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The National Movement in Telangana
The Erst-while Hyderabad state of the Nizam contained three broad divisions on linguistic basis namely Telangana, Marathwada and Karnataka. The two subas of Warangal and Medak consisting of nine districts constituted the Telangana region with an area of more than 49 thousand square miles with a population of ten millions i.e. one crore. 151 The popular poet Dasarathi called it ‘ Koti Ratnala Veena Na Telangana ’. The percentage of literacy was only 5%. Persian language was used upto 1884, when urdu was introduced as official language of the Hyderabad state by Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan the Nizam VI. People from North India and Marthwada were invited and appointed in higher positions. Telugu language and Telugu culture were neglected.
The Indian National Congress, established in 1885, attracted the intellectual elite like Dr.Aghoranatha Chattopadhyaya, father of Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, Mulla Abdul Qayum and others, who joined it. The lapses and the defects of the Nizam rule were focused through the News paper ‘Hindu Pioneer’. The establishment of Arya Samaj in 1892 in Hyderabad city marked the beginning of the cultural revival. Intellectuals like Keshava Rao Karotkar joined the Arya Samaj. In order to

bring unity and rouse the patriotic spirit among the masses Bala Gangadhar Tilak started Ganesh festival celebrations in Maharastra. These celebrations were also started in Hyderabad in 1895. Leaders like Komarraju Lakshmana Rao, Gadicherla Harisarvothama Rao and A.Keshava Rao tried their best for the cultural renaissance. Due to the efforts of Komarraju Lakshmana Rao, the first Telugu library namely Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam was started in 1901. The Vignana Chandrika Mandali established in 1906, published many books in Telugu. Viveka Varadhani school was started by Maharashtrians. The Osmania University was established in 1919. Political Awakening in Telangana The Telugu journals like Nilagiri Patrika and Telugu Patrika developed political consciousness. The first congress committee was formed under the presidentship of Vaman Nayak in 1918. The Khilafat movement brought Hindus and Muslims together. The Non co-operation movement started by Gandhiji spread throughout India. The meetings were addressed by both Hindus and Muslims. The Nizam’s Government, perturbed by these developments, issued a firman forbidding the holding of political meetings.

The Khilafat movement, like in other districts had its impact on Karimnagar district also. The Khilafat Day was

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observed in the months of March and April 1920 at several places in the district. A meeting was conducted at Idgah in Karimnagar, which was presided over by Shah Habibulla of Hyderabad. People from all walks of life participated in it. The first Taluqudar or the District Collector Syed Moinuddin Ali Khan and the joint Magistrate Rai Ratan Chand also attended the meeting. The local pleaders were the chief promoters of the movement. The meeting also exhorted the merchants to close down their shops as a mark of protest against the British. Official records reveal that necessary permission was not obtained before holding the meeting152. The year 1920 was very momentous and the currents of political thought generated in the rest of the country permeated this district also. Gandhian ideals such as the use of Khaddar and boycott of liquor shops spread to the interior parts of Karimnagar district. It is strange that some students gave up their studies under the influence of Non co-operation Movement of 1920. Dr.Jayasurya gave up his studies in medicine. Students like Mir muhammad Hussain, Akbar Ali Khan, Maqbul Ali and Syed Muhammad Ansari etc. belonging to Karimnagar gave up their studies and participated in the movement. Among them Mir Muhammad Hussain was put in Nellor jail for six months. In later days he was appointed as the Director at the Central Record Office in Hyderabad. Akbar Ali Khan later on earned good name as a Barrister. Maqbul Ali became civil surgeon while Syed Muhammad Ansari became a pleader. The intellectuals and students with political awakening were greatly attracted by the movement. The propagation of Swadeshi movement caught the imagination of the people and soon they took up to spinning of Khadi. Prominent people like Badrul Hasan and Jaffar Hasan instead of wearing paijamas started wearing Khadi Shirts, Khadi Dhovatis and Gandhi caps 153. Badrul Hasan was a professor of sociology in the Osmania University. As a result of the Khadi

movement, women in most of the houses took up to spinning of Khadi, while the volunteers sold the Khadi cloth in the market. Prof. Badrul Hasan got the Charakhas or the Ratanas (spinning wheels) from Bombay and supplied them to women. A factory was started in Warangal, where the Charakhas were made and supplied to other places. A Khadi Karkhana or Factory was established in 1929 at Metpalli in Karimnagar district. A large number of people span the thread on the Charakhas or spinning wheels and sold it in the Karkhana or factory. The Khadi cloth manufactured at Metpalli was exported to the far off places. Boga Papaiah Pantulu rendered yeoman service to the Karkhana of Metpalli. The Charakha centres were opened at various places in the district. In those days those, who wore Khadi clothes, were considered congress people and the Nizam police kept a watch over them. The Emergence of Andhra Jana Sangham. The Nizam state’s social reforms conference was held in Hyderabad on 11th and 12th November 1921. It was presided over by Maharshi Karve. The proceedings of the conference were conducted in English, Urdu and Marathi. But one of the delegates Allampalli Venkatarama Rao tried to move a resolution in Telugu, which was hooted down by the audience more specially by The Maharashtrian section, which could not be tolerated by Telugu members in the very capital of Telugu people. Therefore, that very night they formed an association called the Andhra Jana Sangham with only 12 members. Very soon the membership rose to hundred and its first meeting was held in Hyderabad under the Chairmanship of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy on 14th February 1922. Madapati hanumantha Rao, who was elected secretary, proved to be the guiding spirit of the movement for the social and cultural upliftment of Telangana people. A large number of people from Huzurabad area attended the conference

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of Andhra Jana Sangham held at Hanumakonda on 1st April 1924. The Andhra Jana Sangham established many Telugu libraries, reading rooms and private schools for social, economic and cultural revival of the people of Telangana. Sri Raja Raja Narendra Andhra Bhasha Nilayam at Hanumakonda in 1904, Andhra Samvardhini library at Secundrabad in 1905 and Mahaboobia library at Yerrupalem in Khammam district were established. In 1930 a conference of historians was held at Warangal and it published The Kakatiya Sanchika. The Andhra Jana Sangham published many books. The merchants in Telangana formed “The Merchants’ Association” against the exploitations of the bureaucracy, which are published in a book called ‘Vartaka Swatantriyam’. The Andhra Balika High School was established in 1928. By 1930 The Andhra Jana Sangham became a powerful force focusing the public opinion. In a conference held at Jogipet in Medak district the Andhra Jana Sangham was converted into Andhra Mahasabha in 1930. The Andhra Mahasabha The Andhra Mahasabha formed in 1930 tried its best for the social and cultural development of the people of Telangana. The first conference was held in 1930 at Jogipet in Medak district under the presidentship of Suravaram Pratap Reddy. Women’s conference called Andhra Mahila Sabha was also held simultaneously with the Andhra Maha Sabha under the presidentship of Nadimpalli Sundaramma. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao presided over the second conference held at Devarakonda in 1931. The Nizam Government developed hostile attitude towards the Mahasabha and imposed several restrictions on it. Therefore Mahasabha could not get permission for three years until it held its third conference at Khammam in 1934 under the presidentship of Pulijala Venkata Ranga Rao.

The Fourth Andhra Mahasabha At Sircilla 1935 The fourth Andhra Mahasabha, held at Sircilla in Karimnagar district, was presided over by Madapati Hanumantha Rao in 1935, while his wife Manikyamba presided over the Andhra Mahila Sabha simultaneously at the same place. The speakers started speaking in Telugu in this conference giving up Urdu, Marathi and English. A primary form for the constitution of Andhra Mahasabha was given in this conference. Many important resolutions were passed in this conference. 1. Education system should be completely revised and the educational institutions should be recognised. 2. Compulsory primary education should be implemented. 3. Mother-tongue Telugu should be the Medium of Instruction. 4. The legitimate rights of the people in Jagirs should be protected. 5. Child marriages should be discouraged. 6. Local-self Government should be introduced. 7. Untouchability should be eradicated and the untouchables should be given due place in the society. The youth, who participated in the conference at Sircilla, did not like the above cited stereotyped resolutions. They demanded for radical changes. These Resolutions could not bring any change in the attitude of the Nizam Government. The leaders like Baddam Yella Reddy, Anabheri Prabhkar Rao, Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy and the social reformer Bhoomaiah vakil (pleader) played important role in organising this conference. Representatives from all the taluks of the district attended this conference. From Jagtial Kasam Shivaraja Gupta, Jaisetty Lakshmirajam Gupta and Siddamsetti Sangaiah etc. attended it. The branch of Andhra Mahasabha was opened by Kasam Shivaraja Gupta at Jagtial. Raghunath Kache, who attended this conference, established the Andhra Mahasabha

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branch at Manthani. After the conference of Sircilla, a permanent office of Andhra Maha Sabha was opened at Boiwada in Karimnagar. Baddam Yella Reddy was elected as the District president of Mahasabha, while Anabheri Prabhakar Rao was elected as secretary. Damodar Rao of Gundi-Ramadugu was made the incharge of the office. The branches of Andhra Maha Sabha were opened at Sircilla, Jagtial, Manthani, Peddapalli, Metpalli, Koratla, Choppadandi, Sultanabad, Huzurabad and several other places in Karimnagar district. The popular leaders like K.V.Ranga Reddy, J.V.Narasing Rao, Suravaram Pratap Reddy, Ravi Narayana Reddy, Baddam Yella Reddy etc participated in the Sircilla conference on 6th September 1935. This conference was a source of inspiration to the young people like Amrutlal Shukla of Sircilla, who played later on an important role in the Telangana Armed Struggle. Leaders like Polkampalli Venkata Rama Rao rendered valuable services in the organisation of the fourth conference. The ancestors of Polkampalli Venkata Rama Rao are said to have hailed from Devarakonda in Nalgonda district and he is closely related to the Chennamaneni brothers Rajeshwar Rao, Hanumantha Rao and Ch.Vidyasagar Rao, the former state minister for Home in the Centre. The famous weight lifter Kodi Rama Krishna of Vijayawada is said to have exhibited his feats in this conference. The offices of Andhra Mahasabha opened in the district carried on a campaign against Vetti Chakiri or forced labour, compulsory levy system of paddy and the exploitation of the masses by the privileged class like landlords, Jagirdars and Deshmukhs. The Volunteers of the Mahasabha helped the weavers in getting the cotton thread supplied by the Government on ration cards. They worked for the fair distribution of the cotton thread without allowing scope for black marketing.

