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INTEGRAL CALCULUS REVIEWER (2 Sem 20112012) 2.

Integration process of a function whose derivative or differential is given Integrand the given function Integral the required function

nd

X 4x

3/2

+ 3x + c
2

-3

(x - 3)(x + 2) dx 3 x

(x4 x2 6)x-1/3 dx (x4 x-1/3 x2 x-1/3 6 x-1/3 ) dx x11/3dx x5/3dx 6 x-1/3dx


11 5 1 n= 3 n=3 n = 3 14/3 8/3 3x 3x 2/3 14 8 9x + c

THEOREM: Two functions having the same derivatives differ at most by a constant

Proof: Let f(x) + g(x) be the function such that f(x) = g(x) 3.

3x

-6 xx 3 3 2x

1/3

- 5

dx

*put all xs outside radicals


3

INDEFINITE INTEGRAL if f(x) is a function whose derivative is f(x), the relation between the two is given by:

3x

2/3

- 6x - 5 dx 3 2x

5/6

f(x) dx = F(x) + c
Where: = integral sign f(x) = integrand F(x) = particular integrand c = constant of integration F(x) + c = indefinite integral of. 1 2
3 3

*bring out constant denominator and place variable denominator in the numerator

1 2 1 2 1 2

3x

2/3

6x
1

5/6

5)x
5/6 1

dx
1

3x x
1/3

2/3

6x
1/6

5x
1

) dx

3x

6x

5x
n = 1

) dx

1 n = 3

1 n = 6

PROPERTIES: 1. 2. 3.

3 3x 2

2/3

6 6x 5

5/6

5 lnx + c

du = u + c (du + dv dw) = du + dv dw Rdu = du c


x
n+1

CONSTANT INTEGRATION 1. If dy = (2X 5)dx and y = 2 when x = 1, find y when x = 4. x -1 4 2 ? y dy = (2x-5)dx

POWER FORMULAS:

xndx = n + 1
EXAMPLES: 1.

+ c if n 1

x1dx = lnx + c if n = 1
9 (3x 6 x x4 ) dx
2

dy = (2x-5)dx
y + c = x 5x + c 1 option: 2 y + c = x 5x
*substitute x & y to get c
st 2

*Hindi pwedeng both sides may constant (c) so you have to choose which side to put 1 c

3x2dx 6x1/2dx 9x4dx 2 1/2 4 3 x dx 6 x dx 9 x dx


n=2
3

1 n=2
1/2

n = -4
-3

x x x 3 3 6 3 9 -3 + c 2

2 + c = (-1) 5(-1) c=4


*then substitute c & x to y + c = x2 5x

y + 4 = (4) 5(4) y = -8

1 option: 2 y = x 5x + c
*substitute x & y to get c

st

b.

2 = (-1) 5(-1) + c c = -4
*then substitute c & x to y = x2 5x + c

y = (4) 5(4) + (-4) y = -8 2. Find the equation of the curve if the slope at pt (2,3) 2x + 1 is given by 2y - 3 . dy 2x + 1 slope = dx = 2y - 3 (2y 3)dy = (2x + 1)dx

1 c1 3 = 3 + 2 + c2 + c3 16 = 3c1 + 6c2 + 6c3 dy slope = dx = -2 at x = 1. Substitute these values to the second equation. 2 -2 = 1 + c1(1) + c2 c1 + c2 = -3 dy 2 dx = 2x + c1 0 = 2 + c1` c1 = -2
*substitute c1to the other equations to get the other 2 constants
2

(2y 3)dy = (2x + 1)dx


y 3y = x + x + c 3 3(3) = 2 + 2 + c c = -6 2 2 Equation: y 3y = x + x 6 (hyperbola) 3. dy If at any point (x,y) on a curve dx3 = 2 and (1,3) is the pt. of inflection at which the slope of the inflectional tangent line is -2, find the equation of the curve. 3 dy 3 dx = 2 2 d d y 2 dx dx = 2 2 dy ddx2 = 2dx 2 d y 2 d dx = 2dx 2 dy 2 dx = 2x + c1 d dy dx dx = 2x + c1 dy ddx = (2x + c1)dx dy d dx = (2x + c1)dx dy 2 dx = x + c1x + c2 dy = (x + c1x + c2)dx
2 3 2 2 2

14 c1= -2, c2 = -1 and c3 = 3


*substitute these values to the last equation

*substitute pt (2,3)
2

x 14 2 y= 3 x x+ 3 4. Find the area under the parabola y = 8 x 2x, above the x-axis.
*complete the square
2

x + 2x + __ = 8 y + __ 2 x + 2x + 1 = 9 y 2 (x + 1) = (y 9)
*it is a parabola the opens downward

V (-1,9) dA = (yA yB)dx


*dx = xLEFT xRIGHT

dA = (8 x 2x)dx

dA = (8 x2 2x)dx
x 2 A = 8x 3 x + c On the x-axis, y = 0. 0 = 8 x 2x 2 x + 2x 8 = 0 (x + 4) (x 2) = 0 When x = -4, A = 0
*0 yung area pag x = -4 kasi hindi wala pang area na nabubuo sa point na yun. x3 *Substitute these values to A = 8x 3 x2 + c
2 3

*substitute y in y = 8 x2 2x

dy = (x2 + c1x + c2)dx


x c1x y = 3 + 2 + c2x + c3 SYSTEM OF EQUATIONS: a. (1,3) is a point on a curve. So we substitute it to the last equation.
3 2

(-4) 2 0 = 8(-4) 3 (-4) + c 80 c= 3 80 When x = 2, and c = 3


x3 *Substitute these values to A = 8x 3 x2 + c. We did this again tapos with x = 2 kasi may area nang

macocover sa point na yun .

