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TTaIWald “ae a THE © OMPLETE Comese | beh Tranaiated! trom tha Spanish by Mara Constanza Guemén and ‘Olga Martin Library of Congress-in-Publication Data Available 2466 097 5 1 Published in 2003 by Stering Publishing Co., Inc 387 Park Avenue South, New York. NY 10016 Crginaily published in Spain in 2002 under the ttle Furciarnertos del Dibujo Avtistico by Parramén Ediciones. §. A londa de ‘Sant Pere 5, 4th Flaor, Barcelona, Spain 08010 Copyright © 2002 by Parramon Ediciones, S. A Engh Transtaton © 2003 by Stertng Publishing Co,, Inc. Distruted in Canada by Storing Publishing a Canadian Manda Group, Suto 105 ‘Toronto, Ontario, Canada MBK SE? Distributed in Great Brtan by Chrysalis Books ‘64 Brewery Road, London, England N7 ONT DDistibuted in Australia by Caprica Link (Austrata) Pay Lic PO. Box 704, Windsor, Australia NSW 2756 Printed in Spars All rights reserved Stating ISBN 1-4027-0932-3 ne ‘A Linear Landscape: Controliing the Stroke, 94 A THEME: SELECTION AND COMPOSITION, 96 Factors In Selecting a Theme, 98 ‘Composition and Blocking In Shadows, 100 Using Perspective in the Preliminary Outline Sketch, 104 Calculating Proportions, 108 Drawing with Gnds, 112 ‘The “Lorrain Method" Marmery in the Composition, 114 Point of View: Transformations in the Model, 116 ‘Composing Outline Sketches: Balancing the image, 118 Balance and Riythm: A Visteal Order. 120. LIGHT AND ATMOSPHERE, 124 - ‘Tonal Techniques, 126 ‘Shading, 128 How to Shade: Staine, Tones, and Hatchings, 132 How to Control the Quality of a Shading, 134 [Dividing Areas: Controling Shadows, 136 ‘The Importance of Tonal Gradation, 138 ‘Tonal Backgrounds: Drawing on Colored Paper, 140 ‘Contrasts and Volume Ettects, 142 [Blocking In.and Modeling, 144 Light and Ambiance: Iitzrinating the Atmosphere, 148 ‘Chigrosoure; Maximum Contrasts between Light ‘and Shadow, 160 Blending Techniques, 152 ‘Stumata: Smooth Contours, 154 How to Use-a Paper's Texture. 158, ‘Correcting without Erasing, 158 Depth Effects In Drawing, 160 Perspective: Basic Notions, 162 Drawing with Atmosphere Perspective, 168: ‘The Coulisse Ettect: Successive Planes, 170 ‘A Contrasted Foreground, 172 COLOR DRAWING, 174 Colored Pencil and Pastel Drawing, 175 Conventional Techniques with Pastels, 178 How to Mix Colors, 182 Colored Pencil Techniques, 184 Mixing with Hatching: The Optical Etfects of Cotor, 186 Feathering and Whitening Techniques, 188 Scratching and Spratfita, 190 STEP BY STEP, 192 Drawing a Nude, 194 A Stil-ife with Sanguine, 198 Erasure Technique; Drawing Highlights, 200 A Landscape on Gray Papi. 202 ‘An Interkar with the White-on-iVhite Technique, 204 ‘The “Throe Color” Technique; Drawing with Pictorial Gualities, 208 ‘The Blending Stump Technique’ Just a Blurred Stain, 212 A Landscape with Chalk Powder, 214 ‘Sketching wittia Charcoal Pencil, 216 ‘A Stil-Hle with Chiaroscuro Effects. 218: White Chalk Highlights: An Explosion of Light, 222 ALandseape with Graphite, 224 ‘A Flower with Abundant Water, Fluidity, and Sinuasity, 226, ‘An Interior Patio in Wash, 228 ‘A Rural Landscape in Washes and Line, 230 Metal Point Drawing: Texture and Hatching, 234 ‘The Rood Pen and Its Effects, 236 Drawing on Colored Paper with White and Black Inks, 228 ‘AStill- fa with Colored Inks, 240 CControling the Line: Hatching, 242 ‘4 Dog with Colored Pencits, 246 A Girl in Watercolor, 248 ‘The Dry Pastel Technique on a Tonal Background, 250 ‘An Urban View with Oil Pastels on a Tonal Background, 252 Index, 254 Introduction training the Artist's eye Doawirg stows us to representa three-dmensional mage on a cne- dimensional surface by using basic elements of form such as composi- tion, propartion, and volume etact, Drawing is tha fundamental basis for all types of artistic works, Sculpture, painting, architecture, ancl even film and photography use drawing as the intial medium to con- ceptualize, understand, and develop the various. components that will Work together in the final project, Drawing is many original work in itself, giving us the ability to reproduce Gur surroundings and ‘enwironments. |AS is the €a8e for any art form. drawing can be learned: itis not a. special talent that only a few possess. Like writing, which begins with letters that form words, which in turn form phrases, drawing begins. with a succession of points that form lines, which create shapes, shades, and stains, The secret of any drawing dass not ie in one's abit- ity to apply a certain technique, but rather in one's ability to learn how to observe and analyze a theme, create the drawing's outline, arrange its composition, and calculate its proportions. Therefore, training the artist's eye is the first step in any artistic work. The trained eyo pre- cédes the drawing and helps create what may be called a drawing of the drawing that is based on a set of both abstract and schematic apr proaches {0 better understand a model, establish a relationship be- ‘tween the seemingly disorderly gesture and the clarity of the structure, Since we aro aware that the lack of this basic knowledge is the ‘greatest obstacte a beginning artist may encounter, this book is intomday. ed to provide all the necessary information needed to begin drawing. We explain clearly and methodically each of the processes and tech- niques that professional artists. often apply instinctively. in addition to . - these, you wl find information about other Important aspects, such as ‘ training the hard, controling the stroke, composition, and volume at {fects offered by various mediums, tools, andi materials I is essential to understand and master these basic lessons in arder to draw confident, hare Aish Compositin ant sinucire arathe basis af any Urheberrechilich geschiitztes Material friction. [D_. . elieve it or not, but just a bit of friction Will start you on your drawing course. When a paper's surface (s scratched with any pigment medium panicles are left behind ‘These particles leave an intense, yet delicate stroke. A simple touch with your finger and the stroke wil vanish as charcoal dust. Due to its delicate properties, charcoal is the ideal medium to begin drawing with, since mistakes can be easily comected. ‘Although an artist has considerable amount of freedom regarding how he or she chooses to apply various techniques, the inherent characteristics of mediums and materals and how they are Used cannot be ignored and must be learned. Anyone interested in drawing and in obtaining the most benefit from a given material should know and follow its “rules.” Each tool and material gives specific and unique results that no other medium can duplicate Oraphite: line, G— The-shape ofa granite stick’s point and how itis positioned ‘on tha paper aro essontiain controfing 2 sroke'= qual: Different effects can bo obtained with (A) a sharp Point, (8) a Gta pownt oF) tha S109 of the paint. control, and properties Ghaptite is one of the most popular drawing mediums among both art students and professionals. Compared to other media, itis durable and very easy to handle. Graphite is the most immediate, versatile, and sensitive Grawing medium that is suitable for quick sketches as well as for detalked Work. Graphite is fragile, ily, and soft to the touch, and corns in several forms: sticks, pencils, and powder. It can be used on almost any kind of sur- face. Due to its olly texture, its marks are permanent and do not require a f- al fixative, although in some cases it might be advisable to do so. When Used for shading, graphite has a smooth, velvety appearance, which can appear sharper and moee intense when the point is pressed directly against the paper. The artist has great line control with graphite, since it can be erased and redrawn as many times as necessary. Itis.@ good idea to expedient with graphite sticks and ‘poncis that have diferent cegrees of harahess he praphte sticks below have various degrees of hardness. The-hardest tks produce @ sot stroke and are commoniy used in praimnary sketches. The sohest “Sticks provide a thicker, mora nfense stroke and are used for sketches wih movement and tonal properties. -Grapnte sticks come n aiferent sizes and various degrees of hardness. Above are rectareer graphite: sticks. FLAT GRAPHITE STICKS Some types of graphite sticks, such as fat Sticks, are used for large-scale works in which large areas need to-be shaded. They alsa create intense strokes. Flat graphite sticks do not have -a point and are many times drawn on their flat side. Since graphite sticks are not covered in wood or plastic, thelr point configuration is not limited, which means you can draw a large ‘variety of strokes. ‘When held on ther tat sie. graphite sticks are used for crawing wide ‘strokes and for shading sarge areas, & , a % ‘When holt upright, tho = graphite stick’s point ‘createsa thin and ‘intense stroke, Here you can see.a sample of the strokes arcteflects that can be ootaned trom fat graptite sticks: (4) near srokes with the Rat site, (ringlets weth the point nad uaright (0) wil strokes withthe fet sic, anc (DY wade strokes vith the point. Mechanical pencils aro very \ convenient ta use since they can ba camed around easly Lae pares, rafts come ia de rerige of sof and harct fonds, (DEGREES OF HARDNESS The various possibilities of a stroko's intensity depend on the graphite stick or pencil's hard- ‘ness. Ths variztion in hardness allows us to.use Night and car fines to create light oF dark shad ing, & number and Netter, engraved onto the pr ‘i's side, indicates its hardness. Pencils with the letter H have hard leads and make thin, light lines ‘that are commonly used in technical drawing, Pencils with the letter 8 have soft leads ane ‘make strong, dark lines. The number that 8¢- ‘companies the letter also indicates the pencils hardness or softness; the higher the number, the harder or softer the leads it, A good selection to bbogin wth is: $B, 38, 8, and HB, Artists usually ‘use the softer leads because they create intense lines, which makes shading much easier. His ‘iso a good idea to have sore mechanical pencils, so that you have different options to ‘choose trom, Elaborate tinea pure work ean be actieved wet grote parcis. Drave firm strokes with a wer: haspened point. Since fone (shading hatching, cross: hatching! is net bum up inihese types of drawings, ‘isa good ida to havea selection of pencds with Use very 80m pence various Gegress of harchess ih order to obta ciferent _srokes wih cliterant vaes, ” eseeeyee GHAAAAGGROAE AY LINE QUALITY 1M you need to draw wide strokes, we recom- mend using flat graphite sticks. Combining graphite stick and pencil produces fascinating resutts. The graphite pencil gives you a lot of control ofthe line nd! its tone, while the graphite stick's width enables you to cover large areas quickly. Hard leads are used for the detailed ar- (eas. and for the intial shading, while softer iaads. aro used to accentuate tha darker areas. Many artists combine pencils wrth gitferent degrees of hardness to create complex drawings with lines and strokes. ‘Soft pencts aftow you to create continuo gradations (Blond ihm gractations wath your gers or with a banging stump order to exwate an atmosotanc effect: Loak at the diferent shadiogs m the rawr below. The combination of dtterert strokes give variety and aot fo the werk = '‘Gharcoatis one of ne oldest and simplest means of drawing. Because it is carbonized willow branches, charcoal makes a strong and intense black ; £ stroke. The basic difference between graphite and charcoal is that charcoal is dry and graphite is oly. Because charcoal is dry. it dons not stick to the paper vory woll, which means you havo a considerable amount of control ‘aver it and can correct mistakes-easily: Just running your finger over char- ‘coal will erase It; be careful though, because doing so will alsa create gray tones. Blowing on chercoal will lessen the stroke or the shading’s contrast. Charcoal: the oldest medium TONE ‘Ono of the best qualities of charcoal is that it is the oasiost madium for ‘shading, which creates tone. Tone is the degree of lightness or darkness of -a.color—with charcoal the tonal range runs from black to white. With a tle iy £ practice, there is nothing thats more pleasing or fun than making quick l/\ -smuriges, reapplying them, erasing. etc, with charcoal, Because of its ver- J i ‘satiity, charcoal is an ideal medium for beginners, since t allows for correc ~ tions and for the treatment gf a variety of themes without requiring too much \, attention to detal. r Aisveryeasy to canine fp rv So lagotes ores, virar,ana fT frases chatcont ‘ia pt c ij aN ‘Above are somo ¢ Ng Pe ‘examples of chareaal \ strokes: (4) wh the Se Sick on wn tne pont held uit? anc eS (C) wan me stick be on : e300, Above ary strokes made by rotating the harcow! stick whe crewing, wall alow you to create abnost any cesred artact. ‘Above ace natural charcoal sticks, which Charcoal wil come off the paper with the ae very fragile and brits Natural sticks Ughtest touch, Bro moro expensive than comprassad charcoal sticks, ‘Sines charcoal does nat stick to the pager vary wel, it can beerased easily However, even when the Partctes are removed, parts of tha strokes remain visible, Charcoal alows you fo skotch or outing quickly, using the stock's point or ts side interchangeably. Dragging the chercoa! stick on is side produces wide strokes. USING CHARCOAL Charcoal can be used in many different ways. ‘The way the stick is held determines a stroke's effect. For example, holding the point horizental= ly or onan angle will create different ines. Also, by turing the point or varying the pressure you place on the charcoal stick will produce elther soft, delicate strokes or bold and intense strokes. Soft charcoal is more granulated and therefore adheres better to the paper than hard charcoal, Which is batter for detail and line work singe it does not erase as easily, Charcoal ckawings no langer hava to be temporary works. Spray featives allow charcoal fo remain on the naper and retain ts classic and nabs reputation, STROKES AND EFFECTS yoy hold tne chareos! stick like @ pene, the strokes will be neater and more controlled by ‘your hand movements. Ifyou drag the stick on its side over the paper, the stroke wil be thin and solid. With the charcoal stick held transversely {onits sido in an upright position), you are abe to create shacings that are as wide a8 the charcoal stick. Drawn with one continuous hand move- ment, trenaverse strokes become lateral ength- wise) strokes. To the nght are te basic eects that can be acheved by mastanng the use of charcoat (A) even shading, (B) diferent strokes and intensities, (Chblencing, and (D) gradation. By loaring these Jour skits, you wil be able o draw ary shape and master any tonal aftect, 9 (Charcoal allows for an (nital schematic approach fo a there wiinout reying an a lot ote tone Lechniques with charcoal Ain anist must be much more courageous when using charcoal than when working with a pencil. Charcoal calls for Grawing complete, whole forms instead of bringing out deta! In, which is why this madium is mare ettactiva for large-scale drawings. Appropriately combining different strokes wil allow you to draw seemingly complex shapes. DRAWING WITH STROKES Compressed charcoal pencils are the best medium for draw- ing strokes. These pencils are very useful for small-scale works in which lines prevail over stains. Intense charcoal strokes add greater expressiveness and intensity to a drawing than those produced by graphite. Shadings begin with small strokes, their intensity depending on the dark areas, Pressing the charcoal pencil harder against the paper wil create darker shaded areas. a cx Charo! pent strokes ‘can be blended, ust thay ‘re ocs mateabio thn ‘charcoal stick etre, Abore are some basic blending fects with chercos “Stick, You can see how wolatie this drawing rneckurn ks. ‘Siriaiy natiting your fnger ora blending stump over a ‘smudge oF siake wil quoky blond # (A. and 6. Teatest the plabity of charcoal sticks, craw a ine ora ‘ero (C1). rag a pgynent naise the orco wit your Jngertp to obtan a very base shacing efect (C2). Ts (can become a tana! treatment by blending the charcoal {oment on the paper's Surtace wih your hare with ablondeg shire (03 and CA _- &~» you need to crow neatly defined ‘shapes, eut the eared shapa out of 8 piece of paper arc uselitas a stencil ny Charcoal drawings are built up by superimposing many juxtaposed lines on top af one another, which are later erased and corected as the work progresses. This accumulation of erased lines, or “ghost lines,” produces an intoresting tonal affect ‘on the background. Mary times these lines add Lnear charcoal strokes produce strong, axprossiva more emotion and variety to the drawing. A oflects,Iis enpartant ta kia i ated tha Kd OF 900d outline of an object is one that is intense strokes that you wil aoa in each arwe in order to and fer. create Getintion andt contrast, 2 ‘'SFUMATO. ‘Charcoal enables us to create a drawing simply iby blending strokes, which gives the drawing an atmospheric effect. This technique is called sfu- ‘mato. Lightly blend the charcoal strokes when using the sfumato technique s0 that you retain the paper's texture, The only problem with this: technique is that due to the absence of defined lines and strokes. which give pictorial effects, the ‘drawing could appear artificial, (hn these two sequences you can sae how an atmospheric effect can be created just by running your hand or a piece of cloth over the charcoal strokes. The ‘malloabilfy of this modeum enabies you to mnacsty tha surface several times, ‘Sturnate is used to create pictorial andl ‘atmosphere effects. USING A PAPER'S TEXTURE TO YOUR ADVANTAGE (One of the most interesting characteristics in charcoal drawing is how well it adjusts to a paper's texture. If you draw on a highly textured sheet, the strokes will have a granulated appearance, an even semitone elfect that will make the drawing more interesting. The rougher the paper, the more intense the strokes will be, given that the sheet will hold the charcoal particles. Tha [pressure you apply on the stick will determine the darkness or ightness of the drawing. in the clwhoet areas, The sides ofthe walls and comers are shaded wan fored gradatons Interesting tonal fects ‘Compressed eharcout stots ard natural ‘harcoa! stk osfor sila effets, but ‘comprassed sticks give ‘more intense anct contrasted strokes Even shading & usid for tha was af tha house, NAN NDNA DI NNNG artists’ Chalks: warm and opaque We appearance and consistency of artists" chalks, also called conté crayons, are similar ta those of pastels, but they are harder and more cclly, Artists’ chalks have a warm and opaque ap- pearance and offer the same blending possibill- ties as charcoal. However, chalks are more stable and can be used alang with charcoal and with compressed charcoal pencils. COLOR VARIETY Strictly and traditionally speaking, artists’ chalks are limited to the following colors: white, black, sepia, bistre (dark-brown), and sanguine (red- brown). Their color tones pertactly balance each other and make then especialy suitable for monochrome drawings, which relie on harmonic shadings and gradations. Artists’ chalks are idea! for medium-toned and dark-colored papers, Artists! chaks are available in various colors and are perfect for creating blended shackes. Thor bost resus ara soon when appled on medium: toned. neutral-colored paper: Shading with the fat side ofthe chan DING Blending the sinactes with ‘Being that antsts" chalks are soft, they blend Tee: ‘oasiy and croate beautiful color combinations by ‘either rubbing the strokes with your finger, a piece of cloth, or a blending stump, Because ‘they are less powdery than charcoal, they can be “mixed by laying one color over ancther, allowing ‘the colors underneath to show through. This. technique will enable you to find different values of gray tones more easily—it needed, the two: ‘tones can then be blended by lightly rubbing the ‘strokes with your fingertip. Directly mixing two colors. Thera are two ways to intensity chalk tones: (1) increase the pressure on the chalk stick or (2) direct moxng, which 5 fo caw Over a previously