The Later Conferences of Andhra Mahasabha The fifth conference of Andhra Mahasabha was held at Jagir village Shadnagar in 1936 under the presidentship of Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy. The sixth conference held at Nizamabad in 1937 was presided over by Mandamula Narsinga Rao. When the Seventh conference was presided over by Mandamula Ramachandar Rao at Malkapur, young men like Ravi Narayan Reddy from Nalgonda, Kaloji Narayan Rao from Warangal and Polkampalli Venkatrama Rao from Karimnagar attended it. The delegates were divided into two distinct groups namely moderates and leftists. The eighth conference held at Chilkuru near Huzurnagar in Nalgonda district in 1941 was presided over by the Communist leader Ravi Narayana Reddy. The problems of women and the agricultural tenants were mainly discussed in this conference. The Ninth Andhra Mahasabha conference held in 1942 at Dharmavaram in Warangal district was presided over by Madiraju Rama Koteswara Rao. In 1943 the Tenth conference was held in Hyderabad. Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy belonging to moderates group having defeated the leftist leader Baddam Yella Reddy of Karimnagar district became the president of this conference. In the eleventh conference held at Bhuvanagiri in 1944 the communists dominated and their leader Ravi Narayan Reddy became the president. This Andhra Mahasabha attended by ten thousand people came under the control of communists. The communist leader Chandra Rajeshwar Rao addressed this eleventh session. This led to a split in the Mahasabha. Moderates like Konda Venkata Ranga Reddy and others formed a separate association called the Nationalist Andhra Mahasabha which held two sessions in 1945 and 1946. The last session of the Nationalist Andhra Mahasabha held at Kandi Village in Medak district in 1946 was presided over by Jamalapuram Keshava Rao. However the Nationalist Andhra Mahasabha ultimately merged itself into the Hyderabad State congress.

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The Communist led Andhra Mahasabha held its twelfth session at Khammam in 1946 under the presidentship of Ravi Narayan Reddy. More than forty thousand people attended this conference. On 3rd December 1946 the communist party was banned and naturally the activities of Andhra Mahasabha came to a close. Proselytisation (Religious conversions) Forcible conversions in Karimnagar district from Hinduism to Islam went on unchecked. One Rajanna of Manthani was converted to Islam in 1926 and his name was changed as Moulvi Rafiuddin. Rajeshwar Rao, a Niyogi Brahman and a Dora or landlord of Peddapalli was also converted as Muslim with a new name Abdul Jaleel. At Adivarampeta in the old Manthani taluk, one Jainuddin Kidnapped Rambai, the wife of Chitikesi Veeraiah of Vyshya community along with her 8 years old son Ramachandram. He converted them to Islam forcibly at the Qazi of Mahadevpur and changed their names into Haneesha Bi and Abdullah. Jainuddin married Haneesha Bi 154. Many instances of forcible conversion went on unnoticed. Many poor Harijans were converted to Islam. Bahadur Yar Jung, the leader of Hyderabad state Ittehadul Muslimeen toured many places in Karimnagar district and encouraged conversions into Islam. He distributed free clothes and promised to pay Rupees twenty to each new convert. A good number of Harijans in Sircilla and Yellareddypet areas are reported to have embraced Islam. Propagation of Islam went on unchecked and the Islam promoters were appointed on a salary of Rs.12/- per month. In 1941 census, Harijans were not mentioned as Hindus. The column of their religion was left blank. Juvvadi Chokka Rao of Irkulla Village and a leader of Karimnagar district made a protest and wrote a letter to Golconda Patrika against the unfair methods adopted in the census of 1941.

Dr.Ambedkar also objected to the conversion of Harijans into Islam.155 Besides Muslims, the Christian Missionaries also started proselytizing activities from 1905 onwards. The Christian missionaries entered the Karimnagar district in 1882. They established their centres at Karimnagar, Peddapalli, Jagtial and Sircilla. In 1897 the Monsoons failed and the severe drought situation resulted in great famine. People suffered from soaring prices. The price of rice for one rupee was one Manedu i.e. four seers equal to 5kg of today. But today one does not get 5kg rice unless he pays Rs.70/- or 75/-. Due to famine there were 152 deaths of starvation in Karimnagar district alone. At Kothapalli village hungry people went to the Christian missionary Mr.Wesley, who came to their rescue and supplied them with free food. Taking advantage of the poverty, many Madigas and Mannepus were converted into christianity156. Consequent to the medical and educational services rendered by the Missionaries, Many poor people were converted as Christians in Peddapalli, Sircilla and Jagtial areas. In 1921 there were 1581 Christians in Karimnagar district, while the figure after two decades rose to 21,900 in 1941. The main reason for such increase was proselytizing activities.157 Formation of Hyderabad State Congress 1938. The leaders felt the need of establishing a political organisation on secular lines for carrying on the struggle for responsible Government. Due to the active part played by Swami Ramananda Tirtha, the Hyderabad State Congress was formed on 29th January 1938. He was able to enroll 1200 primary members. But it was banned on the grounds that it was a communal and subversive body. Burgula Rama Krishna Rao and Mandamula Narsing Rao tried to convince the Muslim authorities that it was not a communal organisation but in vain. Then the

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Hyderabad State Congress and the Arya Samaj started Satyagraha on 24th October 1938 for lifting the ban. They demanded for responsible Government. Total 400 members divided into 18 batches continued satyagraha batch-wise one after the other for two months upto 24th December 1938. Baddam Yella Reddy and others from Karimnagar district sat for satyagraha in the 12th batch. On the advice of Gandhiji, Kashinatha Vaidya, who led the last batch gave up the agitation putting an end to satyagraha. Yet this satyagraha of two months may be considered as a landmark in the political awakening of the Telangana region. The Vandemataram Movement 1938 The year of 1938 is significant because it marks the emergence of first popular political struggle in the Nizam Dominions. Several organisations like the Arya Samaj, the Hindu Mahasabha, Praja Mandals and the Hyderabad State Congress undertook the satyagraha and agitated for the basic civil rights of the people. The Vandemataram movement was an off-shoot of this political awakening and unrest. The Hindu students were found singing the Vandemataram song in the prayer hall of the Osmania University on the occasion of the Dasara celebrations in 1938. The university authorities closed the prayer hall and issued a circular not to sing Vandemataram song. Then the students started singing it in the University precincts. They gave up the uniform of paijama and blue sherwani and started attending the classes wearing shirts and Dhovatis. The authorities objected to it and denied to lift the ban on singing the Vandemataram. When the students defied the order, the university authorities closed the hostels on the night of 29th November 1938 and asked the students to vacate and quit the premises in the night itself. The students went on strike, which continued from 29th November to 10th December 1938 and very soon it spread even into districts. 350 students

from Osmania University, 70 from City college, 310 from Gulbarga college, 120 from Mahaboobnagar High school and many other students from various institutions in the state were suspended and removed from the Rolls.158 The Nagpur University came to the rescue of the students expelled by the Osmania University and permitted them to study and appear for the examinations without wasting the academic year. Nukala Ramachandra Reddy, Achyuta Reddy, T.Haigreeva Chary belonging to Warangal and P.V.Narasima Rao of Karimnagar district were among the students expelled by the Osmania University. Subsequently they joined the Nagpur University. Battu Gopal Mallesham, a watandar of Sirikonda, now residing at Jagtial was also among the expelled students. He continued his studies like others in the Nagpur University. Now he is 94 and narrates the events of those days, which took place on the University campus. Many students suffered during the Vandemataram movement. Leaders like Pandit Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose supported the agitation of the students. Gandhiji supporting the students, asserted that they had a right to sing Vandemataram. This movement revealed that the students of Hyderabad State also started taking active part in the public and political activities against the Nizam’s Government. The Gadis of Doras (Fortalices of Landlords) in Karimnagar Dist. The Gadis played a very important role in the village administration during the Asaf Jahi period. The Gadi means the only big and beautiful house or building of Dora or the landlord of the village. The Gadi is a stronghold or a fortalice or a petty fort like residence of the landlord. The Jagirdars, Watandars, Maqtedars, Inamdars, Deshmukhs and Desais etc, who were big landlords or feudal lords were called Doras or the masters of their villages. The Gadi was the nucleus, where from the administration of the village went on. The plight of the villagers was miserable under the autocratic and aristocratic Doras or

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landlords. According to the information available and gathered to the extent possible, the need is felt to give the details of the Gadis, which were the centres of village administration under the Doras during the first half of the twentieth century. People had to bear with different types of administration at different places under different Doras in the district. Metpalli was the headquarters of a Jagir, which is about 80 Kms to the North-west of Karimnagar. Nawab Fakhrul Mulk was the Jagirdar, who often lived in Hyderabad and looked after the Jagir administration. There were five taluks and 118 villages in different regions under the Jurisdiction of Metpalli Jagir. Biloli in Nizamabad district, Sirisala and Khandala in Karnataka, Bori in Maharashtra and Metpalli in Karimnagar district were five taluks, which were administered from Metpalli Jagir headquarters. Under the supervision of Jagirdar Fakhrul Mulk, there was an Avval-Taluqdar (collector) and a police Mohatmeem (superintendent of Police), who administered all the five taluks lying in different states from proper Metpalli Jagir headquarters. Oppression reigned supreme in the Jagirdari lands. The civil courts had no jurisdiction over Jagir lands. Therefore the Jagirdars and their agents were free to exert their own powers. They exacted from the peasants a variety of illegal taxes. It is said that the bi-cycles were released for sale for the first time in the market in 1912. It was a great wonder for the people of Metpalli Jagir and Karimnagar district to see the Jagirdar Fakhrul Mulk riding on a bi-cycle. The Khadi Karkhana or factory established at Metpalli on the ideals of Gandhiji brought political awakening in Karimnagar district. Raja Shivaraj Bahadur was a wazir at Nizam. Banda lingapuram and Peddapalli in Karimnagar district were his Samsthans or Jagirs. He had two sons namely Dharm Karan and Indra Karan. The father and the sons lived in Hyderabad and gave their Jagirs on lease to the Velamas. This continued for

