
-74%10,2..6 2.30-4,349> 27/ 3+1 9#@8-310 D2, D1.. #7 3+1 D26 3#
/49323#0,+48 #%10 3+1 D#0./ "1;#01 3+1 +10# 1%173-2..6 ;474,+1/ 43 #;; D43+
27 2C1'
L0#@ #-0 8#473 #; %41D> 3+1 473101,347B ]-1,34#7 4, 47 D+23 ,17,1 3+1
?7/0#@1/27, 9#-./ "1 ,24/ 3# "1 @2748-.2347B 1%173, #7 !203+' E+16
+2/ 7# /40193 9#730#. #%10 D+23 3+1 9#@8-310 /4/ ;0#@ @#@173 3#
@#@173V 47/11/ 3+16 +2/ 7# 8#,,4".1 D26 #; 1%17 $7#D47B 3+1 9#@8-310
+2/ "117 "-4.3> ,4791 3+1 47;#0@234#7 D#-./ +2%1 32$17 `(( 6120, 3# B13
"29$ 3# 3+1@' E+1 /194,4#7, 27/ 2934#7, #; 3+1 9#@8-310 D101 173401.6 43,
#D7' I3 9#-./ 7#3 1%17 01;10 "29$ 3# 43, @2,310, ;#0 B17102. 8#.496
47,30-934#7,' ?.. 43, 47,30-934#7, +2/ 3# "1 "-4.3F47 47 2/%2791> "192-,1 #;
3+1 47%4#.2".1 `(( 6120 "200410' I7 8047948.1> 43 @-,3 +2%1 "117
80#B02@@1/ %106 @-9+ .4$1 2 9+1,,F8.2647B 9#@8-310> "-3 D43+ B012310
;.1C4"4.436 27/ 92829436 ;#0 2",#0"47B .#92. 47;#0@234#7' E+4, D2, "192-,1
3+1 80#B02@ +2/ 3# "1 /1,4B71/ 3# D#0$ 7#3 M-,3 #7 1203+> "-3 #7 276
our genes, in D#0./ 8#,,1,,47B 27 2/%2791/ 319+7#.#B6> 276 #; 2 ,13 #; D#0./, D+#,1
fact, control /1324.1/ 9#7/434#7, 3+1 ?7/0#@1/27, +2/ 7# D26 #; $7#D47B'
embryonic
development :-,3 2, 3+1 ?7/0#@1/27, +2/ 3# +2%1 2 9#@8-310 #7 1203+ 3# 32$1 /26F
and program 3#F/26 /194,4#7, ;#0 3+1@> #-0 B171, +2%1 3# "-4./ 2 "0247' =-3 3+1 B171,
201 7#3 #7.6 3+1 ?7/0#@1/27, D+# ,173 3+1 9#/1/ 47,30-934#7,V 3+16 201
brains, but not
2.,# 3+1 47,30-934#7, 3+1@,1.%1,' E+1 012,#7 D+6 3+16 9277#3
behaviour of
@2748-.231 #-0 8-8813 ,3047B, /40193.6 4, 3+1 ,2@1H 34@1F.2B,' K171,
animals
D#0$ "6 9#730#..47B 80#3147 ,673+1,4,' E+4, 4, 2 8#D10;-. D26 #;
directly
@2748-.2347B 3+1 D#0./> "-3 43 4, ,.#D' I3 32$1, @#73+, #; 8234173.6
8-..47B 80#3147 ,3047B, 3# "-4./ 27 1@"06#' E+1 D+#.1 8#473 2"#-3
"1+2%4#-0> #7 3+1 #3+10 +27/> 4, 3+23 43 4, ;2,3' I3 D#0$, #7 2 34@1F,92.1
7#3 #; @#73+, "-3 #; ,19#7/, 27/ ;02934#7, #; ,19#7/,' J#@13+47B
+28817, 47 3+1 D#0./> 27 #D. ;.2,+1, #%10+12/> 2 0-,3.1 47 3+1 .#7B B02,,
"13026, 8016> 27/ 47 @4..4,19#7/, 710%#-, ,6,31@, 9029$.1 473# 2934#7>
@-,9.1, .128> 27/ ,#@1#71), .4;1 4, ,2%1/F#0 .#,3' K171, /#7)3 +2%1
012934#7F34@1, .4$1 3+23' P4$1 3+1 ?7/0#@1/27,> 3+1 B171, 927 #7.6 /#
3+140 "1,3 47 2/%2791 "6 "-4./47B 2 ;2,3 1C19-34%1 9#@8-310 ;#0
3+1@,1.%1,> 27/ 80#B02@@47B 43 47 2/%2791 D43+ 0-.1, 27/ )2/%491) 3#
9#81 D43+ 2, @276 1%173-2.4341, 2, 3+16 927 )2734948231)' =-3 .4;1> .4$1 3+1
B2@1 #; 9+1,,> #;;10, 3## @276 /4;;10173 8#,,4".1 1%173-2.4341, ;#0 2.. #;
3+1@ 3# "1 2734948231/' P4$1 3+1 9+1,, 80#B02@@10> 3+1 B171, +2%1 3#
)47,30-93) 3+140 ,-0%4%2. @29+471, 7#3 47 ,8194;49,> "-3 47 3+1 B17102.