laef down color ant (press until both Colors are blended into a mexaxt cote. The blenating stun lends two shades into a ‘smooth color transition, EFFECTS WITH ARTISTS! CHALK Since artists’ chalk is more delicate than char- Cal, the strokes it produces are slightly fess in- tense and much subtler. Like charcoal, you can Use the whole chalk stick to draw, laawing Shades and strokes are combined to create forms: is strokes that can be easily modified and blended. best to bexgn practeang with simple subjects or mods. Before beginning to draw, break the chalk stick to the desired size. Then, begin to make strokes, holding the stick lengthwise. Use the point to Graw the cutie of the model. Finally. run your finger over the contours to blend the strokes. re ‘As you can s00, chaik stmkas cover the papor more encely han charcoal. Ta the right is (A) shang, [Bt Intense strokes, (C) gradations, and (Dh white chai : cuttings on dark shading. e D Whon erawang with chats, ‘important to maintain a continuous: siroke and fo ary the pasion of the s1ck on ihe paper. For the best res ony chak on colored paper: 41..When drawing with chalk. begin by outlining the tonal areas. Here, shaciing was completed with the fat side of the stick in an abstract manner, 2, Litte by lit, the initial shape is completed Until the dorsal profile of the female figure can be distinguished. '3. The best technique to use when drawing with Chalkis to apply continuous shades with the stick held lengthwise, then to combine them with Intense linear strokes. Sanguine: a a classic medium Arrvong artists" chatks and chatk ponets, san- guine, dus to its unique characteristics, is the most commonly used color, Somewhere be- tween brown and terracotta red, sanguine is made of iron oxide and endures as a favorite and classic medium among artists. The popu- Fanty of sanguing is due to its warmth and sen- sitivity to the paper's texture. in combination with other mediums, sanguine is at its best, Sanguine offers a huge variety ot drawing treatments: 1A) naturalist, wh set shacirg, (8) structural wth th ‘tick hold longttnse, (6) hatching, enc! (2) expressionist, wi lively humied stokes. BETTER WITH STICKS Like artists’ chalks, sanguine combines the best of pencil and charcoal in that it produces line and also texture in a single stroke. It is better to work ‘wth sanguine sticks than with sanguina pencils, since the sticks offer a broader, more dramatic stroke than pencils, Like charcoal sticks, you can ‘draw lines with the end or cover large areas with, ‘the flat side of the sanguine stick. Sanguine, fhe charoost and chats, comesin sticks, which are weed for medium to large scaled drawings. Familiarize yourself wth sanguine sticks by creating ciforont atfects on various textures and papers. Above are examples of (1) a sanguine stick shading, (2) sanguine perc! shading, (3) sanguine stick shading, (3) ‘Sanguine stick shading an raugh paper, (5) sanguine Perel hatching, and (6) sanguee pene crass-raiching, = DRAWING LINES AND STOKES sinatee In order to achieve the best stroke or line from @ Sanguine stick, draw a.continuous line without ting the point from the paper. =a and vary the art seers fede Wises ist ean ‘same with a sanguine stick not ‘sensitivity to texture, sa kel Gn used ©n very rough papers because the strokes will be fragmented. Ais6, try 10 joned areas. Loan to craw in a sitgle stroke, bray iting tho ‘sanguine stick tom the paper. Modify the line's wish and quality by tuming the stick or varying the arnoent of sure you ay Pl SEP ee ae Nn CARRE: ny eens ne S oe LR ‘Sanguine is also availabie as eo (or mechanical pence, ido! for smal-scale works or for those int which ine and texture comerate. ‘Sanguine panel fs easy 10 control and offers arch variety of tonal gradabors, as ca be sen in tis landscape sketch. A tay good landscape crawing can be achieved By iterating betweon three or four valves (tones) of sanguine. The contrast among the caterer! planes increases the lect of death. les Material M the lending stump: _ many possibilities B vrencing stumo is made trom a so" paper tet that is double-ended and pointed, Its used for rubbing and blending. Blending stumps come in different degrees of thickness. Use the point for darker tones and the blunt end for lignter tones. BLENDING STROKES ‘Bionging stumps are very usetul tools for the ‘artist because, as the name suggests, they allow us to transform the drawing through the use of ‘Soft gradations and blendad shadings. Blending allows you nat only to integrate strokes but also ‘to eliminate the white areas within them. When ‘tha tones are graciated, a perfect representation ‘of the object's volume can be achieved. The blending stump can be held in any manner; however, using it excessively wil reduce a ‘stroke's vibrancy, Blencing olbses the paper tooth compiotaly, tuning an rrequer shading Bioncing the strokes with a blending stamp gives vole toa fue and safer the tanstion betwen Kant sand dork Pabbing ito sturre ora stoke or hatching wil ‘smooth fone wansitons. When, after blencing (nna dark araa, you move toward a ightar ‘area, clean the aturip (on a seperate piece of clean paper, 0 That you do not arty the crawing oF tha (tis a.good ea to have. sovoral bonding stumps af various wiaths. This wil alow you fo work vith efferent colors and with tage or smal areas, atthe sere wma, To daw wan @ bioncing stip, start by Then saturata the ekamp's end wan the Draw strokes on the paper, The rubbing the charcoal sick with ough sad chavecal powder mere charcoal on tha slum, the ager to make charcoal pone. ‘more intense the stokes wal ba : me, “ORE DRAWING WITH A BLENDING STUMP: ie Blending stumps can also be used as drawing tools. To do so, rub the ° stump's point in charcoal powder until it becomes saturated. Then, draw with the blending stump. For darker tones place more pigment onto the point, less pigment for fighter tones. The final result is a smooth crewing without defined lines. ‘There arg two basic blending techniques with the stump: (1) use tha point for intense strokes: of profiles and (2) use the wide, blunt end for wide aregs. Your hand movements should follow the direction of the model's texture. Hf working on an undefined background or plane, use circular movements. Your hand can aso be very usetul fo ‘blond, shadio ant stan. The upper part ofthe pais eal for applying wide stains with even tones, whereas the dngerts ‘are normally used to blond an shacke Blending stumps give an evanescent, atmospnenc offoct fo ony drawing. Since iis an effect fochrigue, the drawings do not require a high degree of defiion. With soft strokes and without 2 great dal of tonal ‘contrast, a blending stump wil produce a arawing wet (C. Son shacing the mumnated strvet arvas (0. Erasures:for mora grapic eftocts E Intenso hatching on the church ball tower Gross-hatahing on the building's fagac G.ntense tones in blended dark arvas Erasers provi artista with a icin creative ‘eraser can be used toclean an area, blend a .a-darker color, or draw erasures on top of previously laid colors, EFFECTS FROM AN ERASER ‘The eraser offers a wide variaty of effects, all of which are not particularly ‘complex. For instance, with the tip of the eraser held at a slant, wide strokes ‘can be obtained; if held upright, you will create fine strokes. ‘The eraser can also be used 5 a drawing tool in itself, a medium to. produce line and tone quality. With charcoal, you obtain different tones of ‘whiter the erasure mark will be on the paper. When lightly rubbed over a tone, a light blend is created. the Craser: a very versatile tool How you hold tha erase: the amount of pressure you \axort on tho eraser andthe your holt your hand wil it ‘contre! the evaser marks, PRACTICING YOUR STROKES In order to practice and observe the different effects an eraser offers, cover @ paper with the fat side of a charcoal stick. Than make different ‘eraser marks, alternating the position of your hand and the pressure you exert on it to see the results. Senter to graghito pened wark, diferent hatching ‘combinations with a mechanical eraser prowl an ‘teresting variety of shacing and textures, (A frwadabie eraser wil gve you an interesting range of effects, (ypes of eraser Soft erasers ava tho best for grape pened works and kneacable erasers 270 idea! for charcoal works, Given that charcoal drawings rely on erasers, ‘more than graphite drawings, itis extremely im- Partant that you know how to use them corractly, ‘Whon used with charcoal, the eraser allows you to add details and introduce light areas. Hard erasers damage the paper surface and smudge much more than kneadable erasors. Preferably, vse soft, malleable erasers when working with chalks and charcoal. Kneadable putty erasers are particularly convenient because whan tha tip gets dirty, it can be turned inward and roused. Asi6e fom beng used to make white marks, erasers 880 make excellent Blending tools. Wit the eraser yoxa can 00 fend centours anal work on stains and tonal vales, ging the rang a rove pictoviat 1. This sequence follows the ‘eraser technique. First, white marks are made on an even- ‘shaded background. +2. Strokes with a graphite stick -are added to the light areas: these strokes will finish outlining the ‘shape of the pitcher and fruit. 3. Finally, the light areas are shaded and gradated, giving ‘volume to the objects. Abways clean the eraser before resesing at Simply ni ton a ‘cloan proce of paper colored \/encils: a love for cetails ‘Cored pencis are clean, practical. and easy to camy around, which make them an ideal medi- tum for drawing outdoors. Colored pencil lead is made of pigment, a filing —usually chalk, talc, or kaoin—and an agglutinant, usually a celuiose um. Colored penis are handled just like reqular pencils, but offer a less oily, smoother, and glossy finish. Colored pencils alow you to work with the Precision of a graphite pencil, while at the same time adding color to a drawing, They are soft enough to create delicate shadings and can be sharpened to draw intense and inear strokes. Coiored pencits are pert far optical eiing. (Colored pencis can be purchased as single pencils or inbaxed sets, nts Dook, we oxexd Artists" gusty colored pencis OPTICAL MIXING The most significant characteristic of colored pencils is the subtie optical blends that they pro- duce. This medium relies on the rich intensities of color tones and an the ability to mix colors. To optical mix, a lighter color is placed on top of a darker color. The resuit is a glaze—a colored film that gives the etfect of mixture. Remember to al- ways put down the darker color first and the lighter ones on top. Light tones cover less and allow the base color (the darker color) 16 be visi- blo, which is necessary In order to achieve a thoroughly mixed coior, The colored pene hampered pont a produce N as w a There are several kinds cf colored pencis. whos cléferences reside n their kad compositons. Although percentages vary a wany penci's pigment is ted wath kacte (a type OF cay) and me. ON -omnTon and are avalabe n Pere softest alow you to color the and soft ad FINE AND THICK Leaps: There are two types af colored penci leads availe able: 3.5 mm, which are used for special works that require a fot of dotail, and 4 mm, which are thicker and ideal for wide and intense lines. and strokes. ‘Soft and wide leads. are recommended whan you are contrast nice poveeequce, Th proce wis Ines, which sr eolored backgrcurd. ij f WATER-SOLUBLE COLORED PENCILS Also called watercolor pencils, water-soluble colored pencil leads are made ‘with coloring pigments that are agolutinated with waxes and varnishes. ‘They havea soluble ingredient which enables them to dissolve when water is added. Watercclor pencits were created for graphic designers and illustra- tors, and only recently have they been incorporated into the Fine Arts. Even ‘though watercolor penclis combine two techniques into-one, they are; nonattieloss, considered a mixed-media technique. [Drawing with watercolor pencils is just ike drawing with contention pencils. Because of their waxy composition, conventional pencils do not dissolve when they come in contact with water; they resist it. Watercolor pencils, on the other hand, explode with color when water is added. Hatch- ing wil vanish after a wash is applied, but hard strokes will still be visible. Additional colors and details can be added after the wash dries. If you add them while the paper is still damp, they rill blend into the paper. pigment cissoves, creating a stan that ‘brings washes and strokes together astels: drawing or painting? Considering pastels encompass both drawing and painting prop forties, it fs GiFicult to ink this madium exclusively ta only one of these two disciplines. This dichotomy is due to the fact that pastels allow for a wide variety of techniques, from lines to strokes, ike these drawn with chalk, to blends and tonal gradations, which re- semble pictorial effects of gouache and oil paint. Therefore, al- though pastel is applied like the previous drawing mediums wehave studied, thelr chromatic richness, blending effects, gradations, and tone mixtures place them in a category of their own. Pastel work is commonly used to introduce painting techniques to art students. ‘There are two types of pastels: soft and cil, ‘SOFT PASTELS ‘There are three basic ways to draw with pastels: (1) dragging the pastel lengthwise over tne paper, (2) with the point, and (3) with your fingers. When dragging the pastel. the quality and intensity of the stroke depends entirely on the amount of pressure applied. The mare pressure, the more saturated and opaque the colar will be. A pastels opacity allows for an easy application of light colors aver ‘darker ens, With the edges of the stick, the artist can draw fine lings, for detailing, o¢ thick strokes, for covering large areas. Finally, since soft pastel sticks crumble easily, you can apply the powder onto the paper with your finger and create a more diffused color stain, Thara fs 2 wide rango oF soft pastes to choose from, af of which gue a drawing arrich, chromatic, arc pictorial frist, : Opaste’s have an oly texture and provide stroke that is more-erpressive, although hess ‘matoable, than som pastas Om PASTELS: Drawing with the pont wil give you intense, chromatic strokes and ines. il pastels are a relatively new invention and have become ex: tremely popular among artists, given their abilty to-praduce color sketches and finely detailed works. Oil pastels are Small sticks, similar to those of traditional pastels, but containing a combina- thon of animal fat or wax pigments. Due to an oily aggiutinate, oil ‘pastels are softer, stronger, and less brite than soft pastels rocder to mix tho Color strokes with the wax the artst may en 9 sovert uN 38 epantina. Who rubbing th color stroke wn @ carr piece of paper on whicn soWent nas bes acted. the wax wal fssoive producing rarsiicon washes. A pastels opacity alows you to bud up ‘coor and mix colors by laying a ightor ‘color over a crker one ‘Because sof pastels are very brite and maleable, you can make nice ‘Blends easily with your fngers MIXING COLORS WITH OIL PASTELS White soft pastels are known for their velvety tex ture, oil pastels give bold, intense strokes. Im ‘ages created with of pastels are flexible enough to be worked on; howaver, start with ight strokes and lines in the first working phases because ‘erasing is not easy. Unlike paints and inks, both ‘il and son pastels do not cover the paper very well, unless heavily applied, Hatching and cross- ‘hatching are also suitable for the whole range of pastels. For broad effects made with side ‘strokes, you can overlay colors more directly by ‘simply placing one stroke over anotnor, OM pas- ‘els cannot be blended by rubbing, but the color ‘can be “melted” with turpentine or white spirits, Another advantage of using oil pastels is that ‘they do not need to be fixed, so you can bulld up layers of color without worrying that the top layer ‘wil fal off, One popular technique with cil pastel issgraffto, in which one layer of color is ‘scratched away to reveal another below. This can bbe dione with soft pastels, but the frst layer of col- ‘or will have ta be fixed— tis a itle more difficutt ‘and the effect is not a8 good as with od pastel. ar One at of tis crawing was mace wat chy _Fastols fet) and tho other rat was mac tn ol pastos tight Hore you can som how these io media nsspond fo (A) bring ict. (8) _saffto (cuttng away ports ofa surface layer toexpose a cferant colored background (C) blarcing, (D} scumbéng. (E) mpasto hice opheation of clon, (F gradations, (G) water ortupenine diston. and HH) supermmpostion ctinterse strokes. These effects are next to the otnming, shown separately andi with eitereet colors. ‘Simple memes can ‘be interprotod wth) bright eolors you want an element to contrast mith the background, work on a cerk-toned background, using ‘dul, blended colors. different Clrawing papers: different characteristics Tnracation to a theme technique, and medium, Paper is also.a major protagonist in a drawing, ‘The drawing’s final result wil vary considerably depending on its color and whether it is smooth, rough, thick, or thin, CHOOSING PAPER ACCORDING ‘To THE MEDIUM Each medium requires a particular type of paper, ‘Smooth-grained papers, with an extremely fina ‘tooth, are hot pressed and come in a wide range ‘of greys that maximize the quality of blends when working with graphite pencils. Fine papers are also suitable for detall grawing with colored Pencils, Medium-grained papers are appropriate for charcoal and chalk work because they retain the charcoal and chalk particles. Laid paper is ‘traditionally used for charcoal work. its texture enables the artist to draw Muidly and blend shadings. Sineoth-grained paper wih Sn teth #8 more appropriate for graphite oF olored pened drawings and Yor making sketches. ‘COLORED PAPER ‘There are many brands of high-quality colored papers available. In order to create a vibrant ‘effect, you should choose a paper color that ‘contrasts with the dominant color of the drawing ‘YOU are about to start, To achiave a harmonious, effect, choose the closest color to the dominant Color of the drawing. Colored papers are avalt= able commercially in a wide range of textures; ‘therefore, you should remember the effect that ot only the color but also the surface will have on the materials. In addition, colored papers allow for white chalk outlines. PAPER WEIGHT AND TOOTH The heavier the paper, the thicker and more re~ sistant it will be. tt is easy ta perforate very fine paper with the point of the pencil when drawing: therefore, low weight papers should be used with special care. Fine tooth papers show a pencils varying gradations, allowing for the creation of ‘shadings and for clear, high quality lines, Rough paper, instead, breaks lines and strokes, giving & discontinuous and fragmented look. This type of Paper also allows for rugged shadings, which give the drawing.a much more atmospheric ef- fect. Pigment particles remain fixed to rough pa- per, in the groaves of the granulated surface, like smaill color specks. This effect allows for the re- flection of the light of the paper, which gives the colors more translucence, Laid paper is radttonaty sod for charcoal work. ry A paper's tooth and texture determine the Mal result of 8 crawing, Mecum-grained and rough watercolor paper provi ‘more energetic shasings to the drewing. Tha modem texture offoved by Basix pape is idea! for almost al of the dry techniques. & liquid tacteiuine 5 brushes and inks. | rawino with brushes is the first step towards drawing with iquid techniques. in principle, ‘working with washes: and strokes is very simple: you just add water to a color witha brush. Whether you are an exparionced artist ernot, you wil see thatthe effects offered by the beush and quillpen dawing techniques are closely related to those of drawing. This creative medium allows you to combine line with areas of color and tone, It can be used in mono- ‘chrome or in multicolored drawings. Experiment with different pens. Try an old quill pen, a modem fountain en, ballpoints, or technical pens. Once you are familiar with