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POLYTECHNIC OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN ABDUL AZIZ SHAH

OSMAN BIN ESA


08DKA08F1024

NAME : OSMAN BIN ESA


REGISTRATION NUMBER : 08DKA08F1024
CLASS : DKA 3A
MODULE : SAFETY AND WORKERS HEALTHY
SUBJECT NUMBER : C1403
NAME OF LECTURER : EN. TEO ENG YEAW
DEPARTMENT : KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

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CONTENTS

NO. TOPICS PAGES

1 CONTENTS 2

2 INTRODUCTION 3

3 OBJECTIVE 4

4 HAZARD 5-13

5 CONCLUSION 14

6 REFERENCES 15

INTRODUCTION

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A hazard is usually used to describe a potentially harmful situation, although not


usually the event itself; once the incident has started it is classified as an emergency or
incident. There are many modes for a hazard, which include:
• Dormant - The situation has the potential to be hazardous, but no people,
property, or environment is currently affected by this. For instance, a hillside may
be unstable, with the potential for a landslide, but there is nothing below or on the
hillside that could be affected.
• Potential - Also known as 'Armed', this is a situation where in the hazard is in the
position to affect persons, property, or environment. This type of hazard is likely
to require further risk assessment.
• Active - The hazard is certain to cause harm, as no intervention is possible
before the incident occurs.
• Mitigated - A potential hazard has been identified, but actions have been taken in
order to ensure it does not become an incident. This may not be an absolute
guarantee of no risk, but it is likely to have been undertaken to significantly
reduce the danger.

OBJECTIVE

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At the end this assignment you will know;

• Definition of hazard and the risk

• Types of hazard:
-Physical
-Chemical
-Biological
-Ergonomics

• Symbols of hazard

HAZARD

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What are the hazard and the risk?

A hazard is defined in FAA Order 8040.4 as a "Condition, event, or circumstance


that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesirable event." Seldom does a
single hazard cause an accident. More often, an accident occurs as the result of a
sequence of causes. A hazard analysis will consider system state, for example
operating environment, as well as failures or malfunctions.
While in some cases safety risk can be eliminated, in most cases a certain degree of
safety risk must be accepted. In order to quantify expected accident costs before the
fact, the potential consequences of an accident, and the probability of occurrence must
be considered. Assessment of risk is made by combining the severity of consequence
with the likelihood of occurrence in a matrix. Risks that fall into the "unacceptable"
category (e.g., high severity and high probability) must be mitigated by some means to
reduce the level of safety risk.
When software is involved in a system, the development of that software is often
governed by DO-178B. The severity of consequence identified by the hazard analysis
establishes the criticality level of the software. Software criticality levels range from A to
E, corresponding to severities of Catastrophic to No Safety Effect.

Types of hazard

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• Physical

We've talked about one of the two classifications of confined space hazards,
atmospheric hazards. The other major type of hazard found in confined spaces is
physical hazards. Physical hazards can be considered as hazards that cause the body
to become physically stressed. Unlike atmospheric hazards, physical hazards can be
detected through your senses of (touch, sight). Some examples of physical hazards are:

1. Engulfment: Engulfment and suffocation in a loose material that is stored in a


hopper or grain silo is another hazard that can be encountered in a confined
space. A condition called bridging can occur in tanks and silos. Bridging occurs
when grain, coal, sawdust, etc. clings to the side of a vessel that is being
emptied. The bridging material becomes unstable and may collapse at any time,
engulfing workers standing on or below the material.

2. Other hazards: Other hazards that must be considered are: moving and rotating
equipment, electrical energy, hot or cold conditions, wet or slick surfaces, and
excessive noise.