ds = (-32t + c1)dt
s = -16t + c1t + c2
2

2 2 80 A = 8(2) 3 2 + 3 = 36 sq. units 5. An art collector purchased for $1000 a painting by an artist whose works are currently increasing with respect to the time according to the formula du 2/3 dt = 5t + 10t + 50 where u dollars is the anticipated value of the painting in t years after its purchase. If this formula is used for the next 6 years, what is its anticipated value 4 years from now? du 2/3 dt = 5t + 10t + 50

When t = 0 and s = 0
*substitute these values to s = -16t2 + c1t + c2

0 = -16(0) + c1(0) + c2 c2 = 0 s = -16t + 10t + 0 When s = -150


*Substitute s to s = -16t2 + 10t + 0. Negative yung s kasi opposite siya ng initial direction
2

*Substitute c1 and c2 to s = -16t2 + c1t + c2

du = (5t2/3 + 10t + 50)dt


5t 2 u = 5 + 5t + 50t + c 3 5/3 2 u = 3t + 5t + 50t + c u 1000 ? 0 4 t When u = 1000 and t = 0.
*Substitute to u = 3t5/3 + 5t2 + 50t + c
5/3

-150 = -16t + 10t 2 16t 10t 150 = 0


*get t by using the quadratic formula

t = 3.4 seconds
*you will get 2 answers here. yung isa negative. Siyempre, ineneglect natin yung negative dahil bawal maging nega yung time

ds 2 Differentiate s = -16t + 10t to get dt /the velocity ds dt = -32t + 10 When t = 3.4. v = -32(3.4) + 10 v = -98.8 ft/s
*Again, it is negative kasi opposite siya nung initial direction

c = 1000 When t = 4 and c = 1000


*Substitute to u = 3t
5/3 2

+ 5t + 50t + c

u = $1,286.89 6. A woman in a hot air balloon dropped her binoculars 150ft above the ground and is rising at the rate of 10ft/s. (a) How long will it take the binoculars to reach the ground? (b) With what speed will it strike the ground? dv 2 a = g = dt = -32ft/s
*negative yung acceleration/gravity kasi opposite siya ng direction ng velocity ng hot air balloon

DEFINITE INTEGRAL PROPERTIES: 1.


b b f(x)dx = f(x)dx a a

- interchanging the limits changes the sign of the integral 2.


b f(x)dx = a c b f(x)dx + f(x)dx a c

dv dt = -32

dv = -32dt
v = -32t + c1 s = vot + 2 at ds v = dt dv a = g = dt 3.

- The interval of integration may be broken down to any number of subintervals and the integration performed over each interval separately
b f(x)dx = a c b f(t)dt + f(z)dz a c

When t = 0 and v = 10ft/s


*substitute these values to v = -32t + c1

- The definite integral of an integrand is independent of the variable of integrations EXAMPLES: 1.


2 -1
3

10 = -32(0) + c1 c1= 10 ds v = dt = -32t + c1

5x2 + 1 x 1 dx 3 2

5x 1 2 1 3 +6x 2x

*substitute 2 and -1 sa mga x. Subtract the lower number from the upper number.

5 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 (2 (-1) ) + 6 (2 (-1) ) - 2 (2+1) 5 1 1 28 3 (8 + 1) + 6 (4 1) - 2 (2+1) = 2 = 14 3 1 x +1 dx 0 x+1 2 1 (x + 1)(x - 2x + 1) x+1 0


1 0
3

1 u 2 -3 + c 1 6(2x - 7)3 + c

-3

3.

2.

tdt 2 4t + 9 u = 4t + 9 du = 8tdt du 8 = tdt 1 n = -2


2

(4t2 + 9)-1/2tdt

(x 2x + 1)dx

1 x 2 x + x 2 0 1 3 5 2 3 (1 0) (1 0) + (1 0) = 6

* diba sa orig na formula its (4t2 + 9)-1/2tdt so diba u = (4t2 + 9)-1/2 tapos after that yung tdt. trinanspose natin yung 8 to the other side to follow the general formula na undu. Diba nakuha nating du nung una is 8tdt. Para maging tdt lang which is yung nasa original formula, linipat yung 8. Pero gagawin siyang constant or preparation sa integration.

THE GENERAL POWER FORMULA

u du
n

if n -1: u

n+1

1 -1/2 8 u du 1/2 1 u 8 1 +c
2

undu = n + 1
if n = -1:

+c

1 2 4 4t + 9 + c

undu = lnu + c
1.

(x + 1) dx
2

4.

u=x+1 du = dx

u2du
u 3 +c 3 (x + 1) 3 +c 1 3 2 3 (x + 3x + 3x + 1) + c 1 3 2 1 3x +x +x+3+c
3

e dt 2t e +2 +1
4t

2t

e dt 2t 2 (e + 1)
n = -2 u = e2t + 1 du = 2e2tdt du 2 = e2tdt

2t

(e2t + 1)-2e2tdt

2.

dx 4 (2x - 7)
u = 2x 7 du = 2dx du 2 = dx
*trinanspose yung 2 sa other side para maging equal yung value ng du sa original formula. Pero yung 2 na trinanspose aka yung 1 1 2 , gagawin mong constant. so if you like, hide 2 , du = dx. So it still follows the original formula na und. Pag hindi to nagets explain ko sa other examples. =)))

1 -2 2 u du -1 1 u 2 -1 + c 1 2e2t + 1 + c

(2x 7)-4dx
5.

(y

4/3

1/3 2 + 9) dy

(y4/3 + 9)-2y1/3dy
u=y +9 4 1/3 du = 3 y dy 3 1/3 4 du = y dy
4/3

1 2

u-4du

3 -2 4 u du 3 u 4 -1 + c 3 4(y4/3 + 9) + c 6.
-1

9.