al the possibiities this medium offers, you ean begin your study of color and its techniques. "9 fact that tho wash is watercolor or ink, this technique is inti- ‘drawing. Wash is a simple technique. It consists of loading p brush and laying it on the paper with various amounts id media, we must leam the basics of the monachrame wash. . the Vash: a range of tones ‘Tho brushstrokes, or gradations, created with wash are extremely spontaneous. ‘Supecmpesing several washes wal result a larker tones. Masterng the brush sand wash meciurn wal produce sensual ‘daweings that can bo qucky rendered. co rove Bra wea, May soy down on mie paper Then sod water to the tial stain, cragging the bash and ‘extending ine wash, The move the wach i extended, the broader tha tonal _gradaton vel be ‘TONE VARIATIONS ‘The tone of a wash depends entirely on the amount of water added to the color on the palette. The smalier the amount of water ‘added to the color, the darker and more ‘opaque it will laok and vice versa. More watery colors are tha lightest and most transparent; this makes it easy to imply that white does not exist in the wash technique. To make whate marks with Wash, run the tp of the chy beast ever the dao area: the brsh Pais wi mmaciatoly absorb part of the cole, (ts easter to create gradations on Prewousy aampored papier, howover, tit rakes it harder fo control the color because M wil spread, When working wih washes, fis always a (900d idea to havo a iece of cloth handy to remowa any excess wate: ths wal keep the stroke from spreacsng ail ver the paper ancl losing precision, Practice making tonal pradtatons in ord 10 00 tho rch shadings that washes can offer EXTENDING THE WASH Wash allows for wide and rich tonal gradations. In order to create these gradations you should stain the paper with @ very saturated and intense -color, wash the brush with water, and then dis= ‘solve the color over the paper, Asit slides, the ‘color expands through the dampened area, since the water on the paper transports the color, As ‘you extend the color, tha tane turns lighter, The more times you repeat this operation, the lighter the tones of the gradation will becom AVERY SIMPLE METHOD The best way to learn how to extend a wash is through practice, Start with a very simple exam- ble: a pear. After making the pencil drawing, the first step will be to outline the fruit with the tip of the brush, with a constant and continuous brush- stroke. Then, apply a very light wash in the inner area of the pear, leaving a small white space. This space will be the reflection, Before the wash {5 dry, add @ second wash, with. a much more in- tense tone. When painting aver the damp sur- face, the tones will mix rapidly. Squeeze the brush aid help distribute the tones with very light brushstrokes, 3. Finally, add new colors to better define the light and shadow effect on the fruit 1. This simple example shows the easy execution ‘of a wash drawing. First, draw the outline of a pear. 2. Then, with very diluted washes, begin to stain the inner section, extending the color of the intial outine, | ‘Wash dhaming enables the artist 0 devaiop a rich variety of tones. Tora juntapostion, feontrast, and gradations are furcamantal to apcromtiatay represent he various planes within @ landscape, which his caso sa succession roots wath a chal per {ithe upper part of tho drawing, Notice how tte tones complement each ‘other i the orawng Brushstroke allows for rapid strokes with ether a fern or wavy line (A, B, (©), Washes and various Kinds of tonal effects can baapplied, which range ‘rom gradations to ary bash appscations 1D, E, FG. Th wasn, itis very important to be able to manipulate the brush conectly being that itis the mest common drawing tool for liquid techniques. Al~ though wash is classified as a drawing technique, the brushstroke is the main medium used to create stains. values, and strokes. Due to the rapid absorption of the brust, no other medium can compete with it, The brush expresses movement, light, and atmosphere; however, the artist needs to rely on his or her repertoire of techniques and ability since wash cannot be corrected and the addition of too many lines wil create confusion, all of which will damage the end result LINE WITH WASH Among the watercolor techniques, linear wash iS ‘closer to drawing than painting because it has the same characteristics of drawing: mono- ‘chrome: value: and the combination of strokes, Jines, and shapes. Through wash you can come to. truly drawing-ike understanding of tha mod- ‘el, alternating the brush stain and the line, Be- ‘cause ofits purely drawing-related character, the ‘wash enables you, besides applying chiaroscuro, to outline the volume of shapes from the direc- tion of the stroke on the darkest areas. § yd Itispecessary to havea vanoty of brustes mn cexder to achieve diverse brushstroko offects FROM LIGHT TO DARK Brush drawing begins froma completely trans~ Parent background in which the value work is al- ways made from light to dark; this means that the tonal additions should always be made te tho lighter tones, and not vice versa. Therefore, itis extremely important to establish from the very beginning the work areas of the Orawing. This al- lows you ta obtain an exact measure of the gray tones that correspond to each area. you practice making strokes with the brusitan a Gemp background, the ines wal expand, producing Interesting pctoral eftscts (i, f Jk Washes on a damp surface produce atmaspheric fomes, useful when painting rary or foggy landscapes (5 LM), The same application of wash over a ay surface wil produce mare intensa strokes, whare the paper's tooth wit remain visite (M The brush enabies you to craaia the efetion of a dark sihouette from a single sian, as well a5 10 outine the contour of the shapes trom broken anf loose strokes, Inks: strokes and effects The stoke is the basis of drawing. From this simple gesture on the paper, volume will be constructed by modeling the shape, caressing the paper with the medium, or simply by drawing the shapes with a clean and direct stroke, Ht wash, as explained before, allows fer tha location of the various planes of the model according to their tonal values, drawing with a brush helps to make the object's outline stand out against the background by Creating contrast. Back Inde ink .4 mare interse bleok than black watercalor, has greater tonal richness, and expands more easiy (A, B,C) When arawing witha brush, shining fram ines to stains epends the hand movernent and the amount ‘ 5 c of prossure placed on the hars 0. EF G, H) ‘Aline and round brush offers an interesting stroke range. Supenmposing fastchings of afierent colors creates bright and colorful effects (J (Qnee you understand the bask principles of wash and ioam to handle the brush, you wil be able to produce ineresting skevones by combining washes and = strokes. ‘THE BRUSHSTROKE ‘The brush is a very flexible drawing medium and Is easier to handle than the quill pen, You cart move brushes very rapidly and fiuity. you vary the pressure on the tip a3 you draw, you can’ achieve lines of varying widths in a single stroke. ‘You can easily shitt direction by bending and rounding comers, where pencils and quill pens would fail to do #0. A round sable brush in good condition transmits stroke, chythm, and modeling Inone stroke. In brush drawing you may use one or, at the ‘most, two colors. If more tones are used there will be mixes on the paper, which will produce ‘mingling of the shape outline, This limitation in the use of color is compensated by the tonal variations deriving from a “higher or lower” dis~ solution of colar in the water. Dittront strobe passihities achieved through shifting pressure and incinaton of the hairs aganst the paper: (AA tne brashstroke with tne brush’s end, (B)A wide brushstroke by pressing hardor on the paper (OVA wider truststioke if you fatten tne hars against me paper (D)A sightly damp brush anpled n short and raped strokes wil give the toxture affect of a broken line. your work. swones a ‘bt of tick cob, the strokas wal rovoa! ho paper's gran. The ‘brush wilt ow easly and wil ieave:a pranuiteg ang discontinuous trace, NN ‘QUILL PEN STROKES ‘The quill pen makes. a fine and clean line. which can be used to outline any ob- ject’s form in a drawing. But if you want to shade and give texture and volume to an object without using a wash, you will need to use the white of the paper and ‘diferent strokes. Each type of hatching, depending on the proximity and shape ‘of the lines, wil create various shades of gray. You need only a simple theme in. ‘order to bulid up volume and texture. The qui pam andl read en ofr various stoke poss sccording fo the poston of the hand. Here are sore exampies Wie begin with cross-hatching an an angie. ane of te most haracterisic etlacts of qull-pem dteming (A) The classic nguag shading can aso ba drawn win the quit pan, although using this medium wat result ma mara 4 Uunatabla and imequie ine. Youmay shift the stroke pressure in order to vary the Ine's win (Cp Tho grastest advantage ofthis modu is that you can go from fe and sensual ines to frrn and intense strokes, Ho Aceh 4 the ones shownn (D) ————_—_—_—$— ——_—$———— ——— Lee ——— — OO c ° On the rift sete of tis page are varus samples ofa cul pen end rk crwng: (1) para, 2)209709 _ hating (3) sat hatching. 8) curved shatchng, (5) cross- hhatcnng, anc (6) spat shading et When ine aroas ov absaliee white are combined wth A saturatod eon ‘tense strokes, a strong, cour contrast is made sod to amprasine betwoen the dterinated areas and the shadow areas. the essenta! ines or the saci areas ‘eMooth contours, inorder to shit the stroke intensity, lute the mk with a Ifo be of water thts wal alow you to combine intense strokes with sof gray stroves Baath and euil pon ik drawing roqure:a Sutite Tha direction of tha ies shouid atways folow treatment. Tha wtate of the paper roprasents the fight the object's volene (on an object. (Combined with other media, washes, whether made with watercolor or with ink, allow for countless effects, which may make the drawing more aes~ ‘thoticaly interesting, In these next pages you will be introduced to some of the most common effects that drawing professionals use to create texture. \/ashes: effects and techniques ( APPLYING SGRAFFITO: Sgrattno is applied ty Soratfito creates white marks or strokes on dark ‘seratoning lines on top of backgrounds. This operation should be done on tho was while tis std recently painted area, while the watercolor is. wat. Stil wet, There are two ways to “open” these ‘white strokes, One is seraiching strongly and firmly, using the edge af a brush handle; the other way is to use the tip of a razor blade or cutter. The strokes made with a razor blade will be deeper, thinner, and more intense. Sat pradews the richest textures, Sprmaw sat on re wot ach are wat a sow minutos unt you srlicneishenid ‘TEXTURE EFFECTS WITH SALT Ht you paint a regular, mid-lone wash and. while it is stil wet, sprnke alte bit of cooking salt aver ft, you will 808, as the wash dries, the grains of salt absorb the pigment and produce interesting, light blended stains. Once the paper surface is 1 order to apply @ sass, fon ne brush wath completely dry, you can easily shake off the salt ‘rai aroun of water witieave aan; brite, and grains, eBscontinvous trace, which wil gue an intevesting ature eect ta your crewing, ‘After agpiyng the wash youmay see that, while the paper absorbs tne colo, the ware strokes resist anki become loarty vsbia, prockiciy an inerasting off ‘Make white marks with wax or an of pastal. The wax al rosie the wash, 'SMEARING OR SCRUBBING ‘Also known as the dry-brush technique, this technique consists of using a brush saturated ‘with color and a litle water, to produce a rough texture when applied to the paper. The dry-brush technique is perfect for making contrasts and for representing the rough texture of certain objects. WAX RESISTS you draw with an oil pastel or with wax, you will be able to preserve a series of thin Ines on tha [paper's surtace. Aerwards, you can cover them with washes and the waxes will resist tha water: Tvs crawing uses wax resists Wo give texture tothe lage ered to the tree trunks. Urheberrechilich geschiitztes Material professional stroke. 0 | ne of the main challenges for the beginner iS CraWING tong and continuous lines with just one stroke. People ‘who do nat draw regularly have the habit of drawing in a static manner, placing thew hand firmly on the paper, the same way they write, The hand of a person who draws should not rest on the paper, but in- ) stead should mave and slide, brushing over and caressing the paper, . ‘The secret to:a professional stroke lies in the mobility of the hand and the iy forearm, trying to make them work together as a whole. To be successtul in drawing, its fundamental to acquire the ability to draw: continuaus lines with- ‘out lifting the pencil from tha paper, to know how to hold a pencil, to train the movements of the hand, and to master the basic strokes. Learning all of these skills will allow you to obtain the most {rom texture effects and wil give expressiveness to your drawings. ofS raining the hand Te render a craning spontaneously and with a variety of strokes, you need to train your hand movements. You must also learn the different ways to hold a pencil and how to control the amount of pressure you exert on it. DETAILS For precision and detail work, hold the pencil as you do for writing, but a bit higher towards the end. Holding the pencil this way gives mobility to your hand and flexibility to your fingers. “iE There are threo basic forms of hating: a ihe? wove achine graph ofbets wth the stick inside your hand for ‘shacing (B) holsng tha panes fry to exort more pressure, are (G) hoe {he you wouty for writing: SKETCHING ‘Sketching is the form associated most often with a rough craft oF a quick sketch. tis also the phase in which the drawing is first tried, espe- cially when working in relatively large sizes, By having the paint of the pencil slanted you will ac- quire faint strokes that are easy to erase. MASTERING THE STROKE ‘Any drawing beginner should investigate and be- come familiar with the variety of strokes before starting to work, Youean do this using the same pencil lead, the sharpened point (for fine strokes), or the side of the point {for wider strokes). Simpie linear drawing is the most diff ult approach because the artist has to create {ones and textures in the madel without {10 shading or tonal gradation. in the hands of a skilful artist, the mere line is capable of depicting almost all the visual effects that a drawing can present, In the following pages are some practi- cal exercises for you to practice making strokes. ‘Mastering hand movements, fines, loops, spirals, circles, and ovals will start you on your way to becoming an artist. PW ossniN CREP OOCR ( (CROSS-HATCHING (Cross-hatching consists of a series of paraol lines crossing each other at an angle. These lines can be straight and systematic, or freer and im= Precise, The closer the lines are, the darker tho shading, which will allow for different shade tonalities in the same drawing. Cross-hatching = /J/4/ does not have to be done with straight ines.ony. By crossing curved or wavy lines, or doodies, you can achieve a wide variety of effects, DRAWING LOOPS With a slight slanting of the pencil, draw several loops swiftly. as if cracking a whip. If you do a gradation with loops without lifting the pencil from the paper, you will have spiral strokes. Vary the Pressure The intensty ad Qualty of thai can bo changed ant controfed acorn to the hardness of the panel, Naw sharp is, and the amount of pressure you apo, SHADING WITH SPIRALS ‘Some of the most interesting shadings and gra- dations are those made with small circles or spi- ‘als. Just draw small spirals, resting the point of tho pencil sightly slanted on the paper and tum- ing the pencil as if cracking a whip. Filing all the space gradually and controlling the amaunt of pressure on the pencil will produce a honoge- neous shading. Clutomatic drawing The most interesting works in any artist's port- folio are usually faund not in his or her finished drawings, but in his or her sketchbooks. Artists express tamselves in thelr sketches, ragistering in them the most immediate impressions of the world that surrounds ther. oodles and random hatching are strokes ‘made in a quick and hesitant manner. These are strokes that the artist makes auomatically and Intuitively, a8 an exercise in expression. Artists Usually tum to this technique when they have oniy a few minutes to make a note, to practice a loose, spontaneous stroke— with no academic concerns =or when they want to give the draw= Ing a more expressive effect. ‘Anists use doodling as a form of shorthand to Include information in their sketchbooks: it should be developed intuitive, putting foro~ ‘most the spontaneous aspect of expression. 2. Add nevr strokes {athe previous ones, this time varying the prossure and the ‘width of the fine to startestablishing several values and the forms that stand ous the most ‘3. Finally, you can try shading—one or two tones Wil be sufficient, The drawing must not be Completely finished: it should remain somewhat sketched and imarecise. To gan competence in dooding. craw this view in only ‘wo mhutes, Thes process is very used for crawing rates trom tf 4. First, start with a quick, seemingly ‘isorganized and somewhat abstract, doodiing, ‘To establish the first compastion lines you should study the made, and draw swiftly and a bit unconsciously. m3 Automatic drawing portorms twa asic Junctions: exercising the contra of tha arm and ‘enhancing the abilty to caoture and translate the ve model COMMAND OF EXPRESSION ‘Automatic drawing allows imagery to be translat~ ‘@0 10 the paper through swift and spontaneous movements. A.gastural drawing does not try to describe the model in detail, but uses confident ‘and wide strokes to capture its essence, In this type of drawing, spontaneity emerges from the vivacious movernents of the artist's forearm, ‘while the theme is translated through rhythmic and dynamic lines, The required swiftness and spantanaly allow the evelopment of a vivacious and accurate lie. ‘Tha orawing shautd not ba completely camed cut: it should summarize the theme in a few strokes and tonal combinations. | echniques to improve pencil control. Controlling the pencil is important not OMIy tor those who see pencil drawing as an end in itself, but also for painters, engravers, and sculptors. A line's quality is an important element in the finished work. The linas may ba wide or fine, straight of wavy, with an endless diversity. Only in technical drawing ave straight ines with consistent widths essential. The weight and width of the line, its fluidity and its charac ter, whather continuous or discontinuous, are all devices that can create ef- fective visual iusions in a drawing. ra oe rin bt higher tare spirals, and gradations Circe you have learned the basic etrokea you are ready tor exarciame that wll teach you to.control the drewing tool, Perhags what # mast difficult for the beginner is managing a frm and contiquous stroke, In fact. many paopie: who have newer drawn usualy make a ine vain short, succmsive strokes, lifting the pancil each tins, crawing first one line ard then another ane an- offer. The problem is that thay rest tne hands on tne caper in the sarre way that thay write. The drawing hand does not rest on the paper: instead. it chould move, slide, and caress the paper IM A SINGLE STROKE Your fit goal will be to acquice the skill to draw continuous ines without lifting the pencil or stopping your hand, To achieve this you wil have to hole the pencil just as you would for wring but a litte higher ues towards thet end, Hold the pancd on a slant: the mare the slant ihe more fluid, tong, and wider your strokes will be. Now, barely pressing the pat of the oenci. raw several straight diagonal lines. Craw some sicaty and other ightiy Try tomake the space between the tines even, Than aractice hatcting with vertical and horizontal lines, Without tuning the paper around Dut stil keen ing it