The Complete Works Of Han Fei Tzŭ. Translated by Liao, W. K.

Preface by the Translator Methodological Introduction by the Translator The Biography of Han Fei Tzŭ By Ssŭ-ma h!ien Preface to "The omplete #or$s of Han Fei Tzŭ %ith ollected ommentaries" Fore%ord to "The omplete #or$s of Han Fei Tzŭ %ith ollected ommentaries" Boo$ &ne hapter I' The First Inter(ie% %ith the )ing of h*in+ , Memorial hapter II' &n the Preser(ation of Han+ Issue Bet%een Han Fei and -i Ssŭ hapter III' &n the .ifficulty in Spea$ing+ , Memorial hapter I/' &n Fa(ourite /assals+ , Memorial hapter /' The Tao of the So(ereign Boo$ T%o hapter /I' Ha(ing 0egulations+ , Memorial hapter /II' The T%o Handles hapter /III' #ielding the Sceptre hapter I1' 2ight /illainies Boo$ Three hapter 1' Ten Faults Boo$ Four hapter 1I' Solitary Indignation hapter 1II' .ifficulties in the #ay of Persuasion hapter 1III' The .ifficulty of Pien Ho hapter 1I/' Ministers ,pt to Betray3 Molest3 or Murder the 0uler Boo$ Fi(e hapter 1/' Portents of 0uin hapter 1/I' Three Precautions hapter 1/II' 4uarding ,gainst the Interior hapter 1/III' Facing the South hapter 1I1' &n Pretentions and Heresies+ , Memorial Boo$ Si5 hapter 11' ommentaries on -ao Tzŭ*s Teachings Boo$ Se(en hapter 11I' Illustrations of -ao Tzŭ*s Teachings hapter 11II' ollected Persuasions3 The 6pper Series Boo$ 2ight hapter 11III' ollected Persuasions3 The -o%er Series hapter 11I/' &bser(ing .eeds hapter 11/' Safety and .anger

hapter 11/I' The #ay to Maintain the State hapter 11/II' Ho% to 6se Men+ Problems of Personnel ,dministration hapter 11/III' ,chie(ement and 0eputation hapter 11I1' The Principal Features of -egalism Boo$ 7ine hapter 111' Inner ongeries of Sayings3 The 6pper Series+ Se(en Tacts Fore%ord to /olume T%o Boo$ Ten hapter 111I' Inner ongeries of Sayings3 The -o%er Series+ Si5 Minutiae Boo$ 2le(en hapter 111II' &uter ongeries of Sayings3 The 6pper -eft Series Boo$ T%el(e hapter 111III' &uter ongeries of Sayings3 The -o%er -eft Series Boo$ Thirteen hapter 111I/' &uter Songeries of Sayings3 The 6pper 0ight Series Boo$ Fourteen hapter 111/' &uter ongeries of Sayings3 The -o%er 0ight Series Boo$ Fifteen hapter 111/I' riticisms of The ,ncients3 Series &ne hapter 111/II' riticisms of the ,ncients3 Series T%o Boo$ Si5teen hapter 111/III' riticism of the ,ncients3 Series Three hapter 111I1' riticisms of the ,ncients3 Series Four Boo$ Se(enteen hapter 1-' , riti8ue of the .octrine of Position hapter 1-I' In8uiring into the &rigin of .ialectic hapter 1-II' ,s$ing T*ien+ T%o .ialogues hapter 1-III' .eciding Bet%een T%o -egalistic .octrines hapter 1-I/' &n ,ssumers hapter 1-/' ,bsurd 2ncouragements Boo$ 2ighteen hapter 1-/I' Si5 ontrarieties hapter 1-/II' 2ight Fallacies hapter 1-/III' 2ight anons Boo$ 7ineteen hapter 1-I1' Fi(e /ermin+ , Pathological ,nalysis of Politics hapter -' -earned elebrities+ , ritical 2stimate of onfucians and Mohists Boo$ T%enty hapter -I' -oyalty and Filial Piety+ , Memorial

hapter -II' The -ord of Men hapter -III' Ma$ing &rders Trim hapter -I/' Surmising the Mentality of the People+ , Psychological ,nalysis of Politics hapter -/' 0egulations and .istinctions

Preface by the Translator
The present %or$ is the first translation of the complete %ritings of Han Fei Tzŭ into a #estern language' It is based on the best hinese te5t and commentaries3 #ang Hsien-shen*s The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries9 :9;<=>3 )ao H?ng*s Supplementary Commentaries on Han Fei Tzŭ's Works@ :9<AA>3 and Bung hao-tsu*s Textual Criticisms of Han Fei Tzŭ's WorksA :9<A=>3 %ith t%o most recent e5plicati(e editions of the te5t %ith Capanese translations and notes3 one by To$an Hiraza%a D :9<A9> and another by the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press E :9<A@-A>3 as reference' #ang Hsien-shen completed his monumental %or$ in 9;<E' Its bloc$-printed copies did not come off the press in hangsha3 the great scholar*s nati(e city3 till o(er one year later' Though the te5t is not punctuated li$e all the te5ts of other hinese classics3 I ha(e found no misprint' 7o%adays it is apparently out of print3 %hile rare copies may be still procurable in big libraries and old boo$ stores' The reprint of #ang*s %or$ by the ommercial Press3 Shanghai3 %ith mo(able types3 contains not more than a dozen of misprints in the %hole boo$' Bet it is regrettable that the mar$s of punctuation3 %hich they added %ith a (ie% to increasing the intelligibility of the te5t3 abound %ith misleading errors' )ao H?ng*s %or$3 %hich appeared in 7os' A and D in /ol' II of the Wuhan Uni ersity !uarterly "ournal of #i$eral %rts&= re(eals his scholarly thoroughness and constitutes an original contribution to the e5isting $no%ledge of Han Fei Tzŭ*s te5t' Bung hao-tsu*s %or$3 in the main3 represents a systematic synthesis of the te5tual criticisms of Han Fei Tzŭ*s %or$s by his predecessors and himself' The t%o Capanese editions and translations are not free from a number of errors and misprints3 but the e5egetical remar$s and the e5planatory notes added by the translators are e5ceedingly (aluable' By collating these %or$s carefully3 I ha(e hoped that the te5tual basis of my 2nglish rendering can be a coordination of the best and ne%est scholarly efforts on the hinese original' Ho%e(er3 my translation probably in(ol(es incorrect or inaccurate points3 %herefore any suggestion for emendations or elucidations made by the reader %ill be most %elcome' ,s it is necessary in the translation to ac8uaint the reader %ith the author*s life and times as %ell as the history of the te5t in the original3 I ha(e prefi5ed to the author*s #or$s The 'io(raphy of Han Fei Tzŭ& by Ssŭ-ma h!ien3 #ang Hsien-ch!ien*s )reface to *The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries*& and #ang Hsien-shen*s o%n Foreword to *The Complete Works of Han Fei Tzŭ with Collected Commentaries*& %hich altogether can ma$e a general introduction3 brief but clear' My methodological introduction is meant to clarify the main problems3 principles3 and methods of translation'

&n the completion of this %or$3 I should ac$no%ledge my than$s to .r' M' S' Bates and Mr' -i Siao-yen for the criticisms and suggestions they ha(e gi(en me on all a(ailable occasions3 and to the -ibraries of the 6ni(ersity of 7an$ing3 the Institute of hinese ultural Studies3 and the 6ni(ersity of Hong )ong for the facilities they ha(e afforded me3 as %ell as to .r' 7e(ille #hymant3 formerly of the -ondon School of &riental Studies3 for helpful comments3 and Mr' ,rthur Probsthain for his congenial interest in promoting the present %or$ and enabling its publication to materialize' I am also indebted to my %ife %ho has carefully gone o(er the %hole translation and inspired my perse(erance in many painsta$ing efforts %hich the author since centuries ago has imposed upon anybody attempting to translate his %ritings into any alien tongue' W. K. Liao. Hong Kong, April, 1939.

Chapter I. The irst Inter!ie" "ith the King of Ch#in$ A %e&orial1
Thy ser(ant has heard+ "#ho $no%s not but spea$s3 is not %ise' #ho $no%s but spea$s not3 is not loyal' ,ny minister3 if not loyal3 must be condemned to death' If %hat he spea$s be not true3 he must be condemned to death3 too'" Ho%e(er3 thy ser(ant begs to spea$ all he has heard and entreats Bour MaFesty to con(ict him of %hate(er crime' Thy ser(ant has heard3 ,ll-under-Hea(en @ are forming the Perpendicular 6nion A by uniting %ith hao D in the centre3 Ben in the north3 and #ey in the south3 confederating %ith hing3 E securing the good-%ill of h!i3 and also conFoining Han3 %ith a (ie% to facing the %est = and thereby forcibly causing h!in difficulties' ,t such a measure thy ser(ant is laughing %ithin himself' #hile there are in the %orld three causes of ruin3 the allies e5emplify all of them' If they are said to be e5emplifying all the causes of ruin3 it is because of their conspiracy against h!inG ,bout the causes of ruin3 thy ser(ant has heard the saying3 ", misgo(erned country attac$ing a %ell-go(erned country %ill go to ruinH a %ic$ed country attac$ing an upright country %ill go to ruinH and a country defying the course of nature3 %hen it attac$s a country follo%ing the course of nature3 %ill go to ruin'" ,t present3 the treasuries and armouries of the allies are not fullH their granaries I and storehouses are empty' #ith all their gentry and commoners enlisted3 there can be massed troops counting by hundreds of thousands' ; ,mong them3 those %ho %ould bo% their heads3 < %ear feather head-dresses3 assume the office of commanders3 %ith a decisi(e forethought to die fighting3 number more than 9J one thousand' #hile they all a(o% their determination to die3 in case of emergency3 e(en pulled by na$ed blades in the front and pushed by a5es and an(ils from behind3 they %ould run bac$%ard and ne(er fight to the death' 7ot that the gentry and commoners cannot fight to the death3 but that their superiors are not capable of ma$ing them do so' For re%ards are not besto%ed as promisedH nor are punishments inflicted as announced' Since re%ard and

punishment are of no faith3 their gentry and commoners %ould ne(er fight to the death' 7o% h!in issues (erbal commands and %ritten orders and carries out re%ards and punishments accordingly3 both men of merit and of no merit are clearly distinguished 99 from each other' Therefore3 though the people ha(e ne(er seen any bandits since they left their parents* bosoms and lapels3 once the ne%s of hostilities reaches their ears3 e(ery%here are found men tapping their feet and baring their arms to rush against sharp blades and step upon the charcoal of burning furnaces %ith a decisi(e forethought to die fighting' /erily in time of crisis readiness to die and resolution to li(e are not the same' Bet the people of h!in alone dare all hazards in the cause of their country3 for they respect courageous 9@ death' Indeed3 one man resol(ed to die a courageous death can o(ercome ten enemies afraid of death3 ten bra(e men can o(ercome one hundred co%ard enemies3 one hundred bra(e men can o(ercome one thousand co%ard enemies3 one thousand bra(e men can o(ercome ten thousand co%ard enemies3 and ten thousand bra(e men can subdue ,ll-under-Hea(en' In these days3 h!in has a territory3 %hich3 if the %ider places are cut off to fill up the narro%er places3 e5tends o(er se(eral thousand s8uare li3 plus a famous army counting by tens of thousands' In regard to the re%ards and punishments carried out by her commands and orders as %ell as the ad(antages and disad(antages presented by her topographical features3 no other country in ,ll-under-Hea(en can be compared to her' &n coping %ith the %orld in the light of such gains3 she can accomplish more than the con8uest of ,ll-under-Hea(en and can easily hold them at her feet' Thus3 h!in in %arfare has ne(er failed to %in3 in attac$ has ne(er failed to ta$e3 and %hate(er has stood in her %ay she has ne(er failed to smash3 ha(ing opened up a (ast land stretching se(eral thousand li' This has been her great achie(ement' Ho%e(er3 of late3 so dull are her %eapons and armour gro%ing3 so ill are her gentry and commoners becoming3 so scanty are her sa(ings and hoardings become3 so fallo% are her fields and arable lands resting3 so empty are her granaries and storehouses3 that her neighbouring feudal lords do not obey her and the title of Hegemonic 0uler 9A is not as yet secured' For such there is no other reason than this+ Her State counsellors3 all in all3 do not e5ert their spirit of loyalty' Thy ser(ant dares to spea$+K In times gone by3 h!i in the south routed hing3 in the east routed Sung3 in the %est subdued h!in3 in the north routed Ben3 and in the centre put Han and #ey to use' Thus3 %ith (ast territory and strong soldiers she %on in %arfare and too$ in attac$3 thus becoming able to enforce her edicts and decrees throughout ,ll-under-Hea(en' &f h!i3 the limpid hi Stream and the muddy Bello% 0i(er sufficed to ma$e boundariesH the long %alls and the large di$es 9D sufficed to ma$e frontiers' Therefore3 in fi(e successi(e %ars %as h!i (ictorious' -ater3 because of only one %ar 9E she failed to %in3 h!i %as reduced to impotency' From this (ie%point it is clear that %arfare is al%ays a life-or-death 8uestion to the ruler of ten thousand chariots' 9= Besides3 thy ser(ant 9I has heard the saying+ "&n remo(ing traces3 lea(e no root3 and be no neighbour to any catastrophe' There shall then sur(i(e no catastrophe'" #ell3 h!in in the %ar 9; %ith the hings routed them by long odds and made such a

surprise attac$ upon the city of Bing and the districts of Tung-ting3 #u-tu3 9< and hiang-nan3 that the ruler and ministers of hing had a narro% escape and sought refuge east%ard under the protection of h!?n' ,t that moment3 if %ith her forces h!in closely pursued the hings3 the hing State could be ta$en' ,fter the state %as ta$en3 the people %ould become co(etable and the territory fruitful to h!in3 so that in the east h!in could thereby %ea$en h!i and Ben and in the centre de(astate the Three hins' @J If so3 at one stro$e she could secure the title of Hegemonic 0uler and lay all the neighbouring feudal lords under tribute' Instead3 her State counsellors led the troops in retreat and3 %hat %as %orse3 made peace %ith the hings3 allo%ed them to reco(er the ruined country3 gather the scattered masses3 reinstate the Spirits of -and and 4rain on the ,ltar3 @9 and rebuild their ancestral shrines3 and let them lead ,llunder-Hea(en to face the %est and cause h!in difficulties' This3 no doubt3 %as the first time the %ay to Hegemony %as lost' ,nother time3 @@ %hen ,ll-under-Hea(en formed a %ic$ed alliance and entrenched their forces at the foot of Mount Hua3 @A His MaFesty @D by (irtue of his o%n edicts ordered the army to rout them' The soldiers marched as far as the outer %alls of -iang' The city of -iang3 after being besieged for se(eral tens of days3 could be captured' #ere -iang captured3 the #ey State might fall' Should #ey be ta$en3 the friendly contact bet%een hao and hing %ould come to an end' If the friendly contact bet%een hao and hing ceased3 hao %ould fall into peril' Should hao fall into peril3 hing %ould become helpless' @E So that in the east h!in could %ea$en h!i and Ben and in the centre hold do%n the Three hins3 at one stro$e she could secure the title of Hegemonic 0uler and lay all her neighbouring feudal lords under tribute' Instead3 her State counsellors led the troops in retreat3 and3 %hat %as %orse3 made peace %ith the #eys3 allo%ed them to reco(er the ruined country3 gather the scattered masses3 reinstate the Spirits of -and and 4rain on the ,ltar3 and rebuild their ancestral shrines3 and let them lead ,ll-under-Hea(en to face the %est and cause h!in difficulties' @= This3 no doubt3 %as the second time the %ay to Hegemony %as lost' In the days of old3 Mar8uis Hsiang3 @I %hile go(erning h!in3 used the soldiers of one country to perform meritorious ser(ices for t%o' @; ,s a result3 the soldiers of h!in %ere life-long e5posed afieldH gentry and commoners %ere tired and ill at homeH %hile His MaFesty ne(er secured the title of Hegemonic 0uler' This3 no doubt3 %as the third time the %ay to Hegemony %as lost' The hao lan3 indeed3 holds the central state inhabited by heterogeneous populations' Their people are fri(olous and hard to rule3 their re%ards and punishments are of no faith3 their topographical features are not ad(antageous3 and their superiors @< are unable to e5ert the people*s best' ,ssuredly these are symptoms of a doomed state' Bet3 not concerned about the %elfare of the masses3 they dared to mobilize their gentry and commoners3 entrenched their forces in the suburbs of h!ang-p!ing3 and thereby contested %ith h!in the districts of Shang-tang in Han' AJ Thereupon His MaFesty by (irtue of his o%n edicts ordered the army to rout them and captured #u-an' ,t that moment3 among the haos3 high and lo% %ere not mutually attachedH the noble and the humble had no faith in each other' 7aturally Han-tan could not hold out long' Should h!in ta$e Han-tan3 occupy Shan-tung and Ho-chien3 and lead her troops on the march %est%ard to fall upon Hsiu-%u3 cross the Bangch!angA9 ,scent and subFect A@ Tai AA and Shang-tang3 then %ithout a single

cuirass used and %ithout any gentry or commoners afflicted the thirty-si5 AD counties of Tai plus the se(enteen AE counties of Shang-tang %ould all become h!in*s possessions' ,fter Tai and Shang-tang had fallen into the hands of h!in %ithout fighting3 Tung-yang and Ho-%ai %ould also %ithout fighting fall into the hands of h!i %hile the territory to the north of entral Hills and the 0i(er Hu-to into the hands of Ben' In conse8uence hao %ould gi(e %ay' #ithout hao3 Han %ould fall' #ithout Han3 neither hing nor #ey could stand by itself' If hing and #ey could not stand alone3 then at one effort h!in could brea$ Han3 encroach upon #ey3 and capture hing %hereby to %ea$en h!i and Ben in the east3 and brea$ up the #hite Horse Ford %hereby to flood the #ey lan' ,s a result3 the Three hins %ould fallH the 6nionists %ould failH and His MaFesty might %ith clothes dropped and hands folded A= %ait for ,ll-under-Hea(en to gi(e %ay and easily secure the title of Hegemonic 0uler' Instead3 the state counsellors led the troops in retreat3 and3 %hat %as %orse3 made peace %ith the haos' AI Thus3 not%ithstanding the intelligence of His MaFesty and the strength of the h!in soldiers3 the plan for Hegemony %as discardedH no inch of territory but insults by a doomed state %as gainedH %hich %as altogether due to the incompetence of the state counsellors' Indeed3 hao doomed to ruin did not go to ruinH h!in deser(ing Hegemony did not attain Hegemony' This %as the first reason %hy ,ll-under-Hea(en came to penetrate the ability of h!in*s state counsellors' ,gain3 %hen h!in marched out all her officers and soldiers to launch a fresh attac$ upon Han-tan3 her men failed to ta$e that city3 thre% a%ay their armour and A; crossbo%s3 %ithdre%3 and shi(ered' This %as the second reason %hy ,ll-under-Hea(en came to penetrate the strength of h!in' Mean%hile3 they dre% out in retreat and held their breath in the suburbs of -i-hsia3 %hereupon His MaFesty arri(ed %ith ne%ly gathered forces' They then started ne% engagements but could not %in' ,s their supplies stopped coming along3 A< they had to lea(e the front line' DJ This %as the third reason %hy D9,ll-under-Hea(en came to penetrate the strength of h!in' Thus3 in the past3 they penetrated the ability of h!in*s State counsellors at home and %ore out her military strength abroad' From this (ie%point thy ser(ant belie(es that the 6nion of ,ll-under-Hea(en has practically had no obstacle' 7o% that3 inside h!in3 armour and %eapons are gro%ing dull3 gentry and commoners are falling ill3 sa(ings and hoardings are becoming scanty3 and fields and arable lands are resting fallo%3 granaries and storehouses are standing emptyH outside h!in3 ,ll-under-Hea(en are (ery firmly allied against her3 %ould to Bour MaFesty that there be concerns of mind about such a crisisG Besides3 thy ser(ant has heard the saying+ "Be alarmed and trembling and act more carefully day after day' If thou act carefully in due manner3 thou mayest hold ,llunder-Hea(en under thy s%ay'" Ho% to pro(e thisL #ell3 in days of yore3 ho%3 being the Son of Hea(en3 D@ commanded hundreds of thousands of troops of ,llunder-Hea(en3 %ith the left flan$ of his army draining the 0i(ulet h!i and the right flan$ draining the 0i(ulet Huan till the %ater of the h!i %as used up and the %ater of the Huan ran no longer' Thereby he intended to cause )ing #u of hou difficulties' ommanding only three thousand troops all clad in %hite DA armour3 )ing #u in one day*s battle bro$e up the state of ho%3 too$ him prisoner3 occupied his territory3 and subdued his subFectsH %hereas none in the %orld e(er grie(ed o(er the e(ent' -i$e%ise3 2arl hih DD once led the forces of three countries DE to attac$ /iscount D= Hsiang of hao at hin-yang' By cutting do%n the hin Stream and thereby inundating the city for three months3 DI he brought the city to the (erge of do%nfall'