generations together. A Velama boy named Lingala Ananta Kishan Rao, brought from Nizamabad area, was the adopted son and he was the last ruler of Banda Lingapuram Samsthan lying adjacent to Metpalli Jagir. Jamedar Venkanna belonging to Yellapi caste was his Diwan. A Velama named Peggerla Rajanna belonging to Raikal was in his service. According to local information Raja Anant Kishan Rao was the first landlord to provide amenities to his people. He built a water tank in his Samsthan village Banda Lingapuram and supplied water through tap system. Even today the same water tank is supplying water in the village. He arranged a generator and electrified his village. Indeed the most wonderful and rare attempt made by Raja Ananta Kishan Rao to provide electricity and water through taps in his village during the first half of the twentieth century, deserves a high degree of appreciation and admiration. An anecdote popular in this region reveals that there was a tussle between the Dora of Banda Lingapuram Samsthan and the adjacent Jagirdar of Metpalli over the lands lying at the outskirts of Vellula village. It is said that there were even exchanges of fire some times between both the parties. They filed a case in the High court, which gave judgement in favour of Metpalli Jagirdar. When the Mohatmeem or the Superintendent of Police of Metpalli Jagir went to Vellulla to take over the lands, about hundred sepoys of Samsthan under the command of Jamedar Venkanna raised their guns. The Jagir police is stated to have returned to Metpalli without any action. Such was the power exhibited by Banda Lingapuram Samsthan in those days. It is a tragedy that the Raja of Samsthan faced an untimely death. The samsthan had two more Gadis under its control, one at Ailapuram near Koratla and the other at Ravikanti or Raikal. Raja Anant Kishan Rao is blessed with two sons. Raja Gajasimha Rao and Raja Narasimha Rao, who settled in Hyderabad.

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Gateways Bandalingapur Gadi

Chalgal Gadi

The Chalganti Gadi lying in the midst of Chalgal village is about 4 kms to the west of Jagtial town. Raja Juvvadi Dharma Jalapathi Rao, the Dora of Chalgal married his only son Rajgopal Rao with the bride of Banda Lingapuram Samsthan . This marriage was attended by thousands of people of Samsthan and other places too. The Chalgal Gadi contains a beautiful two storeyed building, which is still in tact and houses a private high school today. More than half a century ago the beautiful arches of the building attracted the attention of the passengers travelling by bus from a very long distance, when there were no other buildings in the village. Raja Dharma Jalapathi Rao, to mark the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the reign of Mir Osman Ali Khan the Nizam VII, built a very beautiful clock tower in the midst of Jagtial town in 1937. At the same time he built a two storeyed residential building known as Chalgal Gadi to the north of Venu Gopala Swamy Temple near the old bus stand centre at Jagtial. Now the township has grown in the open area of this Gadi. Raja Dharma Jalapathi Rao’s son Rajgopal Rao is blessed with two sons namely Babu Krishna Bhupal Rao and Babu Dr.Ram Bhoopal Rao, who settled in Hyderabad. Dr.Ram Bhoopal Rao, while running the famous hospital ‘Satya Kidney Centre’ at Himayatnagar in Hyderabad passed away suddenly. His wife hails from the famous Venkatagiri Samsthan. Another important Bheemaram Gadi in Medipalli Mandal

is about 20 kms to the south-west of Jagtial. Juvvadi Dharma Chokka Rao built the beautiful Gadi building in the Saka year 1847, which is equal to A.D.1925. The building is now in ruins, but the entrance gate way is still in tact. The open area of Gadi now contains the buildings of panchayat office and Z.P.High School. The second wife of the landlord Dharma Chokka Rao hailed from the samsthan of Pithapuram. The Rajaram Gadi in Dharmapuri Mandal was also under the control of Bheemaram. Chokka Rao of Bheemaram also built a Gadi to the north of Government Area Hospital at Jagtial. The Duvvam-Taluqdars or the Deputy Collectors of Jagtial used this Gadi for their residential purpose till recent times. Now this Gadi is no more extant at Jagtial as the township came up known as Santoshnagar in that area. Juvvadi Dharma Chokka Rao of Bheemaram Gadi has two sons. The eldest son Ram Krishna Rao retained Bheemaram Gadi while Rajaram Gadi was given to the youngest son Sharat Chandra Rao. Now both these brothers settled in Hyderabad.

Bheemaram Gadi

Govindaram Gadi

Nizamuddin, the son of Chand Miyan, was the Maqtedar of Yusuf Nagar near Koratla. He was graduated from the Aligarh University in those days. His younger brother was Mohidin Pasha. These brothers were also the landlords of Mallial, which is about 10 Kms to the south of Jagtial. More than seven decades ago, Nizamuddin had the credit of running private buses for the first time in this area. People had to depend upon these private

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buses only till the Road Transport Corporation was formed in the old Hyderabad state. Before the private buses of Nizamuddin were introduced , people had to travel on foot, bi-cycles or by bullock-carts. Situation was the same till police action in 1948. Nizamuddin had two sons Jaffar Nizam and Anwar Nizam. The eldest son Jaffar Nizam, who worked as the professor of Osmania University and also as the Vice-Chancellor of the Kakatiya University passed away recently in Hyderabad. Battu Lachanna, who belonged to the Vyshya community was the Watandar of Sirikonda in Kathlapur Mandal near Koratla. He had also three more villages namely Potharam, Katakapuram and Thatipalli under his control. He built a beautiful three storeyed Gadi building at Sirikonda and maintained the required pomp and show like other contemporary Velama Doras. He was not in good terms with Nizamuddin, the Maqtedar. While he was going in his small sawari bullock-cart, the followers of Nizamuddin fired at him. Though he sustained bullet injury, he was saved. One of the descendants of his family Battu Gopal Mallesham settled as an advocate at Jagtial. Itikyal in Raikal Mandal was a Maqta of the Velamas. The Maqtedar Chennamaneni Venkata Narasimha Rao built the Itikyal Gadi building in 1941. Rudrangi Gadi in Chandurthi Mandal was also under his control. He is blessed with four sons namely Satyanarayana Rao, Venkateshwar Rao, Krishna Rao and Ashok Rao. All of them settled in Hyderabad. The eldest son late Satyanarayana Rao was elected as the member of A.P. Legislative Assembly. One of his younger brothers Ch.N.V.Krishna Rao is highly charitable and philanthropic by nature. He earned the affection and good will of people by his noble deeds. He is a staunch devotee and built a wonderful Shirdi Sai Baba temple at Itikyal and dedicated it to the people of that place. He also built the Ayyappa Temple at Raikal, which is in the vicinity of his native place Itikyal. At present he is the

Managing Director of A.N.L. Parcel Service, which is a joint venture with A.P. State Road Transport corporation.

Shiridi Saibaba Temple, Itikyal.

Swamy Ayyappa Temple, Raikal

Vittampet village near Vellula in Metpalli Mandal was a Maqta. A Karanam Brahman Nagulapalli Venkata Kishan Rao was its Maqtedar. The Government took over his Maqta and gave him compensatory pension till he breathed his last in December 1964. The watandar of Ramajipet village in Raikal Mandal named Chitneni Venkateshwar Rao is blessed with five sons. His eldest son is Hanumanth Rao and the next son Vijaya Ranga Rao was adopted by Venkata Narsinga Rao of Metpalli Gadi. Vijaya Ranga Rao was once elected as the member of A.P. Legislative Assembly and he also worked as the chairman of Karimnagar Zilla Parishad for a term. Among the other sons of Venkateshwar Rao, Yaswanth Rao went on adoption to Koratla Gadi, Raj Gopal Rao was given Gundampalli Gadi, while Ramajipet was retained by Vidyasagar Rao. Kasuganti Narayan Rao the watandar of Muthyampet in Mallial Mandal, who donated more than twenty acres of land and one lakh rupees to the Government Degree College at Jagtial, which is named after him, passed away in May 1984. One of his sons K.Lakshmi Narasimha Rao, who was elected twice as M.L.A. from Jagtial constituency in 1963 and 1967 is blessed with three sons Prabhakar Rao, Sudhakar Rao and Vaman Rao.

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Prabhakar Rao and Vaman Rao settled in Hyderabad while Sudhakar Rao is living at Jagtial. Nerella Gadi in Dharmapuri Mandal was held by Govinda Rao. His son S.Janardhan Rao, a noble Dora was elected as the president of Jagtial Samithi. He died recently in Hyderabad. S.Venkateshwar Rao son of Janardhan Rao settled in Hyderabad. Juvvadi Rajeshwar Rao the Watandar of Maddunuru village in Dharmapuri Mandal shifted to Hyderabad long back. D.Malhar Rao was the Landlord of Pembetla in Sarangapoor Mandal. His son Raj Gopal Rao and grandsons Dr.D.Surendar Rao and Devendar Rao are now living in Hyderabad. Govindaram Gadi near Bheemaram in Medipalli Mandal was held by Bejjanki Rajeshwar Rao. His son Raj Gopal Rao, who settled at Jagtial passed away recently and all his three sons Dr.B.Satyanarayan Rao, Dr.B. Shiva Prasad Rao and B.Jaya Prakash Rao have settled in Hyderabad. Chakunta Kishan Rao, a Karanam Brahman was the Deshpande of sixty villages in Jagtial region. Deshpandes and Desais were vested with the powers of collecting revenue and other taxes. Deshmukhs and Sirdeshmukhs looked after Mali and Kotwal (Civil and Police duties) administration. Chakunta Kishan Rao had his Devidi or Kacheri (office) at Brahmanwada in Jagtial town. He appointed Pampati Burchirajam of Vyshya community as the Tahsildar to collect revenue. People of Jagtial region were surprised to see the touring car for the first time, when Desai Chakunta Kishan Rao, purchased and brought it to Jagtial. He was survived by three sisters. The first sister was the mother of Sadashiva Rao, the Desai of Manakonduru. The second one was the wife of Vishnudas Gopal Rao of Jagtial who was holding two villages Thippanpet and Gopalrao pet lying near Jagtial on the way to polas. The third sister is the mother of Chakunta Gangadhar of Jagtial. Chakunta Kishan Rao was the most popular Deshpande of Jagtial region.