10 8

1 x - 1 -3dx 4

(1 + 2e3x)e3xdx
u = 1 + 2e 3x du = 6e dx du 3x 6 = e dx 1 1 6 u du 2 1 u 6 2 +c 3x 2 (1 + 2e ) +c 12
3x

n = -3 1 u=4x1 1 du = 4 dx 4du = dx -3 4 u du -2 4u -2 2 2 u2 = 1 2 (4 x - 1)

10 8

2 2 10 1 + 1 = 9 2 2 (4 (10) - 1) (4 (8) - 1)

7.

+9 1/4 dx x 1 n=2 3/4 u=x +9 3 -1/4 du = 4 x dx 4 dx 1/4 3 du = x

3/4

EXAMPLES when

du -1 : or u du = lnu + c u

1.

4 1/2 3 u du 4 2 2/3 33u +c 8 3/4 2/3 9 (x + 9) + c 8.

sec5tan5 3 + 2sec5 d u = 3 + 2sec5 du = 2(5)sec5tan5 d du 10 = sec5tan5 d 1 du 10 u 1 10 lnu + c 1 10 ln(3 + 2sec5) + c

(6cos x + sin x)
2 2

sinxcosx dx 1 n=2 2 2 u = 6cos x + sin x d(cosx) d(sinx) du = 6[2cosx dx ] + 2cosx dx du = 6 [2cosx(-sinx)]dx + 2sinxcosxdx du = -12sinxcosxdx + 2sinxcosxdx du = -10sinxcosxdx du 10 = sinxcosxdx

1/2

2.

dx x+ x
*factor x + x for it to be x ( x + 1)

1 1/2 10 u du 1 2 3/2 10 3 u + c 1 2 2 3/2 15 (6cos x + sin x) + c 3.

dx x ( x + 1) u= x+1 dx du = 2 x dx 2du = x du 2 u = 2lnu + c 2ln( x + 1) + c

secxdx secx + tanx secxdx secx + tanx

4.

secxtanx + sec x secx + tanx dx u = secx + tanx 2 du = (secxtanx + sec x)dx du u = ln(secx + tanx) + c
ln2

EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

audu = lna au + c eudu = eu + c


TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1.

e dx x 1 + 3e
x

u = 1 + 3e x du = 3e dx du x 3 = e dx

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
7 4

sin u du = cos u + c cos u du = sin u + c tan u du = ln sec u + c


= ln cos u + c

*change the limits. To do that, substitute sa limits sa mga x sa


equation ng u which is 1 + 3e . when x = ln2, e = 2. So 1 + 3(2) = 7. And when x = 0, its going to be e0 = 1. So 1 + 3(1) = 4.
x ln2

cot u du = ln sin u + c
= ln csc u + c

x u

ln2 7

0 4

1 du 3 u 1 x 3 ln(1 + 3e ) 1 3 [ln7 ln4] 1 7 3 ln4

9. 10.

sec u du = ln(sec u + tan u ) + c csc u du = ln(csc u cot u) + c sec2u du = tan u + c csc2u du = cot u + c sec u tan u du = sec u + c csc u cot u du = csc u + c

EXAMPLES: 1.

sin4xdx
u = 4x du = 4dx du 4 = dx

5.

x - 2x + 5 x - 3 dx
*when the degree/exponent of the numerator is higher than the denominator, divide.

(x2 + 3x + 7 + x - 3 )dx
x 3x -1 3 + 2 + 7x + 26 (x 3) dx 3 2 x 3x + 3 2 + 7x + 26ln(x 3) 6.
-2 -3
2

26

1 4 sin u du 1 4 (-cos u du) + c 1 4 cos4x + c

2.

tan x dx x
u= du = x 1 dx

y+2 2 y + 4y dy
2

u = y + 4y du = (2y + 4)dy du 2 = (y + 2)dy


*change limits

2 x dx 2du = x

2 tan u du = 2lnsec u + c -2 -4 3. 2ln(sec x ) + c

x u

-3 -3

1 -2 du 1 2 -3 u = 2 ln |u| 1 2 [ ln|-4| - ln|-3|] 1 4 2 ln3

4 3

e2xcos e2x dx
u = e2x du = 2e2x dx 2du = e2x dx

1 2 cos u du 1 2x 2 sin e + c

u = tany 2 du = sec y

TRIGONOMETRIC TRANSFORMATIONS I.

sinmx cosnx dx
where m or n is a positive odd integer tools: change the one w/ odd powers 2 2 sin x = 1 cos x 2 2 cos x = 1 sin x

71 tan51 2 x tan 2 x 2 (u + u )du = 2 + 7 +c 5 4 6

Ex:

b. Where n is a positive odd integer 2 2 tools: tan x = sec x 1 2 2 cot x = csc x 1 Ex:

sin52x cos42x dx
y = 2x dy = 2dx dy 2 = dx

tan53x sec33x dx
y = 3x dy 3 = dx

1 5 4 2 sin y cos y dy 1 4 4 2 sin y cos y siny dy 1 2 2 4 2 (sin ) cos y siny dy 1 2 2 4 2 (1 cos y) cos y siny dy 1 2 4 4 2 (1 2cos y + cos y) cos y siny dy 1 4 6 8 2 (cos y 2cos y + cos y) siny dy
*integrate each term. so their ns sa un would be 4, 6, and 8 respectively. u = cosy du = -siny dy n+1 u n So well be using the form u = n + 1 for each term. And substitute 2x to y na ulit.