bamboo slips3 di(ined by casting lots %ith them3 and found omens on the shell foretelling the gains and losses3 %hereby he chose the country he should surrender to' Mean%hile3 he sent out his en(oy named hang M?ng-t!an3 D< %ho %ormed through the %ater and stole out of the city' He turned do%n the co(enant 2arl hih had made %ith the other t%o countries and %on the forces of the latter to his (ie%s' #ith their aid he fell upon 2arl hih3 too$ him prisoner3 and restored to /iscount Hsiang the original territory' EJ In these days3 h!in has a territory3 %hich3 if the %ider places are cut off to fill up the narro%er places3 e5tends o(er se(eral thousand s8uare li3 plus a famous army counting by hundreds of thousands' In regard to the re%ards and punishments carried out by her commands and orders as %ell as the ad(antages and disad(antages presented by her topographical features3 no other country in .ll-under-Hea(en" and casually "the %orld"' By 天下 in this chapter and the follo%ing one Han Fei Tzŭ fre8uently meant the allies against h!in' A' 合從' The Perpendicular 6nion3 of %hich Han Fei Tzŭ %as an eye%itness3 %as the confederacy of the states to the east and south of h!in' It %as originally ad(ocated and presided o(er by Su h!in in AAA $+c+ D' Here is the first instance of my adding %ords to the ideas of the original in order to increase its intelligibility' To be sure3 among the allies the hao State %as located in the centre' E' Han Fei Tzŭ used hing instead of h!u on purpose to a(oid calling the father of the $ing by name %hich %as Tzŭ-ch!u' hing became the epithet of the h!u State because it %as the style of the capital of h!u as %ell as the name of a mountain close by the city' .ll-under-Hea(en can be compared to her' &n coping %ith the %orld in the light of such gains3 she can con8uer and hold .Thereupon /iscount Hsiang bored a tortoise-shell3 counted D.ll-under-Hea(en at her feet' Therefore thy ser(ant has in the face of the death-penalty prayed to ha(e an audience of Bour MaFesty and spea$ of the right %ay %hereby to brea$ up the Perpendicular 6nion of . number of commentators misled by the Schemes of the Warrin( States ha(e mista$en this %or$ for the first memorial presented to )ing Hui of h!in by hang Bi3 %ho entered the h!in State in AAA $+c+ and %as appointed Prime Minister in A@.ll-under-Hea(en3 to ta$e hao and ruin Han3 to subFect hing and #ey3 to befriend h!i and Ben3 in order thereby to secure the title of Hegemonic 0uler and lay all the neighbouring feudal lords under tribute' May E9 Bour MaFesty therefore lend ear to this memorialG Should at one effort the Perpendicular 6nion not be bro$en3 hao not ta$en3 Han not ruined3 hing and #ey not subFected3 h!i and Ben not befriended3 the title of Hegemonic 0uler not secured3 and all the neighbouring feudal lords not laid under tribute3 %ould Bour MaFesty behead thy ser(ant as a %arning to the %hole country on a charge of disloyal counsel to the so(ereignL E@ 'otes 9' 初見秦' This %as the memorial Han Fei Tzŭ presented to the )ing of h!in at his first inter(ie% %ith the ruler in @AA $+c+ This )ing reigned from @D= to @9J $+c+& and upon his complete success in %orld-con8uest in @@9 $+c+ designated himself as Shih Huang Ti or the Initiating 2mperor' . $+c+ In so doing3 ho%e(er3 they ha(e entirely ignored the countere(idence that many of the facts adduced in the memorial happened after hang Bi*s death in AJ< $+c+ @' 天下 to the hinese since classic anti8uity has meant all that they can sur(ey under Hea(en' It is therefore used sometimes as a collecti(e noun and sometimes as a noun common but plural' Throughout my translation its 2nglish rendering is usually ".

utumn :I@@DJD$+c+> it %as used as the style of a ruler first successful in foreign con8uests and later capable of respecting the authorities of the Son of Hea(en and protecting the rights of %ea$er and smaller states' The 2nglish renderings by 4iles and .=' 0oughly spea$ing3 h!in %as situated to the %est of the allies in .ll-under-Hea(en' I' h!Mn :囷> is a round barn of cropsH ts!ang :倉>3 a s8uare one' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain symbolized the centre of the people*s common interests3 not only religious but political and social as %ell' @@' @IA $+c+& the D@nd year of )ing 7an3 the ADth year of )ing hao of h!in' .uring the Period of Spring and .llunder-Hea(en under his tyrannical and imperial rule' Therefore to the connotation of the term during this period "Tyrant" in the 4ree$ sense is more suitable than the other t%o renderings' I prefer to render it as "Hegemonic 0uler"3 %hich seems able to imply either "-ord Protector" or "Tyrant" or both3 and so throughout the %hole translation' The French rendering by 2d' ha(annes is "roi hNgNmon"3 but "roi" is not as comprehensi(e as "ruler" 9D' Both the %alls and the di$es %ere to the south of the city of modern P!ing-yin' 9E' #aged in @.' #aged in @I.ubs3 and as "Tyrant" in the 4ree$ sense by B' P' Mei' . $+c+& the AIth year of )ing 7an of hou3 %hen 4eneral Pai h!i of h!in crushed the entire forces of h!u' 9<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 湖 belo% 五 should be 渚' @J' hao3 Han3 and #ey3 %hich partitioned the hin State in DJA $+c+& the beginning year of the 2ra of the #arring States3 %ere sometime called "Three hins"' @9' In the feudal days the .ubs3 therefore3 seem to suit the connotation of the term of this period better than Mei*s' .ynasty emoluments %ere measured by chariots3 one chariot being supported by a locality of si5 s8uare li' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 臣 should be supplied belo% 且' 9.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 數十百萬 should be 數千百萬' <' To bo% the head in this case means to e5press one*s strong %ill' 9J' #ith )ao H?ng 至 belo% 不 should be 止' 99' #ith )ao 事 belo% 相 means 視' 9@' #ith )ao Bu 奮 abo(e 死 means 勇' 9A' 霸王 %as rendered into 2nglish as "leader of the feudal princes" by 4iles3 as "-ord Protector" by H' H' .D $+c+& the A9st year of )ing 7an of hou3 %hen 4eneral Bo Bi of Ben crushed the entire forces of h!i 9=' In ancient hina the chariot %as the basic unit for estimating the military strength as %ell as the political ran$ of a feudal lord' &ne chariot carried thirteen hea(ily-armed soldiers and %as follo%ed by se(enty-t%o infantrymen' &riginally only the Son of Hea(en %as entitled to ten thousand chariots and a feudal lord to one thousand chariotsH %hereas during the 2ra of the #arring States e(ery po%erful feudal lord arrogated to himself ten thousand chariots' Therefore3 the ruler of ten thousand chariots came to mean the ruler of one of the first-class po%ers' Moreo(er3 during the hou .uring the 2ra of the #arring States :DJA@@@$+c+>3 ho%e(er3 any feudal lord %ho could emerge to be the strongest among all paid no respect to the central authorities and ga(e no protection to any %ea$er and smaller State' #hat he aimed at %as the complete anne5ation of .

in place of /' AA' #ith )u 0 should be supplied abo(e *1' AD' -u #?n-shao proposed 2十3 for 4十3' AE' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 5十 should be 十5' A=' To %ait %ith clothes dropped and hands folded means to %ait %ith ease and hope' AI' In @E< $+c+ A. for -' A@' The Schemes of the Warrin( States has . for > and so throughout the %hole discussion' . means the emperor as he go(erns the people in accordance %ith the %ill and the %ay of Hea(en' DA' lothing in pure %hite symbolized mourning inasmuch as the e(ent happened during the mourning period for )ing #u*s father' DD' &ne of the Si5 7obles %ho held fiefs in the then (ast but %ea$ hin State' &ther chapters of Han Fei Tzŭfre8uently ha(e < in place of =' DE' The feud of 2arl hi plus those of Han and #ey' D=' I read .' The h!in State and his pri(ate fief' @<' BM BMeh proposed * for 下' AJ' In @=J $+c+ A9' )u )uang-ts!? proposed +.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 6 is a mista$e for 7' A<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 8 should be 9' DJ' In @EI $+c+ D9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen % should be supplied belo% :' D@' 天.@A' Situated on the borderland bet%een h!in and #ey' @D' )ing hao :AJI-@EJ $+c+> of h!in' @E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 狐 should be and ! belo% it is superfluous' @=' #ith #ang "天下#$%&秦'( should be supplied belo% )' @I' #ey Can %as made Mar8uis Hsiang in @<9 $+c+ by )ing hao of h!in' @.

' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen 數 should be supplied abo(e A as found in hap' 1I1' D<' The Historical .ll-under-Hea(en from the four directions3 the so(ereign has to bear disgrace and the ministers ha(e to undergo hardships3 high and lo% ha(ing thus for years shared griefs %ith each other in mending garrisons3 in ma$ing pro(ision against strong foes3 in $eeping hoardings and sa(ings3 and in building %alls and moats3 in order to solidify their defence %or$s' Therefore3 though h!in starts in(ading Han no%3 she may be unable to ta$e her in a year' Should h!in %ithdra% after ta$ing only a city3 she %ould fall into contempt by .gain3 should Han rebel3 #ey %ould Foin her and hao %ould loo$ to h!i for safety' D If so3 h!in %ill e(entually supply hao %ith the strength of Han and #ey and let h!i unite all these po%ers to solidify the Perpendicular 6nion and thereby struggle for supremacy %ith h!in' The result %ould be hao*s fortune and h!in*s misfortune3 come %hat might' "Indeed3 if h!in on going for%ard to raid hao cannot ta$e and on turning bac$%ard to attac$ Han cannot %in3 her troops3 ho%e(er in(ulnerable3 %ill become tired of field .ll-under-Hea(en' . rather detailed narration of the %hole e(ent is found in hap' 1' E9' #ith -u #?n-shao F should be G ' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen % abo(e H is superfluous and 王 belo% H should be >' Chapter II.ll-under-Hea(en %ould accordingly find reason for the scheme of the haos' "/erily Han is a small country' To stand the pressure by .s-1 Han Fei Tzŭ's -emorial to the .ecords has BCD in place of BCE' EJ' In DEA $+c+ .ll-under-Hea(en3 %ho might in their turn crush her soldiers' .in( of Ch/in@ +K "Han has ser(ed h!in for up%ards of thirty years' To h!in she has formed a shielding barrier in case of %ar and made a restful carpet in time of peace' Thus3 %hene(er h!in sends out crac$ troops to con8uer ne% territory and Han A follo%s at her heels3 Han incurs hatred from .nd3 %ith the clear understanding that unless h!in be %ea$ened3 the feudal lords %ould e(entually see their ancestral shrines ruined3 they plan to turn %est and accomplish their tas$' This is not such a scheme as could be de(ised in the brief space of one day' 7o% supposing h!in left the impending harm hao has been causing and spurned Han so trust%orthy a (assal as a eunuch3 then .DI' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen ? should be @3 %hich )ao H?ng considered absurd' D. (n the Preser!ation of Han$ Iss)e *et"een Han ei an+ Li .ll-under-Hea(en3 but e(ery achie(ement belongs to h!in' "Further3 since Han pays tribute and renders ser(ices to h!in3 she does not differ from a district or county of h!in' &f late3 ho%e(er3 thy ser(ant has in secret heard of the scheme of Bour MaFesty*s ministers to raise an army to in(ade Han' /erily it is the haos that ha(e been recruiting officers and soldiers and supporting the ad(ocates of the Perpendicular 6nion %ith a (ie% to uniting the troops of .

h!in %ill infallibly become the an(il < of the forces of .in( of Ch/in9A01 "6nder His MaFesty*s edict the memorial submitted by the en(oy from Han3 in %hich he maintained that Han should not be ta$en3 %as handed do%n to thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ' Thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 9D ho%e(er3 considers the (ie%point presented therein e5tremely fallacious' "#hat stomach and heart diseases are to man3 that is Han to h!in' The man ha(ing stomach and heart diseases ordinarily only feels li$e standing in the mud %hich is stic$y and cannot be brushed offH but as soon as he starts running fast3 the trouble becomes serious' Similarly3 Han3 though she pays homage to h!in3 is a constant menace to h!in' .gain3 it is a great ris$ to de(ise such a scheme as %ould e5cite the feudal lords* suspicion' 25posing these t%o carelessnesses to the %orld is not the right %ay to display our strength before the feudal lords' Therefore3 %ith due re(erence may thy humble ser(ant pray Bour MaFesty to ponder o(er such e(entualities and foresee that should the e5pedition against Han be utilized by the Perpendicular 6nionists3 it %ould be too late to regret the conse8uencesL" 9@ #i Ssŭ's -emorial to the .ll-under-Hea(en3 %herefore e(en though Bour MaFesty*s reign may last as long as metals and roc$s3 there ne(er %ill come the day to bring the %orld under one rule' "7o%3 it is the stupid suggestion of thy humble ser(ant to send an en(oy to hing and3 by bribing the ministers in charge of her state affairs %ith precious presents3 con(ince them of the reasons %hy hao has been conspiring against h!in3 and at the same time send a hostage to #ey to ma$e her feel at ease3 and then 9J to fall upon hao' onse8uently3 hao %ill not ma$e any serious trouble in spite of her confederation %ith h!i' .t the ne%s of any $ind of hostilities she cannot be trusted' /ying %ith hao3 h!in has sent hing Su to h!i' 7obody is yet able to foretell the outcome' From thy ser(ant*s (ie%point3 it remains uncertain %hether the friendship of h!i and hao %ill be bro$en by the mission of hing Su' Should it remain unbro$en3 .operations abroad and her transport corps %ill fall short of supplies E from home' Then3 if h!in masses her distressed and %ea$ened troops to cope %ith the t%enty thousand chariots of h!i and hao3 = the result %ill not go in accordance %ith the original plan to destroy Han' I Thus3 if e(erything be done according to the scheme of Bour MaFesty*s ministers3 .fter the remo(al of the difficulties %ith these t%o countries3 h!i and hao3 the problem of Han can be sol(ed by means of an official despatch' -i$e%ise3 if %e can at one effort doom the t%o countries to ruin3 hing and #ey %ill (oluntarily surrender themsel(es to us' "Hence the saying+ !#eapons are dangerous implements3 and should not be employed at random'* For illustration3 h!in in (ying %ith hao has to challenge h!i and simultaneously brea$ off %ith Han %hile she is as yet unsuccessful in %inning the good-%ill of hing and #ey3 so that once she fails to %in in a single combat3 she %ill certainly suffer a tremendous ad(ersity' /erily schemes are means %hereby affairs are settled and therefore should be carefully scrutinized' "The turning-point 99 of h!in3 %hether to%ards strength or to%ards %ea$ness3 %ill come to pass %ithin this year' It is3 indeed3 a long time since hao began to plot %ith other feudal lords against h!in' It %ill be a castastrophe to be defeated by the feudal lords in the first engagement %ith them' .

s soon as %e mo(e our forces against h!i and hao3 Han %ill ma$e trouble as stomach and heart diseases do' Besides3 if Han and hing ha(e any conspiracy against h!in and other feudal lords respond to it3 h!in is then bound to encounter another humiliation as met at the fort of Mount Bao' 9= "Fei came here most probably %ith the intention to ele(ate 9I his o%n position in the Han 4o(ernment by demonstrating his ability to sa(e the Han State' By means of elo8uent speeches and beautiful phrases he embellishes lies and falsifies plots in order thereby to fish for ad(antages from h!in and %atch Bour MaFesty*s mind on behalf of Han' Indeed3 if the friendship of h!in and Han becomes intimate3 Fei %ill be esteemedH %hich is his self-see$ing scheme' Ha(ing found Fei in his memorial t%isting so many beguiling contentions and sho%ing his sophistic ability to the utmost3 thy ser(ant is afraid lest Bour MaFesty should be be%ildered 9.h!in 9E %ould ha(e to e5ert all her forces to cope %ith the t%enty thousand chariots' To be sure3 Han has yielded not to h!in*s $indness but to her strength' .ll-under-Hea(en' .fter that3 if Bour MaFesty similarly orders M?ng #u @J to despatch the garrisons of the eastern districts to guard against enemy troops along the border %ithout announcing their obFecti(e3 the h!is %ill fear surprise in(asion and accept the proposal of hing Su' @9 . by his elo8uence and listen to his croo$ed (ie%point and conse8uently neglect the consideration of the actual conditions' "7o% thy ser(ant has de(ised a stupid scheme as follo%s+ Suppose h!in sends out troops %ithout announcing the obFect of the e5pedition' Then the ministers in charge of Han*s state affairs %ill consider ser(ing h!in a good policy' Then thy ser(ant %ill as$ for Bour MaFesty*s permission to inter(ie% the )ing of Han and ma$e him come to (isit Bour MaFesty' #hen he comes3 Bour MaFesty retains him and ne(er sends him a%ay3 but3 instead3 summons a fe% important ministers 9< from the Han 4o(ernment and ma$e bargains %ith them' In conse8uence %e %ill be able to encroach upon Han farther inside' .s soon as such ne%s spreads among the feudal lords3 the hao lan %ill be struc$ %ith terror %hile the hings %ill be in doubt ho% to act and e(entually decide to remain loyal to h!in' If the hings ma$e no mo(e at all3 #ey %ill not be sufficient to cause %orries3 so that %e %ill be able to encroach upon the territories of the feudal lords in the %ay sil$%orms eat mulberry-lea(es and cope %ith the forces of hao' May Bour MaFesty ponder deliberately o(er the scheme of thy stupid ser(ant %ith no hesitationL" h!in accordingly sent Ssŭ to the court of Han' -i Ssŭ %ent to inter(ie% the )ing of Han3 but could not ha(e an audience of him' Therefore he sent in a memorial saying+ K "&f old3 %hen h!in and Han combined their forces and united their purposes to refrain from in(ading each other3 @@ nobody in the %hole %orld dared to aggress' Such a situation lasted for se(eral generations' Some time ago3 %hen the fi(e @A feudal lords sent a Foint-e5pedition against Han3 h!in sent out troops to rescue her' Han being a central state3 her territory scarcely stretches a thousand li+ Than$s to the traditional policy she has pursued from generation to generation to ser(e h!in3 @D she has been able to occupy an e8ual position among the feudal lords in .s a result3 before our forces march outside the boundary3 %e %ill capture Han %hile h!i %ill yield to our pressure' .

ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain' . %ith h!in as target' Therefore3 she has sent en(oys to Han to borro% the %ay through the country on the prete5t of attac$ing h!in' Indeed3 in her campaign against h!in she %ill naturally in(ade Han first and h!in ne5t' Besides3 thy ser(ant has heard+ !#hen the lips are gone3 the teeth are cold'* /erily h!in and Han ha(e to share the same hazard' .fter thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 has had his corpse e5posed in the mar$et-place in the capital of Han3 though Bour MaFesty might begin to thin$ about thy ser(ant*s stupid but loyal counsels3 it %ould be impossible to pre(ent disaster' .".nother time3 ho%e(er3 %hen the fi(e feudal lords launched a Foint-attac$ upon h!in3 Han in her turn Foined them and stood at the front of the allied line to meet the forces of h!in beneath the Pass of the .nd such an e(entuality is no% (isible enough' "Formerly3 %hen #ey %as about to despatch troops to attac$ Han3 h!in ordered guards to escort her good-%ill en(oys to Han' @< 7o% thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 is sent here by the )ing of h!in3 he is not granted an audience' Therefore3 he is afraid the present chamberlains of Bour MaFesty ha(e inherited the scheme of the former %ic$ed ministers and might once more cause Han territorial losses' If thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 is granted no audience %hile here and has to go home to report to His MaFesty the )ing of h!in on his mission3 the relations bet%een h!in and Han %ill certainly be se(ered' &n this mission Ssŭ came to present the good-%ill of His MaFesty the )ing of h!in to the court of Han and hopes to ma$e the best plan for Bour MaFestyH %hich in no %ise constitutes sufficient reason for Bour MaFesty*s according thy humble ser(ant such a cold reception as this' Thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 has petitioned for an audience only to present his stupid counsels inside the court and then to be chopped into inches to death outside the court' Thereon may Bour MaFesty deliberateG "7o% supposing Bour MaFesty e5ecuted thy ser(ant in Han3 it %ould not do Bour MaFesty any good' Moreo(er3 since Bour MaFesty turns no ear to thy ser(ant*s counsels3 there %ill be fostered the seed of catastrophes' For once h!in marches her troops out %ithout stopping3 Han %ill then feel concern for the safety of her .t present3 hao is massing officers and soldiers @.fter the frontiers ha(e been raided and only the defence %or$ of the capital is held and %hen the sounds of drums and bells are filling AJ up the ears3 though Bour MaFesty might then apply the counsels of thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 it %ill be too late' .rmour 4orge' @E #ith their armies %orn out and their strength e5hausted3 the feudal lords %ere compelled to cease hostilities' @= #hen Tu Ts!ang %as Premier of h!in3 he mobilized soldiers and despatched generals to re(enge the %rong of the allies and attac$ed hing @I first' The hancellor of hing3 feeling uneasy about it3 said+ !Han at first regarded h!in as unFust and yet $ept fraternal terms %ith h!in in order Fointly to menace the rest of the %orld' Then she betrayed h!in and too$ the lead of the allied forces in storming the Pass' Thus3 centrally located3 Han is so fic$le that nobody $no%s %hat she is going to do ne5t'* Thereupon the allies ceded to h!in ten cities from the best districts of Han as an apology for their %rong and thereby ceased hostilities' "Thus3 e(er since Han turned against h!in3 the country has been oppressed3 her territory in(aded3 and her army %ea$ened3 till the present day' The reason therefor is+ Her rulers ha(e been listening to the flippant theories of %ic$ed ministers but ha(e ne(er considered actual conditions' 2(en if the %ic$ed ministers be put to death3 it %ould be impossible for Han to reco(er her former strength' ".

fter that it %ill not be too late to put him to death through official censure' The )ing of h!in neither indulges in drin$ing and eating nor amuses himself %ith tra(elling and sight-seeing3 but is %hole-heartedly scheming against hao' Therefore he has sent thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 here to spea$ on his behalf' Thy ser(ant has petitioned for a personal inter(ie% because he feels he must parley %ith Bour MaFesty on matters of urgent importance' "7o%3 if Bour MaFesty grants no audience to thy ser(ant3 the faith of Han ne(er %ill be pro(ed' /erily h!in %ill cease the campaign against hao and mo(e the army against Han' May Bour MaFesty3 therefore3 $indly ponder o(er the matter again and again and grant thy ser(ant a definite ans%erL" 'otes 9' IJ' The content of this chapter is not uni8ue' The first part %as the petition Han Fei Tzŭsubmitted to the )ing of h!in' It %as follo%ed by -i Ssŭ*s memorial refuting Han Fei Tzŭ*s arguments in fa(our of the preser(ation of the Han State and then by the memorial -i Ssŭ sent to the )ing of Han' These memorials %ere apparently compiled by subse8uent editors' @' Italics mine' A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen J should be belo% K' D' )u )uang-ts!? proposed L for M' E' #ith )ao H?ng N belo% O should read P %hich means PQ' =' #ith #ang #ei KP abo(e R萬S is superfluous' I' )u )uang-ts*? proposed J for T' .' -u #?n-shao proposed 臣 for U' <' The target of military operationsKthe common enemy of the %orld' 9J' #ith BM BMeh and #ang Hsien-shen J belo% 從 is superfluous' 99' )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen proposed V for J' ."Moreo(er3 though the limits of Han*s military strength are generally $no%n throughout the %orld3 she is no% betraying h!in' Indeed3 if cities are e(acuated and troops defeated3 rebels among the rear forces %ill infallibly raid the capital' #hen the capital falls3 the ci(ilians %ill scatter' #hen the ci(ilians scatter3 no more troops can be recruited' 2(en though the capital might be %ell defended3 yet h!in %ould send out all her men to besiege the only city of Bour MaFesty' #hen its communication %ith the outside %orld is cut off3 it %ill be impossible to accomplish any scheme3 till the situation becomes unsa(able' .s the consideration of the %hole situation by the chamberlains is not thorough3 A9 may Bour MaFesty deliberate on it carefullyG "If %hat thy ser(ant3 Ssŭ3 has said contains anything that does not coincide %ith actual facts3 may Bour MaFesty allo% him to complete his memorial before the throneG .

' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 6 abo(e ef is superfluous' @<' #ey had sent en(oys to h!in to conclude an alliance against Han' AJ' #ith #ang Hsien-shen g should be supplied abo(e hi' A9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? j should be k' Chapter III. $+c+ 4eneral Pai h!i captured the capital of hing' @.' #ith )ao \ belo% ]下 means ^' 9<' _`a臣 literally means "ministers from the .9@' #ith this paragraph ends Han Fei Tzŭ*s memorial' 9A' Italics mine' 9D' #ith )ao H?ng 臣W should be supplied abo(e X%'不Y inasmuch as this sentence as %ell as the preceding one %as uttered by -i Ssŭ in his memorial' 9E' #ang #ei proposed 秦 for T' 9=' In @DI $+c+ under the command of -ord Hsin-ling of #ey the allied forces of hao3 h!u3 Han3 #ey3 and Ben defeated the h!in in(aders and dro(e them as far bac$ as the Pass of the . (n the .s a matter of fact3 only hao and #ey attac$ed Han in @IA $+c+ @D' Han ser(ed h!in for se(eral generations3 but h!in sa(ed Han only once' @E' Han Foined h!i3 hao3 #ey3 Sung3 and entral Hills3 in attac$ing h!in in @<= $+c+ @=' In reality h!in made territorial cessions to bring the %ar to an end' @I' In @I.iffic)lty in .rmour 4orge' 9I' #ith )ao H?ng 'Z means [Z' 9.pea/ing$ A %e&orial 1 Thy ser(ant3 Fei3 is by no means diffident of spea$ing' .s to %hy he has to hesitate in spea$ing+ if his speeches are compliant and harmonious3 magnificent and orderly3 he is then regarded as ostentatious and insincereH if his speeches are sincere and .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain"3 that is3 such ministers as %ould ris$ their li(es for the %elfare of the state' @J' #ang #ei proposed bc for dc' @9' His mission %as to persuade h!i to brea$ %ith hao' @@' This means that they signed and obser(ed a mutual non-aggression pact' @A' .

begged on his %ay to the capital of h!in' Fu BMeh 9< %as sold into sla(ery from place to place' Sun Tzŭ @J had his feet cut off in #ey' #u h!i @9 %iped off his tears at . %as the sanest and I Bin < the %isest of the age3 though the %isest attempted to persuade the sanest3 yet he %as not %elcomed e(en after se(enty times of persuasion3 till he had to handle pans and bo%ls and become a coo$ in order thereby to approach him and become familiar %ith him' In conse8uence T!ang came to $no% his %orthiness and too$ him into ser(ice' Hence the saying+ "Though the %isest man %ants to persuade the sanest man3 he is not necessarily %elcomed upon his first arri(al'" Such %as the case of I Bin*s persuading T!ang' .gain the saying+ "Though the %ise man %ants to persuade the fool3 he is not necessarily listened to'" Such %as the case of )ing #?n*s 9J persuading ho%' 99 Thus3 Fust as )ing #?n attempted to persuade ho% and %as put in Fail3 9@ Mar8uis Ih 9A %as broiledH Mar8uis hiu*s 9D corpse %as driedH Pi-$an 9E had his heart cut openH and 2arl Mei*s corpse %as pic$led' 9= Furthermore3 I-%u %as bound %ith chains' Ts!ao h!i 9I absconded to h!?n' Pai-li Tzŭ 9.courteous3 straightfor%ard and careful3 he is then regarded as a%$%ard and unsystematicH if his speeches are %idely cited and subtly composed3 fre8uently illustrated and continuously analogized3 he is then regarded as empty and unpracticalH if his speeches summarize minute points and present general ideas3 being thus plain and concise3 he is then regarded as simple and not discerningH if his speeches are (ery personally obser(ing and %ell-(ersed in the inner nature of man$ind3 he is then regarded as self-assuming and self-conceitedH if his speeches are erudite and profound3 he is then regarded as boastful but uselessH if his speeches touch the details of house-$eeping and estimate each item in terms of numerals3 he is then regarded as (ulgarH if his speeches are too much concerned %ith %orldly affairs and not offensi(e in %ording3 he is then regarded as a co%ard @ and a flattererH if his speeches are far from commonplace and contrary A to human e5perience3 he is then regarded as fantasticH if his speeches are %itty and elo8uent and full of rhetorical e5cellences3 he is then regarded as flippantH if he discards all literary forms of e5pression and spea$s solely of the na$ed facts3 he is then regarded as rusticH and should he 8uote the 'ooks of )oetry and History from time to time and act on the teachings of the former sages3 he is then regarded as a boo$ chantor' D These things e5plain the reason %hy thy ser(ant3 Fei3 is diffident in spea$ing and %orried about spea$ing' Therefore3 %eights and measures3 ho%e(er accurate3 are not al%ays adoptedH doctrines and principles3 ho%e(er perfect3 are not al%ays practised' Should His MaFesty disbelie(e the minister %ho spea$s to the throne3 the minister %ould be found guilty of a blunder or condemned to death' For e5ample3 Tzŭ-hsM E schemed %ell but %as $illed by the )ing of #uH hung-ni = taught %ell but %as detained by the 0uler of )!uangH and )uan I-%u I %as really %orthy but %as ta$en prisoner by the 0uler of -u' 7ot that these three statesmen %ere not %orthy3 but that the three rulers %ere not intelligent' In remote anti8uity3 %hen T!ang .i$e 4ate3 lamented o(er the impending cession of the #estern 0i(er .istricts to h!in3 and %as dismembered in h!u' )ung-shu Tso @@ spo$e of a man fit to be a pillar of the state but %as regarded as unreasonable3 so that )ung-sun Bang @A absconded to h!in' )uan -ung-p!?ng @D %as e5ecuted' h!ang Hung @E had his .

u$e Huan3 and appointed Prime Minister' .s Hsiao-pai entered the capital first and ascended the throne3 .Han Fei Tzŭse(erely reproached the onfucians and the Mohists for their constant references to the teachings of the early $ings and therefore condemned them as grubs and idlers' It %as not his intention to attempt a defence of them in this passage3 ho%e(er' E' The pen-name of #u BMn' He sought refuge in the #u State %hen his father #u Sh? and his elder brother #u Shang %ere unFustly e5ecuted by the )ing of h!u in E@@ $+c+ In E99 $+c+ he successfully persuaded )ing Ho-lM of #u to in(ade h!u and thereby a(enged his father and brother' Follo%ing the death of )ing Ho-lM he ser(ed )ing Fu-ch!a' In D<D $+c+ he helped the young $ing %age a (ictorious %ar of re(enge %ith )ing )ou-chien of BMeh' Subse8uently3 because of Pai P!i*s slanders against him3 he %as ordered by )ing Fu-ch!a to commit suicide %ith the famous Shu-lou s%ord :D.intestines chopped into pieces' Bin Tzŭ @= %as thro%n into a trap among brambles' The Minister of #ar3 Tzŭ-ch!i3 @I %as $illed and his corpse %as floated on the BangTzŭ0i(er' T!ien Ming @. %as stoned @< to death' Mi Tzŭ-chien AJ and Hsi-m?n Pao A9 8uarrelled %ith nobody but %ere $illed' Tung .D $+c+>' =' The pen-name of )!ung h!iu3 namely3 onfucius' #hile tra(elling in the )!uang State3 he %as mista$en for Bang Hu from -u and %as therefore detained' I' Better $no%n as )uan hung' Ha(ing ser(ed Prince hiu3 he helped him struggle for the throne %ith Prince Hsiao-pai %hen .ynasty' r abo(e s has no additional sense3 but is often added to the name of a dynasty or a ruler so as to increase its dignity' <' He %as after%ards appointed Prime Minister by )ing T!ang' .' The founder of the Bin3 or sometimes called Shang3 .n-yM A@ %as $illed and his corpse %as e5posed in the mar$et-place' Tsai BM AA had to suffer the disaster caused by T!ien h!ang' AD Fan hM AE had his ribs bro$en in #ey' These tens of men A= %ere all bene(olent3 %orthy3 loyal3 and upright persons in the %orld and follo%ers of the right %ay and true path of life' 6nfortunately they met such unreasonable3 (iolent3 stupid3 and croo$ed masters3 and lost their li(es in the long run' Then3 %hy could these %orthies and sages escape death penalties and e(ade disgraceL It %as because of the difficulty in persuading fools' Hence e(ery gentleman AI has to remain diffident of spea$ing' 2(en the best speech displeases the ear and upsets the heart3 and can be appreciated only by %orthy and sage rulers' May Bour MaFesty therefore ponder o(er this memorial of thy ser(antG 'otes 9' (l' In thought this is similar to hap' 1II %hich3 ho%e(er3 is far more comprehensi(e and systematic than this' The historical facts 8uoted herein as illustrati(e of the basic ideas set forth in the first t%o paragraphs someho% or other lac$ coherence and seem e(en far-fetched in many respects' @' mn literally means "clinging to life"' A' #ith )ao H?ng o reads p %hich means q' D' In haps' 1-I1 and .u$e Hsiang of h!i %as murdered in IJ9 $+c+ .u$e huang of -u3 %ho had been supporting Prince hiu3 suddenly changed his mind3 $illed the prince3 and sent )uan hung in a prisoner cart to h!i' In h!i he %as released by Hsiao-pai3 then .

u$e Hsiao in AE< $+c+ %ith all state affairs3 he began to enforce his legalism' He enriched the state and strengthened the army and caused #ey many humiliating defeats till )ing Hui regretted %ith a sigh that he had not ta$en )ung-shu Tso*s ad(ice' @D' He remonstrated %ith )ing hieh against the construction of a %ine pool and %as $illed because he %ould not stop remonstrating' @E' .n uncle of ho%' 9=' .istricts3 #ang Tso slandered him3 so that Mar8uis #u of #ey dismissed him' &n lea(ing his post3 he stopped his carriage at . %orthy minister to )ing -ing of hou' @=' 7o record of his life and times is left' @I' )illed in DI.9J' His real name %as hi h!ang and the royal title %as attributed to him after his death by his son3 )ing #u3 founder of the hou .ecords has t in place of u' 9E' .ynasty3 $no%n for his personal (ices and misgo(ernment' 9@' .u$e huang of Ts!ao thrice but %as ne(er listened to3 so that he had to abscond to the h!?n State' 9.' #ith )u )uang-ts!? v should be 百' His full name %as Pai-li Hsi' He made his %ay through all hazards to h!in3 till he succeeded in introducing himself to .ll these %orthies %ere ho%*s ministers' 9I' He remonstrated %ith .t Bu-li for se(en years :99DD-99AI $+c+>' 9A' .ynasty' 99' The last ruler of the Bin . $+c+ during the uprising caused by Prince Pai Sh?ng' .i$e 4ate and cast the last glance o(er the district and shed tears at the thought of its impending doom' In A.I $+c+ he sought refuge in the h!u State and %as appointed Prime Minister by )ing ho' .espite all the meritorious ser(ices he had rendered to the country3 he %as dismembered by his political enemies upon the $ing*s death in A.ynasty and %as li$e hieh3 the last ruler of the Hsia .u$e Mu' 9<' Prime minister to )ing #u-ting of the Bin .9 $+c+ @@' Prime minister to )ing Hui of #ey and patron of )ung-sun Bang' From his death-bed he told the $ing to appoint Bang his successor other%ise not to allo% him to lea(e the country' onsidering the dying man*s opinion absurd3 the )ing neither appointed Bang to office nor put him to death' @A' He entered h!in in A=9 $+c+ .e(il /alley3 became the commander-inchief of the #ey army3 he %ent to %or$ under him' Mean%hile3 P!ang hMan became Fealous of his talent3 slandered him3 and had his feet cut off through official censure' Thereupon he feigned himself insane and managed to go bac$ to the h!i State3 %here he %as charged %ith military affairs' In AD9 $+c+ he %aged a successful %ar %ith #ey3 during %hich P!ang hMan %as $illed in ambush' @9' #hen he %as 4o(ernor of the #estern 0i(er .ynasty' @J' His full name %as Sun Pin' #hen his fello% disciple named P!ang hMan3 %ho had studied military science %ith him under )uei-$u Tzŭor Philosopher of the .lso called Mar8uis 7go as Ih and 7go %ere t%o places (ery close to each other' 9D' The Historical .s soon as he %as entrusted by .

minister to Mar8uis #?n of #ey' A@' .@.' The superior man or plainly gentleman %as here ta$en as the model man3 %hich %as3 no doubt3 due to the onfucian influences Han Fei Tzŭ had recei(ed from HsMn Tzŭ under %hom he had spent the formati(e period of his thought' Chapter I0. minister to /iscount hien of hao' AA' Tsai BM3 a disciple of onfucius3 and )an hih3 T!ien h!ang*s ri(al3 had the same pen-name3 that is3 Tzŭ-%o' Therefore3 Han Fei Tzŭ mistoo$ Tsai BM for )an hih' AD' In D.' 7o record of his life and times is left' @<' #ith BM BMch wx means yz' AJ' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain' Thy ser(ant has heard+ "The ruler of one thousand chariots3 if not on his guard3 %ould find close by him (assals of one hundred chariots aiming to sha$e his authority @ and upset his country' The ruler of ten thousand chariots3 if not on his guard3 %ould find close by him (assals of one thousand chariots aiming to sha$e his authority and upset his country'" That being so3 %ic$ed ministers can multiply %hile the s%ay of the so(ereign declines' Therefore3 the territorial e5pansion of the feudal lords leads to the damnation of the Son of Hea(enH the e5traordinary %ealth of ministers leads to the do%nfall of the ruler' Hence generals and ministers %ho %ould lea(e the so(ereign*s interests behind A and prosper D the %elfare of their o%n families instead3 should be ousted by the ruler of men' 7othing is more (aluable than the royal person3 more honourable than the throne3 more po%erful than the authority of the so(ereign3 and more august than the position of the ruler' These four e5cellences are not obtained from outside nor secured from anybody else3 but are deliberated in the ruler*s o%n mind and ac8uired thereby' Hence .fter their return to #ey3 HsM )u told Premier #ey h!i that Fan hM had betrayed the #ey State' Therefore Fan hM %as arrested and tortured till his ribs and teeth %ere bro$en' He then feigned himself dead and finally stole a%ay to h!in3 %here he %as appointed to office in @IJ $+c+ A=' 十數U should be 數十U because the number of the %orthies enumerated is abo(e t%enty' AI' {. disciple of onfucius' A9' .9 $+c+ AE' #hen HsM )u %as sent to h!i as special en(oy3 Fan hM %as an attachN' His elo8uence %on great praises from the )ing of h!i but incurred HsM )u*s suspicion' . (n a!o)rite 0assals$ A %e&orial1 Fa ourite (assals3 if too intimate %ith the ruler3 %ould cause him personal danger' Ministers3 if too po%erful3 %ould o(erturn the august position of the so(ereign' #i(es and concubines3 if %ithout distinction of ran$3 %ould cause legitimate sons dangers' Brothers3 if not subser(ient to the ruler3 %ould endanger the .