Another Karanam Brahman Namile Shankar Rao belonging to Buggaram in Dharmapuri Mandal was Desai of forty villages, which also passed into the hands of Chakunta Kishan Rao of Jagtial after his death. According to the information available the need is felt to give the details of few more Gadis in Karimnagar district. Guduru Gadi in Kamalapur Mandal of Huzurabad area was once under the control of Madadi Malla Reddy. The Gadi was built in 1933 and there were fifteen villages under its control. A descendant of this family Madadi Chinna Kesava Reddy was once elected as M.L.C. But he was killed by the peoples war Group. Madadi Narasimha Reddy the eldest son of Kodanda Rami Reddy was once the chairman of Warangal Zilla Parishad and later served as minister also. Another member of this family Madadi Ram Chandra Reddy was once elected as M.L.A. from Kamalapur Constituency. Now all the members of this family have settled in Hyderabad. Aadimulam Venkata Rama Rao was once the landlord of Kamalapur Gadi, which had sixteen villages under its control. Venkatarama Rao was sarpanch of Kamalapur for some time. Another Member of this family Venkata Sharath Kumar Rao son of Venkata Rajeshwar Rao worked as Sirpanch of Kamalapur village for about 20 years. The bastions of Gadi built in stone are still in tact. Pendem Lakshman Rao was the Deshmukh of Uppal in Kamalapur Mandal. He had 30 villages under his control Uppal was once a Fargana under Elgandal Zilla. After Lakshman Rao his son Ranga Rao looked after Uppal administration. The walls of Gadi with four bastions on four corners are still strong. The lower portion of bastions built in stone is in tact. However the upper portions built in brick are getting damaged by passage of time. Venkat Kishan Rao was once the Dora of Ghanapur in Saidapur Mandal. The Gadi contains a big tiled house which is left unprotected for more than two decades.

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Sarvaipet village under Perkapalli Grampanchayat in Saidapur Mandal was once the headquarters of Sardar Sarvai Papanna, who fought against the Mughals and the sultans of Golconda for about three decades from A.D. 1680-1710. He built a fortalice and a bastian of it is still in tact. There are Gadis in both the villages Sarvaipet and Vennampalli. The Deshmukh of Vangara in Bheemdevarpalli Mandal was late P.V.Narasimha Rao, who was the Prime Minister of India from 1991-1996. He generously distributed all his lands to the poor, while his two storeyed Gadi building now remains partly ruined. Samba Shiva Rao was the Deshmukh of Manakonduru Gadi which had sixty villages under its control. A well known member of this family named Sadashiva Rao Deshmukh, who passed away recently, was elected as the first sirpanch of Manakondur village. A few members of this family are still living in the Gadi. This family is related to P.V.Narasimha Rao of Vangara and captain Lakshmikantha Rao of Husunabad who is now M.L.A. and was a minister for some time. Lingannapet Samsthan with a two storeyed building in Gambhirraopet Mandal had 40 villages under its control. Venkata Narasinga Rao Desai sold away all his lands except the Gadi building which now stands in tact. Gorregundam Gadi in Mallial Mandal was built by Juvvadi Narasinga Rao. This is a beautiful two storeyed building which was partly damaged when peoples war group burnt it. Narsinga Rao had two sons named Venkata Rama Rao and Chokka Rao, who spent their boyhood in this Gadi building. Later on Juvvadi Chokka Rao went on adoption to Irukulla lying near Karimnagar. Now the Gadi of Gorregundam is left unprotected. Lingala Ram Gopal Rao was the watandar who held the Gadi at Koratla. His successors Jagan Mohan Rao and adopted son Yashwant Rao settled in Hyderabad. Rama Krishna Rao was the Deshmukh of Kodmial Gadi, whose descendant Lakshman Rao has settled in Hyderabad.

The gadi of Gajasingavaram (Gajasingaram) in Gambhirraopet Mandal lying on the western borders of the district had five villages under its control. The earliest known landlord of this gadi was Konduru Teekanna Rao, who was succeeded by Rayudu, Narsinga Rao and Gopal Rao one after the other. All of them aimed at the welfare of the people. Rayudu got a tank excavated at Maddimalla village which is called as Rayuni Cheruvu even today. Gopal Rao, who founded Gopalraopalle the hamlet of Maddimalla after his name had two sons Pedda Rajesvara Rao and Chinna Rajesvara Rao. The anicut built by Chinna Rajesvara Rao on lothu vagu is named after him by the Government while the local school is named after his wife as Konduru Radhamma Memorial Z.P. High School. Chinna Rajesvara Rao is blessed with two sons Jagan Mohan Rao and Madan Mohan Rao. The new settlement called Rajeshwara Rao Nagar is established under Gajasingavaram by Konduru Jagan Mohan Rao after the name of his father. Konduru Jagan Mohan Rao is known for his exemplary services being rendered in social, cultural and educational spheres. He is so patriotic and nationalminded that his pioneering endeavours resulted in the installation of life size statues of captain Bonala Vijaya Raghunandan Rao at Karimnagar and Sircilla, who became a martyr in Indo-Pak war of 1965 and immortalized himself as the one and the only recipient of the prestigious Virachakra (Posthumous) award from the Telangana region.

Gajasingavaram Gadi

K. Radhamma Memorial Z.P. High School

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Lingannapet Gadi

Peddapalli Gadi

Peddapalli was the Jagir of Raja Shivaraj Bahadur, who was a wazir of Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan, the Nizam VII. He leased it like Banda Lingapuram to the Velamas. Polampalli Radha Kishan Rao held the Gadi of Peddapalli, which was famous for dance and music by the dancing girls of Bogam group (Courtesans). His sons Raja Murali Manohar Rao and Raja Ram Mohan Rao settled in Hyderabad. Now the Gadi is left unprotected filled with wild plants. The famous Tadicherla Gadi in Malahar Mandal was also under the control of the Velamas. Vemulawada and Sircilla were administered by the Deshmukhs. The ancestors of Sardena Gopal Rao at Nerella Gadi in Sircilla Mandal and Bhaskar Rao at Nimmapalli Gadi in Konaraopet Mandal were the Doras or the landlords of those villages in Sircilla area. The poet Jaishetty Rajaiah (1842-1921) of Jagtial wrote in his verses that there were 221 villages besides a few Madiras in the old Jagtial Taluk 159, which included the areas of Metpalli and Koratla also in A.D. 1903. The same poet stated in 1903 that the Gandevaru belonging to Yellapi caste had four Jagirs namely Chiluvakoduru, Israjpalle, Vengalapuram and Gullakota in old Jagtial taluk and two more Jagirs Paidipalli and Munjampalli in other taluks of this district. Vengalapur Dharma Rao belonging to Gande family is now residing at Jagtial.

These Gadis, which were once the centres of village administration with great pomp and show, now remain in ruins having lost their glory and grandeur. The Gadis of Banda Lingapuram, Ailapuram, Raikal, Sirikonda, Itikyal, Rudrangi, Chalgal, Bheemaram, Rajaram, Govindaram, Nerella, Buggaram, Koratla, Vemulavada, Sircilla, Racherla Boppapuram, Nimmapalli, Peddapalli, Tadicherla, Gajasingavaram, Lingannapeta, Kamalapur, Uppal, Guduru, Ghanpur, Sarvaipeta, Vangara, Manakonduru, Kodmial, Gorregundam and several other places, which are now in ruins, remind the aristrocratic and oppressive rule of the then landlords during the first half of the twentieth century. Vetti Chakiri System or The Forced Labour During the reign of the Nizam, the Jagirdars, Maqtedars, Pattedars, Inamdars, Watandars, Deshmukhs, Deshpandes and Desais, who were landlords and feudal lords squeezed and harassed people creating an atmosphere of terror in the villages. However all these oppressors were very obedient and subservient to the Nizam Government. The atrocities and excesses committed by these landlords were pathetic and pitiable. Hundreds and thousands of acres of fertile land was forcibly occupied by the landlords, who converted them into their own lands. The lands of the peasants, who could not pay the debts were forcibly occupied by the Doras or landlords. Violent measures were adopted towards those, who could not pay the revenue or taxes. The village officers like Malipatel, Police Patel and Patwari or Karanam were appointed on hereditary basis and they teased the illiterate masses in many ways. The miserable plight of the peasants and people was indescribable. The feudal exploitation of the peasantry was unbearable. The Doras treated their people as their servants and slaves. Carrying the palanquins and litters of the land-ladies on shoulders

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and the running of a Mangali or barber and a Rajaka or Washerman in the front and back of the sawari bullock-cart of landlords were common features in those days. It was the duty of the carpenters, black-smiths and the potters to serve the Doras freely. Vettichakiri or forced labour was common to people of all castes in all the villages. No one was exempted from it. Unless the seeds were sown by the peasants in the lands of the landlord, they were not expected to sow seeds in their own lands. All the agricultural activities were carried on freely by the agricultural tenants and women labourers. Even the aged people, women and children were not exempted from vettichakiri. Soon after the delivery, even a woman in the child-bed was forced for Vettichakiri. The Doras were so cruel and inhuman in some places that the women, who came to their lands for Vettichakiri soon after their deliveries, were not allowed and given even a short break time for breast feeding to their infants. Sweeping in the houses of Doras, smearing the floor and the court-yards of their houses with cattle-dung, cleansing the vessels and utensils, washing the clothes, grinding grain for flour, pounding the paddy, milking the cattle, grazing the cattle, cutting the grass, bringing the grass bundles for the cattle from the forest, supplying hot water to the bathrooms, massaging the legs and what not? all kinds of domestic or menial labour and the unforeseen emergent services were exacted by the Doras. They had no compassion and sympathy for the people, who rendered Vettichakiri. The social life was so pathetic and pitiable that people had to take off their shoes from the feet and holding them in their hands, they had to walk in the presence their Doras bowing down their heads with the words ‘Nee Baanchen Dora’ which is the corrupt form of ‘Nee Banisan Dora’ which means ‘Iam your slave O’ lord. To quote an example one Lakshma Reddy was a Gumasta or an agent at Raikal Gadi before the police Action. He was so harsh and haughty that no one dared to walk in his

presence with shoes on his feet. Those, who did not do so, were beaten by a Korada or whip at Chavidi or Kacheri (office of the village). During the period of Telangana Armed Struggle (19461951) all the Doras dreaded by the communists left their Gadis and ran away to cities. In their place they appointed their agents, who were called in Urdu ‘Aamuktyaram’ (vested with all powers). These Agents proved more cruel and inhuman in exacting work than the original Doras. Vetti exactions thus became a symbol of the dominance of the landlords and their agents. The oppression and the exploitation of the rural masses by the privileged class resulted in the Peasants Armed Struggle in Telangana. But today the life of the Velamas is quite contrary to the conditions once prevalent before the Police Action. Most of the Velamas have settled in business and have taken up some work or the other to earn their livelihood. It is not an exaggeration that there are poor Velamas also, who have neither work nor employment today. The Armed Struggle in Telangana 1946-1951 The Telangana armed struggle, started in October 1946, lasted for five years till it was called off in October 1951. The struggle was primarily against the Nizam and the Razakars, but the immediate enemies were the Doras or the landlords of Telangana 160. The Dora was a combination of the landlord, money lender and village official. He exacted free and forced services owing to his power and position. The continuous oppression and brutalities of Doras resulted in the armed struggle, which continued against the landlords even after the Nizam’s rule ended with Police Action in september 1948. A large number of peasants and the landless labourers spontaneously participated in the struggles directed against Doras or landlords and their Gumastas or Agents.