1 5 3 3 tan y sec y dy 1 4 2 3 tan y sec y tany secy dy 1 2 2 2 3 (sec y 1) sec y tany secy dy 1 4 2 2 3 (sec y 2sec y + 1) sec y tany secy dy 1 6 4 2 3 (sec y 2sec y + sec y) tany secy dy
u = secy du = tany secy dy

1 6 4 2 3 (u 2u + u )du 7 5 3 1 sec 3x 2sec 3x sec 3x + 3 7 5 3 +c

1 4 6 8 2 (u 2u + u ) siny dy 5 7 9 1 cos 2x 2cos 2x cos 2x 2 5 7 9 +c 2 4 1 1 2cos 2x cos 2x 5 2 cos 2x5 7 9 +c II. sec x tan x dx or csc x cot x dx a. Where m is positive even integer 2 2 tools: sec x = 1 + tan x 2 2 csc x = 1 + cot x Ex: 1 1 tan42 x sec42 x dx
m n m n

1 + sin 2 cos d
2

1 + 2sin + sin 2 d cos 1 2 cos d +

2sin sin 2 2 cos d + cos d sin sec2 d + 2 sec cos d + tan2 d 2tan + 2 sec tan d + (sec 1) d
2 2 2

2tan + 2sec + sec d d 2 2tan + 2sec + tan + c


2

1 y=2x 2dy = dx

2 tan y sec y dy
4 4 4 4 2

2 tan y sec y sec y dy


2

III. tan x dx or cot x dx where n is an integer 2 2 tools: tan x = sec x 1 2 2 cot x = csc x 1 a. n is a positive even integer EX:
n n

2 tan y (1 + tan x) sec y dy


y 2

2 (tan y + tan y) sec y dy


4 6 2

tan6x dx tan4x tan2x dx tan4x (sec2x 1) dx

(tan4x sec2x tan4x) dx


*step by step nating i-solve each part, okay? So well start 4 2 with tan x sec x

IV. sin x cos x dx where m & n are positive even integers


m n

tan x sec x dx
4 2

tools:

sinx cosx = 2 sin2x sin x = 2 (1 cos2x) cos x = 2 (1 + cos2x)


2 2

u = tanx 2 du = sec x dx

u4du
u tan x 5 = 5
*next is tan x dx tan x dx
4 2 2
4

Ex:

sin23x cos23x dx
y = 3x dy = 3dx dy 3 = dx

tan x tan x dx
2

tan x(sec x 1) dx
2

(tan x sec x tan x) dx


2 2 2

*its possible na to integrate tan x sec x. Use u du. And distribute the negative sign so magiging positive yung 2 tan x.

tan x 3 3 tan x 3 3 tan x 3 3 tan x 3


5

+ tan x dx
2

+ (sec x 1) dx
2

+ sec x dx dx
2

+ tan x x
3

*combine na the two parts. So the final answer would be:

tan x tan x 5 3 + tanx x + c b. n is a positive odd integer EX:

1 2 2 3 sin y cos y dx 1 2 3 (siny cosy) dx 1 1 2 3 (4 sin 2y)dy 1 2 12 sin 2ydy 1 1 12 2 (1 cos4y)dy 1 1 24 dy 24 cos4ydy 1 1 24 [y 4 sin4y] + c 1 1 24 [3x 4 sin12x] + c

tan5x dx tan3x tan2x dx tan3x(sec2x 1) dx tan3x sec2x dx tan3x dx


tan x 2 4 tan x tanx dx 4 tan x 2 4 tanx(sec x 1) dx 4 tan x 2 4 (tanx sec x tanx) dx 4 tan x 2 4 (tanx sec x) dx tanx dx 4 2 tan x tan x 4 2 ln(secx) + c
4

sin2x cos4x dx sin2x cos2x cos2x dx (sinx cosx)2 cos2x dx 1 (2 sin2x)2cos2x dx


n

*pwede na ma-integrate yung first term using u du so 3 well focus on the second term which is tan xdx

1 2 2 4 sin 2x cos x dx 1 2 8 (1 cos4x) cos x dx 1 1 2 2 8 cos x dx 8 cos4x cos x dx 1 1 1 1 8 2 (1 + cos2x) dx 8 cos4x 2 (1 + cos2x) dx 1 1 (1 + cos2x) dx 16 16 (cos4x + cos2x cos4x) dx 1 1 1 1 16 (x + 2 sin2x) 16 cos4x dx 16 (cos2x cos4x) dx 1 1 1 1 1 2 16 (x + 2 sin2x) 16 4 sin4x 16 (cos2x(1 2sin 2x) dx 1 1 1 1 2 16 (x + 2 sin2x) 64 sin4x 16 (cos2x 2sin 2x cos2x) dx 1 1 1 1 1 2 16 (x + 2 sin2x) 64 sin4x 16 cos2x dx 16 2 sin 2x *use u = sin2x, du = 2cos2x dx cos2x dx

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 16 (x + 2 sin2x) 64 sin4x 16 2 sin2x 8 2 u du 3 1 1 1 1 1 u x + sin2x sin4x sin2x 16 32 64 32 16 3 + c 3 1 1 1 1 1 u x + sin2x sin4x sin2x 16 32 64 32 16 3 + c 1 1 1 1 1 3 16 x + 32 sin2x 64 sin4x 32 sin2x 48 sin 2x + c

1 2 1 2

1 1 1 1 [ 2 sin2(4 ) + 4 sin4(4 ) 2 sin2(0) + 4 sin4(0) ] 1 1 [1 2 (1) + 4 (0)] 0 = 4


3

4.

sinx sin2x sin3x dx

V. sin ax sin bx dx

sinmx cosnx dx sinmx cosnx dx


1 sin sin = 2 *cos( ) cos( + )] 1 cos cos = 2 *cos( ) + cos( + )+ 1 sin cos = 2 *sin( ) + sin( + )+ EX: 1.

1 2 sinx[cos(2x 3x) cos(2x + 3x)] dx 1 2 sinx[cosx cos5x] dx 1 2 (sinx cosx sinx cos5x) dx 1 sin x 1 1 2 2 2 2 [sin(x 5x) + sin(x + 5x)] dx 2 sin x 1 4 4 (-sin4x + sin6x) dx 2 sin x 1 1 4 + 4 sin4x dx 4 sin6x dx sin x 1 1 4 + 16 cos4x 24 cos6x
2 2

*for sinx cosx, u = sinx, du = cosxdx. So the formula youll use would be undu.

tools:

9 = 32

sin4x sin7x dx 1 2 [cos(4x 7x) cos(4x + 7x)] dx


1 2 [cos(3x) cos(11x)] dx 1 2 (cos3x cos11x) dx 1 1 1 2 [ 3 sin3x 11 sin11x] + c

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1.