ccordingly3 no official3 %hile ser(ing the state3 should be allo%ed to ha(e any pri(ate go(ernmental office' #hile in the army3 nobody should be allo%ed to culti(ate personal friendships' 7o official should be allo%ed to ma$e any loan from the public treasury to indi(idual families' This is the %ay the intelligent ruler should forbid %ic$ed practices' For the same reason3 no minister should be allo%ed to ha(e a four-horsed chariot as personal escort nor should he be allo%ed to carry any $ind of %eapons' If anyone3 being neither a public courier nor a herald of urgent messages3 transport implements of %ar from place to place3 he should be condemned to death %ithout mercy' This is the %ay the intelligent ruler should pro(ide against accidents' 'otes 9' |臣' @' #ith #ang #ei } should be ~' A' #ith )ao H?ng •> should be €>' D' #ith )ao • bet%een ‚ and ƒ is superfluous' E' In AI= $+c+ by the hao3 Han3 and #ey lans' =' In A.= $+c+ by the T!ien lan' I' ~\' . of the %ic$ed ministers' Therefore3 no minister3 ho%e(er large his bounty may be3 should be allo%ed to include < the capital city in his pri(ate fiefH nor should he be allo%ed3 ho%e(er numerous his adherents and supporters may be3 to subFect officers and soldiers as personal (assals' .' „~' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain into danger as %ell as the shifting of the state under the "deflected authority" .the saying+ "The lord of men3 if unable to e5ercise his e8uipment %ith the four e5cellences3 is bound to end his life in e5ile'" This the ruler of men must $eep firmly in mind' &f old3 the ruin of ho% and the fall of hou %ere both due to the territorial e5pansion of the feudal lordsH the partition of hin E as %ell as the usurpation of h!i = %as due to the e5traordinary %ealth of ministers' So %ere the regicides in Ben and Sung3 indeed' Thus3 %hether in the cases of Bin and hou or in the cases of hin and h!i3 or in the modern cases of Ben and Sung3 the same reason ne(er failed to hold true' For this reason3 the intelligent ruler3 in $eeping officials in ser(ice3 e5hausts their abilities %ith la%s and corrects their errors %ith measures' Hence no release from the death penalty3 no remission of punishment' Both release from the death penalty and remission of punishment3 being called "authority-losing" I on the part of the ruler3 mar$ the fall of the .

The Tao of the .ccordingly3 the ruler3 %ise as he is3 should not bother but let e(erything find its proper placeH %orthy as he is3 should not be selfassumed but obser(e closely the ministers* moti(ating factors of conductH and3 courageous as he is3 should not be enraged but let e(ery minister display his pro%ess' So3 lea(e the ruler*s %isdom3 then you %ill find the ministers* intelligenceH lea(e the ruler*s %orthiness3 then you %ill find the ministers* meritsH and lea(e the ruler*s courage3 then you %ill find the ministers* strength' In such cases3 ministers %ill attend to their duties3 magistrates %ill ha(e definite %or$ routine3 and e(erybody %ill be employed according to his special ability' Such a course of go(ernment is called "constant and immutable"' Hence the saying+ "So 8uiet3 it rests %ithout footingH so (acant3 it cannot be located'" Thus3 the intelligent ruler does nothing3 but his ministers tremble all the more' It is the Tao of the intelligent ruler that he ma$es the %ise men e5haust their mental energy and ma$es his decisions thereby %ithout being himself at his %its* endH that he ma$es the %orthy men e5ert their talents and appoints them to office accordingly %ithout being himself at the end of his abilityH and that in case of merits the ruler gains the reno%n and in case of demerit the ministers face the blame so that the ruler is ne(er at the end of his reputation' Therefore3 the ruler3 e(en though not %orthy3 becomes the master of the %orthiesH and3 e(en though not %ise3 becomes the corrector of the %ise men' It is the ministers %ho do the toilH it is the ruler %ho gets the spoil' This is the e(erlasting principle of the %orthy so(ereign' D Tao e5ists in in(isibilityH its function3 in unintelligibility' Be empty and reposed and ha(e nothing to do-Then from the dar$ see defects in the light' See but ne(er be seen' Hear but ne(er be heard' )no% but ne(er be $no%n' If you hear any %ord uttered3 do not change it nor mo(e it but compare it %ith the deed and see if %ord and deed coincide %ith each other' Place e(ery official %ith a censor' .<' #ith BM BMeh … should read † and ~ belo% it is superfluous' Chapter 0.o!ereign1 Tao is the beginning of the myriad things3 the standard of right and %rong' That being so3 the intelligent ruler3 by holding to the beginning3 $no%s the source of e(erything3 and3 by $eeping to the standard3 $no%s the origin of good and e(il' Therefore3 by (irtue of resting empty and reposed3 he %aits @ for the course of nature to enforce itself so that all names %ill be defined of themsel(es and all affairs %ill be settled of themsel(es' 2mpty3 he $no%s the essence of fullness+ reposed3 he becomes A the corrector of motion' #ho utters a %ord creates himself a nameH %ho has an affair creates himself a form' ompare forms and names and see if they are identical' Then the ruler %ill find nothing to %orry about as e(erything is reduced to its reality' Hence the saying+ "The ruler must not re(eal his %ants' For3 if he re(eals his %ants3 the ministers %ill polish their manners accordingly' The ruler must not re(eal his (ie%s' For3 if he re(eals his (ie%s3 the ministers %ill display their hues differently'" Hence another saying+ "If the li$e and hate of the ruler be concealed3 the true hearts of the ministers %ill be re(ealed' If the e5perience and %isdom of the ruler be discarded3 the ministers %ill ta$e precautions'" .o not let them spea$ to each other' Then e(erything %ill be e5erted to the utmost' o(er trac$s and conceal sources' Then the ministers cannot trace origins' -ea(e your %isdom and cease your ability' Then your subordinates cannot guess at your limitations' .

)eep your decision and identify it %ith the %ords and deeds of your subordinates' autiously ta$e the handles E and hold them fast' 6proot others* %ant of them3 smash others* thought of them3 and do not let anybody co(et them' If the ruler is not cautious of the loc$ing or if he does not $eep the gate in good repair3 the tiger %ill come into e5istence' If the ruler does not ta$e precautions for his s%ay or if he does not co(er his realities3 the traitor %ill ma$e his appearance' #ho murders the so(ereign and ta$es his place and finds the %hole people side in a%e %ith him3 is called a tiger' .nd out of coincidence and discrepancy bet%een the conse8uences of tas$s accomplished and the co(enants of %ords uttered re%ard and punishment are born' Therefore3 %hen a minister utters a %ord3 the ruler should according to the %ord assign him a tas$ to accomplish3 and according to the result of the accomplishment call the tas$ 99 to account' If the result corresponds %ith the tas$ and the tas$ %ith the %ord3 the minister should be re%arded' If the result corresponds not %ith the tas$ and the tas$ not %ith the %ord3 he should be censured' It is in accordance %ith the Tao of the intelligent ruler that e(ery minister should utter no %ord that corresponds not %ith its proper tas$' For this reason3 the intelligent ruler3 in besto%ing re%ards3 is as benign as the seasonable rain that the masses profit by his gracesH in inflicting punishments3 he is so terrific li$e the loud thunder that e(en di(ines and sages cannot atone for their crimes' Thus the intelligent ruler neglects no re%ard and remits no punishment' For3 if re%ard is neglected3 ministers of merit %ill rela5 their dutiesH if punishment is remitted3 (illainous ministers %ill become liable to misconduct' Therefore3 men of real merit3 ho%e(er distant and humble3 must be re%ardedH those of real demerit3 ho%e(er near and dear3 must be censured' If both the re%ard of the distant and humble and the . and names3 scrutinize la%s and manners3 and chastise those doing as they please' Then there %ill be no traitor in the country' For these reasons3 the lord of men al%ays has to face fi(e $inds of delusion+ delusion by ministers impeding the so(ereign3 delusion by ministers controlling public resources and re(enues3 delusion by ministers issuing decrees at random3 delusion by ministers distributing personal fa(ours3 and delusion by ministers feeding dependents' #hen ministers impede the so(ereign3 the so(ereign loses his (ie%point' #hen they control public resources and re(enues3 he loses his ad(antages' < #hen they issue decrees at random3 he loses his ruling authority' #hen they distribute personal fa(ours3 he loses his name' #hen they feed their dependents3 he loses his supporters' .ll their doings as such should be based on the initiati(e of the lord of men and should not be started by the ministers at their pleasure' The Tao of the lord of men regards tran8uillity and humility as treasures' #ithout handling anything himself3 he can tell s$ilfulness from uns$ilfulnessH %ithout his o%n concerns of mind3 he can tell good from bad luc$' Therefore3 %ithout uttering any %ord himself3 he finds a good reply gi(enH %ithout e5erting his o%n effort3 9J he finds his tas$ accomplished' #hene(er a reply is gi(en to his 8uestion3 he holds to its co(enant' #hene(er any tas$ is accomplished3 he holds to its result' .gain3 %ho ser(es the country by the so(ereign*s side and %atches for his secret faults %ith (illainous moti(es3 = is called a traitor' Scatter his partisans3 arrest his supporters3 I loc$ up the gate3 and depri(e him of all assistance' Then there %ill be no tiger in the country' Be too great to be measured3 be too profound to be sur(eyed3 identify norms .

s soon as )ing huang passed @ a%ay from the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain3 h!i decayed accordingly' )ing Hsiang A of Ben too$ the Bello% 0i(er as state-boundary on the south3 established the capital at hi3 doubled the defence %or$s at ho and Fang-ch!?ng3 smashed the h!i State3 and subdued the entral Hills State3 .censure of the near and dear are infallible3 9@ the distant and humble %ill not go idle %hile the near and dear %ill not turn arrogant' 'otes 9' >‡' In style and thought this %or$ is similar to hap' /III' Both sho% the same tendencies to (ague (erse and re(eal metres3 measures3 and rhymes in many points' The mode of e5pression is elegant but the ideas are profound and abstract and therefore susceptible of different interpretations' @' #ith )ao H?ng the first ) belo% ˆ is superfluous' A' #ith BM BMeh = should be H' D' 6p to this paragraph the chapter deals %ith the theoretical aspects of the Tao of the so(ereign' The rest of the chapter co(ers its practical sides' Hence its di(ision into t%o parts by the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press edition' E' 2ide infra& hap' /II' =' #ith #ang 7ien-sun 臣 is a mista$e for ‰ %hich reads Š' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ‹ should be 7' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain3 hing decayed accordingly' .u$e Huan of h!i anne5ed as many states as thirty and e5tended his territory as far as three thousand li' . Ha!ing 1eg)lations$ A %e&orial1 7o country is permanently strong' 7or is any country permanently %ea$' If conformers to la% are strong3 the country is strongH if conformers to la% are %ea$3 the country is %ea$' )ing huang of hing anne5ed as many states as t%enty-si5 and e5tended his territory as far as three thousand li' .' Œ is deri(ed from • meaning "form"' <' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Ž should be •' 9J' #ith #ang Hsien-shen • should be 事' 99' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen 事% should be %‘事' 9@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ’“”• should be supplied abo(e –|”—' Chapter 0I.u$e Huan passed a%ay from the .s soon as .

n-li of #ey attac$ed Ben3 rescued hao3 D too$ the land to the east of the Bello% 0i(er3 and completely con8uered both T!ao and #ei' E Then he mobilized his troops into h!i and too$ the city of P!ing-lu to be his holiday resort' Then he attac$ed Han3 too$ )uan3 %on the battle by the h!i 0i(er' Then in the engagement at hM-yang he dro(e the %orn-out troops of hing into retreat' Finally in the engagement at Shang-ts!ai and hao-ling he routed the hing troops' In this manner he sent out his e5peditionary forces in the four directions throughout .n-li3 #ey decayed accordingly' Thus3 as long as )ing huang of hing and .s soon as )ing Hsiang passed a%ay from the .u$e Huan of h!i %ere ali(e3 hing and h!i could remain hegemonicH as long as )ing Hsiang of Ben and )ing .n-li of #ey %ere ali(e3 Ben and #ey remained strong' 7o% their countries all fell into decay3 because their ministers and magistrates all follo%ed the path to chaos and ne(er sought for the %ay to order' Though their countries %ere chaotic3 they cast aside the state la%s and schemed for nothing but their o%n outside interests' This %as the same as to suppress a fire by carrying fire%ood on the bac$' onse8uently confusion and %ea$ness turned from bad to %orse' Therefore3 at present3 any ruler able to e5pel pri(ate croo$edness and uphold public la%3 finds the people safe and the state in orderH and any ruler able to e5punge pri(ate action and act on public la%3 finds his army strong and his enemy %ea$' So3 find I out men follo%ing the discipline of la%s and regulations3 and place them abo(e the body of officials' Then the so(ereign can not be decei(ed by anybody %ith fraud and falsehood' Find .ll-under-Hea(en and spread his influence all o(er the countries of cro%ns and girdles' = Follo%ing the death of )ing .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain3 Ben decayed accordingly' )ing . out men able to %eigh different situations3 and put them in charge of distant affairs' Then the so(ereign cannot be decei(ed by anybody in matters of %orld politics' 7o% supposing promotions %ere made because of mere reputations3 then ministers %ould be estranged from the so(ereign and all officials %ould associate for treasonable purposes' Supposing officials %ere appointed on account of their partisanship3 then the people %ould stri(e to culti(ate friendships and ne(er see$ employment in accordance %ith the la%' Thus3 if the go(ernment lac$ able men3 the state %ill fall into confusion' If re%ards are besto%ed according to mere reputation3 and punishments are inflicted according to mere defamation3 then men %ho lo(e re%ards and hate punishments %ill discard the la% < of the public and practise selfsee$ing tric$s and associate for %ic$ed purposes' If ministers forget the interest of the so(ereign3 ma$e friends %ith outside people3 and thereby promote their adherents3 then their inferiors %ill be in lo% spirits to ser(e the so(ereign' Their friends are manyH their adherents3 numerous' #hen they form Funtas in and out3 then though they ha(e great faults3 their %ays of disguise %ill be innumerable' For such reasons3 loyal ministers3 innocent as they are3 are al%ays facing danger and the death penalty3 %hereas %ic$ed ministers3 though of no merit3 al%ays enFoy security and prosperity' Should loyal ministers meet danger and death %ithout committing any crime3 good ministers %ould %ithdra%' Should %ic$ed ministers .in such %ise that %hoe(er %as a friend of Ben %as respected and %hoe(er %as not a friend of Ben %as despised' .

enFoy security and prosperity %ithout rendering any meritorious ser(ice3 (illainous ministers %ould ad(ance' This is the beginning of decay' #ere such the case3 all officials %ould discard legalism3 practising fa(ouritism and despising public la%' They %ould fre8uent the gates of the residences of cunning men3 but ne(er once %ould they (isit the court of the so(ereign' For one hundred times they %ould ponder the interests of pri(ate families3 but ne(er once %ould they scheme for the state %elfare of the so(ereign' Thus3 their subordinates3 ho%e(er numerous3 are not for glorifying the rulerH the officials3 ho%e(er %ell selected3 are not for ser(ing the country' If so3 the so(ereign %ould ha(e the mere name of the lord of men but in reality he simply commits himself to the care of the houses of the (arious ministers' Hence thy ser(ant says+ "The court of a decaying state has no man'" 9J That the court has no man does not imply the emptiness of the court' It means that pri(ate families stri(e to benefit one another but ne(er see$ to enhance the state %elfareH that high officials stri(e to honour one another but ne(er see$ to honour the rulerH and that petty officials spend their salaries in culti(ating personal friendships but ne(er attend to their official duties' The reason therefore is+ The so(ereign ne(er ma$es his decisions in accordance %ith the la% but al%ays trusts in his subordinates for %hate(er they do' Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign ma$es the la% select men and ma$es no arbitrary promotion himself' He ma$es the la% measure merits and ma$es no arbitrary regulation himself' In conse8uence3 able men cannot be obscured3 bad characters cannot be disguisedH falsely praised fello%s cannot be ad(anced3 %rongly defamed people cannot be degraded' .ccordingly3 bet%een ruler and minister distinction becomes clear and order is attained' Thus it suffices only if the so(ereign can scrutinize la%s' The %ise man3 on ministering to a ruler3 faces the north 99 and s%ears an oath of his office3 pledging "not to ha(e t%o minds3 9@ ne(er to reFect any lo% commission in the court3 and ne(er to reFect any hard Fob in the military camp3 but to follo% the instructions of his superior3 to obey the la% of the so(ereign and empty his mind so as to %ait for the royal decrees to come3 and to ha(e no dispute about them"' Therefore3 though he has a mouth of his o%n3 he ne(er spea$s for his o%n ad(antageH though he has eyes of his o%n3 he ne(er sees for his pri(ate interest' Both his mouth and eyes are $ept under his superior*s control' In other %ords3 %ho ministers to a ruler may be li$ened to the hand that is able to care for the head up%ard and for the feet do%n%ard3 ne(er fails to relie(e 9A them from e5tremes of cold and heat3 and ne(er fails to stri$e a%ay e(en the Mo-yeh 9D S%ord %hen it is near the body' Similarly3 the intelligent ruler ne(er employs %orthy and cle(er ministers or %ise and able men for any selfish purpose' Therefore3 the people do not cross the (illage border to ma$e friends and ha(e no relati(es 9E li(ing one hundred li a%ayH high and lo% do not trespass against each otherH the fool and the %ise3 each being content %ith his o%n lot3 $eep the scale and stand in perfect balance' Such is the cro%ning phase of order3 indeedG 9= 7o%3 those %ho ma$e light of ran$ and bounties3 resign from their offices and desert their posts %ith ease3 and thereby choose their masters3 thy ser(ant does not call upright' Those %ho falsify theories3 disobey la%s3 defy the so(ereign3 and ma$e forcible remonstrances3 thy ser(ant does not call loyal' Those %ho besto% fa(ours3 .

distribute profits3 %in the hearts of inferiors3 and thereby ma$e names3 thy ser(ant does not call bene(olent' Those %ho lea(e the %orld3 retire from acti(e life3 and thereby repro(e the so(ereign3 thy ser(ant does not call righteous' Those %ho ser(e abroad as en(oys to other feudal lords3 e5haust the strength of the nati(e country3 and %ait for the moment of crisis 9I to molest the so(ereign3 saying3 "the inter-state friendship3 unless thy ser(ant be in charge of it3 cannot become intimateH the interstate enmity3 unless thy ser(ant be in charge of it3 cannot be appeased3" and thereby aim to %in the so(ereign*s confidence3 to be trusted %ith state affairs3 and to increase their influence by lo%ering the name of the so(ereign and benefit their o%n families by hampering the resources of the country3 thy ser(ant does not call %ise' These e5amples are common practices pre(ailing in the dangerous age3 %hich the la% of the early $ings %ould %eed out' The la% of the early $ings said+ "2(ery minister shall not e5ercise his authority nor shall he scheme for his o%n ad(antage but shall follo% His MaFesty*s instructions' He shall not do e(il but shall follo% His MaFesty*s path'" 9.s strict la%s are means to forbid e5tra-Fudicial action and e5terminate selfishness @A and se(ere penalties are means to e5ecute decrees and censure inferiors3 legal authority should not be deputed to anybody and legal control should not be held behind the same gate' Should legal authority and control be $ept in common by both ruler and minister3 all (arieties of %ic$edness %ould come into e5istence' If la% is of no faith3 its enforcement by the ruler is absurd' @D If penalty is not definite3 culprits cannot be o(ercome' Hence the saying+ "The s$ilful carpenter3 though able to mar$ . Thus3 in anti8uity the people of an orderly age abode by the public la%3 discarded all self-see$ing tric$s3 de(oted their attention and united their actions to %ait for employment by their superiors' Indeed3 the lord of men3 if he has to inspect all officials himself3 finds the day not long enough and his energy not great enough' Moreo(er3 if the superior uses his eyes3 the inferior ornaments his loo$sH if the superior uses his ears3 the inferior ornaments his (oiceH and3 if the superior uses his mind3 the inferior t%ists his sentences' 0egarding these three faculties as insufficient3 the early $ings left aside their o%n talents and relied on la%s and numbers and acted carefully on the principles of re%ard and punishment' Thus3 %hat the early $ings did %as to the purpose of political order' Their la%s3 ho%e(er simplified3 %ere not (iolated' .espite the autocratic rule %ithin the four seas3 the cunning could not apply their fabricationsH the deceitful 9< could not practise @J their plausibilitiesH and the %ic$ed found no means to resort to3 so that3 though as far a%ay from His MaFesty as beyond a thousand li3 they dared not change their %ords3 and though as near by His MaFesty as the courtiers3 they dared not co(er the good and disguise the %rong' The officials in the court3 high and lo%3 ne(er trespassed against each other nor did they e(er o(erride their posts' .ccordingly the so(ereign*s administrati(e routine did not ta$e up all his time %hile each day afforded enough leisure' Such %as due to the %ay the ruler trusted to his position' Indeed3 the minister trespasses against the so(ereign in the court as in the lie of the land' -eading for%ard step by step3 @9 he ma$es the lord of men forget the startingpoint until he turns from east to %est and is not conscious of the change' To guard against such misleadings3 the early $ings set up the south-pointing needle @@ to ascertain the directions of sun-rise and sun-set' Thus3 e(ery intelligent ruler ordered his ministers ne(er to realize their %ishes outside the realm of la% and ne(er to besto% their fa(ours inside the realm of la%Kin short3 ne(er to commit any unla%ful act' .

ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain means to die' A' In fact it %as not )ing Hsiang but )ing hao %ho sent 4eneral Bo I to in(ade the h!i State in @.the in$ed string %ith his sur(eying eyes and calculating mind3 al%ays ta$es compasses and s8uares as measures before his mar$ingH the great genius3 though able to accomplish his tas$ %ith s%ift mo(e3 al%ays ta$es the la% of the early $ings as the ruler before his accomplishment'" Thus3 if the in$ed string is straight3 croo$ed timbers %ill be sha(edH if the %ater-le(el is e(en3 high gnarls %ill be planed do%n' Similarly3 if %eights and balances are %ell hung up3 %hat is too hea(y %ill be decreased and %hat is too light %ill be increasedH once pec$s and bushels are established3 %hat is too much %ill be decreased and %hat is too little %ill be increased' Hence to go(ern the state by la% is to praise the right and blame the %rong' @E The la% does not fa%n on the nobleH the string does not yield to the croo$ed' #hate(er the la% applies to3 the %ise cannot reFect nor can the bra(e defy' Punishment for fault ne(er s$ips ministers3 re%ard for good ne(er misses commoners' Therefore3 to correct the faults of the high3 to rebu$e the (ices of the lo%3 to suppress disorders3 to decide against mista$es3 to subdue the arrogant3 to straighten the croo$ed3 and to unify the fol$%ays of the masses3 nothing could match the la%' To %arn @= the officials and o(era%e the people3 to rebu$e obscenity and danger3 and to forbid falsehood and deceit3 nothing could match penalty' If penalty is se(ere3 the noble cannot discriminate against the humble' If la% is definite3 the superiors are esteemed and not (iolated' If the superiors are not (iolated3 the so(ereign %ill become strong and able to maintain the proper course of go(ernment' Such %as the reason %hy the early $ings esteemed legalism and handed it do%n to posterity' Should the lord of men discard la% and practise selfishness3 high and lo% %ould ha(e no distinction' 'otes 9' r˜' Its 2nglish rendering by -' T' h?n is "The 25istence of Standards" :-iang h!i-ch!ao3 History of Chinese )olitical Thou(ht durin( the 3arly Tsin )eriod& trans' by -' T' h?n3 p' 99=3 n' @>3 %hich is incorrect' This chapter has been regarded by many critics such as Hu Shih and Bung hao-tsu as spurious merely on the ground that the ruin of the states as adduced by Han Fei Tzŭtoo$ place long after his death' Inasmuch as ™ means "decay" and "decline" as %ell as "ruin" and "destruction"3 I regard the e(idence alleged by the critics as insufficient' @' š reads ™ meaning ›3 namely3 "lea(e'" To lea(e the .D $+c+ D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? NTœ• should be N•œT' In @I@ $+c+ #ey %ith h!in and h!u attac$ed Ben' In @EI $+c+ -ord Hsin-ling of #ey smashed the forces of h!in at Han-tan and thereby rescued hao' E' #ith )u ž should be Ÿ' =' ¡a• referred to the ci(ilized countries in the then $no%n %orld' The barbarians roaming around the Middle -and bobbed their hair and %ent %ithout hats' Their garments had the lapels on the left and no girdles' &n the contrary3 the hinese %ould gro% their hair3 cro%n e(ery male from t%enty years of age3 ha(e the lapels of their coats on the right' The countries of cro%ns and girdles %ere thus distinguished from the rest of the %orld' .

' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¢ belo% £• in both cases should be ¤' <' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ¥ belo% ¦ should be §' 9J' #ith #ang this %hole paragraph is largely based on )uan Tzŭ*s "Ma$ing the -a% lear"' 99' ¨$ means "to ha(e an audience %ith His MaFesty"3 %ho3 %hile seated on the throne3 al%ays faces the south' 9@' ©rRª means "not to brea$ his %ord e(er presented to the throne"' 9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen « belo% œ is superfluous' 9D' &ne of the t%o precious s%ords made by the order of )ing Fu-ch!a of the #u State3 the other being called )an-chiang' 9E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¬ should read -' 9=' Such %as the 6topia dreamt and pictured by Han Fei Tzŭ from the legalistic standpoint3 %hich3 diametrically opposed to the onfucian spirit3 stands out clearly relie(ed against the 4reat ommunity of onfucius+K #hen the 4rand #ay %as pursued3 a public and common spirit ruled . competent pro(ision %as secured for the aged till their death3 employment for the able-bodied3 and the means of gro%ing up to the young' They sho%ed $indness and compassion to %ido%s3 orphans3 childless men3 and those %ho %ere disabled by disease3 so that they %ere all sufficiently maintained' Males had their proper %or$3 and females had their homes' They accumulated articles of (alue3 disli$ing that they should be thro%n a%ay upon the ground3 but not %ishing to $eep them for their o%n gratification' They laboured %ith their strength3 disli$ing that it should not be e5erted3 but not e5erting it only %ith a (ie% to their o%n ad(antage' In this %ay selfish schemings %ere repressed and found no de(elopment' 0obbers3 filchers3 and rebellious traitors did not sho% themsel(es3 and hence the outer doors remained open3 and %ere not shut' This %as the period of %hat %e call the 4reat ommunity' : f' -egge*s translation of The #i .llunder-Hea(enH they chose %orthy and able menH their %ords %ere sincere3 and %hat they culti(ated %as harmony' Thus men did not lo(e their parents only3 nor treat as children only their sons' .i& B$' /II3 Sect' i& @'> #hen the 4rand #ay %as pursued3 a public and common spirit ruled .I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¢ belo% £• in both cases should be ¤' .llunder-Hea(enH they chose %orthy and able menH their %ords %ere sincere3 and %hat they culti(ated %as harmony' Thus men did not lo(e their parents only3 nor treat as children only their sons' . competent pro(ision %as secured for the aged till their death3 employment for the able-bodied3 and the means of gro%ing up to the young' They sho%ed $indness and compassion to %ido%s3 orphans3 childless men3 and those %ho %ere disabled by disease3 so that they %ere all sufficiently maintained' Males had their proper %or$3 and females had their homes' They accumulated articles of (alue3 disli$ing that they should be thro%n a%ay upon the ground3 but not %ishing to $eep them for their o%n gratification' They laboured %ith their strength3 disli$ing that it should not be e5erted3 but not .

in(& l555'> 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ® should be ¯' 9.s remar$ed by )u )uang-ts!?3 the 4reat )lan contains a passage some%hat different from this citation' 9<' #ith )ao H?ng o read p %hich means q' @J' #ith )ao ° belo% 不• means ± or ²' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ³ abo(e ´ should be µ' @@' The compass needle' @A' For §¶·¸¹º»¼ I propose ½§¶%¾º¿»¼ %hich runs parallel to the follo%ing passage ÀŒ¶%Á)Â下¼' .i& B$' /II3 Sect' i& @'> Han Fei Tzŭ*s 6topia3 ho%e(er3 runs in parallel to the ideal state of nature described by -ao Tzŭ+K In a small country %ith fe% people let there be aldermen and mayors %ho are possessed of po%er o(er men but %ould not use it3 and %ho induce people to grie(e at death but do not cause them to mo(e at a distance' .e5erting it only %ith a (ie% to their o%n ad(antage' In this %ay selfish schemings %ere repressed and found no de(elopment' 0obbers3 filchers3 and rebellious traitors did not sho% themsel(es3 and hence the outer doors remained open3 and %ere not shut' This %as the period of %hat %e call the 4reat ommunity' : f' -egge*s translation of The #i .lthough they ha(e ships and carts3 they find no occasion to employ them' The people are induced to return to the pre-literate age of $notted cords and to use them in place of %riting3 to delight in their food3 to be proud of their clothes3 to be content %ith their homes3 and to reFoice in their customs' Then3 neighbouring states %ill be mutually happy %ithin sightH the (oices of coc$s and dogs %ill echo each otherH and the peoples %ill not ha(e to call on each other %hile gro%ing old and dead' : f' arus*s translation of -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Teh .lthough they ha(e ships and carts3 they find no occasion to employ them' The people are induced to return to the pre-literate age of $notted cords and to use them in place of %riting3 to delight in their food3 to be proud of their clothes3 to be content %ith their homes3 and to reFoice in their customs' Then3 neighbouring states %ill be mutually happy %ithin sightH the (oices of coc$s and dogs %ill echo each otherH and the peoples %ill not ha(e to call on each other %hile gro%ing old and dead' : f' arus*s translation of -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Teh .in(& l555'> In a small country %ith fe% people let there be aldermen and mayors %ho are possessed of po%er o(er men but %ould not use it3 and %ho induce people to grie(e at death but do not cause them to mo(e at a distance' .' .

@D' #ith BM BMeh à should be Ä' @E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ų should be ÅÆ as in onfucius*s %nalects+ @=' #ang 7ien-sun proposed Ç for È' Chapter 0II.s illustration3 that %hich enables the tiger to subFect the dog3 is his cla%s and fangs' Supposing the tiger cast aside its cla%s and fangs and let the dog use them3 the tiger %ould in turn be subFected by the dog' The lord of men controls his ministers by means of chastisement and commendation' 7o% supposing the ruler of men cast aside the handles of chastisement and commendation and let the ministers use them3 the ruler %ould in turn be controlled by the ministers' Thus3 T!ien h!ang petitioned for ran$ and bounties3 %hich he in his turn conferred upon the body of officials3 and enlarged pec$s and bushels3 by (irtue of %hich he distributed alms among the hundred surnames' In other %ords3 .u$e hien lost the handle of commendation3 %hich T!ien h!ang set to use' In the long run .u$e hien and the 0uler of Sung' For this reason3 e(ery so(ereign molested3 murdered3 deluded3 or decei(ed3 because he had lost I the handles of chastisement and commendation and let the ministers use them3 in(ited danger and ruin accordingly' . The T"o Han+les1 The means @ %hereby the intelligent ruler controls his ministers are t%o handles only' The t%o handles are chastisementA and commendation' D #hat are meant by chastisement and commendationL To inflict death or torture upon culprits3 is called chastisementH to besto% encouragements or re%ards on men of merit3 is called commendation' Ministers are afraid of censure and punishment but fond of encouragement and re%ard' Therefore3 if the lord of men uses the handles of chastisement and commendation3 all ministers %ill dread his se(erity and turn to his liberality' The (illainous ministers of the age are different' To men they hate they %ould by securing the handle of chastisement from the so(ereign ascribe crimesH on men they lo(e they %ould by securing the handle of commendation from the so(ereign besto% re%ards' 7o% supposing the lord of men placed the authority of punishment and the profit of re%ard not in his hands but let the ministers administer the affairs of re%ard and punishment instead3 then e(erybody in the country %ould fear the ministers and slight the ruler3 and turn to the ministers and a%ay from the ruler' This is the calamity of the ruler*s loss of the handles of chastisement and commendation' .u$e hien E %as murdered' -i$e%ise3 Tzŭ-han once said to the 0uler of Sung+ "Indeed3 re%ards and charities being %hat the people li$e3 may Bour Highness besto% themG Slaughter and punishments being %hat the people disli$e3 may thy ser(ant beg lea(e to enforce themL" Thenceforth3 the 0uler of Sung lost the handle of chastisement3 %hich Tzŭhan set to use' Hence follo%ed the molestation of the 0uler of Sung' = Inasmuch as T!ien h!ang used only the handle of commendation3 .u$e hien %as murderedH inasmuch as Tzŭ-han used only the handle of chastisement3 the 0uler of Sung %as molested' Therefore3 if any minister of the present age uses both the handles of chastisement and commendation3 the danger of his ruler %ill be more serious than that of .

u$e Huan %ith the rare tasteH because Tzŭ-$!uai of Ben li$ed %orthies3 Tzŭ-chih pretended that he %ould not accept the state' 9J Therefore3 if the ruler re(eals his hate3 ministers %ill conceal their moti(esH if the ruler re(eals his li$es3 ministers %ill pretend to talentH and if the ruler re(eals his %ants3 99 ministers %ill ha(e the opportunity to disguise their feelings and attitudes' .gain3 any minister %hose %ord is small but %hose %or$ is big should also be punished' 7ot that big %or$ is not desirable but that the discrepancy bet%een the %or$ and the name is %orse than the accomplishment of the big %or$' Hence the minister should be punished' &nce in by-gone days3 Mar8uis hao of Han < %as drun$ and fell into a nap' The cro%n-$eeper3 seeing the ruler e5posed to cold3 put a coat o(er him' #hen the Mar8uis a%o$e3 he %as glad and as$ed the attendants3 "#ho put more clothes on my bodyL" "The cro%n-$eeper did3" they replied' Then the Mar8uis found the coat-$eeper guilty and put the cro%n-$eeper to death' He punished the coat-$eeper for the neglect of his duty3 and the cro%n-$eeper for the o(erriding of his post' 7ot that the Mar8uis %as not afraid of catching cold but that he thought their trespassing the assigned duties %as %orse than his catching cold' Thus3 %hen an intelligent ruler $eeps ministers in ser(ice3 no minister is allo%ed either to o(erride his post and get merits thereby nor to utter any %ord not e8ui(alent to a fact' #hoe(er o(errides his post is put to deathH %hoe(er ma$es a %ord not e8ui(alent to a fact is punished' If e(eryone has to do his official duty3 and if %hate(er he says has to be earnest3 then the ministers cannot associate for treasonable purposes' The lord of men has t%o difficulties to face+ If he appoints only %orthy men to office3 ministers %ill on the pretence of %orthiness attempt to decei(e their rulerH if he ma$es arbitrary promotions of officials3 the state affairs %ill al%ays be menaced' Similarly3 if the lord of men lo(es %orthiness3 ministers %ill gloss o(er their defects in order to meet the ruler*s need' In conse8uence3 no minister %ill sho% his true heart' If no minister sho%s his true heart3 the lord of men %ill find no %ay to tell the %orthy from the un%orthy' For instance3 because the )ing of BMeh li$ed bra(e men3 the people made light of deathH because )ing -ing of h!u li$ed slender %aists3 the country became full of star(elingsH because .u$e Huan of h!i %as by nature Fealous and fond of %omen3 Shu Tiao castrated himself in order to administer the haremH because .u$e Huan li$ed different tastes3 Bi-ya steamed the head of his son and ser(ed . #hene(er a minister utters a %ord3 the ruler should in accordance %ith his %ord assign him a tas$ to accomplish3 and in accordance %ith the tas$ call the %or$ to account' If the %or$ corresponds %ith the tas$3 and the tas$ corresponds %ith the %ord3 he should be re%arded' &n the contrary3 if the %or$ is not e8ui(alent to the tas$3 and the tas$ not e8ui(alent to the %ord3 he should be punished' .ccordingly3 any minister %hose %ord is big but %hose %or$ is small should be punished' 7ot that the %or$ is small3 but that the %or$ is not e8ui(alent to the name' .The lord of men3 %hene(er he %ants to suppress culprits3 must see norm accord %ith name and %ord ne(er differ from tas$' .