vertical, draw vertical lines and then cross them with horizontal lines. Try to leave the same space between all of the lines. Pre: 9 8 ares of ogaral straeght leva eth cone Woe edhe searne distanee Det ve rere tency 7 Farin the goomentic forms with cfogonal and Norirantat lines, and witn sprats to acqure destanty in controsing the caleuatec in, LINES AND GRADATIONS Now draw a series ot simple geometric forms of different dimensions and fil them in with the hatching, loops, and spirals that you developed Con the previous page. Your goal is to draw them, uniformly. Drawing squares, circles, and rectan~ gles of cifferent sizes, repeat the exercise again Dut inscribe within the forms several gradations, of various lengths, in diagonal, vertical, and hor- Zontal directions. Repeat these exercises several times. Be aware that by practicing you will achieve the control of the line from beginning to end, which will allow you to be confident later when drawing forms. This the ideal pasion for mang gradaons. Inscribe gradations within the goomatne forms, hoaing the. pancl with the stick inside your hand, creating Volurne in drawings The simi near drawing is tha most cc to draw in that the att has to achi6ve the tones and textures of the model without resorting to shading or tonal gradation. in a skilful artist's ‘drawing, tha ting feel should be capable of de- scribing the form and the volume, a wall as the contrasts of lights by merely controging the ci rection of the stroke, ‘THE DIRECTION OF THE STROKE 'Net ony is the intensity and the width of the ‘stroke important when it comes to drawing, but ‘aso the direction you give to the stoke. In ether vworts, the way the lines are drawn form the par- ticular texture of each object. Lines are also use- ful to express an object's shading. Drawings ‘seek fo represent the “roundness” of objects, as they appear in nature. OF course, this refers not only to spherical forms, but aiso-to some curved ‘surfaces. There is a rule among artists: “The di- rection of the stroke should envelop, follow, and explain as much as possibie, the volume of the object.” A STROKE FOR BACH SURFACE When analyzing a model, you should Keep in mind the direction of the lines at all times. In cother words. on flat surfaces the stroke should be straight, on curved surfaces it should be ‘curved. For example, 1 a crawng of a wheat Field vertical lites would represent grass and: ‘rome doodles would represent the vegetation’s texture. On the other hand, in a crawing of a house, cross hatching would successfully built Lup the rclurve of the Boors and walls. On cytin- dirical Mgures, the stroke should envelop them. Wayy and stp toes ve the natural appear ance of Deco ad anomal Naf, Also take into cod that shomES can be gsduped together or screed cut fe rectetent hyhtand shadow, as well ars the clvect’s tevtuhe Strokes should racresent an otsect’ vourre The intensity and wicth of the stroke should aise Gescrbe its (ona varenicrs. Hore are some exarrpies of seri \gromeenecal fg.res but up with ines: On the cube art ina prem, the ines should be strat, male on the Shore and the cone they shad be curvect Tho best may to unedited the value is trough the diwctiog of ‘A STROKE'S FUNCTION ‘The function of the stroke will vary according to- the artist's needs. It can be used for shading, modeling, or toning, oF it can have a purely de- criptive ornamental role. The combination of dit- ferent kinds of strokes in a drawing creates ifforent planes in a drawing. A well-drawn stroke recreates the sensation of volume ina rawing. This helps. to understand that in nature elements are not simple spheres or cylinders, but resent very irregular forms composed of different segments. A stroke should never be broken or appear “uncertain * Also, repeated strokes Shoute be avoided, Hatching is a technique that is used for craw- ing areas of tone with fine, paraiel strokes, The Seccessiatotes 5 closer the strokes, the deeper the tone, Siritary, Ste ato. the amount of pressure exerted on the pencil wll weume determine the intensity of a stroke. Hatching and "9 cross-hatching techniques for building tone. Practice drawing them, since each one provides a different finish to the drawing. Graphite and mechanical pencils are ideal instruments for hatching, There are several ways of making a type of stroke or hatching, according to the of- fect you are looking for. In just ane drawing itis possible to.use Several different natchings, alter-_Matchings canbe mace nating shadings and colorings. wih fre oF tick strokes, iat is important i that the strokes anpoar Matching: Tho tonal resut of tho hatching depends on tw9 basic factors: (A) the infonsty andthe thickness of the ine and (B} the space between then. Ina good arawrg, a8 ‘essential to vary the type of ‘sroke or hatching accercing 1 the surtace texture you want fo reproduce. HATCHING ‘Soft drawing materials, such as charcoal and chalk, alow us to bbulid up a solid area of tone by blending lines and strokes. ut it is also possible to create tone with lines alane. Building up a series: ‘ot hatched lines wil suggest sclid tone and color. Varying the space between the lings will make the tone or color darker or lghter. The broken nature of hatching. when looked at trom a dis- tance, can produce a more vibrant etfect than simple, flat areas of tone. Since the white part of the paper is net entirely covered, the tone maintains luminosity, which is ano of the characteristics of {the technique. By manipulating the space between the strokes, ‘you can obtain a variety of shading effects. Tha cassie shading fs based on a contuous and swt stroke, usualy aeganal hn a zezag form, CROSS-HATCHING Cross-hatching is a series of parallel lines that ross each other at an angle. These lines can be straight and systematic or free and imprecise. ‘The closer the hatching, the darker the shading will be, Cross-hatching does not have to be made exclusively of straight lines. Crossing curved or wavy lines or doodles may also achieve a wide variety of effects, Likewise, you can modify the tone by varying the angles ot the lines, a alow on the nght-hand sie of his page are arent samples of cross-hatching. Depending on the degree of incirotion ofthe Ine and the quantty of superimposed hhateting, we have: (1) rossing at an angle, one of the ‘mast commonly used: (2) perpenccatar crossing: (3) «agenat crossing at right angles: (3) ple crossing at {ght engles and dlagonaly: (5) quactupe css, whicn superimposes 3 clagone crossing on the erpandicuiar crossing and (6) rote crossing jot on angie. hi ch titan ings: three-dimensional forms To achieve a three-cimensional effect, shade with rings. inthis type of ete shading the succession of juxtaposed rings creates the ilusion voume ina “Sm cha £8 cynical ebject.Tha application ofthis type of shading danands on tha Pa form, structure. and texture of the there you want ta draw: itis more appro plate for sketching cyfindrical or semicylindrical bodies. In this example, the trunk of a tree, a cylindrical shape, can be represent- ‘ed with curved strokes in the form of a C. The texture of the shnubs can be epresented through free and superimposed strokes, Ce c o Rites MUU «pecan teiemnn Emanaomaaes (ecg (M 8 tosnal saat aetan ocsir conta of te Evaro PEGE f Y st whio-tke | should suffice. > HNN) CN ime iostarg ecraaa eno sie z poke teitgacac oti ling Papoct E te moore aces sow sche Prorta — = agora, on echiers the desired My = EE. Proctice ary verant ofthe stroke, abrays taking into account the intensity ofthe stroke as wel as is z=. FF if you nc0d to craw oF skotch quick} use a mare carotee soko. G. The ring stroke alows you Jo gaa sensation of x vrolmme to a cyinchical body throug a subtle play of G we curves. Set achigred wath intense dots or by decreasing the distances notwoon thom, Pisintitism is a technique in which small dots of color are applied to-the paper in a way that, when the drawing Is viewed from a distance, the lights reflected on each one of the individual Spots appear to blend, Thus a unified effect is achieved, which provides an attractive texture ‘with very uncommon effects. In the pointilism technique tonal effects are achieved by combin- ing groups of points together: an agglomeration ‘of different particles of different calors that inter- act. The quantity of points will automatically bo interpreted as tonal areas by the observer. This, ‘drawing method became popular at the end of the nineteenth century with the Divisionists, wha interpreted nature through juxtaposing tiny dots, ‘of color to pravide the model or abject with an ‘even distribution of light. In monochrome draw- ings, tonal areas can be achieved by combining ‘dots or small strokes of different sizes and spac- ing. By altering the size of the dots, the distances between them, and the amount of pressure you ‘apply on the pencil it is possible to create a ‘complete tonal range. ointillism: a divisionist technique fceecscrat With a vory sharpened graphite pomcl, clean and unilorm paintilist shading can be obtained. You can crate tonal variations by varying the size af the dts, intansifyng penal pressure, and compressing the ots together. e ‘The smal dots can be converted into short ines that ‘Compressed doodtes visually gire an effect similar to folbw a Grecton fo create texture Hie 372 fo porns ta resource that carr be combinedt with ‘ther ponnist eftects. thes ws0.a pend win a flat anct wom cua pow 1D. The fev ofthe vegotation on the foraground are actieved by ‘the contrast Donwoon two tong! amas with ctforant nansives and dct #20, estural and outline drawing Grestural craving anc outine drawing alow you to represent the model with linear, sinuous, and carefree strokes, Artists resort to this tech- nique when they want to form the rough basis of ‘a more finished work or when they want to give the sketch a more expressive effect, elements neacest fo more intense, marked Random hatching allows you To draw sovora! ins on tog of one another ta desenbe the profile cf. fut Then, the artist selects and emphasizes the one that is most detning, GESTURAL DRAWING ‘Gestural drawing is made with quick, nervous, rough strokes, which the artist executes intuitive- ly aS gestural training. In this type of drawing, ‘spontaneity emerges from the vivacious move- ments of the artist's forearm, while the theme is, ‘ranstated through mythmic and dynamic ines, Gestural drawing is a good method with which to begin drawing. Even if the strokes seem to be made in a nervous and casual manner, & ‘certain degree of control must exist, Artists use _gestural drawing as a form of shorthand to in- ‘clude information in thei sketchbook. This tech- nique could be applied when working outdoors ‘oF with themes that require the artist to draw -quickty, such as a landscape where the weather conditions are changing or a pedestrian area with the constant movement of people. Look at the appication of the defintion in this utban ew, The elements m the foreground appear mora steamined and ara more emphasized than those mn the background, ‘OUTLINE DRAWING Outline drawing describes the model thraugh lines that autline the object's profiles. The lines can be compared to the contour lines in a map. in which the graded tines represent the reliet of a landscape. In a finished work performed with these types of strakes (vigorous, fine, short, or long), the lines are combined to describe a pleasing scene. To attain a three-cimensional effect in the contours, of the dranwing, i is necessary to vary the quality and valve of the strokes. An isolated bine may be ambiguous, but it its imensity varias, t may transmit the illusion of space or volume, even when used only a5. contour. Widening the line may indicate shadows or proximity to the viewer and a thin Ene may indicate fight and distance, ‘Success in silhouette drawing nas 10 do much ‘mora with knowing how to observe than the act of drawing itsoif. This technique is an excetent form of traiving the hand to interpret what the eye sees. | you do not tthe pencil rom the paper whie curine exawing, you wil achaove 2 sketch iat wal seem t bo mace from a tong wero, ao Ale variants Die drawing ition drawing techn that consis in not ooking at the paper whie crawing. Tha eyes rernain focused ‘on thn thorn war - he hard cas th ‘porto. on the, pape I) In tas sequence you wi sae a spp interpreted through outin Fest draw arcicia (A). Ther start Skniching tho inside form and ack enw ines to ane profit (8). Who fing, ciisertiate the sums ‘form the shagowed anes ( me form gracesaly by akanang I that's cated stacowe 2, © Y C rawing A sour is 8 good aid when craving an object, By markeng the outer borders eight, and with, you ssn 3 reference paints trom nich to caw the obyects contours proportionately Qejects nat are part of an ensemble requie you to study ther positioning in order to construct a proportionately balanced draw- ing. We do this by first setting up “boxes” to define the height and \width of the diiforent objects in.a composition. You could call this, beginning phase the outline sketch; it will be used as a preliminary Composition throughout the rest of the drawing phases, SYMMETRICAL OBJECTS Ta learn how to draw a weil-propottioned symmetrical object, you will draw a cup as an example. Positioned in front of the cup. first raw a ling to dofine its height. Mark with ling segments the upper and tower limits. Draw another line across the first one to define the cup’s width, Again, mark with two segments the cup’s outer borders. Connect the cup's border segments and height segment with a perfect efipsis. Extend the outer border lines and draw a ‘square; you will Gravy the cup’s form inside the square, Draw tha body of the cup using the wertical line as a reterence. Finally, draw the base in the same way you drew the neck. This methed is ideal for drawing symmetrical obbects (bottles, cups, pitchers, etc.) ancl is very haiptul in drawing stii-ites as well, In the next drawing, try to use the least number of lines possi ble to define the positioning of each object This examote demonstrates how to draw an objactin proportion. (A) First raw a vertical stright Ine te deli the object's height. (B) Then, cross the vertical ine-urth @ horbontal ine to dkfina tne abject’s wecth, (C} Extena tho tines to obtain 2 squwe. (D) Whera the harzontal.ancf varteal nos meet, craw an eliptical crcie with the lipsis at the base. (6) Fray. you _anty nave 19.61a98 the Jno outine skerch, streamine the cantows. and ‘aa a hana to Brush the arena DRAWING AS IF THE OBJECT WERE TRANSPARENT ‘To draw an object. itis necessary to understand its structure, For this purpose, itis often helpful to draw the object as fit were transparent, that 's, drawing the parts that would be hidden trom the observer. This allows yeu to study more easi- ty the object's structure as well as its form. It is always easy to first place forms within the con text of a square and then develop the drawing later. ‘Stating from a simole geometric form enables you fo construct more elaborate ones. in this case a choi a } ‘Starting hem a vertical aus wit alow you fo obtan proportonaly symmetrical objects Imagining thatthe objects are transparent 6 @ good method fo study and understand their intemal structure. Pp. \ Qiice the furcamental form of an object has been drawn, you can begin to work and build up its texture by drawing the profiles and emphasizing the the object's contours: do nat worry about the tonal zones at this point. You should work with soft lines and strokes that can be easily erased in these ext steps, Strokes oh and profiles REAFFIRMING THE LINES t When the external part of the model is complete- ooh wh 1y finished, reatfirm the lines with a much freer and firmer, but not too rigid, stroke. You will see that itis easier to accent the more definitive tines . when you have drawn a previous sketch. Now v4 you can begin to superimpose different strokes ‘on the previous ones to make the forms more: concrete. As you continue drawing, the lines will be firmer and more intense and will define the forms with more precision. aE Quine sketches are usually red with fas tat Give foo much inforation, sometimes even contracsctory, ‘sa. is necessary to cian the profi. After the hatia farm of the abject nas been completed, you must then salsct tha inas that define the crewing and accent them with more intense strokes, Fhaly, shacings and intense strokes herve to be mired. {tig nok necessary to koap tha initia, proteminary lines: PROFILES { ‘After the preliminary outline sketch is finished, it now time to highlight the [Profiles and build up the tones. Do not make the mistake of drawing the ‘whole object with an intense stroke, only the zones that deine the object hava to be emphasized. Whan the outline skatch is considered cefinitive, ‘you can start superimposing different strokes on the previous outlines to ‘make the forms concrete, Remember, the strokes you are drawing represent the different borders, internal as well as external, of the theme. Using pencil gradations will give more three-dimensional character to the object as well ‘a5 present some diverse strokes, Thicker lines will make the object stand ‘out from the background, while finer lines should be reserved for hatching and for the object's intemal details. The outline skotch may be a single adie oF sketch: inter you nit sect and reaffirm the more important strokes and prafies. Yorking with an even, continucs ine wit not suffice; you need to use cofferent gractations in the ines to ccstabish a hierarchy inthe craving. a linear landscape: The hatcrings: abjects situated on the frst plafie shotid bo rmore intense: are defined than those i the farther planes: controlling the stroke ‘The folowing exorcise will demonstrate how to develop linear hatching and shading in a landscape, in this case a clift Combining these tonallties allows for rich transitions. between light and shadow, itis gratifying to draw a landscape in which you have to represent an object in the foregraund, where the observer can Clearly see its texture. You can create three-dimensional effects in a drawing based on hatching made vith directional strokes, Frequently, you can include strokes that go across or surround the model to support the representation. 