2. 3.

du -1 u 2 2 = Sin a + c a u du 1 -1u 2 2 a + u = a Tan a + c du 1 -1 u 2 2 = a Sec a + c u u a

2.

cos7x sin4x dx
*let = 4x and = 7x

Examples: 1.

1 2 [sin(4x 7x) + sin(4x + 7x)] dx 1 2 [sin(3x) + sin(11x)] dx 1 2 (sin3x + sin11x) dx 1 1 1 2 [3 cos3x 11 cos11x] + c
4

dx 2 25 + 64x dx 2 2 (5) + (8x)


a=5 u = 8x du 8 = dx

3.

cosx cos3x dx

1 2 [cos(x 3x) + cos(x + 3x)] dx 1 2 (cos2x + cos4x) dx 1 1 1 2 2 sin2x + 4 sin4x

1 du 2 2 8 a +u 1 1 -1 8x 8 5 Tan 5 + c 1 -1 8x 40 Tan 5 + c

2.


1 2

dx 2 9 4x dx 2 2 (3) (2x)
a=3 u =2x du 2 = dx

6.

du 2 2 a u 1 -1 3x + 1 Sin 4 + c 3 dx 5x - 4x + 2
2

du 3

= dx

du 2 2 a u 1 -12x 2 Sin 3 + c

3.

sec x dx 2 50 sec x sec x dx 2 50 (1 + tan x) sec x dx 2 49 tan x


2 2 2

dx 4 4 (5x - 4x + 5 ) + (2 - 5 )
2

dx ( 5x du 2 2 a +u
2 2 ) + 5


du 5

2 5
6 = dx

a=

2 5

u=

5x

2 5

sec x dx 2 2 (7) (tanx) -1 tanx Sin 7 + c dx 2 21 - 4x + x

a = 7 u =tanx

du = sec2x dx

1 5 -1 Tan 5 6

5x - 2 5 6 5

+c

1 -15x - 2 Tan +c 6 6

4.

*add and subtract 4 para maging perfect square yung x 4x

7.

dx 2 x 9x - 25
3 *multiply the whole equation to 3 para maging 3x yung x na nasa baba.

dx 2 21 + 4 (x 4x + 4)
*nakalagay sa equation, + 4 sa pareho, kasi yung second na 4, negative siya pag dinitribute yung nega

dx 2 25 (x 2) -1 x 2 Sin 5 + c

3dx 2 2 3x (3x) - (5)

a=5

u = 3x

du 3 = dx

a=5

u=x2

du = dx

du 2 2 u u a 1 -13x 5 Sec 5 + c
1

5.

4 a=

dx 2 5 - 2x - 3x
b2 *to get c in ax2 + bx + c, get the value of 4a . so in this 22 1 formula c = 4(3) = 3

8.

(x + 1)dx 2 x +1

x 2 x + 1 dx +

dx 1 2 x +1
du 2 = xdx

dx 1 1 2 5 + 3 (3x + 2x + 3 ) dx 4 3
3

x *For x2 + 1 : u = x2 + 1


du u +
dx *For x1 + 12 : u=x

dx 1 2 x +1
a=1 du = dx

2 ( 3 x + 1 )2 3
u = 3x+ 1 3

1 2


du u +

du 2 2 u +a

1 1 2 -1 ln(x + 1) + Tan x 2 0 1 2 2 -1 -1 2 [(ln1 + 1) (ln0 +1)] + [Tan 1 Tan 0] 1 2 [ln2 ln1] + [4 - 0] 1 2 ln2 + 4

du = 2x 4

5 du dx 2 2 u + 8 (x - 4x + 4) + (20 - 4) 5 dx 2 2 2 2 ln(x 4x + 20) + 8 (x - 2) + (4) a=4 u = x 2 du = dx 5 du 2 2 2 2 ln(x 4x + 20) + 8 a + u 5 1 2 -1x - 2 2 ln(x 4x + 20) + 8 4 Tan 4 5 -1 -1 2 [ln32 ln16] + 2 [Tan 1 Tan 0] 5 32 2 ln16 + 2 4 5 2 ln2 + 2
2

9.

dy 2 y(1 + ln y)
a=1 u = lny dy du = y

6 2

dy 2 2 y(1 + (lny) ) du 2 2 a +u
-1

Tan (lny) 1 -1 -1 Tan (lne) Tan (ln1) -1 -1 Tan 1 Tan 0 4


4

12.

(3x + 1)dx 2 3 + 2x - x

u = 3 + 2x x2

du = (2 2x)dx

*divide the numerator by du. Yung ginawa sa previous numbahhh

10.

dy y y1 dy
2 2

y . So yung y sa labas, ihiwalay mo para du u u2 a2

3 2 (-2x + 2) + 4 3 + 2x - x
2

dx

3 2 3 2

y ( y) 1
1

-2x + 2 2 dx + 4 3 + 2x - x

dx 2 3 + 2x - x

u = 3 + 2x x2
-1/2

du = (2 2x)dx

*Diba u = y y

du + 4

maging u=

. Para yung form maging y 2du = dy y

dx 2 (3 + 1) - (x - 2x + 1)
2

3 2u 2 1 + 4

1/2

dx 2 (2) - (x - 1)

du 2 2 u u a
-1

2 Sec

4 2
-1

2 [Sec

-1

4 Sec

2]

2 [ 3 4 ] = 12

du 2 2 a u 2 -1 x - 1 3 3 + 2x - x + 4 Sin 2 *3 3 (-6)] + 4[ 6 0+ 2 6-3 3+ 3 3 3 + 2x - x + 4


2

2 1

11.