• Chemical

Health hazards can arise from exposure to a large variety of chemical substances.
Their toxic properties can harm the body. Chemical hazards take the form of solids,
liquids, vapors, gases, dusts, fumes or mists. They can be inhaled, ingested or
absorbed into the body.
In order to prevent harm, we need to understand the toxic properties of chemicals. A
toxic property means the ability of the chemical to produce adverse health effects. We

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also need to know the physical states chemical agents can take during the work
process. This can help to determine how they might contact or enter the body and how
exposure may be controlled.
Chemicals serve many purposes in the workplace. Some are the raw materials used
to make a product. Sometimes the product itself is a chemical. Other chemicals are
fuels used to provide energy. Still others are byproducts of a process or are used for
other purposes, such as lubrication and cleaning.
Chemicals that may cause an adverse health effect are called toxic. Some
chemicals, such as corrosives, can harm the body without being toxic. Hazardous
chemicals may also be referred to as hazardous substances or hazardous materials.
A very large number of chemicals are used in workplaces. There are many
whose health effects are not entirely known. The problem is all the more difficult
because the health effects of some chemicals can be subtle, or may take years to
develop. The best policy, therefore, is to regard chemicals as potentially hazardous until
their effects are fully known.
The employer, as well as members of joint committees, must know how to
recognize, assess and control chemical hazards.

• Biological

A biological hazard or biohazard is an organism, or substance derived from an


organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. This can include medical
waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can
impact human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals. The term
and its associated symbol are generally used as a warning, so that those potentially
exposed to the substances will know to take precautions. There is also a biohazard
HCS/Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) logo which utilizes
the same symbol.

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 Biohazard Level 1: Bacteria and viruses including Bacillus


subtilis, canine hepatitis, Escherichia coli, varicella (chicken pox), as well as
some cell cultures and non-infectious bacteria. At this level precautions against
the biohazardous materials in question are minimal, most likely involving gloves
and some sort of facial protection. Usually, contaminated materials are left in
open (but separately indicated) trash receptacles. Decontamination procedures
for this level are similar in most respects to modern precautions against everyday
viruses (i.e.: washing one's hands with anti-bacterial soap, washing all exposed
surfaces of the lab with disinfectants, wash very clean etc). In a lab environment,
all materials used for cell and/or bacteria cultures are decontaminated
via autoclave.
 Biohazard Level 2: Bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans,
or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B,
and C, influenza A, Lyme disease, salmonella, mumps, measles, scrapie,
and HIV. "Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at
Biosafety Level 2, using Biosafety Level 2 practices and procedures. Research
work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving
concentrated virus) can be done in a BSL-2 facility, using BSL-3 practices and
procedures. Virus production activities, including virus concentrations, require a
BSL-3 facility and use of BSL-3 practices and procedures", see Recommended
Biosafety Levels for Infectious Agents.
 Biohazard Level 3: Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in
humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West
Nile virus,Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, variola
virus (smallpox), tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, Rocky Mountain spotted
fever, yellow fever, and malaria. Among parasites Plasmodium, which
causes Malaria, and Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes trypanosomiasis, also
come under this level.

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 Biohazard Level 4: Viruses and bacteria that cause severe to fatal disease in
humans, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such
as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, H5N1(bird flu), dengue
fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo
hemorrhagic fever, Y. pestis, and other hemorrhagic diseases. When dealing
with biological hazards at this level the use of a Hazmat suit and a self-contained
oxygen supply is mandatory. The entrance and exit of a Level Four biolab will
contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomous
detection system, and other safety precautions designed to destroy all traces of
the biohazard. Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to
prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to
and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 lab will undergo similar decontamination
procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release.

• Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. When there is a mismatch
between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker,
work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can result. Ergonomics is the practice of
designing equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker, it
provides a means for adjusting the work environment and work practices to prevent
injuries before they occur. Health care facilities especially nursing homes have been
identified as an environment where ergonomic stressors exist.

Symbols of hazard

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Hazard symbols are easily recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous
materials or locations. The use of hazard symbols is often regulated by law and directed
by standards organizations. Hazard symbols may appear with different colors,
backgrounds, borders and supplemental information in order to signify the type of
hazard.

Radioactive sign

The international radiation symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the
University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. At the time, it was rendered as
magenta, and was set on a blue background. (See right.) The modern version is black
against a yellow background, and it is drawn with a central circle of radius R, an internal
radius of 1.5R and an external radius of 5R for the blades, which are separated from
each other by 60°.

