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Skin Correlates

• Epidermis (5 layers)
• Dermis
– Papillary dermis
– Reticular dermis
• Subcutaneous (Hypodermis)

• Epidermis
– Stratified squamous epithelium,
keratinizing type

• Thick – found on palms and soles
• Thin - hairy
5 layers
• Stratum basale (germinativum)
– Continuous mitotic activity
– Consisting of a wide layer of cuboidal
or columnar cells in contact with the
– 1 layer
• Stratum spinosum
– Consisting of several rows of
polyhedral cells with round nuclei

• Stratum granulosum
– Consisting of 3-5 layers of polygonal
cells that gradually become
– The cytoplasm contains
• Stratum lucidum (eosinophilic)
– Composed of a thin layer of
transparent flattened cells
– More evident in thick skin

• Stratum corneum (horny layer)

– Consists of many layers of flattened
non-nucleated keratinized cells
• Papillary layer
– Superficial thin layer of loose
connective tissue beneath the

• Reticular layer
– Deeper and thicker layer which
contains skin appendages, blood
vessels, and nerves
Skin appendages
• Hair or Hair shaft
– Elongated keratinized structure
derived from invagination of
epidermal epithelium

• Hair follicle
–A tubular invagination of the
epidermis which extends down into
the dermis

• Sweat gland
– Appears as group of ducts bound by
cuboidal cells

• Sebaceous gland
– Connected to the hair follicle,
compound of polygonal cells with
clear cytoplasm and centrally
located nucleus

• Arrector Pili muscle
– Obliquely arranged small bundle of
smooth muscle
– Attached to the lower portion of hair
– Produces the “gooseflesh”
• Meissner’s corpuscle (tactile)
– Receptor for touch
– Most abundant in hairless skin of
palms and soles, the figertips, lips,
and nipple
– Elongated ovoid bodies found in the
dermal papillae (papillary)
– Base of epidermis
• Pacinian corpuscle
– Detection of vibration and mediate
deep pressure sensation
– Sliced onion-like lamellar structure
located in the deep dermis and
subcutaneous tissue