(5x - 2)dx 2 x - 4x + 20
*let u = x 4x + 2z and du = (2x 4)dx *divide the numerator by the derivative of the denominator. Then follow this:
2

13.

dx (x + 1) 2x(x + 2)

dx *linabas lang yung 2 (x + 1)( 2 ) x(x + 2)


5 2

5 2 (2x - 4) + 8

x - 4x + 20 (2x - 4)dx dx 2 x - 4x + 200 + 8 x - 4x + 200


2

1 2

u = x 4x + 200

1 2

dx 2 (x + 1) x + 2x + 1 - 1 dx 2 2 u=x+1 (x + 1) (x + 1) - 1
du = dx a=1

1 du 2 2 2 u u a 2 1 -1 Sec (x + 1) 1 2 1 -1 -1 [Sec 3 Sec 2] 2 1 -1 [Sec 3 3 ] 2

dx
2

(x

9 9 - 3x + 4 ) - (10 + 4 )

dx
3 2 49 2) - 4

(x -

3 u=x-2

du = dx

7 a=2

du 2 2 u -a

ADDITIONAL FORMULAS: 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1. u a du = 2 { u u a a ln |u + u a |} + c 2. 3. 4. 5.

1 7 ln 1 7 ln
1

| (x dx 2 2-x

(x - 2 ) - 2
3 7 2)+2

|+c

du 2 2 u a |} + c 2 2 = ln|u + u a 1 2 2 2 2 2 -1 u a u du = 2 { u a u + a Sin a } + c
2

| xx +- 52 | + c

4.

du 1 2 u - a = 2a ln du 1 2 2 a - u = 2a ln

| uu +- aa | + c | uu +- aa | + c

dx 2 2 ( 2) -x du 2 2 a -u

u=x

du = dx

a=

EXAMPLES: 1. xdx 4 9x - 1 xdx 2 2 2 2 u = 3x (3x ) - 1 du 2 2 u a 5.


du 6 = xdx a=1

1 6

x+ 2 | |] 2 2 x- 2 1 1+ 2 0+ 2 [ ln| | ln| |] 2 2 1- 2 0- 2 1 1+ 2 [ ln| | |ln1| ] 2 2 1- 2 1 1+ 2 ln| | 2 2 1- 2 1


1

ln

1 2 4 6 ln|3x + 9x - 1 | + c dx 2 x +x+1 dx x + x + 4 + (1 - 4 ) dx
1 3 (x + 2 )2 + ( 2 )2 1 a=x+2 du = dx 3 a= 2
2

4 3

25 - x dx a u du
2 2

a=5

u=x

du = dx

2.

4 1 2 -1 x { x 25 x + 25 Sin } 2 5 3 1 4 -1 -13 2 { [12 + 25 Sin 5 ] [12 + 25 Sin 5 25 -14 -13 2 [ Sin 5 Sin 5 ]

*diba yung notation na Sin-1(x) means ANGLE yung value niya? Like, Sin-1(1) = 90 or 2 . So lets represent Sin-1

( ) = and Sin ( ) = .
5

4 5

-1 3

du 2 2 u a 1 2 ln|(x + 2 + x + x + 1 | + c dx 2 x - 3x - 10

25 2 ( )
*recall the identity sin( ) = sincos cossin. Draw 4 ka ng triangle of each angle. Since sin function yung 5 at 3 opposite 5 , ile-label mo yung numbers na yan sa hypotenuse . So the triangles would look like this:

3.

sin( ) = sincos cossin 4 4 3 3 sin( ) = 5 5 5 5 7 sin( ) = 25 *note that were only getting ( ) -1 7 ( ) = Sin 25 25 7 -1 2 Sin 25
4 12

8.

2x - 3 dx 2 x +x+2 (2x - 1) - 4 dx 2 x +x+2

u = x2 + x + 2

du = (2x + 1)dx

*divide the numerator by du. Yung method na ginawa before

(2x - 1) dx 4 2 x +x+2
-1/2

dx (x + x + 4 ) + (2 - 4 )
2

6. 1 2

cos2x sin 2x - 16 du 2 2 u -a
2

dx

1 a=4

du u = sin2x 2 = cos2xdx

du 4

du 2 2 u -a
1
2

2(x + x + 2)
2

1/2

4 ln|(x + 2 ) + x + x + 2 |} + c
1
2

2 x + x + 2 4 ln|(x + 2 ) + x + x + 2 |} + c

1 1 2 1 ln 2(4 )

| sin2x + | ]
1 4

sin2x - 4

4 12

e^3

9. 1 2

e^2

lnx 4 x(ln x - 1) dx

u = ln2x

du lnx 2 = x dx

a=1

1 1 sin2 4 - 4 sin212 - 4 ln ln 1 1 sin24 + 4 sin212 + 4 1 1 sin2 - 4 sin6 - 4 ln ln 1 1 sin 2 + 4 sin 6 + 4 3 1 4 4 ln 5 3 4 4 3 1 ln5 ln3

| |

| |

du 2 2 u -a
2

| |

ln x - 1 | ln x + 1 |] 1 ln e - 1 ln e - 1 4 ln | ln e + 1 | ln | ln e + 1 | 1 3 -1 2 -1 4 [ ln| 3 + 1 | ln | 2 + 1 |] 1 1 2 2 ln
e^3
2

^2

2 3

2 2

2 3

2 2

1 4 3 1 4 4 [ ln5 ln5 ] = 4 ln3

10.

9 ln5

7.

1 3 1 3

6y + 1 2 9y - 6y - 3 dy

u = 9y2 6y 3

du = (18y 6)dy

1 1 + x dx x+1 2 dx ( x) 1 x
2

( x ) + 1 dx
2

u=

2du =

dx x

a=1

*divide the numerator by du. Yung method na ginawa before 1 3 (18y - 6) + 3


2 9y - 6y - 3 dy

2 u a du 1 2 { x x + 1 + ln | x + x + 1 |} + c HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS 1.