,30231B41, 27/ 3049$, #; 3+1 .4%47B 302/1'

predictions
and chances/
no
predestination
ro god

?, :' Q' W#-7B +2, 8#4731/ #-3> 3+1 B171, +2%1 3# 810;#0@ 2 32,$
272.#B#-, 3# 801/4934#7' *+17 27 1@"06# ,-0%4%2. @29+471 4, "147B "-4.3>
3+1 /27B10, 27/ 80#".1@, #; 43, .4;1 .41 47 3+1 ;-3-01' *+# 927 ,26 D+23
92074%#01, 90#-9+ D24347B ;#0 43 "1+47/ D+23 "-,+1,> #0 D+23 ;.113F;##31/
8016 D4.. /203 27/ T4BFT2B 290#,, 43, 823+5 Y# +-@27 80#8+13> 7#0 276
B171' =-3 ,#@1 B17102. 801/4934#7, 927 "1 @2/1' N#.20 "120 B171, 927
,2;1.6 801/493 3+23 3+1 ;-3-01 #; 3+140 -7"#07 ,-0%4%2. @29+471 4, B#47B 3#
"1 2 9#./ #71' E+16 /# 7#3 3+47$ #; 43 2, 2 80#8+196> 3+16 /# 7#3 3+47$ 23
2..H 3+16 M-,3 "-4./ 47 2 3+49$ 9#23 #; +240> "192-,1 3+23 4, D+23 3+16 +2%1
2.D26, /#71 "1;#01 47 801%4#-, "#/41,> 27/ 3+23 4, D+6 3+16 ,34.. 1C4,3 47
3+1 B171 8##.' E+16 2.,# 801/493 3+23 3+1 B0#-7/ 4, B#47B 3# "1 ,7#D6>
27/ 3+140 801/4934#7 32$1, 3+1 ;#0@ #; @2$47B 3+1 9#23 #; +240 D+431 27/
3+101;#01 92@#-;.2B1/' I; 3+1 9.4@231 #; 3+1 ?09349 9+27B1/ ,# 0284/.6 3+23
3+1 "2"6 "120 ;#-7/ 43,1.; "#07 473# 2 30#8492. /1,103> 3+1 801/4934#7, #;
3+1 B171, D#-./ "1 D0#7B> 27/ 3+16 D#-./ 826 3+1 8172.36' E+1 6#-7B
"120 D#-./ /41> 27/ 3+16 47,4/1 43'
N01/4934#7 47 2 9#@8.1C D#0./ 4, 2 9+2796 "-,471,,' !%106 /194,4#7 3+23 2
,-0%4%2. @29+471 32$1, 4, 2 B2@".1> 27/ 43 4, 3+1 "-,471,, #; B171, 3#
80#B02@ "0247, 47 2/%2791 ,# 3+23 #7 2%102B1 3+16 32$1 /194,4#7, 3+23
826 #;;' E+1 9-001796 -,1/ 47 3+1 92,47# #; 1%#.-34#7 4, ,-0%4%2.> ,30493.6
B171 ,-0%4%2.> "-3 ;#0 @276 8-08#,1, 47/4%4/-2. ,-0%4%2. 4, 2 012,#72".1
2880#C4@234#7' I; 6#- B# /#D7 3# 3+1 D2310F+#.1 3# /047$> 6#- 479012,1
6#-0 04,$ #; "147B 12317 "6 801/23#0, D+# @2$1 3+140 .4%47B .-0$47B ;#0
8016 "6 D2310F+#.1,' I; 6#- /# 7#3 B# /#D7 3# 3+1 D2310F+#.1 6#- D4..