<-<9>' .u$e Huan %as dying3 Shu Tiao and Bi-ya allo%ed nobody else to see him' . to AAA $+c+ .fter his death they made no announcement and let his corpse lie unburied for si5ty-se(en days : ide infra& hap' 13 pp' .uring his reign his premier3 Sh?n Pu-hai3 enforced legalistic policies so successfully that Han emerged to be a rich and strong country' In the same country Han Fei Tzŭ%as born about half a century later and %as therefore greatly influenced by the legalism taught and practised by Sh?n Pu-hai : ide infra& hap' 1-III>' 9J' .s Tzŭ-chih3 Premier of Ben3 had intimated that e(en if the state %ere offered him3 he %ould ne(er accept it3 Tzŭ-$!uai3 )ing of Ben3 in A9= $+c+ purposely abdicated in fa(our of him3 %ho3 ho%e(er3 too$ the throne %ith no reser(e' 99' #ith BM BMeh Ï見 should be 見Ï' 9@' In A9D $+c+ 9A' #hen .ecords nor else%here e5cept here' 4ranted that this chapter is not spurious3 Han Fei Tzŭmust ha(e deri(ed the information from some unreliable source of his age' I' #ith BM BMeh Í abo(e ¢ is superfluous' .' Hiraza%a*s edition has l不Î事 in place of lÎ事' <' He ruled from AE.9 $+c+ In the same year onfucius composed the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals+ =' Tzŭ-han %as a minister of Sung3 but his intimidation of the so(ereign is mentioned neither in the Historical .u$e Huan %as left unburied until %orms from his corpse cra%led outdoors' 9A #hat %as the cause of these incidentsL It %as nothing but the calamity of the rulers* re(elation of true hearts to ministers' 2(ery minister in his heart of hearts does not necessarily lo(e the ruler' If he does3 it is for the sa$e of his o%n great ad(antage' In these days3 if the lord of men neither co(ers his feelings nor conceals his moti(es3 and if he lets ministers ha(e a chance to molest their master3 the ministers %ill ha(e no difficulty in follo%ing the e5amples of Tzŭ-chih and T!iench!ang' Hence the saying+ "If the ruler*s li$es and hate be concealed3 the ministers* true hearts %ill be re(ealed' If the ministers re(eal their true hearts3 the ruler ne(er %ill be deluded'" 'otes 9' RÉ For the 2nglish rendering of É Professor M' S' Bates suggested "grip" instead of "handle"' I prefer "handle" in order to retain the nati(e colour of the original' @' #ith BM BMeh Ê should be ‡ %hich means Ë' A' Œ' D' Ì' E' In D.That %as the reason %hy Tzŭ-chih3 by pretending to %orthiness3 usurped the ruler*s throneH and %hy Shu Tiao and Bi-ya3 by complying %ith their ruler*s %ants3 molested their ruler' Thus Tzŭ-$!uai died in conse8uence of a ci(il %ar 9@ and .

fter appointing attendants on his right and left3 he can open the gate and meet anybody' I He can go on%ard %ith the t%o handles %ithout ma$ing any change' To apply them %ithout cessation is said to be acting on the right %ay of go(ernment' .ceptre1 Hea en has its destiny @ H human beings ha(e their destiny3 A too' Indeed3 anything smelling good and tasting soft3 be it rich %ine or fat meat3 is delicious to the mouth3 but it causes the body illness' The beauty ha(ing delicate s$in and pretty %hite teeth pleases feeling but e5hausts energy' Hence a(oid e5cesses and e5tremes' Then you %ill suffer no harm' D The sceptre should ne(er be sho%n' For its inner nature is non-assertion' E The state affairs may be scattered in the four directions but the $ey to their administration is in the centre' The sage holding this $ey in hand3 people from the four directions come to render him meritorious ser(ices' He remains empty and %aits for their ser(ices3 and they %ill e5ert their abilities by themsel(es' #ith the conditions of the four seas clearly in mind3 he can see the Bang by means of the Bin' = . Wiel+ing the . Indeed3 e(erything has its functionH e(ery material has its utility' #hen e(erybody %or$s according to his special 8ualification3 both superior and inferior %ill not ha(e to do anything' -et roosters herald the da%n and let cats %atch for rats' #hen e(erything e5ercises its special 8ualification3 the ruler %ill not ha(e to do anything' If the ruler has to e5ert any special s$ill of his o%n3 it means that affairs are not going right' If he is conceited and fond of displaying his ability3 he %ill be decei(ed by the inferiors' If he is sagacious and lenient3 < the inferiors %ill ta$e ad(antage of his capacity' If superior and inferior e5change their roles3 the state ne(er %ill be in order' 9J The %ay to assume oneness 99 starts from the study of terminology' #hen names are rectified3 things %ill be settledH %hen names are distorted3 things %ill shift around' Therefore3 the sage holds oneness in hand and rests in tran8uillity3 letting names appoint themsel(es to tas$s and affairs settle themsel(es' If he does not sho% off his sagacity3 the inferiors %ill re(eal their earnestness and uprightness' He then appoints them to office in accordance %ith their %ords3 and thus lets them choose 9@ their tas$s' He confers upon them po%ers in accordance %ith their needs and thus lets them raise their ran$s' Thus3 he rectifies their names first3 then %or$s %ith them3 and finally ma$es them accomplish the tas$s' Therefore3 he promotes them through the e5amination of names' #hen the name is not clear3 he see$s for its connotation by tracing 9A its form' .Chapter 0III.fter the form and the name are compared and identified3 he puts the product into use' 9D If both form and name ha(e to be true3 the inferiors %ill ha(e to re(eal their true hearts3 too' arefully attend to your duties3 %ait for decrees from hea(en to come3 and ne(er miss the $ey to go(ernment' Then you %ill become a sage' 9E The %ay of the sage is to discard his o%n %isdom and talent' If his o%n %isdom and talent are not discarded3 it %ill be hard for him to $eep a constant principle of go(ernment' #hen the people e5ert %isdom and talent3 they %ill suffer disastersH %hen the so(ereign e5erts them3 the state %ill be in danger and on the decline' So3 conform to the %ay of hea(en3 act on the principle of human life3 9= and then consider3 compare3 and in(estigate them' #here there is an ending3 there is al%ays a beginning' .

Be empty and reposed3 $eep behind others3 and ne(er assert yourself before anybody else' For the calamity of the ruler originates in self-assertion' 7e(ertheless3 though you ha(e faith in the inferiors* %ords3 you must not listen to them blindly' Then the myriad people %ill uniformly obey you' 9I Indeed3 Tao is so magnificent as to ha(e no form' Teh is e(idently systematic and so e5tensi(e as to permeate all li(es' #hen it functions proportionately3 the myriad things are formed3 9.s they themsel(es mo(e their lips and teeth3 I can thereby understand their real intentions' 0ight and %rong %ords coming to the fore in such fashion3 the ruler does not ha(e to Foin issue @= %ith them @I To remain empty and tran8uil and practise inaction is the real status of Tao' To compare3 refer3 and analogize things3 is the form of affairs' Thus you sometime compare them and analogize them to other things and sometime refer them to and accord them %ith the condition of emptiness' #hen the root and trun$ of a tree ne(er change3 motion and rest @.ccordingly3 ruler and minister do not follo% the same path' #hen the minister presents any %ord to the throne3 the ruler holds to the name and the minister must %or$ out the form' #hen form and name are compared and found identical3 superior and inferior %ill ha(e peace and harmony' @@ In general3 the right %ay to listen to the ministers is to ta$e %hat they utter as the measure of %hat they har(est' @A The ruler in(estigates their names so as to determine their offices3 and clarify their duties so as to distinguish bet%een different (arieties of %or$' The right %ay to hear different utterances is to loo$ @D drun$en' 7e(er start mo(ing your o%n lips and teeth before the subordinates do' The longer I $eep 8uiet3 the sooner others mo(e their lips and teeth' @E . though it does not add to their security' Thus Tao is omnipresent in all e(ents' So3 follo% and preser(e its decrees and li(e and die at the right time' ompare the names of different things3 and trace the common source of the principles underlying them' 9< Hence the saying+ "Tao does not identify itself %ith anything but itself' Teh does not identify itself %ith the Bin and the Bang' The balance does not identify itself %ith lightness and hea(iness' The in$ed string does not identify itself %ith ingress and egress' The reed-organ @J does not identify itself %ith dryness and %etness' The ruler does not identify himself %ith the ministers'" These si5 are effects of Tao' @9 Tao is ne(er a pair' Hence it is called one' Therefore3 the intelligent ruler esteems singleness3 the characteristic feature of Tao' . %ill cause no loss of its original status' Ma$e @< the inferiors feel uneasy' Impro(e their actions by practising inaction' #hen you li$e them3 affairs %ill multiplyH %hen you hate them3 resentment %ill appear' So3 discard both li$e and hate and ma$e your empty mind the abode of Tao' AJ If the ruler does not share the supreme authority %ith the ministers3 the people %ill regard this as a great blessing' The ruler should ne(er discuss A9 matters of right and %rong %ith the ministers but let them carry on the discussion themsel(es' If he loc$s the inner bar A@ and sees the courtyard from inside the room3 then Fust as differences by inches and feet %ould come to the fore3 so %ill all ministers $no% their proper places' #ho deser(es re%ard3 %ill be properly re%ardedH %ho deser(es punishment3 %ill be properly punished' If e(erybody pays for %hate(er he does3 and if good and e(il (isit him %ithout fail3 %ho %ould dare to distrust the la%L &nce compasses and .

t the height of political order no minister can surmise %hat is in the ruler*s mind' If the ruler closely accords form %ith name3 the people %ill attend to their daily business' To lea(e this $ey and see$ anything else is to fall into serious be%ilderment' This %ill e(entually increase the number of cunning people and fill the ruler*s right and left %ith %ic$ed ministers' Hence the saying+ "7e(er ennoble anybody in such %ise that he may molest youH and ne(er trust anybody so e5clusi(ely that you lose the capital and the state to him'" DJ If the calf is larger than the thigh3 it is hard to run fast' D9 .t this moment3 if the so(ereign does not stop it3 the false dog %ill increase its partisans' The tigers %ill form a party and murder the mother' D@ If the so(ereign has no ministers loyal to him3 %hat $ind of a state has heL Bet as soon as the so(ereign begins to enforce la%s3 e(en tigers %ill become mee$H as soon as he sets himself to inflict penalties3 e(en the largest tiger %ill become tame' -a%s and penalties being of faith3 tigers %ill turn into ordinary human beings and re(ert to their due status' DA .ny ruler %ishing to gi(e peace to the state must disperse the partisans of po%erful ministers' If he does not disperse their partisans3 they %ill enlarge their parties' .s soon as the so(ereign ceases being mysterious3 the tiger %ill follo% him from behind' If he ta$es no notice of it3 the tiger %ill beha(e li$e a dog' . of the court you may appoint men to office but should ne(er ta$e $indly to them' To go(ern the e5terior A< of the court you may put one man in charge of one office but should ne(er allo% him to act arbitrarily' If things are so3 ho% can anybody sha$e the ruler*s authority or gain any undue po%erL If there are numerous men fre8uenting the gates of the high officials* residences3 it %ill cause the ruler an5ieties' .s8uares AA are established and one angle is made right3 the other three angles %ill come out one after another' AD If the so(ereign is not mysterious3 AE the ministers %ill find opportunity to ta$e' For3 if his tas$ is improper3 they %ill change A= their routine of %or$' To beha(e as high as hea(en and as thic$ as earth is the %ay to dissol(e all %orries' To do as hea(en and earth do is the %ay to dismiss all discriminations bet%een strangers and relati(es' #hoe(er can model himself upon hea(en and earth is called a sage' AI To go(ern the interior A.ny ruler %ishing to maintain order in his country must adFust the distribution of his gifts' If he does not adFust the distribution of his gifts3 rapacious men %ill see$ for e5traordinary profits' To grant them re8uests %ill then be the same as to lend a5es to enemies' It is not right to lend out such things' For they %ill be used for assaulting the ruler' DD The Bello% 2mperor made the saying+ "Superior and inferior %age one hundred battles a day'" The inferior conceals his tric$s %hich he uses in testing the superiorH the superior manipulates rules and measures in splitting the influences of the inferior' Therefore the institution of rules and measures is the so(ereign*s treasure3 the possession of partisans and adherents is the minister*s treasure' Such being the situation3 if the minister does not murder the ruler3 it is because his partisans and adherents are not yet sufficient' Therefore3 if the superior loses one or t%o inches3 DE the inferior %ill gain eight or si5teen feet' D= The ruler in possession of a state ne(er enlarges the capital' The minister follo%ing the true path ne(er empo%ers his o%n family' The ruler follo%ing the right %ay ne(er empo%ers any minister' Because3 .

To detect culprits inside the court and guard against croo$s outside it3 the ruler must personally hold his rules and measures' Ma$e the po%erful %ane and the po%erless %a5' Both %aning and %a5ing should ha(e limitations' 7e(er allo% the people to form Funtas and thereby decei(e their superiors %ith one accord' Ma$e the po%erful %ane li$e the moon3 and the po%erless %a5 li$e the heat of the bored fire' Simplify orders and dignify censures' Ma$e the application of penal la%s definite' 7e(er loosen your bo%H other%ise3 you %ill find t%o males in one nest' #here there are t%o males in one nest3 there the fighting %ill continue at si5es and se(ens' #hen %ol(es are in the stable3 sheep ne(er %ill flourish' #hen t%o masters are in one house3 nothing can be accomplished' #hen both man and %ife manage the household3 children %ill not $no% %hom to obey' D< The ruler of men should often stretch the tree but ne(er allo% its branches to flourish' -u5uriant branches %ill co(er the gates of public buildings3 till pri(ate houses become full3 public halls empty3 and the so(ereign deluded' So3 stretch out the tree often but ne(er allo% any branch to gro% out%ard' .ny branch that gro%s out%ard %ill molest the position of the so(ereign' .gain3 stretch out the tree often but ne(er allo% any branch to gro% larger than the stem' #hen the branches are large and the stem is small3 the tree %ill be unable to endure spring %inds' #hen the tree cannot endure spring %inds3 the branches %ill damage its $ernel' Similarly3 %hen illegitimate sons are many3 the heir apparent %ill ha(e %orries and an5ieties' The only %ay to chec$ them is to stretch out the tree often and ne(er let its branches flourish' If the tree is stretched out often3 partisans and adherents of the %ic$ed ministers %ill disperse' #hen the roots and the stem are dug up3 the tree is no longer ali(e' Fill up the foaming fountain %ith mud and ne(er let the %ater clear' Search the bosoms of ministers and ta$e a%ay their po%ers' The so(ereign should e5ercise such po%ers himself %ith the speed of the lightning and %ith the dignity of the thunder' EJ 'otes 9' ÐÑ' ertain editions of the te5t ha(e ÐÒ in place of ÐÑ' The latter3 ho%e(er3 suits the ideas set forth in the %or$ better than the former' In style and thought it is similar to hap' / and contains more than hap' / such similes and metaphors as are susceptible of %idely different interpretations' I hope it %ill be helpful to the reader to gi(e an e5planatory note of my o%n to each paragraph' @' It refers to the course of nature as manifested in the compelling principle of the rotation of day and night3 of the four seasons3 and so forth' A' It refers to the course of nature as manifested in the necessary relation of ruler and minister3 of superior and inferior3 and so forth' D' In the opening paragraph it is brought to the fore that though man$ind is endo%ed by nature %ith both carnal and se5ual appetites3 nature does not allo% the satisfaction of either appetite to run to any e5treme' It is3 therefore3 imperati(e that the %ay of life conform to the %ay of nature' -i$e%ise3 the %ay of go(ernmentKthe Tao of the so(ereignKmust conform to the %ay of nature' To %ield the sceptre right is the right %ay to political order3 %hich is e5pounded in the follo%ing paragraphs' E' ÓH' Han Fei Tzŭ*s conception of non-assertion or inaction %as Taoistic in origin' .once empo%ered and enriched3 the inferiorDI %ill attempt to supplant the superior' So3 guard against dangers and be afraid of e(entualities' Install the cro%n prince 8uic$ly' Then many troubles find no %ay to appear' D.

' #ith )ao H?ng Þ means ß' 9<' Here is made an attempt to e5pound the substance and function of Tao and connect metaphysics %ith ethics and politics' @J' à' . fe% years later3 as sho%n in his boo$3 -y Country and -y )eople :9<A=>3 he appeared to be far more Taoistic and cynical than before3 preferring inaction and non-interference to any $ind of remedial %or$ %hich seems to him laborious but fruitless' <' ×n literally means "fond of li(ing beings" or "lo(ing production"3 %hich here implies "unable to bear $illing any human being"' 9J' 0uler and minister should attend to their respecti(e duties' 99' jØ K here means to %ield the sceptreKto attain the autocratic rule3 so to spea$' 9@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 事 should be Ù' 9A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ú should be Û' 9D' j‘¶n means to see %hether or not name and form coincide %ith each other and then enforce re%ard or punishment accordingly' 9E' The epistemological and logical bases of his political theory are concisely discussed here' 9=' 8•aÜ' 8 means Ý' • refers to the out%ard phenomena of man$ind' 9I' To ma$e an obFecti(e sur(ey of the ministers* abilities and directly encourage them to render meritorious ser(ices3 the ruler has to gi(e up or $eep hidden his o%n %isdom and talent' &n the other hand3 to ma$e the subFects uni(ersally obey la%s and uniformly follo% orders3 he should not allo% the masses to abuse their o%n %isdom and talent' 9.=' To see the Bang by %ay of the Bin means to see things from an unseen place or to see the light from the dar$' The Bang :Ô> refers to the positi(e principle of Bi :Õ> or hange %hich hinese sages of classic anti8uity thought to be the permanent function of the uni(erse' The Bin :Ö> refers to its negati(e principle' .ll phenomena are resultant from the interaction of these t%o principles' I' .' The %orld (ie% of Han Fei Tzŭis purely Taoistic' So is the maFor premise of his life (ie%' The doctrine of inaction is ad(ocated in the opening sentences of this paragraph3 %hich3 ho%e(er3 ends %ith his insistence on the acti(e application of the t%o handles to go(ernment' Herein lies the difference bet%een Han Fei Tzŭ*s ideas and the teachings of the orthodo5 Taoists' -ao Tzŭand his immediate follo%ers taught that the origin of life is inaction3 its ideal should be inaction and that the route to this goal must be inaction3 too' #ith them Han Fei Tzŭagreed that inaction is the end3 but he asserted that the means to the end is action' The 6topia remains a permanent 6topian ideal' -ife is a constant strife after this goal' So is go(ernment an e(erlasting fight against the disrupti(e forces in indi(idual and social life for perfect order' In such a fight the la% is the only %eapon3 %hose t%o handles are chastisement and commendation' Therefore3 to apply the t%o handles %ithout cessation is said to be acting on the right %ay of go(ernment' In this connection the shifting emphases in the social and political thought of -in Bu-tang3 one of the greatest admirers of Han Fei Tzŭin modern hina3 are %orth noticing' In his essay on "Han Fei as a ure for Modern hina" :China's 5wn Critics0 % Selection of 3ssays& 9<A9>3 he sho%ed his %hole-hearted support of Han Fei Tzŭ' . $ind of musical instrument able to maintain the same notes in all $inds of %eather' .s he cannot any longer be deluded3 he is not afraid of meeting anybody' .

@9' The relationship of metaphysics %ith ethics is further de(eloped here' @@' The autocracy of the ruler is Fustified by (irtue of the characteristic feature of Tao' @A' #ith )ao H?ng %‘¶á8%Ha« means %‘¶l8%Haâ inasmuch as á refers to ã or name and « refers to • or form' @D' #ith BM BMeh ä should be å' @E' The more silent I remain3 the more tal$ati(e others become' @=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen æ reads ç' @I' The ruler should al%ays stand aloof from the offices to %hich his inferiors are appointed3 and charge them %ith such responsibilities as ne(er %ould in(ol(e himself' @.' #ith Hiraza%a è stands for é meaning ê' @<' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ä should be OOOO' AJ' Thus3 to do inaction is to see e(erything done of itself and by itself' To remain empty and tran8uil is to see e(erybody dri(en by nature into good' This3 again3 is the ideal side of Han Fei Tzŭ*s thought' In the practical field he had to ad(ocate the method of persistent action as re(ealed in the ne5t paragraph' A9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ë should be ì' A@' í內扃 really means to conceal one*s o%n opinions so as to inspect the inferiors* %or$s' AA' îï refers to the rules of re%ard and punishment' AD' The significance of re%ard and punishment in go(ernment is discussed' AE' ð means "so profound and di(ine that nobody else can conFecture his intention or estimate his ability"' A=' #ith )ao H?ng ñ is a mista$e for ò' AI' It is imperati(e that the ruler be mysterious and difficult to understand' A.' ourtiers and attendants' A<' &fficers and officials' DJ' The necessity to ta$e precautions against ambitious %ic$ed ministers is e5plained' D9' #ith -u #?n-shao óô should be õô' D@' The mistress of the land3 the ruler of the state' DA' The intelligent ruler pre(ents %ic$ed ministers from becoming too po%erful3 and impro(es their character by means of la%s and penalties' .