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Galipalli in Ellanthakunta Mandal of Sircilla area in Karimnagar district became the centre of the struggle. Baddam Yella Reddy, Baddam Malla Reddy, Baddam Balaram Reddy and many others are the heroic sons of this village. In september 1947 people of Galipalli opposed the Nizam police and drove them away to the outskirts of the village. Later on reinforced by additional force, the police attacked the villagers and fired on them mercilessly. Many people lost their lives. Singi Reddy and Anji Reddy survived though they sustained bullet injuries. 300 police men laid a camp at Galipalli and harassed the villagers creating an atmosphere of terror. In later days Baddam Yella Reddy, who defeated P.V.Narasimha Rao in the General Elections of 1952, was elected as the Member of Parliament, while Baddam Malla Reddy was elected to the Hyderabad State Legislative Assembly from Jagtial constituency. Baddam Yella Reddy born to the couple Hanumaiah and Lachavva at Galipalli in 1904 died of illness in December 1978 at the age of 74. Another important son of this soil Anabheri Prabhakar Rao, who fought against the Nizam and Razakars was born to the couple Venkateshwar Rao and Radhabai on 15th August 1910 in a Deshmukh family of Yellapi caste at Polampally village in Thimmapur Mandal near Karimnagar. While studying in Nizam College, he was inspired by the ideals of Gandhiji and entered the Anti-Nizam Movement as a student. On the call given by Baddam Yella Reddy in september 1947 many people joined the struggle. A Dalam or squad was formed under the leadership of Anabheri Prabhakar Rao. The members of the squads burnt the Records of Patels and Patwaris in about forty villages in January 1948. In a fight against the Police and Razakars, there was fearful exchange of fire on 14th March 1948 between the police and the communist squad in the hills and hillocks of Muhammadapur near Husnabad in Karimnagar district. Dr.Sarojini Regani recorded that about 8 members including Anabheri Prabhakar

Rao and Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy died fighting heroically against the reserved police of the Nizam 161. But Poreddy Ram Reddy, who participated in the struggle at Muhammadapur as a young man of twenty is alive and lives at Somarampeta village in Ellanthakunta Mandal of Sircilla area. He states that about fifteen people died fighting heroically against the Nizam forces. They were Anabheri Prabhakar Rao from Polampalli, Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy from Taduru, Musku Chokka Reddy and Yeleti Malla Reddy from Ogulapur, Aireddy Bhoom Reddy from Somarampeta, Narayana from Begumpeta, B.Damodar Reddy from Nallagonda, Illendula Papaiah from Galipalli, Poli Chandra Reddy and Kummari Yellaiah from Somarampeta, Nallagonda Rajaram and Sikkudu Sailu from Regadi Maddikunta and Rondla Madhava Reddy from Repaka etc. Besides these martyrs, many others sustained bullet injuries. It is strange that the name of Poreddy Ram Reddy of Somarampet, who is alive, is included in the list of the dead instead of Poli Chandra Reddy of the same village, who was shot dead and whose name was not found in the list of the dead. All the names of these comrades, who died fighting can be noticed on the stupa erected in their memory near the hills of Muhammadapur 162. The valiant commander of the Dalam Anabheri Prabhakar Rao and his comrades, who lost their lives, remain immortal in the history of Karimnagar district.

Baddam Yella Reddy

Anabheri Prabhakar Rao

Amrutlal Shukla

Amrutlal Shukla was first a teacher at Sircilla. He was

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the son of Raghunandan Shukla and grandson of Munnu Prasad, who came from Uttar Pradesh and joined the service of Nizam about 150 years ago. Amrutlal inspired by his participation in Andhra Mahasabha at Sircilla in 1935, fought against the atrocities committed by the landlords. He joined the Armed Struggle and attacked Sircilla Police Station in 1950 along with Gaddam Tirupathi Reddy and Thakur Shyam Sunder Singh and released the sympathisers of the movement. They collected four rifles and about 500 bullets from the Police Station. This attack became a sensational news in the Hyderabad State. Karrelli Narsaiah of Malkapeta village in Konaraopeta Mandal was an associate of Amrutlal. In later times both Amrutlal Shukla from Sircilla and Karrelli Narsaiah from Nerella were elected to the A.P. Legislative Assembly 163. As gleaned from the news papers and the details ascertained from the aged persons, there were many peasants and people known and unknown, who actively and voluntarily participated in the peasants armed struggle. Kondojugari Venkat Reddy of Galipalli, the follower of Baddam Yella Reddy joined the movement at the age of 20. Gaddam Tirupathi Reddy of Bandapalli village in Chandurti Mandal worked with Amrutlal Shukla. His brothers Rami Reddy and Malla Reddy burnt the Daftars or Records and were imprisoned. Katla Rajaram and Yeligeti Narayana from Choppadandi joined the movement. Duggirala Venkat Rao of Gopalapur village in Elkaturthi Mandal was born in a poor Velama family. He was one among those, who attacked Raikal Police station in Saidapur Mandal. He was imprisoned but escaped from jail and joined the Chanda and Nagpur Camps. He was elected twice to the Legislative Assembly. When he criticised the Naxalites, he was shot dead in August 1990. Damodar Rao of Gundi Ramadugu actively participated in the movement. He was a Karanam Brahman. He was made incharge of the office of Andhra Mahasabha opened

at Boiwada in Karimnagar while Baddam Yella Reddy was the president and Anabheri Prabhakar Rao was the secretary of the district Mahasabha164. When the erstwhile Hyderabad state was reeling under the tyranny of the Nizam, it was the unimaginable poverty that led the peasants, landless labourers and the poor to take up arms into their hands and to struggle against their oppressors. It was too difficult for them to procure their daily ration for livelihood. They were forced to take Gataka or porridge like food (Maize crushed into small particles and then cooked for food). The only item available was Kaaramu or Chilli powder to take this hard food Gataka, which they could not get even for two meals a day. They used to cook rice only on festival days or whenever the relatives came to their house. The down-trodden were destined to take Ambali or porridge (gruel made of millet flour boiled in water with salt) and they had to live only on it, Their plight was so pitiable that they were unable to get even one bread of millet, although they worked for the whole day on the fields of the landlords. But the conditions have changed for the better from one or two decades. The poor are now found taking coarse rice food in the place of Gataka made of crushed maize grain. The Communists attacked many Gadis or the buildings of the landlords and threatened them and their agents, who led a life of luxury at the cost of the poor. The Gadi at Rudrangi in Chandurthi Mandal was attacked during 1949-1950. The records of patel and patwari were burnt in the broad day light in the midst of the village. The police stations and police camps were attacked at several places like Galipalli, Sircilla, Mahadevpur, Kalesvaram, Sultanabad, Manthani, Huzurabad, Konaraopeta, Koheda, Shivangalapalle (Konaraopeta Mandal), Garajanapalli (Yellareddipeta Mandal), Raikal in Saidapur Mandal, Husunabad and Akkannapet in Husunabad Mandal of Karimnagar district.

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The police station at Raikal in Saidapur Mandal of Huzurabad area was attacked under the leadership of Polsani Narsingarao. The sentry on duty was killed and several rifles were carried away. Another leader Ganneruvaram Damodar Rao, who was strong and sturdy, bold and brave, actively participated in the movement. Kasimpeta Venkat Reddy, Chamanpalli Chokka Rao and Juvvadi Gauthama Rao worked with him while carrying on their underground work. Ganneruvaram Damodar Rao was a noted foot-ball player and a good swimmer. When he was hiding from the police at Nandi-Mydaram in Dharmaram Mandal, he is known to have swum across the big tank of that village when it was full during the rainy season. He swam across the tank at Karimnagar many a time by betting with his friends. Now this tank is no more extant as the township has grown in its place, where the collectorate building stands at present. Ganneruvaram Damodar Rao and Polsani Narsinga Rao are stated to have been elected to the legislative Assembly in later times. Gattapalli Murahar Rao better known as Murali belonging to Sultanabad Mandal was among those, who fought against the Nizam reserved police on 14th March 1948 at Muhammadapur and sustained bullet injuries. Yet he was able to escape from the spot. Many a time he courted arrest and underwent imprisonment. He is stated to be a very bold man, who once escaped successfully from the Sangareddy Jail. Thakur Shyam Sunder Singh was another active participant in the struggle. He studied in the high schools of Jagtial and Karimnagar. As a student leader he was suspended from the school. He worked with Amrutlal Shukla and participated in the attack of Sircilla police station in 1950. He was the brother of Late Thakur Rajaram singh, who was an advocate by profession and a noted archaeologist by avocation. He lived at Peddapalli but passed away recently. Dhruva Singh of Huzurabad participated in the Quit India movement and courted arrest in 1942. He established the Taluka

congress committee at Huzurabad in 1946. Later on he joined the Armed Struggle. Chennamaneni Rajeshwar Rao of Sircilla area joined the struggle and carried on the underground work from 1948 to 1951. He courted arrest and was in prison for one year. He is so popular a leader that he is elected to the legislative Assembly about half a dozen times. He is 84 and now he is the M.L.A. of Sircilla constituency. His younger brother Ch.Hanumantha Rao, born in 1929, is stated to have joined the struggle in his youth. In later times he rendered his services as the member of the Planning Commission at the centre. He is awarded Padma Bushan. He is a reputed economist and now settled in Hyderabad. His another younger brother Ch.Vidya Sagar Rao was the minister of state for Home for some time at the centre. Their brother-in-law Polkampalli Venkatarama Rao, who was senior to them, was an active participant in the sessions of Andhra Mahasabha and carried on the struggle against the Nizam’s Government. Krishna Reddy from Mulkanuru in Bheemdevarapalli Mandal, Galikota Sriramulu from Manthani area, Sadula Sambaiah and Maddirala Purshotham from Peddapalli area, Ch.Rajalingam from Sircilla, Yashwantraopeta Venkateshwar Rao, Juvvadi Ratnakar Rao (Now Hon. Minister for Endowments) and Joginapalli A.Narayan Reddy from Jagtial area are stated to have participated in the Anti Nizam movement. At Dharmapuri K.V.Keshavulu hoisted the National Flag on his building on 16th August 1947 i.e. before police action, while the local Brahman Sanganabhatla Manikya Sastri presided over the meeting. When the Nizam police pursued them, both crossed the river Godavari on that night itself and joined the camp at Balharsha. K.V.Keshavulu served as the Minister in later days. Padala Chandraiah from Mulkanur sustained bullet injury in his leg, while he was in the movement. Satineni Ramulu from Kondapalkala Village in Manakondur Mandal was among those

