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IKP PhD Physics Seminar
30 January 2014, Andreas Herten
CP Violation Part II: Theory
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Outline

Previously on… CP Violation

Lagrangians

CKM Matrix

Part III
2
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Transformations
3
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Transformations
3
C
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Transformations
3
C
P
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Transformations
3
C
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, −e, t)
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, −e, t)
P
(−~x, e, t)
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, −e, t)
P
(−~x, e, t)
T
(~x, e, −t)
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
This talk
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Lagranianism
5
Leû-
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian
5
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ

Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
Leû-
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
Leû-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL
γ
µ


µ
+
i
2
gW
µ
b
σ
b
◆✓
u
d

I
iL
Leû-
handed
Leû-
handed
lnLeracuon
base
3
generauons
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL
γ
µ


µ
+
i
2
gW
µ
b
σ
b
◆✓
u
d

I
iL
Leû-
handed
Leû-
handed
lnLeracuon
base
3
generauons
= iu
I
iL
γ
µ

µ
u
I
iL
+d
I
iL
· · · −
g

2
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · +. . . M
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ψ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(∂
µ
γ
µ
)ψ L
kinetic
= i
¯
ψ(D
µ
γ
µ

Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
Þaull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
ñelds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D
µ
= ∂
µ
+ig
s
G
µ
a
L
a
+igW
µ
b
σ
b
+ig
0
B
µ
Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL
γ
µ


µ
+
i
2
gW
µ
b
σ
b
◆✓
u
d

I
iL
Leû-
handed
M
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d

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Lagranianism
6
Leû-
handed
M
i
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d

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c
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking
6
Leû-
handed
M
i
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g
l
i
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d

d
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H
e
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-
G
e
m
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i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
6
Leû-
handed
M
i
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g
l
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d

d
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m
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s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
M
i
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g
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d

d
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e
m
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i
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s
c
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a
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
M
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d

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s
c
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a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
M
i
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g
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i
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d

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c
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a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
i
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i
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d

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-
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c
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a
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
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i
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d

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i
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s
c
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a
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=



Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...



−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=



Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...


 d
I
Rj
=


d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R


−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=



Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...


 d
I
Rj
=


d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R



φ
+
φ

−→
1

2

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=



Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...


 d
I
Rj
=


d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R



φ
+
φ

−→
1

2

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
– Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions
6
Leû-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D
µ
φ)

(D
µ
φ) −µφ

φ −λ(φ

φ)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=



Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...


 d
I
Rj
=


d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R



φ
+
φ

−→
1

2

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

φ
+
φ

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
· · · + h.c.
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
7
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:
7
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
d
iR
=

V
d
R

ij
d
I
jR
u
iL
= (V
u
L
)
ij
u
I
jL
u
iR
= (V
u
R
)
ij
u
I
jR
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
quark mass
elgensLaLes
weak lnLeracuon
elgensLaLes
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X
7
Leû-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d†
R
V
d†
L
V
d
L
= 1
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
d
iR
=

V
d
R

ij
d
I
jR
u
iL
= (V
u
L
)
ij
u
I
jL
u
iR
= (V
u
R
)
ij
u
I
jR
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
−L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d†
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d†
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
· · · +. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
· · · +. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
8
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij


d
I
s
I
b
I


=


V
ud
V
us
V
ub
V
cd
V
cs
V
cb
V
td
V
ts
V
tb




d
s
b


u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
mass
elgensLaLes
lnLeracuon
elgensLaLes
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Leû-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij


d
I
s
I
b
I


=


V
ud
V
us
V
ub
V
cd
V
cs
V
cb
V
td
V
ts
V
tb




d
s
b


u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
I
iL
−d
I
iL
· · · + . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d†
L

ij
γ
µ
W
µ−
d
iL
+
¯
d
iL
· · · + . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
9
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
+Y

ij
ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
+Y

ij
ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
CP

ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj

= ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
+Y

ij
ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
CP

ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj

= ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
−L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
+Y

ij
ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
CP

ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj

= ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
−L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
−L
kin,cc,L
V
ij
= V

ij
unchanged, if
−L
Yukawa
= Y
ij
ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj
+Y

ij
ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
CP

ψ
Li
φ ψ
Rj

= ψ
Rj
φ

ψ
Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Leû-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
−L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
−L
kin,cc,L
V
ij
= V

ij
unchanged, if
V
ij
6= V

ij
V
ij
= V

ij
if no CP violation
if CP violation!
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix
10
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
10
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
10
Leû-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
−n −(n
2
−n) −(2n −1) = (n −1)
2
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.n×n orthogonal, generally, constructed by
½ n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
−n −(n
2
−n) −(2n −1) = (n −1)
2
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.n×n orthogonal, generally, constructed by
½ n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
−n −(n
2
−n) −(2n −1) = (n −1)
2
(n −1)
2

1
2
n(n −1) =
1
2
(n −1)(n −2) phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.n×n orthogonal, generally, constructed by
½ n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
−n −(n
2
−n) −(2n −1) = (n −1)
2
(n −1)
2

1
2
n(n −1) =
1
2
(n −1)(n −2)
n=2: x * 1 * 0 = 0
phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. n×n complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.n×n orthogonal, generally, constructed by
½ n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Leû-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
−n −(n
2
−n) −(2n −1) = (n −1)
2
(n −1)
2

1
2
n(n −1) =
1
2
(n −1)(n −2)
n=2: x * 1 * 0 = 0
n=3: x * 2 * 1= !
phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
11
More theory!
Next CP lecture
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
11
More theory!
Next CP lecture


1 −λ
2
/2 λ Aλ
3
(ρ −iη)
−λ 1 −λ
2
/2 Aλ
2

3
(1 −ρ −iη) −Aλ
2
1


.

d
m
K

K

s
m &
d
m
ub
V
sin 2
(excl. at CL > 0.95)
< 0 sol. w/ cos 2
e
xclu
d
e
d
a
t C
L >
0
.9
5

-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
excluded area has CL > 0.95
FPCP 13
CKM
f i t t e r

q
p

2
=
M

12
−(i/2)Γ

12
M
12
+ (i/2)Γ
12
• CP viol in decay
• CP viol in mixing
• CP viol in
interference of
decay w/o mixing
and
decay w/ mixing
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
12
The End
M
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Resources Used in This Talk

[3] Cat by Marco Hernandez / The Noun Project

[3] Clock by Tobias Klepp / The Noun Project

[4] Pyramids by Arthur Schmitt / The Noun Project

[25] Unitarity triangle by the CKMftter collaboration

[25] Kaon box diagram by Maksim/NikNas in the
Wikimedia commons

[25] Standard Model of Particle Physics overview by
MissMJ in the Wikimedia commons
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