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AIRP~"'E DESIGN. TENI'H EDITION. 1954

CONTENTS

 

Tote1

Chapter

Pages

 

Preface

1

Foreword

"Airplane Design Made Simple"

 

2

Notation and Abbreviations

 

2

Introduction

•.••••

•.••

••

••

4

1

2

3

L~

5

6

~,

{

8

9

10

11

Appendix

1

2

Layout Design

Layout Design

Layout Design

Layout Design

Layout Design

Dosign Considerations •••••••••••••••••••• Methods and Costs as Factors in Design •••

Wing Design •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Surface Design ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Structural

Production

of Light Airplanes ••••••••••••••••••••

12

of Transport and Cargo Airplanes ••••••

4

of Flying Boats •••••••••••••••••••••••

8

of High Speed Airplanes •••••••••••••••

7

of

Helicopters ••••••••••••••••••••••••

22

•••••••••••••••

••••••

.3 2

15

16

9

17

Control

Landing

Gear Design ••••••••

Fuselage and Hull Design ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

10

Total Text Pages ••

161

Design Data Appendices

Properties of Air and Airflow Data.

sonic Flow Data

Including Super-

Aerodynamic Data

a. Wing Characteristics

and Dimensions •••••••••••

13

34

b. Fuselage Drag Data ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

14

c. Power Plant Drag Data •••••••••••••••••••••••••

6

d. Control Surface Design Data--Stability and

Control ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••

6

3

4

5

6

7

8

e. Propeller Data •••••••••••••••••••••

•••• ,

f. Ferformance Charts and Data •••••••••••••••• u ••

Hydrodynamic Data •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Power Plant Data ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Data ••••••••••••.•.•• •,••••••••••.••••.•••••••

iTeight

structural Design Data

s.

.Applied

Loads •••••••••••••••.•••••••••••.•••••

b.

Strength Data ••••••.•••••••••••••••••.••••••••

Cost

Data ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••

Data

for Pass~nger Accomodations and Comfort ••••••••

Answers to Problems

InC. ex • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • •• • • • •

Errata

Total Appendix Pac~s•••••••••••

14

14

7

10

38

28

29

9

4

3

6

1

236

This book aims to

PREFACE TO TEIITE EDITION

show how an airplane

or helicopter can be designed

P:l

and to

include in appendix ferm most of the data necessery for a student to carry a design

project through it s preliminary stages.

The book aims to provide

occasion for

apply-

ing fundBIDentals of fluid mechanics, thermodynamics,

rials, and airplane structures to a design problem of current and future practical

importance.

aerodynamics,

strength of mate-

expecially

With this

aim frequent

revisions of the text

are imperative,

since the

fundamental

units

going to make up

an airplane

are

in

a state of rapid

de-

velopment.

'tiith frequent

revision needed, photo-lithographing, which is economically

feasible

in lots of under 2,000 copies,

is the only reasonable method of presentation.

This book was revised nearly every year from 1934 to 1943, when t he seventh edition ",as released. Majer revisions prior to 1943 were fortunately unnecessary because the author concentrated on probable future trends rather than current prac- tice and made a fortunate early appraisal of the importance of the retractable tri- cycle landing gear long before its widespread adoption. During the war years, from 1943 to 1947, no new editions could profitably be issued because all important devel- opments leading to a reasonable appraisal of the components of the airplane of the future were shrouded in military secrecy. In the Bpring of 1947, thousands of for- merly classified documents were released and it again became possible to discuss

public ly, with substant iating

reasonably be expected in t he near future. The eighth edition was issued at that time. Civil Aeronautic Regulations also underwent a major change in 1947 thru the promulga- tion of CAR 3 modifying the older CAR 04. The ninth edition in 1949 made further use of post-war information releases. As this tenth edition goes to press the rate of release of new technical data is at an all-time high and the need for a coordinated presentation greater than ever, but the field has grown so diverse as to be confusing in its complexity and e well indexed NACA file is more than ever indispensible to any adequate preliminary design study. Many missile developments are of course still security classified, but sufficient basic information is now available for useful pre- design studies by students and other amateurs. The studant, even more than the indus- trial preliminary design engineer, must design for the future, as his expected industrial work is conSiderably farther in the future than that of the industrial engineer. Recent

developments in jet propulsion, lOi'; drag, and high lift permit a vision of future com- mercial aircraft racically different from any available on the market today. Such expected developments must be considered in this text in order for it to be useful.

technical data, the trends in airplane design which may

This text

is complementary to the textbook, Technical Aerodynamics, second edi-

tion (r.:cGraw-Hil1. 1947, also distributed by the University Bookstore) by the same author and is intended for use ~Jith the follo\.;ing U.S. Government publications:

(a) Strength of Metal Aircraft Elements, Publication ANC-5a (Government Printing Office, $1.25), (b) Airplane Alrworthiness, Publication CAR-3 which is distributed by the U. S. Government Printing Office. Those parts of CAR-3 which relate to airplane design appear in this text for the convenience of the student as pages A6a:l to pA6a:26 inclusive. Numerous tables from ANC-5a (reproduced with permission of the Munitions Board, Aircraft Committee) are elso included in the appendix material (A~pendix A6b).

ure to McGrew-Eill publications

and Mrs.

tenth edition.

Particular the.nks

to the National Advisory for permission to reproduce

cue

Comrd ttee

figures

for Aeronautics and

and

and data,

to Mr.

Jack Burnell and Iv~rs. Kathleen Zylka for assistance

in preparation of the

Suggestions

for revision would

be greatly appreciated

by the

author.

Wood

Boulder, Color.,

K •. D.

A.pril

1954

p:2

FOREl~RD

The study of airplane desi~n must inc~ntally be

1940, while no longer as applicable as at the time of their original writing present some personnel aspects of the development engineering problem which are still, with important variations, involved in many development projects.

a study of airplane designers,

and should preferably

include a portrayal of the conditions under which comm-

ercial airplanes are commonly developed.