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who attacked Koheda Police station. Now he is 84 and settled in Karimnagar. When the Razakars were suppressed ruthlessly after the Police Action, the government turned towards the activities of the communists. With the help of the armed forces the revolt of the communists was suppressed. By 1951 the communists stopped their violent activities. Then the Government lifted ban on them. Thus peace and tranquility were restored in Hyderabad state. In October 1951 the communist party of India formally declared the struggle withdrawn. In 1952 the general elections were held. The Communists won good number of seats in Telangana region. Social Awakening and Library Movement The Andhra Mahasabha held at Sircilla in 1935 led to social awakening in Karimnagar district. In order to educate the masses and to fight against the social evils, efforts were made to establish the libraries in all the taluk centres. A branch of Andhra Mahasabha was opened at Jagtial in 1935 by Kasam Shivaraja Gupta, Jaisetty Lakshmirajam Gupta and Siddamsetti Sangaiah etc. who tried to reform the society by discouraging child marriages and encouraging widow marriages. Chanda Kantaiah, who was charitable and munificent in his outlook, was a great patriot and a merchant in Warangal. A college established after his name as Chanda Kantaiah Memorial college, which is now popularly known as C.K.M.College is still functioning in Warangal. Chanda Kantaiah and Prodduturi Veeresham visited Jagtial in 1945 and addressed a meeting arranged at the residence of Siddamsetti Veera Sangaiah in Ram Bazar. They stressed on the need for social reforms. The meeting attended by about 300 people was also addressed by local citizens Rayancha Lakshmikantham, Mandiram Chandra Mouli Sastry

and Jagannathacharyulu 165. A resolution was adopted in the meeting that unless the girls attain the age of 14 and the boys get the age of 18, they should not be married. Kasam Shivaraja Gupta toured in several villages in 1943 and encouraged the people to perform remarriages to the widows. He worked as a teacher for some time at Metpalli, where a remarriage to a widow was arranged. When nobody was ready to wash the feet of the widow girl while performing the ritual of Kanyadanam, Kasam Shivaraja Gupta boldly came forward and performed Kanyadanam by washing her feet in the remarriage. Thus he became an example as a social reformer, although he endured many abuses from the traditionists. In order to encourage female education, he got a lady teacher named Nagamani from Andhra area to Jagtial and established a private school for girls in Telugu medium. He encouraged people to cultivate the habit of reading news papers. He became a news agent and got several kinds of news papers and weeklies to Jagtial. On behalf of Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha the examinations from Prathama to Vidwan were conducted and the pass certificates were distributed under his supervision at Jagtial. In 1939 there were five libraries in Warangal district, while there was only one library in Karimnagar district. Kasam Shivaraja Gupta established Andhra Grandalaya at Jagtial in 1944. Arvapalli Lachaiah, (who later became a Magistrate in Hyderabad) and Kasam Shankaraiah (now a retired lecturer) helped Gupta in its establishment. In recognition of his services as a social reformer Kasam Shivaraja Gupta is rightly called in this region as the “Kandukuri Veeresha Lingam of Jagtial”. As the follower of the teachings of Mahatama Gandi, Ragella Lachaiah belonging to Vyshya Community tried for the uplift of Harijans at Jagtial. He condemned untouchability and taught them the alphabet in the nights taking his own lantern

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with him. He taught them about cleanliness and advised them to take bath daily in order to avoid diseases. He was called by people as “Jagtial Gandhi”. The Telugu poet Ramasimham (Ramsingh), who was a sikh by religion, belonged to Raghavapatnam village in Gollapalli Mandal of Jagtial area. He condemned the child marriages and encouraged the widow marriages during the first half of the twentieth century. He wrote a book in verse known as “Balavivaha Khandana and Punarvivaha Mandana” which is very popular in Karimnagar district. When Gandhiji stepped into Telangana, the youth were inspired by his visit. When he visited Khammam in 1929, thousands of people came to see him. Many youngmen like Jamalapuram Keshava Rao were influenced by his teachings166. While Gandhiji was travelling by train from Madras to Wardha on 5th March 1946, the youth of Warangal stopped him at the railway station for some time. M.S.Rajalingam, Chanda Kantaiah, T.Haigreevachary, Chandra Mouleeshwar Rao and Nagabhooshan Rao etc quickly arranged a meeting beside the Railway platform, which was attended by five lakh people167. After addressing the gathering, Gandhiji took rest for an hour. In the meanwhile the youth of Warangal collected donations of two lakh rupees and handed over the amount to Gandhiji for the cause of the nation. It is strange that the women offered gold ornaments that they were wearing. It is said that the wife Chanda Kanthaiah, the philanthropist gave away all the gold which she adorned on her body. The patriotic spirit exhibited by women in offering their gold ornaments to Gandhiji is exemplary and cannot be forgotten in history. Thousands of people from Karimnagar district also went to see Gandhiji in Warangal, where his message roused their patriotic spirit. Join Indian Union Movement Mir Osman Ali Khan the last Nizam wanted to be an

independent ruler, that was not to the liking of a great majority of people, who wanted Hyderabad state to join the Indian Union. The ‘Join Indian Union Movement’ was launched by Swami Ramananada Tirtha on 7th August 1947. He began to mobilise political workers, students and youth under the banner of the State Congress and demanded that the Hyderabad State should join the Indian Union. The processions were taken out and the anti Nizam camps were conducted outside the borders of the Nizam Dominions. Vijayawada Camp was organised by T.Haigreeva Chary while Kodati Narayan Rao organised the Paritala camp. P.V.Narasimha Rao and K.V.Narsinga Rao organised Chanda Camp and encouraged the anti Nizam Struggle in the districts of Karimnagar and Adilabad. Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao was born to the couple Ranga Rao and Rukmini in 1921 in the Deshmukh family of Karanam Brahmans at Vangara Village in Bheemdevarapalli Mandal of Karimnagar district. He had his schooling at Vangara and then at the Government High School Karimnagar. While studying the old Intermediate course of two years at Warangal, he participated in the Vandematharam movement of 1938 and was suspended by the Osmania University. He led the anti Nizam camp at Chandrapur (Chanda) in Maharastra. He joined the congress in 1947 and gradually rose to dizzy heights till he became the Prime Minister and ruled the country for five years from 1991 to 1996. He is blessed with three sons namely P.V.Ranga Rao, P.V.Rajeshwar Rao and P.V.Prabhakar Rao. His daughter Saraswathi is married to Dr.Sharath, the eldest son of Kalvakota Venkata Narsinga Rao popularly known as K.V. a Karanam Brahman of Ramadugu village in Karimnagar district. P.V.Rajeshwar Rao the second son of P.V.Narasimha Rao married the daughter of Bopparaju Lakshmikantha Rao of Husunabad. All the three relatives P.V., K.V. and Lakshmikantha Rao actively participated in the anti Nizam movement. Voditela

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Lakshmikantha Rao better known as captain Lakshmikantha Rao, who is at present M.L.A. and his brother Voditela Rajeshwar Rao of Singapuram village are the close relatives of P.V.Narasimha Rao. Both the relatives P.V. and K.V. (P.V.Narasimha Rao and K.V.Narasinga Rao) were very popular as two great intellectuals of Karimnagar district.

about ten novels within two years, while the Kavi Samrat went on dictating him the matter. Moyu Tummeda, Ekavira and Samudrapu Dibba were also among the novels dictated by Kavi Samrat at Karimnagar. Gauthama Rao is known for the marvellous recitation of the contents of Ramayana Kalpa Vrikshamu written by Kavi Samrat. Ganapati Rao of Manthani, J.R.Gopal Rao of Sircilla, Juvvadi Chokka Rao of Irukulla, Juvvadi Ramapathi Rao and Juvvadi Madusudhan Rao of Karimnagar, K.Sanjeeva Rao of Velgonda, Dasari Raghavulu of Jagtial, Lingala Satyanarayana Rao of Velagaturu, Gande Jagan Madhava Rao of Chilvakoduru, Vakil Mukundlal Mishra of Karimnagar and Boinapally Venkata Rama Rao of Thotapalli and many others known and unknown are said to have participated in the anti Nizam Struggle. Juvvadi Ramapathi Rao and Juvvadi Chokka Rao were elected to the Parliament from Karimnagar in later times. Boinapally Venkatarama Rao participated in the Sarvodaya, Bhoodan and Grandhalaya movements. He opposed the procurement of paddy from peasants, under the compulsory levy system. He arranged a meeting at Bejjenki which was addressed by Burgula Rama Krishna Rao and T.Haigreeva Chary. He is Known as ‘Thotapalli Gandhi and he is awarded recently the honorary Doctorate Degree by the Kakatiya University. Boga Papaiah Pantulu and Battu Lakshminarayana Raju working at Khadi Karkhana or Factory in Metpalli succeeded in bringing the political and social awareness in the western part of Karimnagar district. In 1947 twenty two people were at once arrested in a day at Metpalli. Among them were Venkata Narsing Rao Deshmukh of Metpalli and his attendant Chinnaiah. The members of Vaisya community namely Chakinam Venkanna, Katukam Gangaram, Ragella Somaiah, Dontula Narayana (Regunta Narayana), Vallakonda Rajam, Pampatti Buchirajam,