1%173-2..6 /41 #; 3+40,3' E+101 201 04,$, D+49+1%10 D26 6#- 3-07> 27/ 6#@-,3 32$1 3+1 /194,4#7 3+23 @2C4@4T1, 3+1 .#7BF310@ ,-0%4%2. 9+2791, #;
6#-0 B171,' N10+28, 3+1 "1,3 8#.496 4, 3# 8#,38#71 /047$47B -734. 6#- 201
%106 3+40,36> 3+17 B# 27/ +2%1 #71 B##/ .#7B /047$ 3# .2,3 6#- 2 .#7B 34@1'
E+23 D26 6#- 01/-91 3+1 7-@"10 #; ,1820231 %4,43, 3# 3+1 D2310F+#.1> "-3
6#- +2%1 3# ,817/ 2 .#7B 34@1 D43+ 6#-0 +12/ /#D7 D+17 6#- ;472..6 /#
/047$' ?.3107234%1.6 3+1 "1,3 B2@".1 @4B+3 "1 3# /047$ .433.1 27/ #;317>
,7239+47B ]-49$ B-.8, #; D2310 D+4.1 0-7747B 82,3 3+1 D2310F+#.1' *+49+
4, 3+1 "1,3 B2@".47B ,30231B6 /1817/, #7 2.. ,#03, #; 9#@8.1C 3+47B,> 7#3
.12,3 3+1 +-7347B +2"43 #; 3+1 801/23#0,> D+49+ 43,1.; 4, 1%#.%1/ 3# "1
@2C4@2..6 1;;494173 ;0#@ 3+140 8#473 #; %41D' J#@1 ;#0@ #; D14B+47B -8 #;
3+1 #//, +2, 3# "1 /#71' =-3 #; 9#-0,1 D1 /# 7#3 +2%1 3# 3+47$ #; 3+1
274@2., 2, @2$47B 3+1 92.9-.234#7, 9#7,94#-,.6' ?.. D1 +2%1 3# "1.41%1 4,
3+23 3+#,1 47/4%4/-2., D+#,1 B171, "-4./ "0247, 47 ,-9+ 2 D26 3+23 3+16
317/ 3# B2@".1 9#00193.6 201 2, 2 /40193 01,-.3 @#01 .4$1.6 3# ,-0%4%1> 27/
3+101;#01 3# 80#82B231 3+#,1 ,2@1 B171,'
*1 927 92006 3+1 @1328+#0 #; B2@".47B 2 .433.1 ;-03+10' ? B2@".10 @-,3
3+47$ #; 3+011 @247 ]-2734341,> ,32$1> #//,> 27/ 804T1' I; 3+1 804T1 4, %106
.20B1> 2 B2@".10 4, 8018201/ 3# 04,$ 2 "4B ,32$1' ? B2@".10 D+# 04,$, +4,
2.. #7 2 ,47B.1 3+0#D ,327/, 3# B247 2 B0123 /12.' U1 2.,# ,327/, 3# .#,1 2

B0123 /12.> "-3 #7 2%102B1 +4B+F,32$1 B2@".10, 201 7# "13310 27/ 7#


D#0,1 #;; 3+27 #3+10 8.2610, D+# 8.26 ;#0 .#D D47747B, D43+ .#D ,32$1,'
?7 272.#B#-, 9#@8204,#7 4, 3+23 "13D117 ,819-.234%1 27/ ,2;1 47%1,3#0,
#7 3+1 ,3#9$ @20$13' I7 ,#@1 D26, 3+1 ,3#9$ @20$13 4, 2 "13310 272.#B6
3+27 2 92,47#> "192-,1 92,47#, 201 /1.4"10231.6 04BB1/ 47 3+1 "27$),
;2%#-0 aD+49+ @127,> ,30493.6> 3+23 +4B+F,32$1 8.2610, D4.. #7 2%102B1 17/
-8 8##010 3+27 .#DF,32$1 8.2610,V 27/ .#DF,32$1 8.2610, 8##010 3+27
3+#,1 D+# /# 7#3 B2@".1 23 2..' =-3 3+4, 4, ;#0 2 012,#7 7#3 B10@271 3#
#-0 /4,9-,,4#7b' IB7#047B 3+4,> "#3+ +4B+F,32$1 8.26 27/ .#DF,32$1 8.26
,11@ 012,#72".1' ?01 3+101 274@2. B2@".10, D+# 8.26 ;#0 +4B+ ,32$1,>