4. The first step consists in dividing the paper 2. Once you are satisfied that the proportions into four equal parts: this will make the layout are correct, reaffirm tha lines ars draw the easier. Cn this grid, start sketching the plant with contours and basic forms of the plant in the anH pencil, The strokes should be light incase ——_foreground with an HB pencil. Do not worry you have to correct them with an eraser. The about the details; you must concentrate on the cilifs in the background are lightly sketched and general structure of the drawing. laid out, 2. Start shading the plant in the foreground with paraliel hatching, Then roceed to shade the cliffs and Coasting in the background planes with ‘croas-hatching. In the finished work notice the quailty that can be obtained by drawing with lines only. These lines are combined in a skillful way to ‘create a three-dimensional ilusion suggest texture, and have a range of ones. Observe below the different types of strokes used in the citferent 2anes of the drawing. a theme: selection and OMpO- “CRAWENS FROMALFE S NOT COPPONG THE OBSEGT, BUT RATHER MATERALZNNG YOUR INN SENSATIONS. TWO THINGS THE ARTIST POSSESSES. S47 JNDDPAN Hive TO HELP EACHOTHER. THEY ENOULD BE DEVELOPED AT THE SAME TIME: THE SGHT THRCUH NATURAL VIEWING AND THE BRAIN ‘rs0udit THE LOGKG OF GAGAMZED SENSATIONS.” PAUL CEZANNE AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOTES Urheberrechilich geschiilztes Material lactors In selecting a theme. Lveryboely has the ability to find IN ANY theme something that is extraordinarily significant. This is the skil that transforms a person into an artist. However, soloct= ing a theme is not enough; it also has to be presented to the ob- sorver in an attractive and interesting way. There are several ) factors that you should take into account if you want to turn a ‘mode! into a visually stimulating drawing, among thee: observing Ny Selecting &n interesting point of view, Selecting an original framing, and compos ing the ditferent elements within the drawing. To develop these tactors, look for drawing ‘themes in your natural environment (a nearby park, the street where you live, the plants on ‘your balcony, etc.) and study their composition and values. if you sketch persistently, your Wi ‘sual perception will saon heighten and you will discover themas that for athers go unnoticed. Com position and blocking in shadows Composition refers to the way in which a theme is presented and laid out within the clffer- ‘ent planes of the drawing. Before you begin ‘Grawing, you havo to broak down, sketch, and ‘evaluate the diferent elaments in tha theme ancl {ry to understand how each one balances the ther for a well arranged drawing. Think of haw the object or model will efect the overall draw= ing. In-erder to compose, you must first learn how to: make a rough outline. A rough outtine is {ho frst stop that an artist takes to define the form of the model, its limits, and its. proportions. BREAKING FORMS DOWN INTO A FEW LINES Alltorms in nature can be broken dawn to a few outlines, whether itis a chair, vase, jug. or tree. You will see that these structures in tum éan be reduced to spheres, cubes, and cylinders. This is {8 good starting point for a sketch; that is, to make a rough outline of the model or object on paper. A rough outling is not the same as con- structing a frame into which the whole subject will fit, The artist must know how to identity the most important basic shapes to be included in the rough outline. The best approach in constuctng a rough outine is to Start with seple blocks (axes) in whieh you craw the Jorms. These forms should be simple, Rat, and very base. Yeu should lean how to braak dawn objects into sémolo geometrical forms. Here ae thea exampies: (A) a vaso uth a Bower errangemant cam be reduced 19 an inverted rrapevold and a ercumierence, (2) hig can be ce inte langue Sor, anc (C3) Squces citer sires can be used to frame a group of ees. A B Chserve in these tio drawings the diffrenca between tured outing and a free one. (A) The structured outline allows you to anahze the form from a previous {1B} The trea cutina aifers trom the frst one because you ry to craw the form airecty, without a previous rough outline of the alferant foes, The free cutine allows you fo be less concemed with proportions and gives the drawing a more expressive effect. shoul iterate DRAWING WITHOUT AN OUTLINE poaiastcinesl ‘You can also begin to draw objects and models whouaee without the aid of geometrical forms by instead cf the stroke, ‘drawing a general form directly and repeating the process until you achieve the adequate form. ‘The strokes must be swift and spontaneous. Try to include composition and proportion at the ‘same time. This kind of quick sketch will help ‘you understand the model's form and will help ‘you later in more developed drawings. The lines ‘that define the contours do not have to be fine ‘and elegant; they can be broken lines. To begin.a .a drawing without an outline, itis best to draw ‘the ensemble treaty, without streamlining or ‘shading every form. The lines may be reatfirmed _as many times as needed, but remember that ‘you should give form to each object with only a few free strokes. Direct outining, without \geomatrical forms, fe ‘more appropriate for simple compositions. ir this example, was \bottar to devalop a structured outing in ‘order fo avoid errors in the form ana anvccd arranging the alaments ‘The rough outine should simplify the modes into (geometrical forms. Thase forms wil previa tha inital composition of the ensamble. Here are tao examples, ‘one with a triangular composition and another wih & ‘oreular one, ARRANGING THE BLOCKS After you have broken the objects or mace ‘down to basic geometrical forms, they must now be arranged within the drawing. This means that if you fit the model completely inside its block, ‘the drawing willbe mited to that particular ob- ject, thus creating a concise representation. When the model is compased of many objects, ‘each block, with a form, is added to the main block. Its easy to complete a drawing if you start with the basic forms. The guiding lines can, always be easily erased. ‘The main model must be able to ft.nto the main lock this case tea kettle. Once te form of the fea dette has been drawn, new Blocks (forthe hance and the spout) can be added, The fst step in creating an outine sketch shout be to place each element inta smal, simoie blocks. Then ‘according to the dimensions af the blocks, place eactt one of the forms inside tha paving close attention to their profes. IHyour nar how fo break down sire Stites, yaa gradually wil be able to draw more complicated models by combining more forms ark res, t sheiches hajps you io In cases where the model is strongly illuminated, a useful teche 4. crecma nique called blocking-in allows you to establish shadows which _ ceiabbek bas deci’ wil later be built up. Blocking in dark zones becomes part of the ‘ferment so that you {nitiat drawing process, to tha point where fis common to start a anna hase rawing by alternating batwaen intial lines and pretminary stains. pstenay Do not worry about details at this point; you are simply establishing the main areas of tone. The profiles of shacows are a good refer- fence point for blocking in, especially in models that have a strong light and dark contrast. You can aiso establish the lluminated areas ‘by outtining them with dark ines —again, de not worry about de- tails at paint, throughout te kator drawing stogos. Blocking in shoots Giring the early stages of arawng sores as a retoronce whan workng ln ater stages. Baton, compare the locked-in ‘shadows with the final result. ‘Blocking in shadows s good when you awe sketching a landscape Working wath a Chak stick on ts side, you can ereato a sketch ike the cre above M2 few minates. The shadows na ‘mode. when choary contrasted, can be @ (9000 referenoe for Dioching na thama, . using erspective \ in the preliminary outline sketch To draw tiree-dimensional forms, itis a good iaea ta become comfortable with Grawing geometrical! forms in which to kay ‘out the moc Ti we soo to be laboring the point thet drawing is based on geometric shapes, itis not because we enjay theorizing, but because itis quite true and has an undeniable practical value. When you want to begin a orawing, there are several techniques you can se to approximate a made's dimensions in order to lay it out proportionate lyin the outline sketch. The most common is based on geometrical forms: spheres and polyhedrons. As we have explained in the last section, you can draw anything if you can break down the model into a few basic forms. When anaiyzing any abject, sea itt car be drawn in one of the base forms below. DRAWING AN OBJECT INSIDE A GEOMETRICAL FORM When analyzing an object's form (a table, vase, Cup, Car, tree, @tc.), you will find that it can ugual- ty be drawn inside @ cube, a prism, of a cylinder, which later becomes its structure. Therefore, the: artist will derive his or her drawings initially from ‘any one of those above-mentioned basic forms. First you will have to observe the object and de- cde which geometric: form will be the most ade- quate. Once the form has been drawn, you can then draw the profiles, The geometric figure only serves as a guide to drew the object or model and establish its proportions; after you defing ‘and detail t you can erase the initial geometric figure. 1. Ifyou have to draw an apparently complex object, the first step is to draw a rectangular form that will hold the cbject inside, Draw an axis and suggest. with ellipses and spheres, an initial layout of the most important forms that characterize the object. 3, To finish, join the: Gifferent forms. and 4 Gofing the object's: is. >< \ structure. The lat step will be to apply a 2. Gragually streamline the object's form, adding: light shading to give new geometrical forms to the previous ones until volume to the you have the object's structure, drawing. CO You should practice chewing cubes, ‘ethogonal shapes, and prisms by freehand. A simple method isto frst ‘cea tho fot geometric form and tan project its votsne int perspective. ‘The geomet forms can be applied to any modo, Mera 15 an example of a pyramidal pasm used to Soy cut a figure. ‘COMPLEX OBJECTS ‘A.complex object can be broken down into sev- ‘era geometric forms that can then by laid out in f ‘one general geometric form. First start with a } simple form and then combine or superimpose ew geometric forms according to the object or mode's composition. Use simple and straight lines and do not worry if at first the geometri- cal forms are not similar to the object. These: ‘geometrical farms are simply that, mere geometrical forms. Also, do not use a ruler ‘to draw the lines; draw freehand, even if they are not perfect, Later, you can go ‘over them until you obtain the desired result. 1. A drawing based on three-dimensional | geometric forms is used for drawing objects in = Perspective or for those that present certain foreshortened effects, 3. Gradually, you wil define the profile of the object with fir ane decisive lines. This fest linear layout wil act as a guide to deveiop the drawing's tonal effects. 4. The last phase culminates in building Up volume in the model, Once the drawing is complete, you can erase the geometric form. 2. Once younave drawn the: form, draw the first lines roportions Un el rnocets is possible to tind comesponding stances that can be compared to one another, be It as whole parts, as haves, a8 fourths, ate, ‘THIS-anniytical task of comparing sizes and es tabiishisa proportions is essential betore starting ‘thi actual drawing ‘THE PROBLEM WITH PROPORTIONS (Th protiem with proportions bagina when the ‘fiat -ies to reduce the size of the real made! to Jira0%° scale for the drawing paner. When it draving, fis essential that you keep the Raine relation of proportions among the di- ‘vere elements that cornprise the subject. Log ‘ally, thigce wil! be some dimensions that wll nat AgluBstexactly to the measurements you have es- tablished, but t will not be difficult to approxi hate thar, any artist faces keying out a subject sa srw ofthe mock to the aca. han studhing a rot, align pores ard aw ‘nagar hes to ‘ecresent the postonng ang tout of he errant. ALIGNED POINTS ‘The drawing space can be divided into different zones that relate to the model or subject. Perhaps, the best way to study the relation of distances between different zones of the model is by the method of making aligned points. This method consists in finding vertical and horizontal reference points that will help you to view the model's structure, contours, distances, and forms. The medel's ‘basic structure is a result of constantly comparing heights, widths, and lines through imaginary vertical and horizontal ines that run through basic points. Urheberrechilich geschiitztes Material ercosing a Theme SEARCHING FOR EQUAL PROPORTIONS ‘Tho soarch for equal proportions among the cif- ferent objects of a mode! can be a very helpful ‘exercise in leaming to relate the different parts of the structure, This consists basicelly in compar- ing and determining (as has been done already in the previous chapter) that the height of the pitch- ‘orig approximately equal to half the total height ‘of tho bottle and that itis almost twice as wide 15 the appie found on the second plane, When you are in front of @ model, you should ‘mentally take it apart and study how the propor- thons among the different parts of the model re- late to each other. You may, for example, decide: that one zone will be one third the other zona, o that another zone will measure exactly twice as. much as the previous one. Many times, especial- tywhen approaching architectural themes, you should compartmentalze the fagades in equal- sized eegments in order to place correctly the windows and the balconies. You wit s00.n these mages Toot a baicony chic tho ‘Brice the upper svaight tne tha importance that the box in hal, makeng sure tat into four segments and usa relation of dimensions has in treupper iit ofthe rat the two canta portions to blocking i. First, craw the box _eoincios with his (prac! the vertical ins. trae you are going to meascrernert. oveion the thera, | | rc tha fst resumes Progronsivay ack no hhave boon stuctod. frist the .pattons to define tho vertical ines fo obtan the \Gecorathve elements of the principal ines thet dete the ‘balbany, ts projection, and the balcony, ‘aortas, MEASURING WITH A PENCIL 3 Assimple pencil, stick, or ruler is commonly used to establish proportions, To do so: raise a pencil to the level of your ‘eyes, extend your arm (return to this position every time you take a measurement) and situate the pencil in front of the part of the model you want to measure. Move your thumbs up and down until the visible part of the pencil coincides with the measurement of your model. Translate this mea- surement onto your paper and continue to use the pencil to measure the remaining proportions. Compare distances tre- quently. Work meticulously, comecting proportions, relating them fo one another, and indicating points of reference. Suddenly, without noticing it, you will find that your mind is working in a logical way. Remember to calculate horizontal measurements as well as vertical ones, without ever altering the distance between your arm and the subject. PROCESSING THE MEASUREMENTS Starting from these first measurements, the artist creates the farms using a minimal number of ines. All the elements of the model go through a first outiine sketch before being drawn in definite forms. This outline sketen, with its proper relation of proportions, will stowly be built. calculate the measurements dnd p object that you tha pasar Usiig an rit cutie jecrmatrical provides good reference aight ofa torso, che sculptures adjusted the dimensions of the three ‘sogmonts. This meas. applied to any subject aight of he 12 rawing with grids The third method to ensure that the different parts of the image have correct proportions is the grid, which interprets the direction of the model ines and it stucture, The more dv sions the grid has, the more exact it will be, thus avoing the possi of errs in the crawng Besides being a perfect method for copying, the grid also allows you to enlarge a model propar- tionately. This method may seem boring and me- chanical at first, but you must remember that this. is just another base from which you can start working. AA grid alaws you to adfust and aka a mode's features to the highost cogroo. On a atterent pisce of paper craw a grid with & panci and try ta draw tha model's eatures, paying close ‘attention fo each ane of the squarms and the particular feature that & in each square. AVERY SIMPLE METHOD ‘The technique of drawing with a grid consists of laying squares on top of the model, usually a photograph or preliminary sketch, to enlarge a drawing. To copy an image with a grid, draw squares on the model and repeat the same squares. on a blank piece of paper; each one of the squares is a part of the image. Even though learning to draw from life is more ‘advisable, there are occasions in which copying a photograph or drawing with this method may be necessary. A PROPORTIONED DRAWING. ‘The grid is a good method if you still have diff cuties making a proportionate drawing. The object of this system is to help you see, under- stand, and draw with more fluency and exactitude. As you acquire dexterity ard Nuit, this system of drawing wil seem excessively mechanical, With time, you will not need the aid Of 8 grid to compose; you will craw with imaginary ines. na ‘Aft frst blocking ithe tones, go ver the orawing’s ovtines caretuty With a wel-sharpened hard perc nt you achieve clean, cstinad ines and aimost na gray shadings. The acvantage of drawing with a grid ‘on the mad is that you can choose {a sae of thw squares. If YOU Want tO concenitate on the compl ara of ‘he mado. caw move sections an that particular avo, 1 | | aan Tes “Lorrain method:” harmony in the composition We wit row study an ingenious ord system ‘that was popular in the seventeenth century by ‘the great landscape painter Claude Lorrain, In his preliminary landscape drawings, this French artist would first draw geometric lines that would ‘cover the paper's surface fixe a net, IE was a Sime | ple grid that partitioned the paper rectangle ac- ‘cording to its medians and its diagonals. This ‘geometric partition allowed the articulation of the Surface of the square according to the composi- tion and the depth effect that the artist wanted to ‘suggest, ignoring the mechanical requirements ot » The system allows you to harmoniously place ‘the different elements af a landscape, moving, i necessary. some tree or shrub:s0 that it coin- cides with one of the intersections of the diago- nals. This method heips to balance the emptiness, distribute the elements throughout the surface, and obey the logic according to how the elements influence one another, ‘As youcan 500, the principe of the gris: basic and anpicabie toxeny forma, whether vertical, estcontal, narrow, oF eongated. Draw two diagonals that converge in the mice of each ‘0n8 ofthe four resulting rectangles. These four pores wil be relorence pons for the campositon. sit ke the diagonals that aidih strengthening the effect of eptn ina landscape. The dtagonal system of composition created by Lorain 1s very usalul for camposng landscapes and helps to arrange and cistrbute the elements ina more ‘harmanious way. A SENSE OF COMPOSITION By practicing the principles described in this, chapter you will acquire a sense of composition. ‘And although mest artists usually theorize about the motives that have led therm to organize the thema in a certain way, you will be surprised to realize that most of the drawings conform to the conventions that have been explained in these pages. you craw the clagonal gad on a paper you can ‘fsptce the center of attention, the town, towards the Upper right-hand side, The profi of the mountains anct the nearby mescow is adapted sa tht caincices with the man dagonats that cross the picture. Attar devaionng the crawng and anpiying the tonal valves, You wal soe how the new dlsbibuten of the eesnents turns the dita ahotogtagh into amore ‘attractive work, You should never be satisiad wet the i mode: sam howto interpret it and sranstorm according to your carvenience: 118 point of View: transformations in the model When you are ooking ata tandcape, toes, ‘animals, figures, etc., you are not completely conscious that your view depends on the posi- tion you are in vie-A-vis the real modol. Before drawing, it is necessary to move around the ‘Mode! in order to find the point of view that wall best express the variation within the unity at tha model's forms, sizes, and colors. VARIATIONS IN THE POINT OF VIEW ‘A*normal” level of observation, when the theme is situated at the artist's eye level, is most ‘adequate for simple and descriptive images. A model observed from a higher point of view sep- arates even more the different elements of the ‘scene and allows you to play with the different spaces that open up among them. When, to the contrary, you draw a scene from a point of view lower than the usual ane, there is @ tendency to have the different elements that compose the drawing overlap each other. Ifyou iookat te mex om a frontal pont of ve, the horizon ine is positioned inthe rode, civicing the mod ito tive halves. The sti appears compact and the objects anoear together aithough clearly ‘conned {7 you stand up and ook atthe ste from a higher pant of wew, tbe hvizon ie wll ‘appear higher, tho objects wil revea moro spice between auch other, and the ‘shaclows wil appear rounder. I you took at the model irom a tower pont vies, tha rican ira oscoRA: rasticaly, the projected shadows sappear. arc the obyects are superimposed ne On ton of the other Somewhat hindering the identification of certan details of te group, A a ‘THE POSITION REGARDING THE MODEL The best way to learn how the view of the model changes if the point of view is changed is to Compose a stil-ife on a table and try to look at it from different points of view, aa you can see in tha images on the previous page. Notice figure: Ain which the objects that form the composition have been drawn below the line that demarcates the table (horizon line); this: means that the per- ‘Son Ig cbserving the scene trom a high position, You can deduce then that the viewers standing. On the contrary it the viewer i siting in a lower position than the previous Gne, the line of the ‘model will also be lower, and the elements wil be observed trom a more level position with the table (igure G). Observing both images you will also 826 that the forms, as well as their respec tive shadows, have changed noticeably. When looked at from the higher position (B), they pre ‘sent more rounded forms, while when you crouch down the shadows are elongated and are ‘reaver the horizon line. Through this brief ebger- vation exercise, you can see that what you want to craw relates to your position vis-a-vis the model ‘The variation in the point of wan abc the inivic.alend porvapton of tho objects. 