On February 15, 2007, the IAEA and the ISO announced this new ionizing radiation
symbol to supplement the traditional trefoil symbol. The new symbol is aimed at alerting
anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing
radiation. Experts have felt that the trefoil symbol had little intuitive value and was less
likely to be recognized by those not educated in its significance. According to the IAEA,
in a survey conducted at an international school, many children mistook the trefoil for a
non-threatening propeller. Hence, the Agency, along with the International Organization

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for Standardization has devised this symbol for sealed radiation sources. It depicts, on a
red background, a black colored trefoil radiating waves, skull and crossbones, and a
person running away from the scene. The radiating trefoil suggests the presence of
radiation and the red background and skull and crossbones warn of the danger. More
important, the person running away from the scene suggests the action of avoiding the
labeled material. The symbol had been tested in countries with different population of
varying groups, ages, and educational backgrounds to ensure that it clearly conveys the
message “Danger- Stay away”. The new symbol is to be displayed prominently on the
device that actually houses the radiation sources so that if, even by mistake, someone
attempts to disassemble the device it provides an explicit warning not to proceed any
further.

Biohazard sign

Developed by the Dow Chemical company in 1966 for their containment products.
According to Charles Baldwin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its
development:

All parts of the Biohazard sign can be drawn with a compass and straightedge. The
basic outline of the symbol is a plain trefoil, which are three circles overlapping each
other equally like in a triple Venn diagram with the overlapping parts erased. The
diameter of the overlapping part is equal to half the radius of the three circles. Then
three inner circles are drawn in with 2/3 radius of the original circles so that it is tangent
to the outside three overlapping circles. A tiny circle in center has a diameter 1/2 of the
radius of the three inner circles, and arcs are erased at 90°, 210°, and 330°. The arcs of

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the inner circles and the tiny circle are connected by a line. Finally, the ring under is
drawn from the distance to the perimeter of the equilateral triangle that forms between
the centers of the three intersecting circles. An outer circle of the ring under is drawn
and finally enclosed with the arcs from the center of the inner circles with a shorter
radius from the inner circles.

Toxic sign

The skull-and-crossbones symbol, consisting of a human skull and two bones crossed
together under the skull, is today generally used as a warning of danger, particularly in
regard to poisonous substances.
The symbol, or some variation thereof, was also featured on the Jolly Roger, the
traditional flag of European and American pirates. It is also used by Skull and Bones, a
secret society at Yale University, and is part of the WHMIS home symbols placed on
containers to confirm that the substance inside is dangerous in a way.
In the United States, due to concerns that the skull and bones symbol's association with
pirates encourages children to play with toxic materials, the Mr. Yuk symbol is also used
to denote poison.

Others hazard sign

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Flammable A substance that can catch


fire easily.

Corrosive A substance that may


destroy living tissue on
contact.
It causes a burn.

Oxidizing This type of substance


gives of a large amount of
heat when in contact with
other substances.

Toxic A substance that is


poisonous if swallowed or
breathed in. It may even go
through your skin!

Explosive A substance that may


explode if it comes into
contact with a flame or
heat. It may also explode
due to friction or shock.

CONCLUSION

Hazard and risk are fundamental parts of the world around us. Societies can only
mitigate, or adapt to, hazards and risks when they can be understood and anticipated.

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Uncertainty surrounds all aspects of natural hazards however, in the absence of perfect
knowledge about how the environment operates. Thus, the assessment and
management of environmental risk are areas of growing importance. Likewise, societal
hazards and risks, such as those associated with crime, terrorism, and emergent
technologies, often have origins that are obscure and effects which are far-reaching and
difficult to predict. What is needed are new ways of engaging with populations at risk
and new tools for measuring and mitigating hazards and risks, both today and in the
future.

REFERENCES

http://www.scribd.com/

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POLYTECHNIC OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN ABDUL AZIZ SHAH
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http://www.wikipedia.org/

http://www.osha.gov/

Modul Politeknik Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, C1403, Keselamatan dan


Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1