Vanjara Gadi

P.V.Narasimha Rao

J. Chokka Rao

Raghunatha Rao Kache was the first person from Manthani to participate in the movement. The members of Juvvadi Velama family of Irkulla Village lying near Karimnagar actively participated in the anti Nizam struggle. Juvvadi Chokka Rao, Juvvadi Gauthama Rao, Juvvadi Rameshwar Rao, Juvvadi Hanmantha Rao and Juvvadi Muralidhar Rao were important participants. Juvvadi Gauthama Rao born in 1929 at Irkulla Village took part in the movement from his student life. He courted arrest and was kept in the prison of Aurangabad, where from he escaped boldly and continued the struggle from underground. Gauthama Rao is well-known not only as a freedom fighter but also as a great literary luminary in the district. He is impressed by the literature of Kavi Samrat Vishwanatha Satyanarayana right from 1946. He came in contact with this great poet in 1953. When Kavi Samrat was working as the principal of S.R.R. Degree College at Karimnagar, he became close to him. Gauthama Rao had the fortune of writing down

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Sama Buchirajam, Chepuri Bhoomaiah, Choutpalli Kautike Kistaiah etc were arrested and sent to prison. Besides them the members of other communities namely Guntuka Raja Gangaram, Guntuka Buchaiah, Busa Gangaram, Katkam Lakshmaiah, Battu Buchaiah, Hotel Narayana, Dr.Ramachandram (R.M.P.), Chittapuram Gangareddy and Kallur Narayana Rao etc were among the people arrested. All the twenty two arrested people were kept in Karimnagar jail for two months. Thus the reign of terror roused the indignation of the people against the Nizam and Razakars. People from all sections of the society appealed to Indian Government to take action and to join the Hyderabad state in the Indian Union without any delay to save the life and property of the innocent masses. The Indian forces surrounded the Hyderabad state and entered into its territory on 13th September 1948. The Nizam surrendered to the Indian Government on 17th September 1948. The rule of the Nizams ended with the merger of Hyderabad state into Indian Union. The Chief Ministers The coastal districts and the Rayalaseema districts were a part of Madras presidency. Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu began his fast unto death on 19th October 1952 for a separate Andhra State. He attained martyrdom on 15th December 1952. When the violence broke out, the Central Government carved out Andhra State from Madras presidency in 1953. Kurnool was made capital from 1953 to 1956. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasham was the Chief Minister from 1-10-1953 to 15-111954. Then the presidential rule was imposed in the Andhra State. Afterwards Bejawada Gopala Reddy was the chief minister from 28-3-1955 to 31-10-1956. After the General Elections of 1952 Burgula Rama

Krishna Rao became the chief minister for the Erst-while Hyderabad state and he remained in power till 31-10-1956. On linguistic basis the new state of Andhra Pradesh came into existence on 1st November 1956 comprising the Coastal, Rayalaseema and Telangana districts. The list of the Chief Ministers since the formation of Andhra Pradesh state is given here under. The lists of the Prime ministers and the presidents, who ruled over the country of which Andhra Pradesh state including Karimnagar district is a part, are also furnished here under for the benefit of the readers. The Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh 1. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 2. Damodaram Sanjeevaiah 3. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 4. Kasu Brahmananada Reddy 5. P.V.Narasimha Rao 6. Presidential Rule 7. Jalagam Vengala Rao 8. Marri Chenna Reddy 9. T. Anjaiah 10. Bhuvanam Venkatram 11. Kotla Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy 12. Nanadamuri Taraka Rama Rao 13. Nadendla Bhaskar Rao 14. Nanadamuri Taraka Rama Rao 15. Marri Chenna Reddy 16. Nedurmalli Janardan Reddy 17. Kotla Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy 18. Nanadamuri Taraka Rama Rao 19. Nara Chandra Babu Naidu 20. Y.S. Rajashekara Reddy 01-11-1956 11-01-1960 12-03-1962 29-02-1964 30-09-1971 18-01-1973 10-12-1973 06-03-1978 11-10-1980 24-02-1982 20-09-1982 09-01-1983 16-08-1984 16-09-1984 03-12-1989 17-12-1990 09-10-1992 12-12-1994 01-09-1995 14-05-2004
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

10-01-1960 11-03-1962 28-02-1964 29-09-1971 17-01-1973 09-12-1973 05-03-1978 10-10-1980 23-02-1982 19-09-1982 08-01-1983 15-08-1984 15-09-1984 02-12-1989 16-12-1990 08-10-1992 11-12-1994 31-08-1995 13-05-2004 Present day

199

200
REFERENCES 1. Hemachandra Rayachaudhuri, "Geography of the Deccan",EHD. p. 26 2. R.Subrahmamanyam, ‘Ashokuni Yerragudi Sasanamulu’(Telugu), No.s 1 to 13 3. Parameshwarilal Gupta, punchmarked coins in A.P. Museum. pp. 4,5 4. N.S.Ramachandra Murthy, "Trends in Archaeological Investigations in A.P." APHC, Vol. XXIV, 2000, p. 22 5. Ibid, p. 25 6. A.M.Sastry, "Presidential Address", APHC, Vol. V, 1980. p.s-1 7. Aloka parashar, "Trade in Mid-Godavari valley 200 B.C. to A.D." APHC Vol. X, 1986, p. 29 8. Ibid, p. 30 9. S.J. Mangalam, "Presidential Address" APHC Vol. XXIII, 1999. pp.14,15. 10. Ibid 11. N.S.Ramachandra Murthy, "Kotilingala an early historical site" APHC, Vol. XVI, 1992, pp. 34,35 12. N.S.Ramachandra Murthy, "Trends in Archaeological Investigations in A.P." APHC, Vol. XXIV, 2000, p. 25 13. S.J. Mangalam, "Presidential Address" APHC Vol. XXIII, 1999. p.15. 14. V.V.Krishna Sastri, “The Proto and Early Historical Cultures of A.P., Hyd, 1983, p.122. 15. Parameshwarilal Gupta, Op.cit. p. 27 16. Romila Thaper, The Past and Prejudice, p. 63 17. V.V.Krishna Sastri, Op.cit, p. 200 18. ARDAM, 1977-1978, p. 39&43 19. M.Rama Rao, Satavahana Coins in A.P. Govt. Museum, p. 9 20. Dr.Sanganabhatla Narsaiah, “Sapta Godavari Yekkada?” Misimi Telugu Monthly Magazine, Hyd, August-2003 21. B.S.L. Hanumantha Rao, "Presidential Address" APHC Vol. III 1978, p. 7 22. V.Sundararama Sastry, "Early pallava-vishnukundin Relations" APHC Vol. III, 1978, p. 16 23. V.V.Krishna Sastri, Bharatiya Samskriti-Puratatva Parishodhanalu(Telugu), Hyd. 1999, p. 196 24. M.Rama Rao, Select Andhra Temples., p. 1 25. Roy C. Craven, A Concise history of Indian Art, p. 133 26. Percy Brown, Indian Architecture, p. 62 27. James Fergusson, History of Indian Art and Eastern Architecture, p. 421. 28. Abdul Waheed khan, "Introduction", Early chalukyan Temples of Andhra Desa, p. I 29. Stella Kramrisch, The Art of India, Plate. 57. 30. N. Venkataramanayya, Chalukyas of Vemulawada., pp. 92-94. 31. K.R. Srinivas Iyengar “Kannada Literature” chapter IX, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Vol.IV, p.224. 32. G.V. Devasthali, “Sanskrit Literature’’ chapter IX, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Vol.IV, pp.188, 189. 33. Kolluru Suryanarayana, “Kollipara plates of Arikesari I” APHC Vol. VIII, 1984, pp. 10-14. 34. B.N. Satstri, Vemulavada Charitra-Sasanamulu, (Telugu) 1991, p.55 35. Ibid, pp. 46-52 36. RE, 1966, No. 170, pp. 42,43 37. N.Venkataramanayya, Op.cit, pp. 9-12. 38. Kunduri Eashwara Dutt, Prachinandhra Charitraka Bhugolam (Telugu), pp. 316, 317. 39. EHD, p. 508 40. B.N. Sastri, Op.cit, pp. 45-56 41. N.Venkataramanayya, Pallavulu-Chalukyulu (Telugu), p.187 42. D.C.Sircar, "The Eastern chalukyas" Chapter VI, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vol. IV p. 135 43. N. Venkataramanayya, Chalukyas of Vemulawada., pp. 44,45,82. 44. R.C. Majumdar, "Rise and fall of the Partihara Empire" Chapter II, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vol. IV, p. 36 45. A.S.Altekar, "The Rashtrakutas'' EHD, pp. 290, 291 46. IAPKD, No. 1 pp. 1-4

J.R.E.B. 119

Our Prime Ministers 1. Jawaharlal Nehru 2. Gulzarilal Nanda 3. Lal Bahadur Sastri 4. Gulzarilal Nanda 5. Indira Gandi 6. Morarji Desai 7. Charan Singh 8. Indira Gandhi 9. Rajiv Gandhi 10. V.P.Singh 11. Chandra Shekar 12. P.V.Narashima Rao 13. Atal Behari Vajpayee 14. H.D.Dewa Gawda 15. Indra Karan Gujral 16. Atal Behari Vajpayee 17. Dr. Manmohan Singh 15-08-1947 27-05-1964 09-06-1964 11-01-1966 24-01-1966 24-03-1977 28-07-1979 14-01-1980 31-10-1984 02-12-1989 10-11-1990 22-06-1991 16-05-1996 01-06-1996 21-04-1997 19-03-1998 22-05-2004
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

27-05-1964 09-06-1964 11-01-1966 24-01-1966 24-03-1977 28-07-1979 14-01-1980 31-10-1984 01-12-1989 10-11-1990 21-06-1991 15-05-1996 31-05-1996 20-04-1997 18-03-1998 21-05-2004 Presentday