The following

articles from Aviation by R. R. Osborn written prior to

AIRPLANE DESIGN MADE SIlIPLE

"Lately we have been very much surprised to find that airplane deSign and construction seem to be very mysterious to some people associated directly with the industry, as well as to the general public. 'r.ley have no idea why a biplane is used for one type of airplane and a monoplane for the next type. 7hey probably wonder why the enPine installed was selected, and why the cabin or cockpits are arran~ed as they are. In fact, in some cases they have even wondered why the airplane was ever built. RealiZing that some information along this line would probably be appreciated by our readers, we have interviewed a number of exper- ienced desi~ers we know, to learn from them the reason- ing and processes by means of which a new airplane is created. They were glad to tell us their experiences and we have condensed all of their stories into the following, which might be said to be the high points in the life of an average airplane in its journey from the drafting board to the field:

layout draftsman is working up some

advertiSing for the sales department, the Desi~ner is much discourared to find that he will have to use an in- experienced man and do the figurinp' and calculating himself.

man and do the figurinp' and calculating himself. "As his favorite "Desi~er calls for a win"

"As his favorite

"Desi~er calls for a

win" span of 37.5 feet. lay-

out draftsman misunderstands his writing and lays out

the airplane to have 375 sq.

ft. of wing area.

"Airplane originally laid out as a monoplane.

Ne'll"

Department of Commerce Inspector shifted to the district. New Inspector has a great preference for biplanes, so design is changed to a biplane. "President sends in word that speed is essential in all ne'll" aircraft of the immediate future, and airplanes must be desi~ed mainly for speed. Design is altered to

suit. "Engine selected is

the one manufactured by the

Chief En"ineerts Golfing partner. Designer asks the world howinell he can turn out a good Ship when he has to use an en~ine like that one? Chief Engineer's gol! game gets poorer so that his partner beats him regularly. DesiVler ordered to shift to the best en!7ine available in another company. Desi!7fier asks the 'll"orld howinell he can turn out a /"ood ship around an engine like that one? "President sends in a note stating that the _tcll- word is economy, and that all ne'll" designe should have cheapness of construction and economy of ~eration as their major criteria. Desi~ is altered to suit.

"DeSigner hears that the Whoosis Airplane Company is la:rin~ out a competin!7 model with gull-shaped wings. I:!mediately scraps his design and starts over again 1I'ith gull-whaped 1I'in~s. Simultaneously, the desi"ner of the \1hoosis Airplane Company has scrapped his drawinp,s and starts ne'll" layouts using butterny- shaped wings, after hearing that the Whatsis Airplane company is proceeding on that basis. "President returns from a tour arourd the country. Circulates notes to the effect that the present trend is

toward better vision for the pilot,

features, including speed and cheapness of construction,

should be canpramised to obtain better vision for the pilot. Desi~ is altered to suit. "President sends in 'll"ord that the crying need of

this country today is a good 5-cent oigar. altered to suit.

and that all other

Design is

"Shop makes an error, in buildin~ the fuselage a foot too short. In exchan~e for previous shop favor in covering up one of his errors, the desi~ner writes a long treatise to the Chief Engineer pointing out the trend to shorter fuselage lengths, suggesting that the fuselage be made shorter by 1 ft. Chief Engineer does not grasp the full meaning of the obscure part of the Designer'S calculations, so issues order to have the nose of the fuselage shortened by 1 ft. Designer and Shop Superintendent talk it over, and decide they had better just cut 1 ft. off of the nose and say nothing more about it. "Engine finally arrives for installation in the ship. Turns out that the engine company had decided to build a nine-cylinder engine instead of a seven- cylinder engine. Long correspondenoe between air- plane company and engine company to determine if t'll"O cylinders shall be taken off or if engine mount shall be chan?ed. Matter finally settled by flipping the coin. Engine mount is changed.

"On installation of the engine it

is found that

the carburetor interferes 1I'ith the center landing gear fitting. Engine sent back to the engine plant to be made into a down-draft carburetor. When the en-

gine returns it is discovered that the ne

interfers with the oil tank. Send engine back to en- gine plant to be made over into a solid-fuel injection engine.

"None of the shop c01l'l workers understanding Eng- lish, Project Engineer _ves his arm around in the air to show them what type of wiD!! fillets he wishes. Thinking he is referring to the engine compartment C01l'l, they turn out a startlin!7 new idea in engine c01l'l. Project Engineer has dra1l'ing made to suit and sends dra1l'ing in to Chief Engineer pointing out that his new design will probably add 4 m.p.h. "Landin" ~ear was laid out for large diameter wheels. Somebody invents small diameter wheels and sells them to the PurchaSing Agent. When they are ap- plied to the ship it is found that the propeller ground clearance is too small. Project Engineer announces that a three-blade propeller will be used because of high propeller tip speeds or something. "During set-up opetation, upper wing is found to

interfere 1I'ith a beam in the roo! of the factory. comparing costs of altering the beam in the roof or

changing one set of 1I'ing struts,

is decreased by 6 in.

carburetor

After

gap bet

een

the Wings

"First 1I'8if'hing of the ship ah01l's the center of

Upper 1I'ing is

taken off and changed to one of large S1Ieep-back to

balance the ship.

President explaining delay as necessary, as sweep-

back has to be used to improve pilot's vision.

of left 1I'ing tip is knock-

ed off on a hanger door. One foot is sawed off the

other tip to match, and both ends are faired off neatly.

gravity to be badly out of position.

Chief Engineer sends note to

"At

the

field 1 ft.

"The airplane is put over the speed cOllrse and is found to have a high speed 5 m.p.h. more than the

reSigner expected, but 5 m.p.h.

in the preliminary specification. 'r.lis speed is 10 mop.he more than the Design Engineer expected and 10 m.p.h. less than he promised the President. The speed is 15 m.p.h. more than the Sales llanager ex- pected and 15 m.p.he less than he wrote into the pre- liminary advertiSing copy.

"Knowing his organization thoroughly, is exactly what the President> antiCipated."

less than he wrote

the speed

FOREWORD

P:3

AN AIRPLANE DESIGNER BEGmS A NEW PROJECT

"Having finished the morning paper the DeSigner leans back in his chair and starts to read over the customer's specification for the new airplane. "Thinks it would be a good idea to underscore with red pencil the parts of the customer's specifi- cation which will affect the design. After complet- ing four pages finds that he has underscored all but three words so throws down specification in disgust. "Goes into Drafting Roan to discuss latest sport-

ing news with favorite layout draftsman.