' 0uler and minister are al%ays (ying %ith each other in po%er' The former resorts to the enforcement of state la%s throughout the countryH the latter to the distribution of personal fa(ours among the masses' &ne easy %ay open to the ruler to sa(e the situation is3 according to Han Fei Tzŭ3 to install the cro%n prince as early as possible so that many court intrigues %ill be a(oided' D<' .ccordingly special attention is called to the gro%th of the stem' Chapter I2.s Han Fei Tzŭdirected his main attention in his political thought to the issues bet%een ruler and minister3 in the present and ne5t paragraphs he taught the ruler ho% to maintain supremacy and %hy to %ea$en the minister' This %ell reminds the reader of -ord Shang*s "#ea$ening the People"' EJ' The tree illustrates the state as a %hole organic structureH the stem3 the rulerH and the branches3 the ministers' Hence Han Fei Tzŭ*s saying+ "#hen the branches are large and the stem is small3 the tree %ill be unable to endure spring %inds'" .ctors3 Fo$ers3 and clo%ns as %ell as attendants and courtiers %ould say3 ". feet and ù is t%ice as long' DI' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ú should be û' D.t your ser(ice3 at your ser(ice3" before the so(ereign has gi(en any order3 and say3 "Bes3 yes3" before he has commanded them to do anything3 thus ta$ing orders ahead of his %ords and loo$ing at his facial e5pressions and Fudging his needs by his colour in order thereby to render him ser(ice before he ma$es up his mind' Such people ad(ance and %ithdra% en $loc& respond and reply %ith one accord3 E thus identifying their deeds and unifying their %ords so as to mo(e the so(ereign*s mind' Therefore3 ministers bribe them in secret %ith gold3 Fe%ellery3 curios3 and the li$e3 and commit unla%ful acts to their ad(antage and thereby ma$e them beguile the so(ereign' This is said to be "through the bribery of bystanders"' The third is said to be "through the entertainment of uncles and brothers"' = #hat is meant by "through the entertainment of uncles and brothers"L In reply I say+ Sons by . 3ight 0illainies1 6n general there are eight %ays %hereby ministers are led @ to commit (illainy+K The first is said to be "through the bribery of sharers of the same bed"' A #hat is meant by "through the bribery of sharers of the same bed"L In reply I say+ By graceful ladies3 belo(ed concubines3 feminine courtiers3 and pretty lads3 the lord of men is be%ildered' ounting on the so(ereign*s pleasant rest from go(ernmental %or$ and ta$ing ad(antage of his being drun$en and satiated3 the sharers of the same bed %ould get from him %hat they %ant' This is the %ay to secure unfailing grants' Therefore3 ministers bribe them in secret %ith gold and Fe%ellery and thereby ma$e them be%ilder the so(ereign' This is said to be "through the bribery of sharers of the same bed"' The second is said to be "through the bribery of bystanders"' D #hat is meant by "through the bribery of bystanders"L In reply I say+ .DD' The ruler should not o(erstep the limits of re%ard and punishment' DE' ö÷' ö is the total %idth of four fingersH ÷ is the distance bet%een the Foint of the thumb and the pulse beneath the palm' D=' øù' ø is .

ccordingly3 ministers find elo8uent spea$ers from among the subFects of other feudal lords and feed able persuaders in the country3 then ma$e them spea$ about their self-see$ing designs %ith s$ilfully polished %ords and fluent and con(incing phrases3 sho% the so(ereign the direction of ad(antages and po%ers3 o(era%e him %ith the location of calamities and disad(antages3 manipulate all $inds of false sayings3 and thereby depra(e him' This is said to be "through the employment of fluent and con(incing spea$ers"' The se(enth is said to be "through the arrogation of authority and strength"' 9J #hat is meant by "through the arrogation of authority and strength"L In reply I say+ The ruler of men maintains his authority and strength by $eeping all officials and the hundred surnames on his side' #hate(er he considers good is regarded as good by the officials and the peopleH %hate(er he ne(er considers good is not regarded as good by the officials and the people' Ministers then gather bold s%ordsmen and desperate rascals to display their authority and ma$e it $no%n that %hoe(er sides %ith them al%ays gains and %hoe(er does not side %ith them is bound to die3 and thereby o(era%e the officials and the people and practise selfishness' This is said to be "through the arrogation of authority and strength"' .ll such people e5ert their energies and e5change their ideas %hile the so(ereign al%ays listens to them' Ministers3 accordingly3 entertain concubines and their sons %ith music and beauties3 and %in the hearts of prime ministers and court officials %ith t%isted %ords and sentences' Then through them they ma$e promises and submit proFects to the throne3 so that %hen the tas$s are accomplished3 their ran$s are raised3 their bounties increased3 and their minds thereby satisfied' In this %ay they ma$e them (iolate the so(ereign' This is said to be "through the entertainment of uncles and brothers"' The fourth is said to be "through fostering calamities"' I #hat is meant by "through fostering calamities"L In reply I say+ The so(ereign enFoys beautifying his palatial buildings3 terraces3 and pools3 and decorating boys3 girls3 dogs3 and horses3 so as to amuse his mind' This %ill e(entually bring him calamities' Therefore3 ministers e5haust the energy of the people to beautify palatial buildings3 terraces3 and pools3 and increase e5actions and ta5ation for decorating boys3 girls3 dogs3 and horses3 and thereby amuse the so(ereign and disturb his mind3 thus follo%ing his %ants and har(esting their o%n ad(antages thereby' This is said to be "through fostering calamities"' The fifth is said to be "through buying up (agabonds"' .concubines are much lo(ed by the so(ereignH prime ministers and court officials are consulted by the so(ereign' . #hat is meant by "through buying up (agabonds"L In reply I say+ Ministers distribute money out of public re(enues to please the masses of people and besto% small fa(ours to %in the hearts of the hundred surnames3 and thereby ma$e e(erybody3 %hether in the court or in the mar$et-place3 praise them3 and3 by deluding the so(ereign in this manner3 get %hat they %ant' This is said to be "through buying up (agabonds"' The si5th is said to be "through the employment of fluent and con(incing spea$ers"' < #hat is meant by "through the employment of fluent and con(incing spea$ers"L In reply I say+ The so(ereign3 %ith all a(enues to ne%s bloc$aded3 rarely hears any disputes and discussions and is therefore apt to change his mind by elo8uent persuaders' .

s regards those near him3 though he enFoys their presence3 he must al%ays call their %ords to account and ne(er let them utter any uncalled-for opinion' .ny re8uest by a big po%er the small country al%ays has to acceptH any demand by a strong army the %ea$ army al%ays has to obey' .s regards uncles3 brothers3 and chief (assals3 the ruler3 on adopting their %ords3 ought to hold them liable to penalties in case of failure and appoint them to office in case of success but ne(er gi(e them any arbitrary promotion' &n see$ing pleasures and enFoying curios3 the ruler ought to ha(e a definite personnel in charge of them and allo% nobody to bring such obFects in and out at pleasure 9A and thereby let the ministers anticipate the so(ereign*s %ant' In regard to fa(our-distribution3 it ought to be done on the initiati(e of the ruler to open the emergency treasury and public storehouses and benefit the people' 7o minister should be allo%ed to besto% personal fa(ours' 0egarding persuasions and discussions3 the ruler must ascertain the abilities of men reputed to be good and testify to the defects of those reputed to be bad3 but ne(er allo% the ministers to spea$ to one another about them' .ccordingly3 ministers raise e5actions and ta5ations3 e5haust public treasuries and armouries3 empty the pro(isions of the country3 and thereby ser(e big po%ers and utilize their influence to mislead the ruler' In serious cases3 they %ould e(en send for foreign troops to assemble in the border-lands %hile they restrain 9@ their so(ereign inside the country' &ther%ise3 they %ould in(ite special en(oys from enemy states to molest their ruler and thereby o(era%e him' This is said to be "through the accumulation of support from the four directions"' These eight in general are the %ays %hereby ministers are led to commit (illainy and the so(ereigns of the present age are deluded3 molested3 and depri(ed of their possessions' Therefore3 e(ery so(ereign should not fail to study them carefully' The intelligent ruler3 as regards %omen3 may enFoy their beauty but ought not to follo% their entreaties and comply %ith their re8uests' .The eighth is said to be "through the accumulation of support from the four directions"' 99 #hat is meant by "through the accumulation of support from the four directions"L In reply I say+ The ruler of men3 if his country is small3 has to ser(e big po%ers3 and3 if his army is %ea$3 has to fear strong armies' .s regards bold and strong men3 the ruler should neither neglect re%ard for merit on the battle-field nor remit punishment for boldness in the (illage 8uarrel3 and allo% no minister to gi(e them money in pri(ate' #ith respect to the re8uests made by other feudal lords3 if they are la%ful3 grant themH if they are unla%ful3 spurn them' 9D The so-called doomed ruler is not one %ho no longer has a state but one %ho has a state but not in his grip' If he lets his ministers control the home affairs through the support they recei(e from abroad3 the ruler of men %ill be doomed to ruin' 4ranting that to obey big po%ers is to sa(e one*s o%n country from ruin3 the ruin %ill in case of .

s soon as the ministers realize that the ruler %ill not obey3 they %ill not ma$e friends abroad %ith other feudal lords' .' }盟' <' 流¥' .ny re8uest made by the courtiers is granted' 6ncles and brothers as %ell as chief (assals as$ for ran$s and bounties from the so(ereign and sell them off to their inferiors and thereby accumulate money and ad(antages and support their personal dependents' Therefore3 men %ho ha(e much money and many ad(antages purchase offices in order to become noble3 and those %ho ha(e friendships %ith the courtiers as$ for grants in order to uplift their social prestige' In conse8uence3 officials and officers %ho ha(e rendered the country meritorious ser(ices are lost sight of3 and the shift of posts and offices runs off the legitimate trac$' For this reason3 e(erybody in go(ernmental ser(ice o(errides his post3 culti(ates friendship %ith foreign po%ers3 neglects his duties3 and co(ets money 9I in e(ery %ay3 %ith the result that %orthies are disheartened and %ill no longer e5ert their efforts %hile men of merit idle their time a%ay and gi(e up their careers' Such is the atmosphere of a decaying country3 indeedG 'otes 9' üý' @' #ith )ao H?ng ‡ abo(e ß means Ë' A' Dþ' D' ÿ旁' E' #ith )ao H?ng K Ø辭D軌 should be D軌Ø辭' =' 父兄' 父 here refers to 叔父v父仲父 or "uncles" in 2nglishH 兄 here refers to half-brothers' I' 養殃' .nybody esteemed by the feudal lords is ta$en into ser(ice' .obedience come faster than in the case of disobedience' Hence ne(er obey them' .s soon as the feudal lords realize that he %ill not obey3 9E they %ill not trust that any of his ministers can befool him' The reason %hy the intelligent ruler establishes posts3 offices3 ran$s3 and bounties3 is to promote the %orthy and encourage the men of merit' Hence the saying+ "The %orthy get large bounties and ta$e charge of high officesH the men of merit ha(e honourable ran$ and recei(e big re%ards'" The so(ereign appoints the %orthy to office by estimating their abilities3 and besto%s bounties according to the (arious merits' For this reason %orthies do not disguise their abilities in ser(ing the so(ereignH and men of merit reFoice in ad(ancing their careers' .s a result3 tas$s are accomplished and merits achie(ed' That is not so no%adays' There is neither any discrimination bet%een the %orthy and the un%orthy nor 9= any distinction bet%een men of merit and of no merit' .

9J' ~強' 99' 4方' 9@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 制斂 means 制攝' 9A' #ith #ang 不使 abo(e 擅退 is superfluous' 9D' So much for the eight precautions against the eight %ays to (illainy' In the rest of the chapter the ruler is ad(ised to allo% no %ea$ness in his o%n personality or any carelessness in his go(ernmental %or$ to be ta$en ad(antage of by rapacious ministers' 9E' #ith #ang #ei and #ang Hsien-shen 諸侯a不聽 should be 諸侯=不聽 ' 9=' #ang Hsien-shen proposed the supply of 不 abo(e 論' 9I' #ith )ao H?ng 財親 should be 親財' Chapter 2. Ten a)lts1 &f the ten faults+K The first is to practise loyalty in small %ays3 %hich betrays loyalty in big %ays' The second is to esteem small ad(antages3 %hich hampers big ad(antages' The third is to force personal bias3 assert oneself3 and beha(e discourteously before feudal lords3 %hich leads to self-destruction' The fourth is to neglect political counsels and indulge in the fi(e musical notes3 %hich plunges one into misery' The fifth is to $eep co(etous and self-opinionated and reFoice in nothing but gain3 %hich is the root of state-ruin and self-destruction' The si5th is to indulge in %omen singers and neglect state affairs3 %hich forecasts the catastrophe of state-ruin' The se(enth is to lea(e home for distant tra(els and ignore remonstrances3 %hich is the surest %ay to endanger one*s august position at home' The eighth is to commit faults3 turn no ear to loyal ministers3 and enforce one*s o%n opinions3 %hich destroys one*s high reputation and causes people to laugh at one' The ninth is not to consolidate the forces %ithin one*s boundaries but to rely on feudal lords abroad3 %hich causes the country the calamity of dismemberment' The tenth is to insult big po%ers despite the smallness of one*s o%n country and ta$e no ad(ice from remonstrants3 %hich pa(es the %ay to the e5termination of one*s posterity' .

#hat is meant by "practising small loyalty"L &nce )ing )ung @ of h!u and .u$e of BM %ould not listen to this ad(ice3 and he let hin ha(e the %ay' .u$e of BM %ith the Fade from h!ui-chi and the team of the h!M breed3 = he %ill certainly let us ha(e the %ay'" "The Fade from h!uichi3" said the .rmy3 Tzŭ-fan3 ga(e a pain in the heart as e5cuse for his absence from the conference' Thereupon )ing )ung rode in a carriage and %ent to ma$e a personal call' .rmy is drun$en in this manner3 he is certainly ruining the .gainst this idea )ung hi-ch!i remonstrated %ith him3 saying+ "Bour Highness should not grant the re8uest' Indeed3 BM has )uo as neighbour Fust as the carriage has its %heels' Cust as the %heels depend on the carriage3 so does the carriage depend on the %heels' Such is the relationship bet%een BM and )uo' Suppose %e lend hin the %ay' Then3 if )uo falls at da%n3 BM %ill follo% at dus$' It is therefore impossible' May Bour Highness ne(er grant the re8uestG" The .u$e Hsien of hin thought of borro%ing the %ay through BM to in(ade )uo3 HsMn Hsi said+ "If %e bribe the .u$e -i of hin fought at Ben-ling' A The h!u troops suffered a defeat' )ing )ung %as %ounded in the eye' .s soon as he entered the tent of the ommissioner3 he smelt %ine and turned bac$ right a%ay3 saying+ "In to-day*s battle3 I3 the )ing3 E %as %ounded' The only person I ha(e loo$ed to for help is the High ommissioner of the .u$e said3 and he then sent HsMn Hsi off to bribe the .uring the bloody battle Tzŭfan3 High ommissioner of the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain of the h!u State and feeling no concern for the %elfare of my subFects' I3 the )ing3 ha(e no reason to ha(e him %ith me on the battle-field any longer'" So he turned his forces home%ard and retreated' He then beheaded Tzŭ-fan as an e5piatory punishment for his disgrace of the )ing' Thus3 the presentation of %ine by Shu Bang$o %as not meant to re(enge himself on Tzŭ-fan3 but his mind that lo(ed him %ith loyalty %as Fust enough to put him to death' Hence the saying+ "To practise loyalty in small %ays betrays loyalty in big %ays'" #hat is meant by "esteeming small ad(antages"L &f old3 %hen .rmy' 7o% that the High ommissioner of the .rmy3 %as thirsty and %anted something to drin$' His attendant3 Shu Bang-$o3 D brought a cup of %ine and presented it to him' "FieG 4et a%ayG" e5claimed Tzŭ-fan' "It*s %ine'" "7o3 it isn*t %ine3" replied Bang-$o' Tzŭ-fan3 accordingly3 too$ the cup and dran$ the %ine' Habitually fond of %ine3 he found it so delicious that he could not $eep it from his mouth till he became drun$' #hen the fighting %as o(er3 )ing )ung %anted to ha(e another battle and sent for the High ommissioner of the .u$e of BM %ith the Fade from h!ui-chi and the team of the h!M breed and thereby as$ for the %ay though the country' The .u$e of BM3 regarding the Fade and the horses as inordinate ad(antages3 thought of granting the re8uest' .u$e3 "%as the treasure be8ueathed by the late ruler' The team of the h!M breed horses is my best possession' Should they accept our present but refuse us the %ay3 %hat could %e do thenL" "If they refuse us the %ay3" said HsMn Hsi in reply3 "they ne(er %ill accept our present' If they accept our present and lend us the %ay3 it %ill be the same as to ta$e the treasure from the inner treasury and $eep it in the outer one or to lead the horses out of the inner stable and put them into the outer one' May Bour Highness ha(e no %orry about itG" "/ery %ell3" the .rmy3 Tzŭ-fan' The High ommissioner of the .

u$e P!ing of hin entertained them %ith a %ine feast on the Shih-i To%er' 9@ #hen the drin$ing %as at its height3 .ry Broo$' Hence the saying+ "To enforce personal bias and assert oneself leads to self-destruction'" #hat is meant by "indulging in the fi(e musical notes"L In by-gone days3 %hen .u$e of BM sa% his army dri(en into peril and his country dismembered' #hyL It %as because of his lo(e of small ad(antages and unconcern about its harmfulness' Hence the saying+ "To esteem small ad(antages hampers large ad(antages'" #hat is meant by "enforcing personal bias"L In by-gone days3 %hen )ing -ing of h!u called an inter-state conference at Sh?n3 as the ro%n Prince of Sung arri(ed late3 he arrested him and put him into Fail' Further3 he insulted the 0uler of HsM and detained h!ing F?ng of h!i' .u$e -ing stood up and said+ "There is a no(el piece of music' May I ha(e the honour to sho% itL" "Fine3" replied .u$e3 saying+ "Thy ser(ant got it but he is still lac$ing in practice' -et us stay here another night and thy ser(ant %ill practise it'" " ertainly3" said .u$e P!ing' Thereupon . raised armies to in(ade BM and also con8uered it' #hen HsMn Hsi led the horses home%ard3 brought the Fade along3 and reported the result of the campaign to .u$e summoned Musician hMan and said to him+ "There %as somebody playing strange music last night' I ha(e Fust sent men out to find the musician in the (icinity3 but all reported that they had been unable to find him' It might be the performance by some de(il or spirit' #ould you3 therefore3 listen to it and copy it for meL" ".u$e Hsien' #ith delight .s a result3 )ing -ing star(ed to death by the .u$e -ing' So they spent another night there' By the follo%ing day he had mastered it3 %herefore they left for hin' .gainst these outrageous acts a certain middle chamberlain remonstrated %ith the )ing3 saying+ "In holding a conference of the feudal lords nobody should brea$ the inter-state eti8uette' For it in(ol(es a death-orlife turning-point to e(ery country' In anti8uity3 after hieh held the conference at Bu-Fung3 Bu-min re(oltedH after ho% ga(e a spring hunting party on the -i Hills3 the 2astern Barbarians re(olted < H and after )ing Bu organized the T!ai-shih -eague3 9J the #estern and 7orthern Barbarians re(olted' .u$e Hsien said+ "The Fade is as it %as before3 but the teeth of the horses ha(e gro%n some%hat longer'" Thus the .t your ser(ice3" replied Musician hMan' So he sat still at night and played the harp to copy the music' 7e5t day Musician hMan ga(e his report to the .ll such incidents %ere due to the breach of eti8uette' May Bour MaFesty thin$ the matter o(erG" To this counsel the ruler ne(er listened3 but enforced his o%n opinions instead' Before ten years elapsed3 99 )ing -ing made a tour to the south3 %here the officials molested him' .Three years elapsed after his attac$ on )uo3 his con8uest of the country3 and (ictorious return I to his home-land3 %hen HsMn Hsi in turn .u$e -ing of #ei on his %ay to hin arri(ed by the P!u #ater3 he loosened his carriage3 released the horses3 and set up a pa(ilion for soFourning To%ards midnight he heard somebody playing a no(el piece of music and %as thereby greatly pleased' In the morning he sent men out to find the musician in the (icinity3 but all came bac$ %ith the report that he could not be found' Thereupon3 the .

