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IKP PhD Physics Seminar
30 January 2014, Andreas Herten
CP Violation Part II: Theory
1
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Outline

Previously on CP Violation

Lagrangians

CKM Matrix

Part III
2
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Transformations
3
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Transformations
3
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Transformations
3
C
P
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Transformations
3
C
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, e, t)
P
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, e, t)
P
(~x, e, t)
T
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Transformations
3
(~x, e, t)
C
(~x, e, t)
P
(~x, e, t)
T
(~x, e, t)
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
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Transformations
4
C Symmetry
P Symmetry
T Symmetry
Fundamental symmetries
All physical laws are same for C, P, T-transformed
particles
Each and therefore also CP, CPT-transformed
This talk
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Lagranianism
5
Le-
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian


5
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:
5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

)
Le-
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

)
Gauge invariance
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
Le-
handed
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL

+
i
2
gW

u
d

I
iL
Le-
handed
Le-
handed
lnLeracuon
base
3
generauons
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL

+
i
2
gW

u
d

I
iL
Le-
handed
Le-
handed
lnLeracuon
base
3
generauons
= iu
I
iL

u
I
iL
+d
I
iL

g

2
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+. . . M
i
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d

d
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Lagranianism

Standard Model Lagrangian

Kinetic part:

Dynamics of fermions (by means of spinor felds ):

Charged current interaction between quarks:


5
L
SM
= L
kinetic
+L
Higgs
+L
Yukawa
L
kinetic
= i

(

) L
kinetic
= i

(D

)
Gauge invariance
Cell-Mann
maLrlces
aull
maLrlces
Pyper-
charge
8 gluon
elds
3 weak
bosons
1 hyperch
boson
Covariant derivative D: D

+ig
s
G

a
L
a
+igW

b
+ig
0
B

Y
L
kin,weak,L
= i(u d)
I
iL

+
i
2
gW

u
d

I
iL
Le-
handed
M
i
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g
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d

d
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Lagranianism
6
Le-
handed
M
i
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g
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d

d
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H
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c
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking


6
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
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-
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c
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
6
Le-
handed
M
i
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g
l
i
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d

d
e
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H
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s
c
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a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
M
i
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g
l
i
e
d

d
e
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c
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin
6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
M
i
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g
l
i
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d

d
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H
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-
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s
c
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a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
M
i
t
g
l
i
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d

d
e
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H
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-
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c
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a
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Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
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m
h
o
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-
G
e
m
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i
n
s
c
h
a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
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g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
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m
h
o
l
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-
G
e
m
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i
n
s
c
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a
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t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=

Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...

L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
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g
l
i
e
d

d
e
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H
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m
h
o
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-
G
e
m
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i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=

Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...

d
I
Rj
=

d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R

L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=

Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...

d
I
Rj
=

d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=

Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...

d
I
Rj
=

d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

W & Z masses: spontaneous symmetry breaking

Higgs Lagrangian:

a
Coupling Higgs ! gauge feld: covariant derivative @ kin

Yukawa couplings: Higgs fermion interactions


6
Le-
handed
L
Higgs
= (D

(D

)
2
Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL
=

Y
11
(u d)
I
L
Y
12
(u d)
I
L
...
Y
21
(c s)
I
L
... ...
Y
31
(t b)
I
L
... ...

d
I
Rj
=

d
I
R
s
I
R
b
I
R

0
v +h(x)

symm.
break
L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
= Y
d
ij
(u d)
I
iL

d
I
Rj
+ Y
u
ij
. . . u
I
Rj
+ Y
l
ij
+ h.c.
L
quarks
Yukawa
= Y
d
ij
d
I
iL
v

2
d
I
iR
+Y
u
ij
u
I
iL
v

2
u
I
iR
+. . .
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
7
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:
7
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
d
iR
=

V
d
R

ij
d
I
jR
u
iL
= (V
u
L
)
ij
u
I
jL
u
iR
= (V
u
R
)
ij
u
I
jR
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
quark mass
elgensLaLes
weak lnLeracuon
elgensLaLes
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Yukawa:

Proper mass terms: diagonalize X


7
Le-
handed
M
d
diag
= V
d
L
X
d
V
d
R
V
d
L
V
d
L
= 1
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
d
iR
=

V
d
R

ij
d
I
jR
u
iL
= (V
u
L
)
ij
u
I
jL
u
iR
= (V
u
R
)
ij
u
I
jR
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
L
quarks
Yukawa
= X
d
ij
d
I
iL
d
I
iR
+X
u
ij
u
I
iL
u
I
iR
+. . .
= d
I
iL
V
d
L
V
d
L
X
d
ij
V
d
R
V
d
R
d
I
iR
+u
I
iL
+. . .
= d
iL
(M
d
ij
)
diag
d
jR
+u
iL
+. . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
8
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij
u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
I
s
I
b
I