4) Orawing a cup fora high (Point of view makes the circular opening ‘Raye an ova form, (8) Cup sean from the same haight produces a protie view cof tre object. Fram a point of vw stated below tho cbjact (0, tho up's ‘upper borcer appaars conan, 118 Freauenty, nature teat suagests the composi: tion to the artist. You should take advantage of ‘these occasions, but do not rely on them too much: Ifyou don't havea provious composition outlines sketch, confusion will soon came into the picture. This impact depends greatly on the ‘combination of the principal forms on the surface and on the divisions. of space in the drawing in general. composing Outline sketches: A goad artist shout invedtce a tito asymmnetry in the composition, arseking tha formal equiloum between bot sides of the drawing. Ths adds mare interest to the A tagora! compostion 15 one of the more rocurént in the world of art Soe t provi riety aad Stab balancing the image SYMMETRIC OR ASYMMETRIC COMPOSITIONS The first and most basic nule is the one that de- tormines whether you are going to draw a sym- Metric or an asymmetric composition” the lobal equilibrium of the theme must be taken into eepunt. A too symmetric composition ean appear boring and static. The symmetry will pro- vide equilioriur to an image, but will take emo- thon away from it: Howaven:this Is not always 80, since a landscape composed of interesting forms and angles can-sometinés offer variation enough tothe sight: Asymmetric compositions are the ones that create the most tension in a drawing “They may be apparently unbalanced, but a close ‘analysis of the work will show that even though the landscape is asymmetric, the balarice émong the citferent color massas and the elements composing the scene complement cach other and give @ certain sense of equilio’um. SIMPLE FORMS ‘Composition also implies combining forms within the picture's area. It has been demonstrated that most peopie prefer compositions based on geo- metric shapes on account of their simple and concrete configurations. When thres simple forms such as a triangle, a rhombus, and a circle are placed separately or superimposed in a com- Position, the viewer can identity each form and enjoy their interaction, Therefore, we suggest that at the moment of selecting a theme and determining its composi- tion, you should begin with an outlines: sketch, a schema, that responds toa precise geometrical form, Experience has shown them to be pleasing to the majority. This way, you can be sure your Grawing wil present a visually satistactory pic~ ture, ‘These outine sketches show diferent composition ‘schemas for the crawing space. (Alan arctitectural ‘Slorent presented through an oval fm, (8) a human igure based on 2 trangukr schema and on a-crcular form fo thes torso, and (G) a mavina with the Composition schama of an inverted t. 19 COMMON SCHEMAS: The use of geometrical schemas in a drawing's ‘composition was already being used the Renais- ance, with a general predominance of the trian- ular Schema. The arrival of the Baroque caused ‘more use of the diagonal composition, suggest- ed and applied mainty by Rembrandt. Besides these schernas, which may be considered clas~ sic, and other traditional ones such as the rec- tangle, the square, and tho oval, some common ‘schemas are those that refer to typographical forms that remind us of the letters L. G, Z, ete. Since making a composition schema cfamodelisa profminary step i the Grawing process, you show araw it wtn soft strokes, harcy exerting pressure, 50 tat can be essily erased once its funetion has boon completed. Exporment wan at types of geometrical forms to fret the rrost approprae one 120 balance and |hythm: ay a visual order Qhe of the most important factors when ap- proaching the composition of a drawing is ob- taining a visual balance—in other words, the ‘order and disposition of the different elements. that comprise the model. Everybody has a cer- {ain intuition which can give balance to a work, ‘but this is.not enough. You also have to learn to Jook at a model from a drawing point of view, as an ensemble of strokes and tonal surfaces. The ‘equilisrium in a. composition depends. great deal on the harmony it expresses. BALANCE IN THE FRAMING When framing, you are placing borders on the ‘view you want to represent. An appropriate fram- ing takes into account the color masses confined ‘within fts boundaries. In a landscape itis sutfi- tornake alowance tor cient ta modity the framing, since there are sev- 27 RMN feral possible compositions, and many of them retplaylarey # = To achieve a batnced crawing, 8 necessary ‘can be interesting. in selecting the framing, be aware that centered elements reinforce the bal- (Hanon the fone and ‘ance of the composition, whila those placed to inet Pern the sides may unbalance it, a a a | that presents equatly distributed masses and the ane that repeats the same forms on Pega ga dips asdder ani ob parca é ty chu raaeipord heb dasee totenio ureter te were a scale to indicate that the vight side of the image weighs more shan the Saft or ica vel hari urkamice fv ms uty coven wor WER coo Tig aatWectacouesianchoinnreacct.. ap | visual effect does the rest (Cj, Quadranguiar looms are heavier than rounded ones, $0 the circle shoud be placed higher # you want a visual equilibaurn (D). (CHECKING FOR BALANCE ‘You can verity the balance among the masses through a simple analysis in order to assure that a composition be pleasing and not disproportionate or prone to errars. Turn the drawing upside down, 1180 degrees. This will create some distancing trom the work. Tho work has been well fashioned when the object or figure is support- fed and does not seem like it is going to fall down. A. composition ives the impression of faling when you have not taken balance Into account. You can also analyze the composition by observing ‘a mirror. You can better identity the errors in lected image than in the real drawing, DISTANCING ‘A first impression of something strange in the drawing could in= dicate that you have made and error, This may not akways be evident. You can leave the drawing for some time, since ‘with time you distance yourself from the work and thus will be able to distinguish the errors in propartion or balance. Work aa moderate istarce trom the madi as wal as: from the support. you work toa Sosely to tha paper you wil be prone £9 making errors in proportion, batinee, or perspective, 1 RHYTHM Rhythm in a drawing has the same function as in music: It joins the different elements and pro- vides a distinct character to the composition. Rhythm can be achieved through the systematic repetition of motifs, through the control of an ordered stroke, or through a succession of lines: that direct the gaze of the viewer onto the sur- face of the work, When the content of a framing is analyzed, everything is reduced to simple forms in straight, curved, broken, or mixed lines. The repetition of these directions gives the work rhythm. In.a drawing, rhythm may be obtained through the repetition of strokes; an example of this can be Seen in the lave of continuity developed by Some British artists during the nineteenth century. THE LAW OF CONTINUITY The law of continuity is a method of expressing the unity of the werk starting with a succession of ordered strokes or elements from the scene: “For example, the succession of the columns in the wing of a cathedral is more interesting when they are recessed in perspective and become darker the farther away they are. The same thing happens with a succession of hills, when some follow others on the stopes surrounding a valley, or with the succession of clouds, which become hazier towards the horizon. Each hill and each cloud have a different form, ut each efement ev- ‘dently follows another in a tranquil and oxpected order.” ‘The law of continuity guides the gaze of the viewer over the picture through the strokes. In these cases, the succession of strokes. creates currents that flow as rivers, of as waves, om the surface of the drawing. You can observe this ef- fect om the beach drawing in the following exor= ‘668. The purpase of tha artist in thie drawing has been to transmit a gréatet expressive effect, thanks. to the control of the strokes, together with the bawttching, swaying, and undulating move- ment of the clouds and the waves. As you'can 80, the strokes describe clouds that mave in countless rows that follow the sun and converge: on a point in the sky. There, the strokes of the clouds find their continuation on the beach and flow to the sea. where in the swell, the Same un= dulating forms of the clouds are repeated. This rhythm of continuity joins the different elements: ‘and provides the composition with. distinct character, The foloning om this photograph with strokes that guide the gam of the viewer over the pacture 4. Before beginning to draw, the artist sketches the model. On this, a series of arrows are drawn ‘which mark the direction of the strokes in each ‘one of the zones of the drawing, Notice that the ‘arrows start on the Sea, ascend through the tree in the foreground, and continue through the sky and then back to the sea, to the starting point. 2. With a graphite pencil of mecium hardness. start ‘covering the white Spaces of the paper, respecting the directions indicated by the intial arrows. ‘3. With tha drawing almost ‘complete, you can see that the ‘application of the “law of continuity* renders a surface covered with ‘undulating strokes that show the cierence benwEDN a rendered wath madeing affects (A) and a body rendered with icharoseuro eects (B), The frst tonat transitions, Whornas tho second has greater ‘gontrast benwoon the durinatedt cond the shaded zones. fpnalrange otterad by charcoal # chiaroscuro warks, Tha ly ic hoe ir fod IS (Pat the tone is controled wath the BP paper, anc [pacer surece ILLUMINATION IN CHIAROSCURO The model's value for chiaroscuro is determined according to the background and the light focus it recerves. It is essential to understand that the Jight is not the same in the whole surface, given the fact that ence it fas on the first plane of the Model, it gets distorted and bounces off, chang- ing each zone, When coming laterally from an electric source, the light is direct and creates ‘woll-defined and outlined shadows; when the light is difuse it comes either from a natural fo- cus oF as a reflection of the electric light, which produces soft shadows without edges. ‘THE ZONE OF GREATER ILLUMINATION: ‘The zones that show brilliance, as wrell as those witht great illumination, should be free of char= coal, sanguine, or chalk. However, if there is a mistake these zones can be corrected with an eraser. ‘THE DARKER ZONES The zones of maximum darkness, corresponding to the darkest tone in the tonal value system, can also be treatad with a special methad. Once the esired tone is achieved, it should not be touched. This zone will be definitive. Doing this ‘will help avoid limiting the adherence capacity of the paper, which would impede achieving a dark- er tone if such tone were necessary. ‘The ecbes of a new eraser may be used to work on ‘small surtaces and datais. 181 The caripressed charcoal ‘ponol is ideal for chiaroscuro; ft allows you to cuttne the forms and create more intense 80d contrasted blacks than ature! charcoal, The chiaroscuro elect ts ‘charactor by @ strong contrast aetnoen lights and shadows, whieh gives a much mora wokuetic anc ‘ramate appearance to the node To earn tow to work with ights and shadows, diract intonse ight drocty Cnt the model. This will cloary create ciferent cerk and light itwertios. Olending techniques. Bending is one of the various studies of tonal value; it facilitates gracstions by applying soft tonal gradations on a zone with an established value Sy8- tem. Blending is directly related to tonal value, which is why it should not be used to create effect. Blending is a practical too! used to elaborate the drawing. Soft media, such as charcoal and ‘chalks, are the most appropriate materials for developing layers, ; ‘of blended stains, which will ive the drawing a more pictorial only produces subtle tone effects, but also gives the surface and ; 1g Softens and combines the different zones in the drawing. Sfumato: Stumsto can be used as amociv to create atmosphere and to unify the different values of a smooth contours Stumato means “a softening ofthe tones.” When applied to raining, the teem producing very subtle tonal gradda- tions, similar to the misty effect of the vaash. After an initial com Position is made, s{umata is created by blurring the strokes and shadings with your fingertip. The sfumato effect in a sketch is very soft, given that the uniform gray tone integrates light and ark tonalities. ATMOSPHERE IN LANDSCAPES ‘The atmospheric landscape requires, more than precise forms, sfumatos, blurred strokes, open lines, and suggested forms. The general atmospheric appearance of the drawing is usually more important than the precision of each detail. For this type of draw- ing, blending links the different parts and gives unity to the work, ‘The misty effects should be carefully mixed so that the objects ere rendered without explicit drawing. (Observe above how a siienato rawing nas a more pictorial sopsarance than ane made with cloan and precise strokes. Because graphite i very soft and attows for a vary claicate finish, it blendts wet, DIRECT BLENDING (Ona Support treated with graphite, charcoal, or chalk, forms can be dissolved by blending direct- Jy with your finger. For stumatos to be soft and ‘weil integrated to the white of the paper, without a trace of strokes, rub the ¢raming with papers. ‘This methad is nat as procisa as blending but may work for treating large zones af the wark, ‘such as the sky or water, which require an espe- cally soft and delicate treatment, You can also rub a graphite shading with a cotton ball to ob- tain a soft blend, allowing you to create the gen- ‘eral tone of a form. ‘THE IDEAL MEDIUM ‘Charcoal may be the ideal medium for the stue ‘mato technique, due to the fact that it has rich ‘tonal qualitias and can ba mixed and dissolved ‘very easily. The sfurato tones can be achieved ‘by rubbing the charcoal on the paper with your fingers, so that the foreground integrates with the background. {Wath cotton you can A flat charcoal stick can De acon sesh eee ey rates ore shies Thatta obtained witha blending stump. how to Lise a paper's texture Cowso paper has 2 pronounced tooth. When & stroke or shading is applied to this type of paper, ‘@ mediumn's pigment is left in the ridges of the pa- per, leaving the holes tree of pigment. Coarse pa- Ber braaks lines and strokes, producing a mottled and discontinuous appearance. As the shading is ‘not get completely integrated into the paper's surface, ithas a blended, atmospheric effect in the drawing. TOOTH AND ATMOSPHERE: {In order to erwate an atmospheric effect on tex- tured paper, do not exert too much pressure on the drawing medium. Apply shadings, avoiding any trace of strokes and combining gradated scumbles. You should also avoid defining the Workng on coarse outines of objects, so that the contours of the (papers and using ma objects seem blended and blurred, ide of a chase stick is Above are some exsrrpiss of the various 1ypes of ‘ia for mating tana ‘textures that the surtace of @ coarse paper can offer sketches with norosting Because ol ts rmaoablo character, ‘charcoal enables you to hide the pantenare mare easly, athough they remain as akatch lines. Correcting without erasing Ast asveions, tne oraning undergoes a process of continuous change. to the point that ‘the intial lock-in is only an initia reference. The artist should transform the work constant, in- -creasingty marking the stroke that Gafines the ‘diferent planes and forms. As the drawing apcroaches ts final stages, lines gradually cover previous ones. The process is @ continuous correction of forms. The final lines are defined with greater decision than the first ones—this correction does not necessarily have to be done with an eraser. [DELIBERATE CORRECTIONS. In many of the drawings by the great artists, the ‘corrections and repetitions are left in the drawing liberataly, a8 a practical reaource, which gives ‘vitality to the work. Thaso corrections are knot .33 pentimanti=ltalian for “repentance.” These ‘corrections add interest to the work; they express -a'strange fascination for the unfinished, the ‘sketched, and for the drawing pracess, a5 Of OSE to an interest in finished and detailed work, ‘which appeals to tha romantic Sid6 ot every hu- ‘man being. Therefore, we encourage you not to ay much attention to your mistakes, Instead, ‘draw next to ther with more precise and vigor ‘tus strokes, Every drawing should be an expesi- mental and changing process, Comecting is a fundamental action in this Gréative process. 