Our Presidents of India 1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad 2. Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishnan 3. Dr. Zakir Hussain 4. V.V. Giri 5. Fakruddin Ali Ahmed 6. Dr.Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy 7. Gyani Zail Singh 8. R.Venkata Raman 9. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sarma 10. K.R.Narayanan 11. Dr. A.P.J.Abdul Kalam 12. Smt. Pratibha Patil 26-01-1950 13-05-1962 13-05-1967 24-08-1969 24-08-1974 25-07-1977 25-07-1982 25-07-1987 25-07-1992 25-07-1997 25-07-2002 25-07-2007
to to to to to to to to to to to to

13-05-1962 13-05-1967 03-05-1969 24-08-1974 11-02-1977 25-07-1982 25-07-1987 25-07-1992 25-07-1997 25-07-2002 25-07-2007 present day

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47. Ibid, No.2, pp. 5-10 48. EA, Vol. II, pp 21-28 49. EHD, p. 504 50. EA, Vol.II, pp. 31-35 51. ARE, 1967, No.1, pp. 22,23 52. EHD, p. 511 53. IAPKD, No. 4 p.12 54. Ibid, No.5 pp. 12-17 55. IAPKD, Nos. 6,7,8,9. pp. 17-26 56. EA, Vol. II, pp. 36, 37. 57. IAPKD, Nos. 10,11,12. pp. 26-32. 58. Ibid, No. 13, pp. 32-36. 59. Telangana Sasanamulu (Telugu), Vol. I, No.21, pp. 173-177. 60. IAPKD, No. 18. pp. 47-49. 61. K.A.Nilakanta Sastry, "The Chalukyas of Kalyani" EHD, p. 330. 62. IAPKD, Nos. 14,15,16,17 pp. 36-47. 63. EA, Vol. IV, p.68 64. Paul G.Hiebert,"A Brief History of Patancheru or potttalakere"JAHRS,Vol. XXVI, (II to IV parts), p.3 65. A Catalogue of Inscriptions copied upto 1964, Nos. 187,188,189. 66. EA, Vol. IV, pp. 74-78. 67. Ibid, pp. 81-84. 68. IAPKD, No.23, pp. 58-60 69. EA, Vol.IV, pp. 84-89 70. Vincent A.Smith, The oxford History of India, p.217 71.JAHRS. Vol. XXXVI, Part I, pp. 33-43. 72. P.V. Parabrahma Sastry, The Kakatiyas, pp. 60-62 73. EA, Vol. I, pp 111-113 74. IAPKD, No. 75, pp. 139-141 75. N.S.Ramachandra Murthy & P.Brahmachary, "Archanapalli Inscription of Jaggadeva" APHC, Vol. XXII, 1998, pp. 53-57. 76. RE, 1965, No. 345, p.78 77. Ibid, No. 308, p.71 78. IAPWD, Nos. 44 & 45 79. JAHRS, XXXVI, Part I, pp. 58 - 62. 80. Ibid, pp. 63 & 64 81. Ibid, pp. 1-24 82. IAPKD, No. 77, pp. 143-145 83. Ibid, No. 74, pp. 137-139. 84. EHD, p. 586 85. P.V.Parabrahma Sastry, Kakatiya Sasana Sahityamu (Telugu)., pp. 21,22 86. IAPWD, No. 31, p. 87 87. P.V.Parabrahma Sastry, Kakatiya Coins and Measures., pp. 9,10 88. IAPKD, No. 25, 26, pp. 64-73. 89. Ibid., Nos. 28-34, pp. 75-103 90. JAHARS, Vol. XXXV, pp. 183-188 & IAPKD, Appendix, pp. 146,147. 91. IAPKD, Nos. 37-39, pp. 104-112. 92. P.V.Parabrahma Sastry, The Kakatiyas, p. 132 93. EHD, pp. 644-647 94. H.K.Sherwani & P.M. Joshi, History of Medieval Deccan, Vol. I, p. 536 95. Dakshina Bharatadesa Charitra, Telugu Academy, 1982, p.286. 96. B.N. Sastri, Recherla Padmanaykulu (Telugu), 1991. pp. 21-24. 97. H.K.Sherwani & P.M. Joshi, History of Medieval Deccan, Vol. I, p. 536 98. APGKD, 1974, p. 52 99. M.Shyamsundara Sastri, (ed) Trishati (Telugu) pp.17-23 100. APGKD, 1974, p. 52 101. IAPKD, 1974, Nos. 48,49,53,57 102. H.K.Sherwani & P.M. Joshi, op.cit, p. 189 103. IAPKD, No. 45, p. 117 104. ARDAM, 1976-1977, pp. 53&61 105. J.Ramanaiah & S. Jaikishan, Kalagamanamulo Konasamudram (Telugu), 2007. pp.23,24. 106. APGKD, 1974, p. 52 107. H.K.Sherwani & P.M. Joshi, op.cit, p. 175 108. S.K.Sinha, Medieval History of the Deccan, Bahamanids, 1964, pp. 166-172 109. H.K.Sherwani, History of Qutub Shahi dynasty, 1974, pp. 24&25 110. IAPWD, No. III, p. 291 111. A.P.District Gazetteer Nizamabad, 1973, p.25 112. H.K. Sherwani, History of Qutub Shahi dynasty, 1974, pp. 99-104 113. Raza Alikhan, Hyderabad 400 years, 1591-1991, pp. 65 & 66 114. Md.Abdul Waheed khan, Qutub Shahi Coins A.P. Govt. Museum, 1961, pp. 17 & 18. 115. H.K.Sherwani, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah, 1967, pp. 136 & 145 116. Md.Abdul Waheed khan, Op.cit. p. 7 117. H.K.Sherwani, Op-cit., pp. 14-17 118. Ibid, p. 20 119. Md.Abdul Waheed khan, Op.cit. pp. 18&19 120. H.K.Sherwani, History of Qutub Shahi dynasty, 1974 pp. 406, 407. 121. B.N. Sastri, Golconda Charitra-Samskriti-Sasanamulu (Telugu), 2000. pp. 245-246. 122. H.K.Sherwani, History of Qutub Shahi dynasty, pp. 442-445. 123. Raza Ali Khan, Op.cit., pp. 47 & 48. 124. S.Moula Ali, D.Yadagiri Reddy & K.Jagan Reddy, Sri Sivaganga Raja Rajeshwara Swamy Punya Kshetram, Maheshwaram (Telugu) 2004, pp.23-30. 125. M.Narasimhacharya, History of cult of Narasimha in Telangana, 1989, pp. 123,124. 126. H.K.Sherwani, Op.cit. p. 645 127. Ibid, p. 653. 128. Ibid, p. 479. 129. Ibid, p. 655 130. Ibid, p. 642 131. Census Handbook, Karimnagar district, 1961, p.VI. 132. APGKD, 1974, p. 59. 133. M.Narasimhacharya, Op.cit, p. 124 & 303. (in notes and references) 134. Ibid, p. 124 135. Raza Ali Khan, op.cit, pp. 82 & 83. 136. Ibid, pp. 110 & 111. 137. APGKD, 1974, p. 61 138. A.Nagabhooshanam, "The Greatness of Jagtial Fort", Published in English daily Newpaper, dated. 22-10-1972. 139. APGKD, 1974, p. 61 140. Sanganabhatla Narahari, “Kalasravantilo Dharmapuri’’ Trishati (Telugu), 1979, pp. 23-24.

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141. Ibid. 142. APGKD, 1974, p. 61 143. Raza Ali Khan, op.cit, pp. 96-98. 144. M.Narasimhacharya, Op.cit. p. 125. 145. Kola Ramchandra Reddy, “Elgandal Qila” Satavahana Kalotsavala Sanchika, 2002. pp.22,23. 146. Jaishetty Rajaiah, Sri Lemulavada Raja Rajeshwara Satakam & Manassambodhana Kritanalu (Telugu), Jagtial, 1933 & 1992. pp.204-207. 147. Ibid, pp. 195-199. 148. Raza Ali Khan, op.cit, pp. 105-110. 149. Ibid. 150. Jaishetty Rajaiah, op.cit, pp.212-217. 151. Y.Gopala Reddy, A Comprehensive History of Andra, Hyderabad, 1995, p.220. 152. APGKD, 1974, p. 62 153. Sarojini Regani, Andhralo Swatantriyodyama Charitra, Telugu Academy, 1986. p.191 154. K.Narotham Reddy, "Proselytisation in Nizam State" APHC, XV Volume, 1991. pp. 210 - 214 155. Ibid 156. K. Rama Krishna, "Famine Relief works in Karimnagar District" APHC, IX volume, 1985, pp. 140-142. 157. K.Narotham Reddy, Op.cit., p. 213 158. Sarojini Regani, Andhralo Swatantriyodyama Charitra, Telugu Academy, 1986. pp.200-202 159. Jaishetty Rajaiah, op.cit, pp.236-240. 160. Vasant K. Bawa, "Presidential address" APHC, Vol. XIII, 1989. p. 138 161. Sarojini Regani, Andhralo Swatantriyodyama Charitra, Telugu Academy, 1986. p.235 162. Andhra Jyothi daily, dated 14-3-2005, Andhra Jyothi daily paper, dated 17-7-2005 (Karimnagar district edition), Andhra Jyothi Third Annual Special Edition, Annexure I, Karimnagar, 2005, p.20 163. Eenadu daily, Karimnagar Edition, dated 17-9-2003 Wednesday. 164. Ibid. 165. K.Natotham Reddy, "Social Movements in Telangana" APHC., vol. VIII, 1984. pp. 20-23. 166. J.Lakshminarayana, "The role of J.Keshava Rao" APHC, Vol. XI, 1987, p. 106 167. Andhra Bhoomi, Karimnagar Special Edition “Ratnala Veena”, 28-5-2001.

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Historical sites of Karimnagar District

Kaleshvaram

Mahadevpur

Manthani

Jammikunta

Odela

Ramagundam

Dhulikatta

Kotilingala

Choppadandi

Karimnagar

Nagunuru

Huzurabad Dharmapuri Raikal Valgonda

Peddapalli

Ramadugu

Polavasa

Jagtial

Gangadara

Vemulavada

Korutla

Sircilla

Gambhirraopet

Bejjenki

Koheda

Husnabad