Finds him

busy on a rush

job for ano~~er designer.

Dashes in-

to Chief Engineer's office and pounds on desk, de- manding that favorite draftsman be transferred to his project and moved into his office to aSSist, as no other draftsman is able to understand what he wants done. Chief Engineer IZrunts and says that he'll think about it. "wanders through drafting room looking at work being done for other designers and offering sugges- tions which involve scrapping all drawinf,s and start- ing over again.

"Designer is startled on returning to his off- ice to find that favorite draftsman has already been

moved in and is

"Suggests that centerlines be drawn here, here, and here, and returns to desk for contemplation. "Reads through specification hurriedly and then slams it down on ~esk asking howinell customer ex- pects to get all that in one airplane. "Looks at drafting board and suggests that center lines be moved to here, here, and here to allow more roam for expansion of sketches. "Lights cigarette and starts reading specifi- cation again with de-

termination. Dis-

covers that latest model of engine is

ready to go to work.

~

called for.

blue

Swears

streak but is

secretly glad as drafts-

man will be kept

busy for a few hours

making a

drawing of engine. "Gets new notebook and paper filler from stock

roan and letters name of new project and his name

carefully on front cover, beautiful shading.

on desk and starts trying to con-

centrate on the details of the specification again.

scaled-down

inking in letters with

"Places feet

"Factory Superintendent calls up and says would

like him to look at a fitting of his design which is

giving trouble in shop. De signer says that he'll

down immediately to look at it. Shop Superintendent faints at other end of phone as he expected that De- signer would manage to get down to see fitting in

be

about three days, as usual. "Returns to offices and starts in on specifica-

tion again. Notices grasshopper on window sill.

Studies unique details

application of catapulting gear for Navy ships.

of grasshopper and considers

"Goes over to golf

club for lunch and discusses

merits of new design of clubs with profeSSional. "Returns to plant and as he passes watchman's gate-house hears important baseball game being broad-

cast on radio. Listens to several innings, discuss- ing probable outcome of pennant race with watchman.

"Back in office

starts reading over specifica-

tions again. "Admires lettering

then numbers pages therein,

on cover of new notebook and

using ornamental figures.

"Suddenly realizes that if

he is

to turn out de-

sign which 18 absolutely up-to-date it will be neces- sary for him to read up on latest developments here

and abroad as noted in aeronautical magazines. Gets magazines and reads all social and political news

therein.

cles later. "Wanders down into shop to watch operation of new rivetting machine. "Talks over international political situation with foreman of the Sheet Metal Shop. "Hears report that new airplane built by c~ peting company has landed at field so drives over to see if there are any new ideas thereon to be appro- priated. Looks ship over carefully. Points out to foreman of Hanger Cr_ all details which were impro- perly designed and expresses amazement that competi- tor managed to get a large production order on such a poor airplane. "Walks down to the School Hangar to watch stu- dents practicing landing. Comes to conclusion that modern landing gears are pretty good after all.

lIakes mental note to read technical arti-

"Back at office

starts to read over specifica-

tion again but notices that his slide rule is in need of cleaning. Decides hi' had better clean rule

thoroughly as he will be using ita lot. "Also notices that desk drawer in which he

keeps cigarettes, rubber bands, chewing gum, paper clips, smoking tobacco and pipe cleaners is in need

of fixing

out good arrangement of contents.

"Sees that it is almost quitting time and if he doesn't hurry he will probably hold up the starting t:line of his golfing foursome. puts on hat and coat and l!a!lders over i'or look at drafting board. Observes that favorite draftsman has made pro- gress on preliminary sketches for new de- sign.

up.

Takes considerable care in working

favorite draftsman has made pro- gress on preliminary sketches for new de- sign. up. Takes considerable

p:4

NOTATION AND ABBREVIATIONS

The following list of symbols used in this book is, with few exceptions, consistent with the practi- ces in the United states of the N.A.C.A. and the Army-Navy-Comn~rce Committee on Aircraft Requirements.

 

allowable stress in pure shear internal (or calculated) tensile stress

allowable tensiles stress

ultimate tensile stress

 

tensile yield stress

a acceleration, ft./sec. 2

2

 

proportional limit in tension

a slope of

OTaph of Cr, vs. c;r (dCr/d cY )

per

degree

acceleration

due to gravity. 32.2 ft./ sec.• 2

a position of aerodynamic center, fraction of chord; also subscript "actual"

modulus of elasticity in shear, of rigidity)

(modulus

a

c.

aerodynamic center

h

altitude, ft.;

also distance measured per-

A

area of cross section,

sq. in.

aspect ratio

 

pendicular to MAC as a fraction of MAC; heipht or depth; especially the distance be- tween centroids of chords of beams and trusses.

AD

equivalent drap area sq. ft.

Also designated

by f.

b

span of winff,

ft.;

also distance between spars,

 

hp

horsepower

fraction of chord; also web thickness for spars, inches; width of sections; subscript

H

absolute ceilin~, ft.

Hs

service ceili~, ft.

"bendinf'''.

HP

rated horsepower

B

buoyant force,

lbs; slenderness ratio factor

i

subscript "induced"; slope (due to bending)

(See Sq. 1:24)

 

of neutral plane of a beam, radian. 57.3 degrees).

moment

of inertia

of

mass,

in radians.

(1

slug-ft. 2 ; also

br

a

subscript "bearing". brake horsepower

 

Bhp

 

I

c

subscript "chord"; coefficient; constant; gen- erally fixity coefficient for columns; sub-

 

moment of inertia of area,

in.4

 

Ip

polar moment of inertia

sCript "compression".

j

position of wing c.g., fraction of chord; also

e.g.

center of ~avity

 

,

ft.;

also

!if;

subsoript for John-

c.p.

center of pressure,

distance from leading edge.

son'lI formula.