27/ #3+10, D43+ 2 @#01 9#7,10%234%1 B2@15 I7 S+28310 ^ D1 ,+2.. ,11
3+23 43 4, #;317 8#,,4".1 3# 8493-01 @2.1, 2, +4B+F,32$1 +4B+F04,$ B2@".10,>
27/ ;1@2.1, 2, ,2;1 47%1,3#0,> 1,81942..6 47 8#.6B2@#-, ,81941, 47 D+49+
@2.1, 9#@8131 ;#0 ;1@2.1,' Y23-02.4,3, D+# 012/ 3+4, "##$ @26"1 2".1 3#
3+47$ #; ,81941, 3+23 927 "1 /1,904"1/ 2, +4B+F,32$1 +4B+F04,$ 8.2610,>
27/ #3+10 ,81941, 3+23 8.26 2 @#01 9#7,10%234%1 B2@1' I 7#D 013-07 3#
3+1 @#01 B17102. 3+1@1 #; +#D B171, @2$1 )801/4934#7,) 2"#-3 3+1 ;-3-01'
A71 D26 ;#0 B171, 3# ,#.%1 3+1 80#".1@ #; @2$47B 801/4934#7, 47 023+10
-7801/4932".1 17%40#7@173, 4, 3# "-4./ 47 2 92829436 ;#0 .120747B' U101
3+1 80#B02@ @26 32$1 3+1 ;#0@ #; 3+1 ;#..#D47B 47,30-934#7, 3# 3+1
,-0%4%2. @29+471H )U101 4, 2 .4,3 #; 3+47B, /1;471/ 2, 01D20/47BH ,D113
32,31 47 3+1 @#-3+> #0B2,@> @4./ 31@81023-01> ,@4.47B 9+4./' ?7/ +101 4,
2 .4,3 #; 72,36 3+47B,H %204#-, ,#03, #; 8247> 72-,12> 1@836 ,3#@29+>
,9012@47B 9+4./' I; 6#- ,+#-./ +28817 3# /# ,#@13+47B 3+23 4, ;#..#D1/
"6 #71 #; 3+1 72,36 3+47B,> /#7)3 /# 43 2B247> "-3 #7 3+1 #3+10 +27/
018123 2763+47B 3+23 4, ;#..#D1/ "6 #71 #; 3+1 7491 3+47B,') E+1 2/%2732B1
#; 3+4, ,#03 #; 80#B02@@47B 4, 3+23 43 B0123.6 9-3, /#D7 3+1 7-@"10 #;
/1324.1/ 0-.1, 3+23 +2%1 3# "1 "-4.3 473# 3+1 #04B472. 80#B02@V 27/ 43 4,
2.,# 9282".1 #; 9#847B D43+ 9+27B1, 47 3+1 17%40#7@173 3+23 9#-./ 7#3
+2%1 "117 801/4931/ 47 /1324.' A7 3+1 #3+10 +27/> 9103247 801/4934#7,
+2%1 3# "1 @2/1 ,34..' I7 #-0 1C2@8.1 3+1 B171, 201 801/49347B 3+23 ,D113
32,31 47 3+1 @#-3+> 27/ #0B2,@> 201 B#47B 3# "1 )B##/) 47 3+1 ,17,1 3+23
12347B ,-B20 27/ 9#8-.2347B 201 .4$1.6 3# "1 "171;4942. 3# B171 ,-0%4%2.'
E+1 8#,,4"4.4341, #; ,299+20471 27/ @2,3-0"234#7 201 7#3 2734948231/
299#0/47B 3# 3+4, 1C2@8.1V 7#0 201 3+1 /27B10, #; #%10F12347B ,-B20 47
#-0 17%40#7@173 D+101 43 1C4,3, 47 -7723-02. 8.1736'
P120747BF,30231B41, +2%1 "117 -,1/ 47 ,#@1 9+1,,F8.2647B 9#@8-310
80#B02@,' E+1,1 80#B02@, 293-2..6 B13 "13310 2, 3+16 8.26 2B247,3
+-@27 #88#7173, #0 2B247,3 #3+10 9#@8-310,' ?.3+#-B+ 3+16 201
1]-4881/ D43+ 2 018103#401 #; 0-.1, 27/ 329349,> 3+16 2.,# +2%1 2 ,@2..