V
ud
V
us
V
ub
V
cd
V
cs
V
cb
V
td
V
ts
V
tb

d
s
b

u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
mass
elgensLaLes
lnLeracuon
elgensLaLes
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

Base change in charged current interaction:

8
Le-
handed
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
d
iL
=

V
d
L

ij
d
I
jL
V
CKM
=

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
I
s
I
b
I

V
ud
V
us
V
ub
V
cd
V
cs
V
cb
V
td
V
ts
V
tb

d
s
b

u
I
i
= u
j
d
I
i
= V
CKM
d
j
Convention:
int. eigenstates = mass
eigenstates for up-type quarks,
rotation at down-type quarks
L
kin,cc,L
=
g

s
u
I
iL

d
I
iL
d
I
iL
+ . . .
=
g

2
u
iL

V
u
L
V
d
L

ij

d
iL
+

d
iL
+ . . .
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism
9
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
+Y

ij

Rj


Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
+Y

ij

Rj


Li
CP

Li

Rj

=
Rj


Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
+Y

ij

Rj


Li
CP

Li

Rj

=
Rj


Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
+Y

ij

Rj


Li
CP

Li

Rj

=
Rj


Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
L
kin,cc,L
V
ij
= V

ij
unchanged, if
L
Yukawa
= Y
ij

Li

Rj
+Y

ij

Rj


Li
CP

Li

Rj

=
Rj


Li
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Lagranianism

CP test
9
Le-
handed
Y
ij
= Y

ij
L
Yukawa
unchanged, if
L
kin,cc,L
V
ij
= V

ij
unchanged, if
V
ij
6= V

ij
V
ij
= V

ij
if no CP violation
if CP violation!
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix
10
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
10
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
10
Le-
handed
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
n (n
2
n) (2n 1) = (n 1)
2
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.nn orthogonal, generally, constructed by
n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
n (n
2
n) (2n 1) = (n 1)
2
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.nn orthogonal, generally, constructed by
n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
n (n
2
n) (2n 1) = (n 1)
2
(n 1)
2

1
2
n(n 1) =
1
2
(n 1)(n 2) phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.nn orthogonal, generally, constructed by
n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
n (n
2
n) (2n 1) = (n 1)
2
(n 1)
2

1
2
n(n 1) =
1
2
(n 1)(n 2)
n=2: x * 1 * 0 = 0
phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
CKM Matrix

Free parameters
1. nn complex matrix: n
2
complex elements, 2n
2
real
parameters
2. V+V = 1 :
1.unitarity of diagonal elements: n conditions
2.vanishing (orthogonal) of-diagonal elements: n
2
-n conditions
3.Freely rotatable quark phases ! overall phase irrelevant
2n-1 relative quark phases removable
4.nn orthogonal, generally, constructed by
n (n-1) angles (=rotations in n dimensions)
10
Le-
handed
V

V = 1
2n
2
n (n
2
n) (2n 1) = (n 1)
2
(n 1)
2

1
2
n(n 1) =
1
2
(n 1)(n 2)
n=2: x * 1 * 0 = 0
n=3: x * 2 * 1= !
phases
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
11
More theory!
Next CP lecture
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
11
More theory!
Next CP lecture

1
2
/2 A
3
( i)
1
2
/2 A
2
A
3
(1 i) A
2
1

d
m
K

s
m &
d
m
ub
V
sin 2
(excl. at CL > 0.95)
< 0 sol. w/ cos 2
e
xclu
d
e
d
a
t C
L >
0
.9
5

-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
excluded area has CL > 0.95
FPCP 13
CKM
f i t t e r

q
p

2
=
M

12
(i/2)

12
M
12
+ (i/2)
12
CP viol in decay
CP viol in mixing
CP viol in
interference of
decay w/o mixing
and
decay w/ mixing
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
12
The End
M
i
t
g
l
i
e
d

d
e
r

H
e
l
m
h
o
l
t
z
-
G
e
m
e
i
n
s
c
h
a
f
t
Resources Used in This Talk

[3] Cat by Marco Hernandez / The Noun Project

[3] Clock by Tobias Klepp / The Noun Project

[4] Pyramids by Arthur Schmitt / The Noun Project

[25] Unitarity triangle by the CKMftter collaboration

[25] Kaon box diagram by Maksim/NikNas in the


Wikimedia commons

[25] Standard Model of Particle Physics overview by


MissMJ in the Wikimedia commons
13