-( ~

C.

ft.

chord, ft.; cross wind force, lbs.; coeffiC- ient; constant; circumference.

drag,

and cross wind

 

bearing factor of safety• • • torsion constant. span factor • factor of safety; radius of gyration •

torsion constant.

span factor

factor of safety; radius of gyration

coeffiCient, constant, or general factor

lift, Ibs.; length, ft.; subscript "lift" or "level"; subscript "lateral".

loadin a ,

lbs./sq.ft •• Wife

Also

coefficients of lift, •

force

L/qS

(CD. D/qS

C/qS

(Cc

CDo

ideal minimum drag coefficient

induced drag coefficient

profile drag coefficient

parasite • deSignated by d • W/An • span loading, thrust horsepower loading • w/Tho Ibs./sq.ft••

deSignated by d • W/An

span loading,

thrust horsepower loading • w/Tho

Ibs./sq.ft•• W/e(kIb)2

CM

moment coeffiCient,

about quarter chord unless

m

mass,

slugs; slope of lift curve-rdCt/dO()

Cyo

otherwise specified

moment coeffiCient at zero lift

 

per radian; also subscript "maximum vertical",

or "maximum".

Ch

rate of climb, ft./min.

 

!lIph

miles per hour

Cp

). center of pressure, fraction of chord from lead-

M

moment, ft.

Ibs.; also subscript "moment"

C.P.

)

ing edpe

MAC

mean aerod)7UUnic chord

C s

speed power coefficient for propellers

 

n

applied load in terms of W; rate of rotation, revs./sec.; subscript "normal".

d

diameter, ft.; also drag loadinp, lbs./sq.ft.;

 

d

• W/A D ;

depth or heieht; mathematical operator

 

N

rate of rotation, revs./min.; also subscript "normal force"

denoting differential.

 

D

s

drag; Ibs.; diameter ft.

 

o

subscript "zero lift", dard".

"initial", or "stan-

e

ratio of wing weight to ,,-ross weil1'ht; unit de-

 

formation or strain; eccentricity;

subscript

 

p

subscript "polar";

subscript "proportional

for Euler's formula; Bubscript "endurance".

 

l:iJnit"; power loading,

Ibs./hp. • vr/p

E

efficiency; also chord ratio for tail surfaces; also modulus of elasiticity in tension modulus of elasticity in compression

 

p

load (total, not unit load) J engine horse- power, design unless specified.

psi

pounds per square inch.

flat plate area of CD • 1.00 equivalent to min- imum parasite and profile drag of airplane. Also deSignated by An

q

dynamic pressure,

Ibs./sq.ft •• 1/2/ ()v2

Q

static moment of a cross section.

r

radiUS; near spar location,

fraction of chord

f

unit stress,

Ibs./sq.in.; also front spar loca-

R

resultant force or reaction,

lbs.;

tion, fraction of chord also subscript "fuse- la"e"; internal -Cor calculated) stress

p

subscript "resultant"J, stress ratio. §

Reynolds number. Vc ~~

force, Ibs; allowable stress internal (or calculated) primary bending stress

S

surface (wing,

force.

unless otherwise noted;

shear

internal (or calculated) precise bending stress

t

thickness;

subscript "tail" or "terminal"

allowable bending stress, modulus of failure in bending

 

or "tenSile".

 

s

subscript "shear", "stalling"; wing loading, lbs.!sq.ft •• W/s

endurance limit in bending

 

internal (or calculated) bearing stress

   

T

thrust, lbs.; torsional moment,

torque

ultimate bearing stress

u

subscript "ultimate".

internal (or calculated)

compressive stress

U

gust velocity, ft./sec •

allo~ble compreSSive stress

 

airplane velOCity, miles per hour.

 

ultimate compressive stress

airplane velocity, ft./sec.

limited diving velOCity, ft./sec.

compressive yield stress

design flap speed

stalling velOcity, ft./sec.

proportional limit in compression

column yield stress

 

internal (or calculated) normal stress

maximum speed of level flight,

ft./sec.

allowable normal stress

• maximum theoretical diving velocity with

internal (or calculated) shearing stress

 

zero propeller thrust,

ft./sec.

allowable shearing stress

• specific weight; unit pressure, also subscript ''1r1ngl'

lbs./sq.ft.;

Factor of Safety

proportional limit in shear

11'

• average unit pressure, gross weight.

Ibs./sq.ft.; also

modulus of failure

in torsion

endurance limit in torsion

*

in CAll

3 V dea1gna tea

spe ad

in lIIph.

NOTATION AND AEBREVIATIONs

p:s

x

distance alon(' elastic curve of a beam; also distance measured parallel to MAC in terms

of ).(AC.

x,y,z

axes, see Fig. PI1.

y

denection (due to benc!1.rli'.) of elastic curve of a beam; distance from neutral axis to

outer fibre;

subscript "yield".

Z

section modulus, I

y

• polar section modulus, • ~ (for round tubes)

y

'f

y

x

",,·V

z

Figure P:l

Positive directions of axes and an~les on airplane.

 

G( (alpha)

• angle of attack,

f3 (beta)

• flight path angle with horizontal,

de !n"ge s

 

S (delta)

• nap angle,

degrees (elevator, rud-

der,

or aileron): also unit deform-

ation; also deflection.

A (Delta)

• increment

€I (theta)

• degrees,

angle of pitch,

see Figure

P:l

~ (eta)

tI. (lambda)

11' (pi)

• propeller efficiency performance parameter • L

3.1416

 

4/3

/L_

1/3

L t

I' (gamma)

• degrees.

dihedral an"le,

r(mu)

• Poisson's ratio

f (rho)

• air,

mass density of

slugs/cu. ft.,

 

radius of gyration,

inches.

 

fo

• f at standard sea level conditions.

0.00236

slugs/ cu. ft.

1: (si"ma.)

sum

q, (Phi)

anl'le of roll,

degrees

(see figure

 

Y(Psi)

P:l); also angular deflection anrle of yaw, degrees (see Figure

P:l) CAl (omega) • anpular velOCity, radians/second.

ACI.I

Air Commerce Manual,

CAA,

U.S. Dept. of

Commerce.

AN

Army-Navy Standard Specifications.

 

ACIC

Air Corps Information Circular, U.S. Army

ALCOA

Aluminum Company of America.

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

CAA

Civil Aeronautics Administration, of Commerce.

U.

S.

Dept.

CAR

Civil Air Regulations,

of Conmerce.

CAA,

U. S.

Dept.

DC

U. S. Dept. of Conmerce.

AAFTR

Army Air Force Technical Report

JAS

Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences

 

NACA

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (U.S.)