(18y - 6)dy dy 2 2 9y - 6y - 3 + 3 (9y - 6y + 1) - (3 + 1)

du du 2 2 u +3 u -a

du u = 3y + 1 3 = dy

a=2

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1 3 2 3 ln(9y 6y 3) + 4 ln

3y - 3 | 3y +1|+c

sinh u du = cosh u + c cosh u du = sinh u + c tanh u du = ln |cosh u | +c coth u du = ln |sinh u | +c sech2 u du = tanh u + c csch2u du = coth u + c sech u tanh u du = sech u + c csch u coth u du = csch u + c

EXAMPLE:

(sech 1 - t )(tanh 1 - t ) dx 1-t


u= 1-t 2du = dt 1-t

*so diba infinity over infinity, so bawal yun. Babalik tayo sa equation before this. Yung may b over b + 16. Derive that.

1 8 ln

1 |1 1 | ln | 17 |
*recall that ln1 = 0

1 1 8 ln 17
a *recall that lnb = lna - lnb

2 sech u tanh u du 2(sech u) + c 2sech 1 - t + c IMPROPER INTEGRALS I. Integrals with infinite limits in the integrand
*in other words, isa or both a and b sa formula b na a f(x)dx, infinity.

a b b

1 8 [ln1 ln17] 1 1 8 [ln17] = 8 [ln17]

2.

xe

-x^2

dx
b

limb 1 2
b 1
u

xe

-x^2

dx

u = x2

du 2 = xdx

e du

f(x)dx = limb f(x)dx = lima-

f(x)dx
b a

1 1 2 ex^2
b

- -

f(x)dx f(x)dx

f(x)dx = lima- and b

0 1 1 1 2 eb^2 e0 1 1 1 2 1

NOTE: 0 & 0 = pag ganyan yung situation, dun sa equation/s kung san naka substitute yung b or a, derive both the numerator and the denominator. Then you may start dividing 1 =0 EXAMPLES: 1.

1 1 2 1 = 2 3.

dx 2 x +1
b 1

limb 1 2a ln

du 2 2 u +a
b 2

2dy y(y + 16)


b 1

1 x-1 | |=2 ln| x + 1 |] 1 b-1 2-1 2 ln| b + 1 | ln | 2 + 1 | u-a u+a 1 2 ln 1 |1 1 | ln | 3 | 1 1 ln | 2 3 | 1 1 1 1 2 ln 3 = 2 [ln1 ln3] = 2 ln3

limb
b

2dy 2 y + 16y + 64 - 64
u=y+8 du = dy

*so diba infinity over infinity, so derive the numerator and the denominator

dy 2 2 (y + 8) - (8) a = 8

du 2 2 u -a

| yy ++ 88 +- 88 | 1 y 2 2(8) ln | y + 16 |] 1 b 1 8 ln| b + 16 | ln | 1 + 16 | 1 1 8 ln| | ln | 17 |


1 2 2(8) ln
b 1

II. Integrals with infinite discontinuities in the integrand


*in other words, isa or both a and b sa formula na a f(x)dx, pag sinubstitute sa f(x)dx, UNDEFINED yung lalabas.
b

EXERCERISES A. 1. A curve is such that y = 72x + 6 a. The curvature at any point (x,) on the curve: y= ______ b. The slop at any point (x,y) on the curve: y = _______ c. The general equation of the curve: y = _______ If the curve has a critical point at (0,1) and the curve also passes through (1,3): d. The values of the constants of integration: c1 = ____ c2 = ____ c3 = ____ e. At x = 1, y = _____ y = _____ 2. A stone that was tossed upward with a velocity of 16ft/sec from the top of a 96-ft high tower falls to the ground under 2 the influence of gravity only (g = 32ft /sec). Determine the equations of the motion of the stone as functions of time (Show the evaluation of the constants of integration): a. acceleration: a(t) = __________ b. velocity: v(t) = __________ c. displacement: s(t) = ___________ Based on the equations above, determine: d. time the stone takes before it hits the ground: t = ____s e. its velocity as it hits the ground: v = _____ft/s 2 3. Determine the area bounded by the curve y = x 3x + 2 and the x-axis, from x = 0 to x = 2: a. A(x) = ___________________ b. the intersections of the curve with the x-axis: x1 = ____ x2 = ____ c. from x = 0 to x = x1 : c = ____ A = ____ d. from x = x1 to x = 2 : c = ____ A = ____ e. total area from x = 0 to x = 2: AT = ______ 2 dy (lnx) 4. Find the equation of the curve for which dx = x if the curve passes through (1,2).

a) If f(x) increases numerically without limit as x a, then


n m n

f(x)dx = limam+ f(x)dx = limbn-

a) If f(x) increases numerically without limit as x b, then


n m b m

f(x)dx

f(x)dx

a) If f(x) increases numerically without limit as x c, a < c < b , (kumbaga yung point of discontinuity, hindi given pero nasa gitna siya ng a and b) then,
b a c b

f(x)dx =

f(x)dx +
n a

f(x)dx
b m

= limncEXAMPLES:
2

f(x)dx + limmc+

f(x)dx

1.

dx x(2 - x)
*pag sinubstite both 0 & 2, magiging undefined yung sagot so ii-integrate both limits
b

lima0 and b2
b a
-1

dx 1 - (x - 2x + 1)
2

du 2 2 a -u

Sin (x 1) -1 -1 Sin (b 1) Sin (a 1) -1 -1 Sin (1) Sin (-1) 2 2 =

* 90 yung Sin-1(-1) instead of 180 kasi pag negative yung value tas Arcsin yung hinahanap, clockwise mo siya babasahin

B. Evaluate: 1.

2.

dx 2/3 (x - 1)
*If you substitute 0 & 2, the value will not be undefined. But if you substitute 1, it will be undefined. So youll apply the a < c < b rule.