4n tha contour of ths fgure you can soe the superimposed strokes, which resulted fom the various atlerrots of the artist. Natice the detal of the correction, for instance, the postion ofthe arm. 10 ‘SKETCH AND MOVEMENT ‘The pentinenti are very often related to the effect ‘of movement in the drawing, The sketch impres- sion is considered fundamental to transmit the ‘sense of mobifty. The stumato effect, through which a figuro’s contours aro blurred, is a com- mon resource for suggesting action. This is the ‘same principle of the image that is out of focus in photography. The dispersed mass af the figure ‘gives a vibration and movement effect. The sil= howette of the model is not outlined; rather, the ‘model is given an imprecise profile or various ‘overlapping profits, which indicate the effect of movernent. Sometimes, a more loose style, with (gestural ines, is: more appropriate to suggest ac~ tion, Long, disorderly, and retaxed strokes, as if ‘capturing a subject's high-speed movement, also produce a certain ettect at motilty, A rapid, vigorous, mor-deleang stroke hops (rarest the impression of onowernect to foe When diawang very quicly. # is. comman to ako métakes because the work i a result of process. Hom you can coserwe ow tha postonng of the church was Fray ecco 181 IN drawing. Any object has three dimensions: height, width, and depth. However, in drawing the artist only has a flat, two-dimensional surtace to work on. In or der for the representation to have the appearance of volume, you must follow the principles of perspective. When a model presents Gifficulties of drawing and if you want to get the most realistic rep- resentation possible, you should note in the sketch all the lines ‘that will help better represent its volume: the principles of perspec- tive are very useful to draw these lines correctly. The notions of perspective and learning how ta measure will enable you to compose with strokes that will configure the sketch. In this sec= tion we will discuss perspective and depth effects. two wery important elements. Derspective: basic notions ‘The realty we perceive has three dimensions ‘To represent this reality on paper or canwas the artist only has a flat, two-dimensional surtace. Howaver, appropriately projecting the represen tation will express depth. Thanks to the basic principles of perspective, parallel, obique, and ‘erial, you can create a realistic representation of ‘a model on paper or canvas. Besides being one ‘of the most commonly used formulas, porspec- {hve is isa one of the most effective in represent- ing depth. You just have to choose the point of ‘Wiew and the composition that will best repro- uve the distance effect. LOCATING THE HORIZON LINE ‘The frst thing ta do when drawing a landscape in perspective is to locate the horizon line, This line is very easy to locate: it depends on the po- sition of your eyes when you are looking forward. tis an imaginary line on the horizontal plane that crosses exactly at the height of your eyes. The position of the horizon will depend cn the com- position and will be a point af reference through ut the drawing process. ‘Our surroundings are mpresentod in thre0 ckmensins. Some of ine senplest atjects are polyfedans formed ‘by fourplared surfaces or more, Enects fourbon and ara! Janqiscapes it's common fo anny prncinkss of parakel perspective to render streets or 164 PARALLEL PERSPECTIVE ‘Tho parallel perspective of a vanishing point is the most simple one and is used when the ob- jects have a vertical side that almost completely face the viewer. The lines of the sides converge into a single vanishing point. In the frontal view, the vertical lines are parallel, as well as the hori- ‘Zontal lines. In order to find the vanishing point ‘you only have to draw freehand the lengthening ‘of the lines of the lateral sides. BEGIN WITH A CUBE ‘Tho cubs is the most useful rogular figura to un- derstand the way perspective works. Afterwards, you may project any other regular geometric fig- Ure by analogy. From the cube you willbe able to develop new forms of porspective. Tha simplified spherical or cylindrical objects are drawn the same way in parallel perspective. The foreshort- ening of the circle, if there is one, does not change. A horizontal cylinder in oblique position looks very different from the way it looks when it is vertical. The two parallel lines seem to be.ap- Proaching gach other as the distance increases, receding into a single point (vanishing point) lo- cated exactly on the horizon line; this is the case for a road of a path that disappears into tho distance. We nll aw a cube in parallel perspective batow: A. To-davatop ary simoia geometric figure you shouts first ckave the front line that is closest fo you. B. Then, link the vertices on the vanishing point Jecatedt on the horizon ine C. Move the measure that marks the cube's depth D. Craw some straight vertical lines to trish defining {he back profil of the Fure, You mill nish forming the Sgure by crawing the parale tnes that coincide in thar verticas. To craw a cyinciwr you should adtapt to tha measures of the bo or cube. Draw the creles m perspective (on the upper and lower signs and craw the border othe tanks. Uf Wi GREATER DEPTH Oblique perspective produces a greater impres- sien of depth than paraliel perspective. its char acterized by having two vanishing points, because the vertical lines are the only parallel ones. The other lines, the non-vertical ones, re- cade to one vanishing point or the other, The figgege ct tie kre paepectve met tre ‘of oblique lines. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE ‘There is a Sequence to follow in order to develop any simple geomtnc figure using oblique par- spective. First, you locate the horizon line. Taking into eccount the measures, you should draw the most visible side of the geometiic figure. The lines that cross each other in this figure establish a vanishing point on the herizon line. Then, draw the side next to the frst one, This side has more foroshortening, although it remains visible, You can also link the lines that cross one another, the (ones that locate the Second vanishing point on the horizon line. ‘When you sae the fagade of a house from a front point ot view, the lines ot the construction will generally be horizontal and vertical; however, if You observe the samo building from a more lat- eral position, distinguishing several sides at the same time, these same lines will show inclination because of the perspective affect, a 2 =| ® N A To crawe cube. oblque perspective measure the nearest and most visio edge, Than craw the ronan ne and Inks ane of tha varticas ofthe exige {othe vanishing point B. Project « paral! ine to the crighal edge to define one of me cube's sides. . Locate another vanishing pant in the oppose siete and draw the comespondng perspective daganats. D. Using the sarne procedure, raise a third eciye to define the second sid of the cube. E. Wine you chew the nal rececing ines you wil ba able to venty f the representation of the cuba is comrect, Odiique perspective is wery useful nhan crawing the Comers oa bufeing. I.gime a solemn appearance 10 archtecteral constructions ‘You may want fo develop a (guide, such as the one shown “ ‘atte Sour, far cases in : vwtich you need fo locate the - vanishing pont outs to : paper . DRAWING WITH A GUIDE When two vanishing points are very far from ‘each other a guide must be established. You should first draw a bigger box in which the ‘model will be framed, Keeping the ariginal incl- nation of the rececking lines. Secondly, you should segment the most visible edge. the verti- ‘cal straight line in the middle, into equal parts. Then, draw the vertical lines of the ends to create ‘guide in both sides of the paper: In turn, divide: these segments into the same number of equal parts than the main edge. The two series of ‘obIque lines are a guide to draw balconies, windows, a6. ‘AERIAL VIEW ‘This type of perspective consists of three vanish- ng points. Two are located above the horizon lina, The: third ono is kooated on the vertical ing and, therefore, perpendicular to the horizon line, ‘There are three series of lines. Each one can- ‘verges toward its coresponding vanishing point, ‘The particular characteristic of this typ of per- ‘spective is that there are no parallel lines. Some aerial views may turn out cistorted. The best po- sition ts:one in which the not become ‘extremely distorted. A low object, for instance, «does not look very distorted fram en aerial view. Thereare no paralel ines inthe aerial view. Each set of ines receces {ots corresponding vanishing pont 187 ‘The ootal veww consists of three vanishing paints. Corder to daralop it, craw the uncer side ofa cube in ‘cbsique perspective. Then. crawng a eross from the vertovs, text a oN mer poi, Aer that, / ‘se tho vrtcal ne fom 7 to center of vision. at the ntergection of te Lnthe lower pat of tis J \verTecal focate the thict \When locating the vanishing points beyond tha edges of the paper, there ave various ways 10 achiovo te raceesion of oblique ines. Fer exami, yous cart Blace a piece of packing paper undemmatn the paper eon whieh you aro crowing and uso a thread or a ule to craw and engren the receding ines unt reacring the vanishing points. TT) drawing with Citmospheric There sa ype of perspective which s not made with lings, vanishing points, or division be- tween spaces, and which also creates a three dimensional effect. This is atmospheric perspec ive, which is achieved through contrasting and dlefining the foregraund and spreading and fad- ing the background planes. The depth effect and the atmosphere are an optical ilusion caused by ‘the water vapor and the dust particles in the air, which partially fade and blend the eclors and the forms at a distance. The three dimensional repre- sentation through ight and shadow effects and the sensation of distance are achieved by using this atmospheric perspective, In crawngs where the throw dimensiona etfoct recreated through atmospheric perspective, the mast {tense tones are located in the foreground and fade foward the nackgroung perspective ae When eroating the atmosahont efect, the artist's goa! wil be to work the particles and the water vapor in the aie ATMOSPHERE AND LANDSCAPE ‘This atmospheric effect is stronger in the landscape drawing when you are trying to give a depth effect to the planes that are further from the viewer. The foreground wil always be clearer ‘and contrasted than the background planes. As the planes approach the background, they lose clearness and color, and show more blended forms and tighter colors, Having the correct value assigned to avery plane of the drawing, you will bbe able to recreate an atmosphere with greater Jesper density for each, determining, by “tdoking at the intensity of the drawing tones, which range of grays comesponds to each piane. ‘98 this in mind and try to fine this way of tablishing the value to emphasize perspective, (mosphere, and, asa resuit, the three imensional effect. The best time to find this ect in a landscape is-at first ight. when the ape i still eavered by a gantie mist and a ish light. THE ATMOSPHERE OF A STILL-LIFE The captors by Consider that, when looking at an object at a Lakisha a short distance, your eye immediately fecuses on palsies the object and takes out of focus all the bodies Mcccan that surround it that are not at the same dis- a iba: tance. When drawing a stil: fe, try to folow this: roe ogee: draw relatively clear, sharp objects in the foreground, with less precision in those behind it, You may also ereate gray tonalties of the stil-ite with an eraser or simply with a blending stump: the goal is to create the atmosphere through the subtle difference among the planes, icine sari ecm | wrevgars Let cater bul oper ine | lower part of the craving. while the ightér ones ara in Gin nianioeeg 4 In thes atmosphere sti Me, fess portance is .g¥ en fo the planes in the ‘back af the apie: ths tlect produces a separation in tho atmosphere of the 80 established planes, the Coulisse effect: successive planes Diepending on the depth of a body in relation 16 he viewer, 1 wil bas fer baie ether bockes. You San eetlah an order by fre lec- ing the closeat object in he foreground andthe fartest object in the background. This wel allow jou skate a dllerin planes bal are or tected in the rared model, Tree observations dlcita wera to stusta the planes ofthe crave ing and ernphasiee the depth efecto the mode. The French word cous refers othe deco: fala on th ee of hoster etage tat aa ‘arrangad so that the actors can walk on and off ; aoe: they are also called top curt In ia __TP@CDuAES oo! maybe cbsarvedin Nh een case, the three dimensions are created by super- Se ee taposig Ue planes, an they were rop-ow- tnhs. Each lndocape pane represented a5 # itwere atop cual tne succession of planes Theaucession ofp empnasizes tha depth atect. shednga tic de nth rendered in homegenects SUCCESSIVE PLANES French anists adopted this word from stage design in order to define a type of composition in-which the superimposition of successive planes generates the depth, or three dimension- al, representation. The overlapped planes fade as if they were superimposed layers of ditfer- ‘ent tonalities, The luminosity shifts help create changing distance effects and, therefore, ‘enhance the depth effect of a landscape, This depth effect is not appropriate for rainy landscapes or with diffused light. It is prefer- -able to apply the coulsse effect to sunny landscapes, when the various planes are more de- fined and clearly delimited. ‘This biocked-in composition atows us to anaiyee the tone cfstribution in the crawing above, The depth of a landscape created withthe coulsse effet may be sehereticed 43.2 mountake range that fades as tho distance ncroases. Tha coulsse effect afows for a ‘Ssuecessfueisinbution of tones. The 0a! is nat only ta create a docth cetfect but also 10 create # more interesting composition. DIFFERENCE IN LUMINOSITY Ina stile, a portrait, ora figure, you can identi- fy foreground objects by just selecting a single background on whic the objects wil stand out. ‘The affect of the so-called repousscirs, which are elements of considerable size placed in the fore- (ground to make the background look more cis- tant, willbe reinforced in landscape drawing if, in ‘dation, there is a strong difference of luminosity ‘between the foreground and the background. LOOKING FOR A FOREGROUND When drawing a landscape outdoors, try to find a point of view in which you can situate a stinctive foreground: a tree, a hut, ahaylof, etc. In case there is no tree in the foreground, you may can apply the formuta of the English landsscapists from the end of the 18th century: these artists represented the third dimension by drawing some bushes, rocks, or blurry edges in the foreground without definition, as if the objects were out of focus. You can see me difference between these Wo photographs. The ‘ane on tha night without aoubt, mare interesting, since t hokdes a distinctive foreground, which gives greater depth atfect anc vanety to the A dstinctye foreground is mare otfective f the chawing also has a itaronce in mnosity the result sa storg contrast batwo the cebjact inthe foreground and tho background, \- an Colored "te! pencil _ and pastel drawing. | rawing does not always have to be MONOChromMe; this mecium included color (despite the fact that many people tend to think the opposite). Colored drawing gives a very chromatic ‘briliance with a clear pictorial appearance. illustrators and drawing professionals achiove resuitsof extracecinaniy high qualty with just a few colored pencis, ts tue " ‘that colored pencil work is not very differant trom graphite pencil work, The differ- ence lies in that the effort to establish the value of the grays in the monochrome work y is substituted by adding color to the value system; hawever, the techniques used are basically the same: hatching, using paper texture, and a type of work that includes line © tonal stain, Like colored pencits, pastel is an ideal medium to start learning how to draw and to mix colors. It is also {900d to discover the wary in which just a feer colors and black enabio the artist to achieve almost every tone of the color spectrum. Colored drawing is the first step to learning haw to paint, because it allows you to draw without paying 0 much attention to the medium itself which is.a habit when you are used to drawing with pencil. It allows you te focus completely on the basic problem of mixing andi composing BLENDED DRAWING Blending modifies the appearance and texture of ‘color thraugh smudging and dissolving the sur- face, This will tum the paper into a layer of fine and semiopaque color. Besides giving depth to a composition, blending also fulfils the artist's need to smooth contrasts and unity colors from various zones of the work Tomoko a gradation, frst apply a color, Than witha supenmposed zone, angly tha secand color. The two colors are blended unti the dense transitions berwean them are achieved, To blond strakes or a shackng, rub a cotton bai against tha paste, Pastas vobatity enables you fo extend and blond ituntiit has akrost disappeared, which ia very ‘Popular method for ths meciien, 18 A denise blenny salows you to cover f any area of the pape, ‘over when its 482 how to | T lix colors iro of the most atractve characteristics of pastels isthe ably to mix with different colors to produce soft and velvety tonalities, as well as subtle ‘gradations from light to dark. The artist's personality is reflected in his wark, the material used, and the way he or she mixes colors. MIXING WITH STROKES Superimposed mixtures of pastel hatchings produce the so-called “optical mixtures." The eye, from a certain distance, establishes the mixture between the strokes of both colors. If you want to.crate a zone of tonal mixture, draw soft random strokes with the tip of the pastel or use it on tts flat flat to draw wide strokes; do not apply too much pressure because if the pigment ‘adheres too much to the support’s surface, the mixture will be more difficult tomake. When working with three or four oerert coors af the same time, place a piece of cotton cloth an tho tabla. This wil protect ng iota tne surtace, and can alsa bo used to clean the colors that have comme ia contact wen oer cos The blondes matures whoro more than two colors have ‘Bean mixed icok dirty and mevecise campareet to the ng manufactured colors. 154 colored \_/encil A purely Inear agproacty fs the most cfc ‘approach to use ina chawing At the same tre, tis the bagnnng ‘of any work techniques “The characteristics of colored pencils allow for the combination of some of the basic resources of drawing and the polychrome effect in a single work. With a goed knowledge of the material and an appropriate technique, the expression possi- bilities of this medium are ideal for practicing, ex- ploring, and discovering the nature of color, ts combinations, harmony, and variations, A MORE LINEAR DRAWING ‘The characteristics of colored pencils enable you to develop some of the most basic techniques of the linear stroke. The weight and with of the Fine, its thidty, its experimental character, and its possibilities of being continuous or discontinu= us produce etfective optical Hlusions in a draw Ing. Besides the fact that itis the most elementary form ot drawing, linear drawing is the basis ofall the other techniques. Before beginning to draw, the first step any beginner should take is to explore the variety of possible strokes and familiarize him or herself with ther. This can be done using the sharp- ened point of the pencil (for fine strokes) or the side (for wide strokes). Purely linear drawing is the most difficult approach: the artist must ren- er the colors, tones, and textures of the subject without creating shadings or tonal gradations. & ‘skilful artist is able to describe, wit a singla ine, ‘all the possible visual strokes for a drawing, Colored pencils use optical superimposition. The ifiront tonai variations are achieved by superimposing ew Scumbies to an ita! colo, Invordr to master the techniques of colored pene crowing, fest experenent wih the stoke, the degree of Digmentation of the pened, and the hardness and shape ofthe pant —whother is sharpered ar wodkge-shagedt COLORING FROM LIGHT To DARK The colored pencil technique is based on pro- gressively intensifying tones, hues, and contrasts and on superimposing color layers, that is paint- ing trom fight to dark. This will sult in a more efficient control of valuas and tendencies, Other- wise, the paper surtace will rapidly become satu- rated, making it difficult to overlay colors. Besides scumbling, you may also use hatching oF cross-hatching. ‘THE AMOUNT OF EACH COLOR Each color may have one or more tones. These values depend on the amount of pigment that is applied onto the surface, which will constitute the amount added to the mixture. A smal amount of color should be added for scumbiing oF for applying tenuous Layers, whereas the first shadings should be more intense and opaque. SHADING WITHOUT STROKES in order to obtain homogeneous shadings, try to ‘choose a direction and maintain it while drawing. Each stroke is drawn next to the preceding one, exérting the same amaunt of pressure at ail times. This will produce a homogeneous shad ing. When the area to be covered is large, the color should frst be applied toa small zone, An- other adjacent coloring should be acted atter- wards and s0 on. trying to hide the borders of tho zones. The sitows you to.rotn to the drawing at any point without creating “scales or suckgon | cenangos, The continuous superposition of colers gives colored pencil orawngs tonal gradations without shar calor changes. as well as an attenuated! afmasphere: The mast comman technique in cobred penck aawing (6 to. aiways caw from ight to tars, bering with very {off shadings ard frishing with tha mest tensa and A madtated ive shows sits of wath, which arp achiowect ‘by taming te pert ina controlled Pp, Featnering and wiitening are perhaps two ofthe most Interesting, comple- mentary colored pencil. While in feathenng the goal is to achiave harmoniza- thon and obtain atmosphere through the stroke, whitening gives luminosity to the color by lightening the colors with superimposed layers of white FEATHERING Faathering is a method in which a soft drawing is ‘made on an area covered