Reports and Memoranda, Aeronautical Research Committee (Gr. Prit.).

 

sAE

Society of Automotive Enf,ineers.

 

TA

Technical Aerodynamics (text by same author).

Tl[

Technical Memorandum (N~CA)

TN

Tecp~ical Note (NACA)

TR

Technical Report (NACA)

WR

SAllE

Wartime Report (NACA) - Society of Aeronautical Weight Engineers

 

n-

n-

1:2

INTRODUCTION

 

While

most

military airplanes

are turbojet

The

piston-engine

powered airliner,

exempli-

powered

in

the

interest

of maximum possible~vel

fied

by

the

best-selling DC-7 shown in Figure

I:8

high speed

(typical

current

jet bomber and fight-

appears

to

be

well

established for many years

to

er airplanes

are

shown

in

Figures

1:5 and

1:6

come.

respectively)

the

future

of

the

commercial

jet

 
   

I

airliner is

still

(1954)

in some doubt partly in

Fass.

Fatalities per

view of

the

unfortunate

safety record

to date

of

,

100 :.:illion pass. :.:iles

 

the British

"Comet"

jetllner.(Figure 1:10)

200 i

(Note

comparison with other

forms

of

travel

in

     

Figure

1:7.)

 

r

100t"-.,

scl

i

20 L

10,

r 100t"-., scl i 20 L 10,
 
 
r 100t"-., scl i 20 L 10,     , i 5~ i !   2

,

i

5~ i

!

 

2

;"utohlo:iles &

;"utohlo:iles &
 
 

Fig.

I:5

Boeing B-52

long

range

jet bomber,

key airplane

in current plans

of

 

the

USAF

strategic

air command.

   

"

Courtesy Aviation Week.

 

!

\

 

.2.

I

.Il

'-C

co

I

I

0

(\J

'-.(; co 0 N 0\ ::t :::; ('i"\ r-I rl r-l rl
'-.(;
co
0
N
0\
::t
:::;
('i"\
r-I
rl
r-l
rl

':'rains-+- ~

-:J

 

N

N

N

('1'"\

(""j

f""""\

North American F- Sabre; prin-
North American F-
Sabre;
prin-

0--

rl

C'\O\O\O\

r-!

r-l

r-i

r-I

0-.0-.0\0'\0,

r-i

Fig.

I:7

Safety record of airplane, auto- mobile and train travel. Aviation Week, Feb., 25, 1952, CAB Journal, and National Saf

_ , ,<k
_
,
,<k
 

cipal USAF jet fighter Courtesy Aviation Week.

of 1953.

 

The British

Comet

experience may be simply due

to

too

early or too ambitious

operational

use.

Many

other commercial

jet arliners are under develop- jet arliners have inherently

ment

in 1954,

but

very

poor

take

off and landing characteristics

 

compared

with

propeller driven airliners,

which

have

much

higher

take-off

thrust,

and which

can

use

the

propellers

for braking on landing.

 

The

turbine-propeller

("turbo-prop")

airline.

(e.g. Figure I:9)

is

a different

story,

since

its

may be

due

to

the

fact

that

only major handicaps aviation gas turbines

have

had

several decades

 

less

development

work done

on

them

than

piston

en

gines

for airplanes.

Advanatages are

lightness

(current weights

per horsepower about

one

half

that of piston engines) and quietness; disadvan-

tages

are

higher fuel

consumption

(by 50

to

100

per cent)

and

propeller control difficulties

 

partly due to

much

larger rotor inertia and

windmilling propeller drag. Reliability in ser-

vice may also

be

inherently less,

since high

 

speed whirling

red-hot blades are an essential

feature

of the aviation gas

turbine.

For short

range flights,

and

particularly for

helicopters,

where

power plant

weight

is

very

important and

 

fuel

weight

is

not,

the

turbine

has

great

future

promise

but

is

still

(1954)

relatively undevelope

particularly as

regards

the many detail$

which

must

make

up

a

satisfactorily functioning

power

plant.

 

Fig.

I:9

Bristol Britannia

turboprop air-

 

liner.

Courtesy Aviation Week.

INTRODUCTION

1:4

 

1:2.

Trends

in Airplane

Performance.

The

available. For transport airplanes, airlines usually write the specifications. Specifications written by such customers can be followed closely by the manufacturer. For small airplanes for per- sonal transportation to be sold in quantity, the specifications might be determined by question- naires circulated to potential customers, but for the most part the specifications are written by the <iesigner and involve his estimate of "what the public wants"

in

Since

price and cost are

the major factors

most

important

item

of airplane performance

is

cruising speed,

since

speed

is

what

the airplane

has

to

sell

in competition with other forms

of

transportation.

Landing and

take-off speed are

also

major

importance and

should be neither

too

high nor too

low

(see

Chap.

1

for

specific

recommendations). Rate of climb and ceiling are of minor importance for civil aircraft, provided certain minimum standards are met except perhaps for airliners that must cruise at high altitude for economy, and for these low rate of climb has serious adverse effects on the "block-to-block" speed (referring to the blocks usually placed in

the

success

of an airplane

design

project

intended

for sale to the

public,

a

market

analysis

is

a

de-

front

or unloading).

of

the wheels

while

the airplane

is

loading

A graphical

history of airliner cruising

speeds

is

shown

in

Figure

1:15 together with es-

tablished

speed

records

of seaplanes,

landplanes

and

terest

automobiles.

The

only because

t

2000

speed

records

show

are

of

in-

1500

a~~~~Ii~IIIIIII[~IIIIII~IIIIII~~

1000& 200 150 I' I story of airliner
1000&
200
150
I' I
story of airliner

cruising

speeds

with seaplane,

landplane,

and automobile

speed

records

for

comparison.

Broken

lines are a forecast,

in

test.

discussed

sirable background for such a design project.

15 year

size is

record

of airplane

sales

classified by

plotted in Figure 1:16.