027/#@ 317/1796 "-4.3 473# 3+140 /194,4#7 80#91/-01' E+16 019#0/ 82,3
/194,4#7,> 27/ D+171%10 3+16 D47 2 B2@1 3+16 ,.4B+3.6 479012,1 3+1
D14B+347B B4%17 3# 3+1 329349, 3+23 80191/1/ 3+1 %493#06> ,# 3+23 71C3 34@1
3+16 201 2 .433.1 "43 @#01 .4$1.6 3# 9+##,1 3+#,1 ,2@1 329349, 2B247'

aha!

A71 #; 3+1 @#,3 473101,347B @13+#/, #; 801/49347B 3+1 ;-3-01 4,


,4@-.234#7' I; 2 B17102. D4,+1, 3# $7#D D+13+10 2 820349-.20 @4.43206
8.27 D4.. "1 "13310 3+27 2.3107234%1,> +1 +2, 2 80#".1@ 47 801/4934#7'
E+101 201 -7$7#D7 ]-2734341, 47 3+1 D123+10> 47 3+1 @#02.1 #; +4, #D7
30##8,> 27/ 47 3+1 8#,,4".1 9#-7310@12,-01, #; 3+1 171@6' A71 D26 #;
/4,9#%1047B D+13+10 43 4, 2 B##/ 8.27 4, 3# 306 27/ ,11> "-3 43 4,
-7/1,402".1 3# -,1 3+4, 31,3 ;#0 2.. 3+1 3173234%1 8.27, /012@1/ -8> 4; #7.6
"192-,1 3+1 ,-88.6 #; 6#-7B @17 8018201/ 3# /41 );#0 3+140 9#-7306) 4,
1C+2-,34".1> 27/ 3+1 ,-88.6 #; 8#,,4".1 8.27, 4, %106 .20B1' I3 4, "13310 3#
306 3+1 %204#-, 8.27, #-3 47 /-@@6 0-7, 023+10 3+27 47 /12/.6 12071,3'
E+4, @26 32$1 3+1 ;#0@ #; ;-..F,92.1 1C1094,1, D43+ )Y#03+.27/) ;4B+347B
)J#-3+.27/) -,47B ".27$ 2@@-7434#7> "-3 1%17 3+4, 4, 1C817,4%1 47 34@1
27/ @231042.,' P1,, D2,31;-..6> D20 B2@1, @26 "1 8.261/> D43+ 347
,#./410, 27/ .433.1 3#6 327$, "147B ,+-;;.1/ 20#-7/ 2 .20B1 @28'
<19173.6> 9#@8-310, +2%1 32$17 #%10 .20B1 8203, #; 3+1 ,4@-.234#7
;-7934#7> 7#3 #7.6 47 @4.43206 ,30231B6> "-3 47 2.. ;41./, D+101 801/4934#7 #;
3+1 ;-3-01 4, 7191,,206> ;41./, .4$1 19#7#@49,> 19#.#B6> ,#94#.#B6> 27/
@276 #3+10,' E+1 319+74]-1 D#0$, .4$1 3+4,' ? @#/1. #; ,#@1 2,8193 #;
3+1 D#0./ 4, ,13 -8 47 3+1 9#@8-310' E+4, /#1, 7#3 @127 3+23 4; 6#-7,901D1/ 3+1 .4/ 6#- D#-./ ,11 2 .433.1 @47423-01 /-@@6 47,4/1 D43+
3+1 ,2@1 ,+281 2, 3+1 #"M193 ,4@-.231/' I7 3+1 9+1,,F8.2647B 9#@8-310
3+101 4, 7# )@1732. 8493-01) 47,4/1 3+1 @1@#06 "27$, 019#B74T2".1 2, 2
9+1,, "#20/ D43+ $74B+3, 27/ 82D7, ,43347B #7 43' E+1 9+1,, "#20/ 27/
43, 9-00173 8#,434#7 D#-./ "1 01801,1731/ "6 .4,3, #; 1.1930#7492..6 9#/1/
7-@"10,' E# -, 2 @28 4, 2 @47423-01 ,92.1 @#/1. #; 2 8203 #; 3+1 D#0./>
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