2.

3. 4.

1 0

dx 2/3 (x - 1) +
b 0
1/3

2 1

dx 2/3 (x - 1)
2 2 a

limb13(x 1)

(x 2)

-2/3

dx + lima1+
1/3

(x 2)

-2/3

dx

b 0

+ 3(x 1)
1/3

5. ] 6. 7.

3[ (b 1) (0 1) ] + 3[ (2 1) (a 1) 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 3[ (1 1) ( 1) ] + 3[ (1) (1 1) ] 3+3=6

1/3

1/3

1/3

2 x+

1 x

2 dx

(x - 2)(5x + 1) dx x x + 2x + x dx
3 3 2

3x + 3x - 5 dx x-2 (x - e ) 2 -2x x + e dx (x + x ) -1 (1 + 2x) dx (1 - 2x )(3 + lnx - x ) dx x


2 2 -1 2 26 -2x

8. 9. 10.

xdx 4x^2 dx (3)

31. 32. 33.

cos(tanx ) -2 2 3 x cos x dx

3xex^2sin2ex^2 dx
(1 + e ) 2 x^2 x (x + e ) dx 1 x-2/3 + 2x x -1 3
-1 x^2

x cosx2 (4sinx^2) dx
(1 + 6x ) 5/3 3 x + 6x dx (4 - tanx) 2 2 dx cos x 4 - tan x
2/3

11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.


-2

(x

1/3 -1

+ x -1)

dx

34. 35. 36.

(sinx + tanx)2 dx

(x + cosx) 2 cos (sinx + lnx) dx 1 2 2 2x cos2x csc (x tanx) dx

dx dx x + 1 (x + 10) 3y y y 37. [ sin 2 + cos2 ] cos2 dx 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

sinh (x - cosx)(2x + sinx) 2 dx sech(x - cosx) x +x -3 x +5 dx x+1 2x 2 (3x + 2) dx


3 2 2

p2(p3 +

5 )(p + 5 )

2.3 + ln4

dx

sinx 3 2 cos x(2 + tan x) dx (1 - 4x ) -4 (Arccos2x) dx


2 -1/2

(2x-3 + 3x2 + x-1)2 dx


e (-5x - 2) dx e dx 2 x(1 + x ) x+6 2 (x + 2) dx
(2x + 1)

sin32x(1 + cos4x) dx sin6x dx

7 - lnx x(3 + lnx) dx 3 xdx dx 1 4x - 3 cose -3x dx e cos3x 3 sin 3x dx cotx lnsinx dx csc y coty 2 1 + csc y dy
2 3x

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

(2x + 1) 4x2 + 4x - 3 dx sin2t 4 - cos2t dx x cotx2 cscx2 dx


e 2t 4t 1 + 6e + 9e dx
2t

ANSWERS: A. 1. 2 a. 36x + 6x + c1 3 2 b. 12x + 3x + c1x + c2 2 4 3 c1x c. 3x + x + 2 + c2x + c3 d. c1 = -4 c2 = 0 c3 = 1 e. y = 3 y = 11 2. a. -32 b. -32t + 16 c. -16t + 16t d. 3 sec e. -80ft/s x 3x 3. a. 3 2 + 2x + c b. x1 = 1 c. c = 0 5 d. c = 6 e. AT = 1 s.u. (lnx ) 4. y = 3 + 2 B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 2x + 4x + lnx + c 5/2 3/2 1/2 2x 6x 4x + c 5/2 3/2 2x 2x 5 + 3 +c 3 2 x + 3x + 15x + 25ln(x 2) + c 1 2 -2x 2 ln(x + e ) + c 2 27 (x + x ) 27 + c 2 ln(3 + lnx x ) + c -4x^2 1 (3) 8 ln3 + c 3 x^2 4 cos2e + c 1 2 x^2 2 ln(x + e ) + c 1 1/3 2 3 3 (x + x - 1 ) + c tan(sinx + lnx) + x 2 cot(x tanx) + c 3 2 sinh (x - cosx) +c 3 3 x 3 3x + 8ln(x + 1) + c
2 3 3 2 2

x2 = 2 5 A=6 1 A=6

2 2 16. 9 [ ln(3x + 2) + 3x + 2 ] + c 5 4 9x 1 4 2 17. 5x5 + 5 x + 12lnx 3x3 + 3x + c 1 7x + 3 18. 7 e +c 1 2 19. lnx 2 ln(1 + x ) + c 4 20. ln(x + 2) x + 2 21. 7ln(3 + lnx) (3 + lnx) + 3ln(3 + lnx) + c 11 22. 6 1 3x 23. 3 sin(e ) + c 1 1 24. 6 cos23x + c 25. ln(ln sinx) + c 1 2 26. 2 ln(1 + csc y) + c 1 2 3/2 27. 6 (4x + 4x 3) + c 4 - cos2t 28. +c 3 1 2 29. 2 cscx + c 2t 30. ln(1 + 3e ) + c 1 3 31. 3 sin(tanx ) sinx^2 4 32. 2ln4 + c 1/3 33. ln(x + 2x) + c -1tanx 2 34. 4 Sin 4 4 - tan x + c 1 1 35. 2 [x - 2 sin2x] + tanx x + 2ln(secx + tanx) 2sinx + c 2 -1 x + 1 36. 3 Tan 3 +c 37. cosy 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

1 1 y 1 cos2y + 2 4 2 + 2 siny + c (p3 + 5 )4.3ln4 12.9 + 3ln4 + c 1 2 2 ln(2 + tan x) + c 1 (Arccos2x)5 2 +c 5 3 5 cos 2x cos 2x 3 5 +c 1 3 5 1 sin32x 4 [ 2 x - 4 sin2x + 4 sin4x + 6 ]