50000

20000

10000

SCJOO

2000

1000

S,CJO

200

100

50

--- D.C. Index of General In
---
D.C.
Index of General In

Industrial Production 1935-39 ave.» 100

of General In Industrial Production 1935-39 ave.» 100 A 2~~~~~~~--~~~~'+~~ ~~~~~ -at a MMMMMMMM ~~ MM

A

2~~~~~~~--~~~~'+~~

~~~~~

-at

a

MMMMMMMM

~~

MM

Fig.

1:16

Twenty year record of airplane

 

sales,

classified by size,

with

estimated

sales

for

Data

rent

1953 & 1954. and

cur-

from

business

CAA Journal

magazines.

Data

from Figure

1:16,

or

a

Similar figure

with more recent informat1on when available, may be used to estimate the demand in any particular year for an airplane of any given payload and performance. The wisdom of embarking on a de- velopment program for a 2-seat 150 mph at this

time

is

not

clear,

but

this

is

done

1n chapter 1

 

because the methods are general and applicable to

the

upper

limit

of

speeds

attainable

with

zero

such other

specifications as

may be deemed more

payload. The "shock" or "sonic" barrier has only

desirable.

recently been overcome.

The

forecast

implied

by

the broken line is that the

"thermal

barrier"

for

habitable airplanes

will

take

longer to

crack,

as

it :nay involve "space ships" rather than flying

machines and the economies and motivation are more

obscure.

cruising speeds considers chiefly the economics of

profitable operation. It is the authors Judgement that airliners have nearly reached their limiting speed of profitable operation (about 400 mph) as

railway

The

forecast

did

implied

for airliner

trains

a

half-century ago

(at about

100 mph),

though

this

proposition is

certainly

debatable,

and

enterprising

business

men will

pro-

bably bet millions

of dollars

to

the

contrary

(and, it

says

here,

will

probably lose

their

shirts).

Shorter

term

economic

forecasts

can of

course be much more accurate.

General

first

ysis.

1:3.

The

Specification and Market Anal-

is

step in designing an airplane

to decide what

kind

of an airplane

is

to

be

built.

This

means

that

a

specification must be

The

two

and

three

seat airplanes

were

used

mostly for

ing Program for the Civil Aeronautics Administra-

tion from 1941 to 1945:

flight ~aining (Civilian

"G.I.

Bill

Pilot Train-

of Rights"

in 1946 and 1947).

five seat airplanes were used mostly for air taxi service and to a much smaller extent as family airplanes analogous to the family automobiles, but serving for longer trips and at higher speeds. Another major use of both of the classes of air-

planes shown in Figure 1:16 is the use of farmers

flight

training

The

four

and

and

other business

men

in

personal

transportation

to

keep

in

touch with widely scattered

business

interests.

Between 1947 and

1948

changes

in

federal

re-

gulations

caused

practtcal abandonment

of civilian

training

of

potential

military

pilots,

and

the

bottom dropped

out

of

the market

for

two

and

three

place airplanes,

while

the demand four and five

place airplanes

was

steadily

increasing.

he market e will carry- , e, because c-ro- as fully obtained ained for e

he

market

e

will

carry-

,

e,

because

c-ro-

as

fully

obtained

ained

for

e

is

prob-

tomobiles

come

ht

port

poor

h

as

is

intenance

ble

evelopment

lished

ted in

nvolved In

avel.

ther

xpensive

sign to

n of Figure

nted well

children

ding vision

tional

ely

to

gear of

g

ally

sat-

xpenae.

ered more

ight

design

fers

ed

lation

well,

tion

in

by

f

a

im-

by

tan-

LAYOUT DESIC',;;-? .LIGHT AIRPLAl1ES

1:2

The cruising speed of 150 mph is

specified because

The stability,

control, and strength items are

it is desired to provide an ai:;plane that will "go places" and not merely a training airplane, though the sacrifice of the trainer market may be a severe handicap to a prospective manufacturer. Adverse winds aloft of

30 mph are not uncommon, so if the cruising air speed is much under 150 mph the time saving by flying instead of driving an automobile, taking account of airport in- acessibility, may be so little that the potential owner

conventional except that the airplane is required to be

spin proof in the interest

of safety.

It may be found in attempting to develop a design to meet the above reqUirements that they are conflict- ing and impossible to fulfill, so the designer should prepare a priority list stating which items are rigidly fixed and which may be suffered to compromise. For the example above the priority list might be as follows:

would rather drive.

sidered to be about 90% of the level hivh speed, as this involves cruising at about 15% of the rated engine horse- power.

The cruising speed is usually con-

(1)

Pay load,

stability,

control, and strength, no

compromise.

in

The climb specified is the legal minimum [(Cho min. *

ft. /min) •

8 x (vs in mph) J, and should be exceeded

(2)

Cost may have to be increased somewhat,

though

if the cost is increased too much the market disappears and the project must be abandoned.

(3) Performance: cruising speed may have to be

if convenient, but it is felt that very rapid climb is not likely to be worth its cost (for a given weight and power, better climb requires more wing span); it is possible that a majority of potential pilots may not feel this way but some assumption IIlUSt be made and if rapid climb is relegated to a position of less importance a designer may worry about other things which may be of more importance. The range of 600 miles is specified to provide 50% reserve for the longest trip to be made be- tween major airports on a business trip east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. Except for long hops the tanks need not be filled to the limit. Most pilots will want to come down for other reasons long before the four hour supply of fuel is exhausted.

reduced a little in the interest of economy; range may

have to be reduced slightly,

but there can be no com-

promise on climb as the legal minimum has been specified. Very little reduction in-aESOlute ceiling can be tolerated or the airplane will have little use on the western prairies of the Dakotas, Nebraska Kansas

Oklahoma,

and Texas,

lIhere a

large

market' exists ~ong

the newly-rich farmers.

(4)

Equipment may have to be reduced

but value

in the following order:

(a)

dual controls:

(b) starter,

The absolute ceiling of 10,000 feet,

with an

(c) muffler and quiet propeller (d) two-way radio.