with a different color with gentle, juxtaposed strokes, always in the ‘same direction, 19 achieve an atmospheric effect, ‘and harmonic rhythm and direction, In this tach- nique, delicate directional strokes are drawn aver the subjacent color, with a loose waist and exert- ing Kittle pressure. This technique is ideal for in- tervening with colored pencils on a monochrome drawing, smoothing pronounced margins, and creating smooth light and shadow transitions. ‘A CHARACTERISTIC APPEARANCE With this technique the drawing surface presents ‘very characteristic appearance, reminiscent of a feather—hence its name. The accumulation of vertical strokes modifies the basic colors, pro- ucing subtle and dull mixtures, These mixtures are sometimes similar to those of impressionist artists like Degas, who often used this method In his pastels. As tho whole surtace of the drawing shows a tonal range of the same intensity and the same vertical stroko, the work acquires greater harmony. The feathering stroke also sug gests dynamism, movement, and a vaporous ef- fect. In the figure you can see a vertical feathering which contrasts interestingly with the horizontal emphasis of the sleeping figure, feathering and \Vhitening techniques The fathering technique is based on thw jurtaposition Of short and crectional strokas, wfooh give a charactenste texture to tho crawing, a ‘After tho frst tonal vaiies herve boon spied. ong Coles are ackded, covering thes whites of the ewing compbtey except forthe zones umroeey | tn me feathering tocrnique sho accumula fe reacts cols rr ade First concer the drawing with tonal techniques: then you may apply the white strokes, saturatng the papar tooth WHITENING Colored pencils, due to their physical consistency, have a particular character Istic: they aliow for the blending or soft- ‘ening of strokes by adding light gray or white on top of other colors. This gives the drawing a more harmonious appear- ance and a softer, less contrasted chro- matic elfect, ‘The whitening technique consists in polishing, balancing, and mixing the colors on a surface covered with shadings by only rubbing them with a blending stump, a white pencil, or an eraser. Besides the combination of finer and gives tho drawing a glossy, brillant finish. WHITENING THE TONES ‘The bast way of whitening is to apply the white color intensely on the shadings, which causes the initial colors to look duller, more pastel-liks ‘that is with softer and less saturated tones, The strokes are blended with the white pencil and the: effects of the paper texture désappear, Its not necessary to completely cover the paper's sur- face with white tones; you may also obtain gra- ations from more vivid, intense colors to more ‘whiter, lighter ones. When using this techniquo, be aware that the paper can break easily be- cause of the amount of pressure exerted on it {you apply successive color layers anctwhiten each layer you ean create a very saft, marbio-the surtice 18 Wan weit pia creamy Pastel-tke tones, hows fonts wal ber way client that of tre orect colors, ft wal gpter and the color wil acqruie a céferant quai ‘SGRAFFITO ‘The sgratfito technique consists in producing a layer of impasted color and then scratching the surface with a stylus, Oi! pastels, because of their waxy Consistency, are very Quod to use for ‘this technique, Each scratched stroke will re- move the uppar color layer, which easily comes, ‘off, uncovering the first layer color and allowing it 10 be visible, In the sgraffito technique any sharp: ‘tool may be used to oreate a great variety of lines, from dense scratches to fluid and thin lines, ‘COLORED SGRAFFITO TECHNIQUE This is a common technique when drawing with ‘waxes, which offers spectacular chromatic re~ ‘sults, This technique consists in drawing various ‘suparimposed layers of dense and thick color ‘and using a sharp tool to scratch lines through ‘the color areas to reveal the colors and paper ‘underneath. Dark colors are usually applied over light colors. 1. Inorder to use the colored sgraffito technique with waxes you should first create. very basic cutline of the drawing. You should avoid adding details, because they would end up being ‘covered with the dense wax layer 2. Then with bright-colored oil pastel, cover all the model's zones with thick stains —de not worry about defining them. After that, cover the initial color outline with a thick layer of black ‘wax. Only use enough pressure to cover the surface fully. 3. Now you can scratch the black layer with a lancet or sharp tao! to uncaver again the underlying colors. Remember to control the Girection of the stroke to achieve the desired tfect. The darkest zones will remain intact. 10 88 drawing al jude _ in charcoal avon though charcoal may S6em ike an extremely messy drawing medium and one difficult to control due to its powdery characteristics, its abitty to reflect tonal gradations is So great that this technique is ‘worth learning. Charcoal is dificult to manioulats in small format draw- Ings, 60 itis better to work on a large sheet that is mounted on a righd support. Hore the model is a female nude with interesting light and shadow contrasts, partially luminated from the front with chiaroscuro effects, in this exercise, presented by Carlant, use the charcoals point to perform the fing strokes, the charcoa's flat side to introduce the large tonal areas, and your fingers to create the various tonal intensities. 4. The two initial outline sketches are created with the model's forms correctly proportioned and the model's contours defined. To start, do a couple of quick sketches while observing the mode. n these sketches try ‘not only to register the form of the figure but also to capture the pose ‘correctly: an oval for the head, arched lines far the height of the ‘shoulders, the position of the arms, and the support of the lags. In the “ ‘second sketch, pay attention to the blended shadings and the light on the model Agoodaidinaaning | i a proportioned figure 1 fs towstabtsh aishon bowen ine ferent parts ofthe body througis 4 geometric forms Many people tend to £ tating 10 notee that ‘canon th egeesants seventh part of he mocks hakght seed thatthe height tho Wt of the 5. In this phase we complete tha processes of adding and eliminating charcoal, and of moditying the mactat's contours s0 that you can create more: precise forms. Proceed making gradations of various tones and intensitying the shadows until you achieve a good modeling effect, which will contribute to defining the body's. volume ant roundness, a Still-life with sanguine Ssanguine isa very interesting monachromic drawing medium. i has.a wide range of tones, but because of its color, it is much softer and warmer than charcoal, providing more luminosity to the drawing. In this exercise, carried out by Mercedes Gaspar, giving ralief to a still-life by using the modeling technique with sanguine is illustrated based on gra- dating and blending. Pay attention to the changes of direction in the lights, shadows, and reflections, since, a3 you know, these factors de- ‘scribe the object's form and curvature, 1. First sketch the basic forms of the model with a blending stump that is. \ saturated with sanguine, ‘This is the porfoct medium to- describe form without worrying about details, staining the paper, drawing profiles, and looking at the object's size and angle. Drawing with a blending stump also has the advantage of being easily erasable. ‘The boginning of the drawing requires careful hand movements and strokes. Even a form as simple as or a dish should be drawn with a great deal of attention and with the least number of ines, since any small iregularity wil be immediately visible. You have to concentvate on the contours, erasing and redrawing them if necessary until they are suitable, 2. With the sanguine stick on its side, block in the shadowed areas. The first shadings should only be blended light): they should simply separate the different planes within the Grawing. Da not place any stains on the mora illuminated zones. Afterwarcs, rub your finger on the contours to fade the stroke's profie on the paper, 8. After the blocking-in is completely devaloped. ‘you can start to add the mid tones and model the forms with tonal gradations and blending. With the ‘Sanguine, draw softly and insistently on the more: intense zones. ‘You now wit craw, with the erasure technique, a rural scene outlined y Ester Llaudet. The anly difference between this Grawing procedure and others is that you erase the strokes instead of adding them. Look for the iluminated zones and erase the background shading to obtain lighter tones, or even pure white. The model is an interesting rural view. Drawing with an eraser is especially needed when the theme presents chiaroscuro contrasts. erasure Lechnique: drawing highlights 1. Prepare the tonal background by covering the paper evenly with charcoal shading, using the stick on its side. It is important to work the whole plane at the same time if you Want to obtain a homogeneous background, Then, rub the surface with a blending stump to eliminate ary traces of strokes. °2. Draw a vory synthesized contour of the model's forms, being careful not to apply too much pressure. Pay special attention in this phase of the drawing, since the next steps will be based on these results. Avoid ‘excessive erasures. 4. The final result is.a vivid and interesting composition. To obtain the texture of the ‘vegetation, vary the angles of the eraser strokes or even cross them aver one anather. a 3. The advantage of working with an eraser is that the light is integrated inte the image trom the very beginning .You can add and erase tones until they are adjusted in the image. The erasures will be the light zones: the background color wil be the mid tones: and the charcoal wit be the dark zones, Shading will stand out more if you apply it by using the side of the eraser. Using a piece of a landscape - He cS on gray paper. a % og m2 Datnis next ‘exercise by Gabriel Martin, shading and white highlights are combined to giva volume to the trees and mountains. ture ‘of the landscape's elements will vary according to their distance from ‘the viewer: the farther away the trees are, the more uniform their tex- ‘ure will be; the closer they are to the viewer, the more detailed hhave to be. This is not a drawing with a realistic character; its interast lies in the composition and the study of the light, t cE ari 1. Tha main oloments of the landscape are : defined with simple strokes, made with a black oil pencil. The sizes and proportions are. We Si a 4 4 then determined and the composition is lait ‘ut, This first phase of the drawing is. : extremely important, since it deals with arranging the elements correctly in orcer to balance the picture. When you decide that the location of each plane is correct, reaffirm the forms with more definite strokes, ‘2, Block in the shadows with short strokes, ‘varying their intensities according to theit zone. In this phase it is not important to. ‘create oxtramely intense dark zones; it is much more important simply to establish ‘each dark zone, The darker areas are achieved by superimposing the same stroke ‘2s. many times as needed until you obtain the desired tone. 3. Finish the drawing by using a white pencit to highlight the ilumunated zones in the landscape. Instead of studying the details and nuances, break down the landscape into light and dark zones that are combined and Jusiaposed. The white highlights play a fundamental rote in defining tha foraground’s texture. The result isa landscape with its most significant elements clearly emphasized. an Interior with the white-on-white technique ‘The wnite-on-wnite technique uses artist” chalks and ol ‘pencils on a tonal background. The monochrome work method which we see applied in this exercise by Gabriel Martin, allows one to construct the model without distrac- tion from local colors or shadings, directing ail our atten- tion to representing its vivid luminous effects.It could be ‘said that to work with the white-on-white technique is to draw light, The selected mode! is an interior comer with mixed lighting, meaning daylight and artificial light are combined. ‘The framing, the scarce furniture, and the absence ol or- namental motifs will help us to understand space, texture, and volume. ‘4. First we have to express the perspective of the comer. Ta do ‘80, draw the horizon line, which is located somewhere below the middie of the paper. After adding a vanishing point, project two diagonals, which will be the lawer limits of the two walls. To finish the schema, draw another diagonal and a curve to delimit the vaulted calling, In order ta place the furniture correctly, imagine: that they are simple geometrical forms. Remember, draw the objects as if they were transparent. ‘2. Reatfiemn the basic forms, taking into account how the oblique perspective affects them. Use a white chalk pencil with a very sharpened point. Urheberrechilich geschiitztes Mate 208 the “three Color” technique: drawing with pictorial qualities ‘The “inroe color technique” uses thro itferent chalk colors to create intense, light, and mid tones on a drawing with a colored background, The following exercise, performed by Oscar Sanchis, combines colored ‘chalks and a colored background to achieve a drawing with pictorial qualities. The theme is a picturesque dock in Venice, which was select- ed because af the simple forms in its composition and because of the different light variations within it. 4. A medium-qrained brown paper was ‘Selected for this exercise, Begin by drawing the ‘autline sketch with a graphite pencil Then, with schematic strokes, draw the houses on the background. Begin with geometric farms that have an unfinished and imprecise appearance. 2. The foreground will require a bit more effort on your part since it contains ‘complex architectural elements, such as boat slips, stairs, and balustrades— aside colored back from the foreshortened forms of the Wall bo & camparent gondolas and their reflections on the au water. You will most likely have to frequently adjust the structural lines ‘with an eraser. Avoid cloar open space snice tte browr on the pane 3. The contours should remain open, not closing the lines completely, in order to leave tha option of shading, rounding, and defining tha forms. Block in the shading with sanguine, which ill give the drawing a second gradation with mid tones. With very soft strokes. work on the shadows on the houses’ fagades and on the water, ying not to make them too intense. The beauty of sanguina lies in the warmth and softness it imparts to the drawing. 4. Add the more intense shadows with a bistre-colored ‘chalk pencil with discrete shadings and gradations. which Will be different depending on their zone, The darker parts of the gondolas are achieved with a series of strokes. Whie you are drawing, run your finger softly over the strokes to better integrate them into the paper. D 1B. Add the clear, illuminated areas as highiights with white ‘chalk pencil so that there is a strong light and dark contrast, Highlight the ighter tones of the gondolas and define the bridge's balustrade. With the same white chalk Pencil, apply scumbles with light, stanted strokes, These will enrich the houses’ facades and provide an “atmospheric feeling to the drawing. 6. Once the colors are all laid ‘ut, keep working on madeling ‘So that you do not the entire ensemble, drawing: ‘craata any smudges blending; and adding lights, on the drawing, place shadows, and new colors. The 2 clwan pisce of effect of the “three color” technique is extraordinary, a3 you can see inthe finished drawing. paper an top of the drawing and rest (your hand an it white rechtlich © step by the tending stump technique: just a blurred stain [Now wo wit usa me biencing stump as a drawing took You wil ned ‘compressed charcoal powder and blending stumps of diferent sizes. Works performed with blending stumps, lke this one by Cartan, pro- duce sof, atmospheric drawings without any hard and pronounced profiles or lines, ay 1. Draw the horizon line at approximately one thied of the way up the sheet, Sines you will be starting with light tones, take the largest blending stump and add ‘small amount ot the compressod charcoal powder to ts end, Block in the sky's ahacing completely. The a's shading should be lighter and more transparent. 22. Tho blending stump spreads the charcoal and creates graduated tones. Make the profile of the uiletings on the coast with blurred, vague stains. Use even strokes to create the clouds’ forms. The more saturated the stump is with charcoal and the more Dressure you apply on it, the darker the tone willbe, If you make a mistake, comect it with, akneadable eraser. 2 ta sng two or troo | blending stumps of iter ticks is ‘commen in this typ2 of 1 exweso i \ ¥ 3. Continue the draiving, mosiitying the intensity of the shadows by adding more charcoal powder. Emphasize the buidi)s outtines and bring out the contrast between the coastal Iine and the sea, which appears much brighter. ‘Apply horizontal strokes.on the water with the blending stump to escribe its calm and crystalline surtace. Use the white af the paper to represent the sunlight's reflection on the water. Abush can aiso be & (good boning toot Since # 8 softer than a blending stare, it lighters a tone much ata avo S a landscape with chalk powder To cary oat tis orawing you wit need a ‘cotton ball, a clean rag. and chalk power. In= stead of buying chalk powder, you can make ‘your own by fling a bistre-colored chalk stick with a knife oF heavy sandpaper to obtain a fine powder. Use a piece of paper as a dip- ping tray and place the chalk powcier in it. Chak drawings require a medium-grained pa- oor in order forthe pigment particies to stick on the paper's surface. Oscar Sanchis drew ‘this next drawing. 1. With the cotton ball saturated with the chalk powder, start sketching the forms of some of the coastal rocks. Continue to build Up their tones and main forms minimally Quick and spontaneous chalk stains aré more adequate than careful shading. This technique, which creates. a drawing through tones instead of strokes and lines, makes ‘chalk powder @ unique and fun medium. if you want to create chal stans wit (ane of the boraars thar crt, a sheet of paper as a mask ta.caver the ares you youd not wart marked Azply the chalk powder witha piace of cotton, Blending from the craving paper towarts the: mask. The rest a blended tare wath wal-cetrted borders. rectiith geschutztes Mal 28 2. Intensify the tones by continuing to shade ‘the initial stains, thus creating several tones in the drawing. Working with a cotton ball wil make the transition between tones soft and ‘gradated. The more ilurminated zones are Achieved by letting the white of the paper show through, The water's surface requires a ‘more unitorm treatment. ‘3. Finally, draw the lines that finish contrasting the dark zones and add detail to 1@ complex structure of the rocks. Perform these strokes with a chalk pencil that is the same color as the chalk powder. The chalk Pencil is an excelent aid in modeling with hatching and cross-hatching. 216 & Sketching with a charcoal pencil Ts nis exercise by Marta Bermee Texcor, you wil iar howto make QUICK sketch of a forest landscape with a compressed charcoal pen- Gi. and without any blending. Although this exercise is not very difficult, you must closely study the dark and light zones so that you can draw them with soft strokes, The combination of finished and unfinished ar- eas gives the sketch a fresh look, | 1. The first forms of the trées and their branches are built up with very simple strokes. Da not womry about the thick vegetation; it will just contyse you 2. Carry out the troe’s texture with the ‘compressed charcoal pencil. First outline the trunks and branches in he foreground by | shading their bark with ringlets, which will ve them volume. Then apply the fist shadings ta the foliage. Bo caretul with the ‘amount of pressure you apply on the poncis, since light tones are achieved with very soft strokes. Do not concentrate on any specific -z0ne; instead, focus on the general structure ‘othe drawing,