initial rate of climb of 440 ft. per minute, would give

1:2

Preliminary DeSign Estimates.

Preliminary

a

service ceiling of about 8,000 feet,

which would make

design est~tes must be based on the known weight and

the airplane unsuitable for flivht in the Rocky Itountain Region. An airplane for use chiefly in the RoCky Mountain Region should have a hi~her ceiling and rate of climb, but for other regions these values are unnecessarily high. If a good sale in the Rocky Mountain region is considered necessary, special wing tips to provide a larger span can be supplied as an item of added-cost equipment.

The equipment specifications call for an electric starter because the exertion of manual starting may be exhausting to the pilot and contribute to the hazard of flight. Two-way radio is considered necessary for landing at many of today's busy airports. An exhaust muffler and a qUiet propeller to keep the cabin noise

performance of airplanes already constructed.

Such air-

planes are listed on A2f:6.

Performance estimates

should be based on aerodynamic data in Appendix A2 as explained in the author's related text "Technical

Aerodynamics, Second Edition"

(MCGraw-Hill,

1941).

comparable to that of an automobile driven at high speed

is considered necessary to avoid pilot fatigue.

Dual

controls greatly enhance the saleability of the airplane at small expense and seat cushions replaceable by parachutes are conSidered important by many pilots.

The seatin, arrangement specified (tandem seats) is not that of optimum marketability, but sacrifices

little in the "chuminess" of the travel in the interest of high performance. The mono-llheel landing gear is

a

specified in the interest of lOir cost with small sacrifice of safety (if any) and with small sacrifice in

convenience of operation.

above the wing, with adequate protection against people

walking into it, is considered to eliminate one of the greatest hazards of light airplane ground handling.

The pusher propeller location

1:3

Layout Procedure.

For a given payload

stalling speed, Jiia5dmum speed, and climb or ceiling,

 

'

wi th propulsion by propeller and reciprocating engine proceed as follows:

(1) First estimate of gross weight.

Estimate

gross night. 4 x (Payload + Pilot) for a normal

range airplane. This weight estimate is merely intend-

ed to

addition to the payload because for larger airplanes

be

wi thin 50%.

The pilot

is specified as an

the pilot is not considered part of the payload.

A minimum cost

of less than *~

is judged unlikely

(2) First estimate of wing area. Estimate wing area - S ~OO256 or: max v/'). Assume that

 

of fulfillment with the current prices of the engines

The upkeep cost

specified is very little more than that of a medium-

necessary to ~ive high performance.

priced-class automobile, but of course the utility of the airplane is so much less than that of the automobile that there can be no comparison in the market for tl)e two if the price is the same. It should also be born in mind that purchases of airplanes for use by the head o!

ct max- 1.4 or 1.5 for wings without flaps.

wings with full span flaps

of the split or simple

Far

type

ct max may be assumed to

2.0 to 2.2.

Where it is

desired to keep the wing area as small as pOSSible, use may be made of a dooble slotted flap suoh as that

family will usually have to be appr~d by the housewife;

a

this limitation is one of severest handicaps to the wide sale of two place airplanes.

far which data are given on page A2a.:26, where it ill

seen that the C 1 max

may be as

high as 3.2.

CAR 03.12:3 (which supersedee

minimum angle of climb of tan-

1

CAR 04)

1/12.

now also

spec1t1ee

For

olimb at 10%

OTar T.

(60 mph),

min

:=

110/12 ,.

!5 mph

= 440

ft!m1D.

The object of these calculations is to determine the approximate size, shape, and weight of the airplane necessary to meet the specifications. There is no Single best procedure to follow. Most airplanes are not de- signed from the ground up, but are developed by making minor changes on existing airplanes which have proven satisfactory. The following method has been evolved by the author in making commercial layout calculations. The outline of procedure is followed by an example with sample calculations. For an airplane powered' by an engine and with a propeller the procedure is essentially the same as that given in the previous editions of this text.

Agreement of thiS figure with a_Til 111 Plrely coinoidental.

LAYOUT DESIGN OF LIOHT AIRPLANES

 

1:3

(3) First drag estimate. the minillium arag coefficient is

For a

low-drag airfoil,

seen on page A2a:20 or

taper of 2:1 can be investigated later.

For a

oonven-

tional tail arrangement,

oonsisting of vertioal and hor-

A2a:21

to be easily

kept below CD min -

0.005.

This

izontal tail,

tentatively assume Svert.- 0.075 S and

may be increased to 0.006 to allow for drag added by Vee

Shoriz. • 0.15 s. For a Vee tail assume a 45 0 dihedral

type tail surfaces.

The drag coefficient associated with

and a total tail area of 0.225 S.

This assumes that

the fuselage will depend on the fuselage size which is as

the Vee tail involves no saving in tail area though there

yet undetermined,

drag estimate that the drag of the fuselage with can-

but it may be assumed for this first

is usually a saving in drag. Locate engine, propeller, pilot, passengers, baggage, and gasoline so that the

pletely retracted landing gear is equal to the drag of

the wing and tail.

In general,

data in Appendix A2b

oenter of gravity (c. g.) will be near the 1/3 ohord point

of the wing.

Passengers,

baggage,

and gasoline

should

should be consulted for drag of other items if

or when

be as

near to

the

c.g. as possible to avoid a ohange of

present.

(4) Calculation of thrust horsepower reqUired.

From

c.g. tractor monoplane unless otherwise speCified. The advan- tage of ohanging to a pusher can be oalculated later.

location when these items are absent.

Assume a

the specified Vmax read on page A2f:2 a value of ThPm/f

Locate wheels and tail

so that the zero lift

ohord of the

and calculate ThPm -(ThPmt'f)f. On page A2f:2, al!lsume tentatively the Ls4- 30 to 60.

wing may be inclined about 20 0 up for landing and so that

the fuselage center line incidence will be about zero

at an absolute angle of attack 0( a

_

3 0

to 50.

Assume a

 

(5) Calculation of brake horsepower required.

Assume

retractable landing gear;

advantage in weif'ht saving may

a

maximum propeller efficiency

(woOd o. 75 to

0.80,

metal

be balanced against drag reduction tion.

in a later investiga-

0.80 to 0.85) and calculate BhPm •

ThPm/l'(.

This gives

the engine power necessary for the specified speed.

(15)

Third weight estimate and balance

table.

(6)

Selection of power plant.

For a list

of recipro--

Estimate weights of major aiI'plalle oomponents, using

charts on pages A5:l to AS:3.

Measure location of

cating engines see page 14:!;

In some specifications the

engine is already selected and these first be omitted••,

six steps can

layout sketch.

Prepare table

showing o.g.

location.

(16)

Performance Calculation.

Revise parasite drag

(7) Second weight estimate.

Reville weight estimate

on the baS1S 01 power pIarit weight. Read weight of engine

estimate, using 'the data in Appendix A2 and caloulate the specified items of performance. If Appendix A2 is found exoessively condensed, oonsult Technical Aero- dynamics, second edition.

dry (without hub or starter) on page A4:l. For an air- cooled reCiprocating engine, (total power plant weight) - 1.3 x (weight of engine dry).

(Airplane weight empty) - plant weight.

(2.5 to 3.5) x' (total power

 

(Gasoline weight) • (0.38 BhPm).

(endurance at cruising) x

Oil weight •

(gasoline weight)/12.

Fixed equipment as in specification (parachutes,

radiO,

etc).

Gross weight •

weight empty + gas,

oil, and fixed

equipment + payload.

(8) Second estimate of wing area and drag. Items (2) and (3) may be repeated ilslligtEe- second weight estimate.

(9)

Calculation of parasite loading.

Calculate Lp -

1:3

Example of Preliminary Layout.

As an example

W/f.

of aPplication of the above method, preliminary layout caloulations will be made for an airplane to meet the speoifications given in article 1:1. These steps are numbered to correspond to the steps outlined in suggested. procedure given above.

(10) Selection of propeller and estimate

of efficiency.

Select propeller as on page A2e:1 at this stage of the de- Sign and estimate maximum propeller efficiency from

other graphs in Appendix A2e.

 

(1)

First estimate

of gross weight:

For 400 lb.

(11) Calculation of ~

and thrust power loading.

Calculate ThPm •

BhPm(rl) and Lt -

W/lbPm.

payload, estilliate gross weight W~x 400 • 1600. For small ships like this, the term "payload" may be used to include the pilot (as here), though this usage is not strictly in accord with the NACA definition. On transport ships, the pilot (and erew) are not oonsidered "payload".

(2) First estimate

of wing area.

Sinoe the speoifi-

cations Cill for high 11ft fUll span flaps, it will be assumed that ct max - 3.~.For a stalling speed of 55 mph,

(12) Determination of minimum ceiling and climb •

tirameterA

(a)

Using te

specified sea level climb (0),0)

calculate

A

tt,

Cbo/lOOO. Read maximum permissible cei!ing parameter ,>-

on page A"f':4.

(b)

Using the

page A2f:5.

specified altitude

ceiling,

read A

on

(c)

The smaller of these two values must be used to

fulfill both specifications.

the ceiling with one or more engines out of commission

For multi-engined airplanes,

the necessary wing area is calculated to be -

S

1600

O.OO25ElX 3 x (55)2

69 sq.

ft.

may be

the prinCipal faoter determ1ningA

hand 9tt use page 12f;3 and read or ca10iilate Ls4.

(13)

Caloulation of the

necessary" wing span.

Knowing

tentatively assume S • 70 sq. ft. as a

wing area makes an even smaller ohange in stalling speed.

small change in

Knowine Lt,

caloulate Ls'

KnOll'ing Ls -

w/eb2,

estimate

e

from page A2f:l and solve for the

span necessary to

get the specified olimb and osiling.

oed.ure,

assume thi

the arig of tile wing tail,

(11) Preliminary layout sketch.

Make a preliminary

sketch of the airplane. For a wing tentatively sketch a

monoplane of 2:1 taper ratio

using the

calculated span,and

calculating the geometriC mean ohord as Om • Sib. Witll a

fully retracted. A 1Il0re detailed

drag estimate

is

to be

parts in terms of distance from the nose on the preliminary

If the speoified performanoe is approximately ful- filled, the design is ready for an investigation of the effect of changes in design on performance. Suoh an investigaticn involves an evaluation of relative importanoe of decrease in weight (for a given strength) and an in- orease in minimum drag. Reasonably accurate evaluations of these faotors is not possible until a speoial study has been made of the relatim between weight, strength, and oost and is therefore deferred to a later chapter. Preliminary comparisons based on average weight and strength of ourrent deSigns are however possible without suoh detailed study and are therefore presented later in this chapter.

(3) First drat estimate. As suggested in the layout pro--

and fuselage

are represented ~, a minimum airplane drag ooelfioient of On • 0.012, whioh might be increased to 0.015 on account of the windshield and the fact of the landing wheel is not

2:1 taper ratiO, the root chord will be Or • 2em1l,s and -

the tip chord will be 0t

emil. 5 •

The advantage of

made later but it may be noted at this time that the minimum drag coefficient of 0.015 here assumed. is le~.

.•

For

Jet plalles lISe alta'll8te procedure 011 p. 1112.

LAYOUT DESIGN OF LI!1HT AIRPLANES

1:5

 

(b) For an absolute ceiling of H • 10,000 on p.

For a

wing area

S

-

55

sq.

A2f:5,

group,

on the next-to-top curve of the absolute ceiling

read

A. 28.

ft. calculate Om • Sib - •

aspect ratio is

55/20.8 • 2.65 ft.

7.85.

and the

This is a reasonable aspect ratio and will be used

The smaller of these two values of

A

is necessary

in making a layout sketch of the airplane.

 

to fulfill both the ceiling and climb specifications.

 

(14) Preliminary layout sketch.

The wing will be

 

(13) calculation of necessary wing span.

23

and the cfuii't on page A2f:3 and YLt • rhJlm/f _

Using

sketched With a 2:1 taper ratio as suggested in the

outline of procedure.

The root chord will be

 

A

Or •

2

(2.65) - 3.54 ft.;

Ct·

1

(2.65)·

1.77 ft.

54/1 -

54,

read LsLt •

86.

USing L t

_ 23.5

as previously

 

!"3'""

determined,

calculate Ls - 86/23.5 - 3.66 _ w/eb

2

 
 

To estimate e note

the charts on page A2f:l and

observe that ew is usually between 0.8 and 0.9 and that

it is somewhat reduced by the effect of fuselage drag

variation with angle of attack.

Tentatively assume

- determined) and calculate

e

0.8

(to be verified after the aspect ratio has been

 

-.J

1270

20.8 ft.

 
 
  -.J 1270 • 20.8 ft.     O.B x 3.66 20.8/2.65 • These numbers may