u$e P!ing3 much terrified3 had to hide himself in a .t any rate3 %hoe(er hears this music performed3 is bound to see his nati(e soil dismembered' Its performance3 therefore3 should not be completed'" "#hat amuses me in particular is music3" remar$ed . s%eeping the dirt3 Master 0ain 9< sprin$ling %ater on the road3 tigers and %ol(es leading in the front3 de(ils and spirits follo%ing from behind3 rising serpents rolling on the ground3 and male and female phoeni5es flying o(er the top' There in such a splendid manner he met the de(ils and spirits3 %here he composed the pure dental tune' 7o%3 as Bour Highness*s (irtue is still shallo%3 Bour Highness does not as yet deser(e to hear it' If Bour Highness does hear it3 thy ser(ant is afraid lest there should be a mishapG" "Being %eighed do%n %ith years and amused by music in particular3" said .u$e P!ing3 "let me hear the tune performedL" Thereby Musician )!uang %as forced to play it' Follo%ing the performance of the first part3 there arose dar$ clouds from the north-%estern direction' .u$e P!ing held a cup of %ine and rose to drin$ %ith the e5pression of his %ish for the health and happiness of Musician )!uang' #hen he too$ his seat again3 he as$ed3 "Is there no tune sadder than the pure lingual tuneL" "It is not as sad as the pure dental tune3" replied Musician )!uang' "Is it then possible to hear the pure dental tuneL" as$ed .mong the notes the pitches of kun( and shan( echoed in hea(en' Thereby .u$e further' "7o3" replied Musician )!uang3 "it is not as sad as the pure lingual tune'" "Is it possible to hear the pure lingual tuneL" as$ed the .u$e still further' "7o3" replied Musician )!uang' "In anti8uity3 those %ho heard the pure lingual tune %ere all rulers of (irtue and Fustice' 7o%3 as Bour Highness*s (irtue is still shallo%3 Bour Highness as yet does not deser(e to hear it'" "Music amusing me in particular3 let me hear itL" as$ed the .u$e P!ing' "7o3" replied Musician )!uang' "In by-gone days the Bello% 2mperor once called a meeting of de(ils and spirits at the top of the #estern T!ai Mountain3 9D he rode in a di(ine carriage 9E pulled by dragons3 %ith Pi-fang 9= $eeping pace %ith the linchpin3 h!ih-yu 9I marching in the front3 2arl #ind 9.u$e P!ing' "This %as composed by Musician Ben3" replied Musician )!uang3 "and presented to )ing ho%' It %as a piece of fri(olous music' #hen )ing #u attac$ed ho%3 Musician Ben ran east%ard as far as the P!u #ater3 %here he dro%ned himself' Therefore3 this music has been heard only by the P!u #ater' .fter the performance of the second part3 they lined up themsel(es in a ro%' #hen the third part %as performed3 they raised their nec$s to sing and stretched their %ings to dance' .u$e -ing summoned Musician hMan and ordered him to sit beside Musician )!uang3 hold the harp3 and play it' Before the performance %as finished3 Musician )!uang held do%n his hands and stopped the music3 saying3 "This is a state-ruining piece of music3 %hich should not be performed to its end'" "#here does this music come fromL .u$e P!ing' "-et him finish the performance'" Musician hMan3 accordingly3 performed the piece to its end' "#hat is the name of this tuneL" .fter the performance of the second part3 there came a hurricane and then a do%npour follo%ed3 tearing the tents and curtains3 brea$ing the bo%ls and cups3 and s%eeping do%n the tiles of the gallery' The audience all dispersed %hile .o you $no%L" as$ed .u$e insistently' Thereby Musician )!uang %as forced to hold up the harp and play it' Follo%ing the performance of the first part3 there came from the south blac$ cranes3 t%o times eight3 and assembled at the end of the ridge of the gallery roof' .u$e P!ing %as much pleased and the audience %ere all amused' Mean%hile3 ..u$e P!ing as$ed Musician )!uang' "It is the so-called !pure sibilant tune*3" 9A replied Musician )!uang' "Is the pure sibilant tune the saddest among allL" as$ed the .

u$e P!ing himself caught a mortal disease' @J Hence the saying+ "To neglect political counsels and enFoy the fi(e musical notes dri(es one to misery'" #hat is meant by "$eeping co(etous and self-opinionated"L &f old3 2arl hih Bao led his allies3 hao3 Han3 and #ey3 to attac$ Fan and hunghang and destroyed them' @9 .s /iscount Hsiang of hao refused to gi(e them3 2arl hih formed a secret alliance %ith Han and #ey on purpose to in(ade hao' Thereupon /iscount Hsiang summoned hang M?ng-t!an and said to him+ "Indeed3 2arl hih is by nature $ind @E to people in appearance but is in reality un$ind to e(erybody' For three times he has sent good-%ill en(oys to Han and #ey3 but I ha(e not recei(ed any %ord from him' 7o doubt3 he %ill mo(e his troops against me' #here can I li(e in security thenL" "#ell3 Tung .gallery room' Thenceforth the hin State continually had dry %eather and suffered a barren land for three years3 until finally .n-yM3 @= an able minister of /iscount hien3 @I go(erned hin-yang (ery %ell3" replied hang M?ng-t!an3 "and Bin To follo%ed his steps so closely that the sur(i(ing influences of his teachings are still effecti(e in the locality' Suppose Bour Highness %ere to decide to li(e no%here but in hing-yang'" "0ight3" said the /iscount' Then he summoned Ben-ling BM @.fter his (ictorious return3 he rested his soldiers for se(eral years' Then he sent men to demand land from Han' #hen /iscount )!ang of Han decided not to gi(e it3 Tuan )uei opposed him3 saying+ "#e must not fail to comply %ith the demand' 2arl hih3 indeed3 is by nature fond of gain3 self-conceited and opinionated' 7o% that he has sent his men to demand land from us3 if %e do not gi(e it3 he %ill certainly turn his troops against Han' Suppose Bour Highness comply %ith the demand' For3 if %e gi(e3 he %ill become o(er-familiar %ith this practice and %ill also demand land from other countries3 any of %hich might fail to obey him' In case any other country fails to obey3 2arl hih %ill certainly impose military pressure upon her' Then Han %ill e(ade the crisis and %ait for the change of the %hole situation'" "0ight3" said /iscount )!ang3 and then ordered messengers to cede a county of ten thousand families to 2arl hih' Thereby 2arl hih %as pleased' -i$e%ise3 he sent men to demand land from #ey' #hen /iscount HsMan of #ey @@ decided not to gi(e it3 hao hia protested against the idea3 saying+ "#hen he demanded land from Han3 Han complied %ith the demand' 7o% he is demanding land from #ey3 if #ey does not gi(e it3 it %ill mean that #ey counts on its o%n strength and purposely antagonizes 2arl hih' In case %e do not gi(e it3 he %ill certainly mo(e his soldiers against #ey' #e had better gi(e it'" @A "0ight3" said /iscount HsMan3 @D and then ordered messengers to cede a county of ten thousand families to 2arl hih' 2arl hih finally sent men to hao to demand the districts of Ts!ai and )ao-lang' . and ordered him to lead the infantry3 chariots3 and ca(alry to hin-yang first3 %hile he follo%ed after' 6pon his arri(al he set himself to inspect the city-%alls and the pro(isions stored by the fi(e offices3 and found the %alls not in good repair3 no grain hoarded in the storehouses3 no money sa(ed in the treasury3 no armour and %eapons in the armoury3 and the %hole city unprepared for defence measures' Feeling rather uneasy3 /iscount Hsiang summoned hang M?ngt!an and said to him+ "I ha(e inspected the city-%alls as %ell as the pro(isions stored .

s thy ser(ant has heard3 %hen Tung Tzŭ %as go(erning hin-yang3 the fences of the Public Hall all had on their outer enclosures bush-clo(ers and thorny reeds3 %hose height no%adays reaches ten feet' Suppose Bour Highness ta$e them out and use them' There %ill then be more than enough arro%s'" Mean%hile3 the /iscount had the reeds and the bushes ta$en out3 had them tried3 and found their stiffness not e(en surpassed by the strength of the stems of fragrant bamboos' A@ Soon after%ards the /iscount as$ed+ "I ha(e enough arro%s3 but %hat can I do %ithout metalL" In reply hang M?ng-t!an said+ "Thy ser(ant has heard that %hen Tung Tzŭ %as go(erning hin-yang3 the dra%ing rooms of the Public Hall and the Public .by the fi(e offices and found nothing %ell prepared and e8uipped' Ho% can I cope %ith the enemyL" "Thy ser(ant has heard3" said hang M?ng-t!an3 "the sage during his go(ernorship preser(ed resources among the people @< and not in the treasury nor in the armoury' He endea(oured to impro(e his teachings but did not repair the city%alls' Suppose Bour Highness issue an emergency decree3 re8uesting the people to $eep enough food for three years and put any surplus amount of grain into the public storehouses3 to $eep enough e5penses for three years and put any surplus amount of money into the state treasury3 and to send all leisured men AJ out of their families to repair the city-%alls'" In the e(ening the /iscount issued the decree' &n the follo%ing day3 the storehouses became unable to hold any more grain3 the treasury unable to hold any more money3 and the armoury unable A9 to ta$e in any more armour and %eapons' In the course of fi(e days the city-%alls %ere %ell repaired and all pro(isions for defence measures %ere ready' Then the /iscount summoned hang M?ng-t!an and as$ed+ "Though our city-%alls are no% in good repair3 pro(isions for defence measures are no% ready3 money and grain are no% sufficient3 and armour and %eapons are no% more than enough3 yet %hat can I do %ithout arro%sL" In reply hang M?ng-t!an said+ ".ormitory all had columns and pedestals made of refined copper' Suppose Bour Highness %ere to get them out and use them'" So the /iscount had them ta$en out and got more than enough metal' 7o sooner than the commands and orders %ere established and pro(isions for defence measures %ere completed3 the armies of the three enemy countries actually arri(ed' Immediately after their arri(al they fell on the city-%alls of hin-yang and started fighting' Bet3 despite three months* engagement3 they could not ta$e the cityH %herefore they spread out their troops and besieged it3 and led the %ater of the ri(er outside hin-yang to inundate it' For three years AA they besieged the city of hinyang' In the meantime3 the people inside had to ma$e nests for li(ing and hang up their pans for coo$ing' #hen money and foodstuffs %ere near e5haustion and officers and officials %ere %orn out3 /iscount Hsiang said to hang M?ng-t!an+ "The pro(isions are scanty3 the resources used up3 and officers and officials %orn out' I am afraid %e shall not be able to hold out' If I %ant to surrender the city3 to %hich country shall I surrenderL" In reply hang M?ng-t!an said+ "Thy ser(ant has heard3 !If a %ise man cannot rescue a doomed city from ruin and protect an endangered obFect against dangers3 there is then no use esteeming %isdom'* Suppose Bour Highness %ere to lea(e AD aside such an idea and let thy ser(ant %orm through the %ater and steal out to see the 0ulers of Han and #ey'" .

oubtless3 they are plotting an insurrection' Bour Highness had better $ill them'" "-ea(e them alone3" said the 2arl3 "and ne(er again tal$ about them'" "7o3" said hih )uo3 "you should not lea(e them alone' Bou must $ill them' If you %on*t $ill them3 then culti(ate your friendship %ith them'" "Ho% to culti(ate my friendship %ith themL" as$ed the 2arl' In reply hih )uo said+ "The counsellor of /iscount HsMan of #ey is hao hia and the counsellor of /iscount )!ang of Han is Tuan )uei' Both are e8ually able to shift the policies of their masters' Suppose Bour Highness promise their masters to enfeoff the t%o counsellors3 each %ith a county of ten thousand families3 after hao is ta$en' In that case the t%o lords %ill ha(e no reason to change their minds'" "6pon the brea$-up of hao3" said 2arl hih3 "I %ill ha(e to di(ide the territory into three portions3 and if in addition I ha(e to enfeoff the t%o counsellors each %ith a county of ten thousand families3 then %hat I get %ill be little' That %on*t do'" Finding his ad(ice not ta$en3 hih )uo %ent a%ay and changed his $insmen into the Fu lan' &n the appointed night the hao lan $illed the enemy garrisons of the di$es and led the %ater to inundate the army of 2arl hih' 2arl hih*s troops on $eeping the %ater out fell into confusion' Mean%hile3 Han and #ey launched a surprise attac$ from .id Bour Highness pass my %ords to the t%o lordsL" "Ho% do you $no%L" as$ed the 2arl' "I $no% because this morning after they had called on Bour Highness3 %hen they %ere going out and sa% thy ser(ant3 their loo$s shifted and their eyes gazed at thy ser(ant' . since the allied forces %ere entrenched around hin-yang' 7o% that %e %ill ta$e the city in no time and enFoy the spoils3 ho% comes it that they ha(e different mindsL It %on*t be possible' Better discard the idea and ne(er %orry about it' .lso ne(er let it come out of your mouth again'" 7e5t morning the t%o rulers again called on the 2arl3 %ent out3 and once more met hih )uo at the gate of the commander*s head8uarters' hih )uo then %ent in to see the 2arl and as$ed3 ".fter the fall of hao3 you both %ill fall ne5t'" "#e $no% that is (ery li$ely to happen3" said the t%o rulers3 "but as 2arl hih is by nature suspicious AE of e(erybody and rarely $ind to anybody3 once he discloses our scheme3 his de(astation %ill befall us at once' #hat can %e do thenL" "The scheme coming out from the mouths of both of Bour Highnesses3" said hang M?ng-t!an3 "slips only into thy ser(ant*s ears' 7obody else %ill e(er $no% it'" .ccordingly3 the t%o rulers promised hang M?ng-t!an the re(olt of the t%o armies against 2arl hih and fi5ed a date' That night they sent hang M?ng-t!an off into hin-yang to report their plot to /iscount Hsiang' Frightened and pleased at the same time3 /iscount Hsiang %elcomed M?ng-t!an and repeated salutations to him' The t%o rulers3 after ha(ing sent hang M?ng-t!an a%ay %ith the promise3 called on 2arl hih' &n lea(ing they met hih )uo outside the gate of the commander*s head8uarters' #ondering at their loo$s3 hih )uo %ent in to see 2arl hih and said to him+ "The t%o lords in their facial e5pressions re(eal their oncoming insurrection'" "Ho%L" as$ed the 2arl' "They %ere in high spirits3" replied hih )uo3 "and %al$ed %ith mincing steps' A= Their attitude %as no longer as prudent as before' Bour Highness had better ta$e drastic measures in ad(ance'" "The co(enant I made %ith the t%o lords is (ery solemn3" remar$ed the 2arl' "Should hao be smashed3 its territory %ould be di(ided into three portions' Therefore3 I ha(e $ept intimate terms %ith them' They %ill ne(er decei(e me' AI Moreo(er3 it is three years A.#hen hang M?ng-t!an sa% the 0ulers of Han and #ey3 he said+ "Thy ser(ant has heard3 !#hen the lips are gone3 the teeth are cold'* 7o% that 2arl hih has led Bour Highnesses to in(ade hao3 hao is on the (erge of destruction' .

ll-under-Hea(en3 ate from earthen plates and dran$ from earthen bo%ls' #ithin his dominion %hich e5tended as far as hiao-chih in the south and Bu-tu in the north and in the east and the %est as far as the horizons of sun-rise and moon-rise3 sun-set and moon-set3 e(erybody obeyed him %illingly' #hen Bao ga(e up the rule o(er .s thy ser(ant has heard3 the d%elling of the )ing of Cung is so rustic and so remote D= that he has ne(er heard the music of the entral -and' Suppose Bour Highness present him %ith %omen singers3 disturb his state affairs thereby3 then as$ him to postpone the date of Bu BM*s return3 and thereby $eep off Bu BM*s remonstration' .u$e summoned the &fficer of the ensorate -iao and said to him+ "I ha(e heard that the presence of a sage in a neighbouring country is a constant threat to the enemy countries adFacent to it' 7o% Bu BM is a sage3 I am %orrying about it' #hat shall I doL" In reply the &fficer of the ensorate -iao said+ ".ll-under-Hea(en and be8ueathed it to BM3 BM made sacrificial %ares3 %hich he (arnished blac$ outside and painted red inside' He had cushions made of pieces of thin3 plain sil$H mats made of %ater-oats and hemmed for decorationH cups and decanters embellished %ith pretty coloursH and cas$s and basins D@ made %ith ornaments' The e5tra(agance ha(ing thus turned from bad to %orse3 the feudal states that disobeyed %ere thirty-three' &n the do%nfall of the Hsia-hou lan the Bins too$ the reins of go(ernment' They then constructed big (ehicles DA and made nine pennants' Their table-%ares %ere car(edH cups and decanters %ere engra(edH the %alls of the palace %ere painted %hite DD and the courtyard3 chal$yH and cushions and mats had beautiful designs on them' Such e5tra(agance e5ceeding that of the predecessors3 the states that disobeyed %ere fiftythree' Thus3 the more arts of elegance and refinement the ruling class DE $ne%3 the less %ere those %illing to obey' Hence thy ser(ant says+ !Frugality is the right %ay'* " .fter Bu BM had gone out3 the .u$e Mu' "Thy ser(ant has heard3" replied Bu BM3 "Bao3 %hile ruling .ll-under-Hea(en3 BM Shun DJ accepted it' Thereupon Shun started ma$ing ne% table-%ares' He he%ed trees from the mountains and cut D9 them into small pieces3 %hich he first %hittled3 sa%ed3 and smoothed a%ay the traces of the a5e3 then lac8uered them %ith (arnish and in$3 and finally transported them to the palace' &f the %ood he made table-%ares' Therefore3 he %as regarded by the feudal lords as far more e5tra(agant than his predecessor' .nd the states that refused to obey him %ere thirteen' #hen Shun ga(e up the rule o(er .fter the discord bet%een ruler and minister appears3 %e can start plotting against .both sides %hile /iscount Hsiang led his forces to raid the front' They defeated 2arl hih*s troops by long odds and captured 2arl hih' 2arl hih died3 his forces %ere crushed3 his country %as di(ided into three3 and he became a laughing-stoc$ of the %hole %orld' A< Hence the saying+ "To $eep co(etous and self-opinionated fosters the root of self-destruction'" #hat is meant by "indulging in %omen singers"L &f old3 %hen Bu BM %as sent by the )ing of Cung to pay a courtesy (isit to the court of h!in3 .u$e Mu as$ed him3 saying+ "I ha(e heard about the right %ay of go(ernment but ha(e not yet been able to %itness it' I %ould li$e to $no% ho% and %hy the intelligent rulers of anti8uity %on and lost their states'" In reply Bu BM said+ "Thy ser(ant happens to ha(e studied it carefully and found that by reason of their frugality they %on their states3 and by reason of their e5tra(agance they lost their states'" "I am at least %orthy of as$ing you3 an honourable scholar3 about the right %ay of go(ernment' Bet ho% comes it that you put !frugality* in your reply to my 8uestionL" as$ed .

nd )uan hung assisted him' #hen )uan hung became aged and unable to attend to his duties3 he retired to li(e at his home' &ne day .u$e said3 and then ordered the &fficer of the ensorate -iao to ta$e the present of si5teen %omen singers to the )ing of Cung and thereby as$ him to postpone the date of Bu BM*s return' The re8uest %as granted by the )ing of Cung3 %ho %as greatly delighted at seeing the %omen singers' Thenceforth he set up %ine feasts3 held drin$ing parties3 and spent e(ery day in hearing music' He continued the same throughout the year3 till half of his o5en and horses died off' #hen Bu BM came bac$3 he remonstrated %ith the )ing of Cung against such misconduct3 but the )ing of Cung %ould not listen' .t once the ruler thre% a%ay the lance and urged his carriage to hurry home' Three days after his arri(al home3 he heard about some people planning to pre(ent /iscount T!ien h!?ng from re-entering the state capital' Than$s to Ben ho-chM*s effort3 /iscount T!ien h!?ng finally had the h!i State in his grip' Hence the saying+ "To lea(e home for distant tra(els and ignore remonstrants E9 is the surest %ay to endanger one*s august position at home'" #hat is meant by "committing faults and turn no ear to loyal ministers"L In by-gone days3 .ll-under-Hea(en under one rule3 and became the first of the Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers' .t last Bu BM left for h!in' .u$e Huan %ent to call on him and as$ed+ "6ncle hung is ill at home' If by any unluc$y chance you should not be up and doing again3 to %hom should the state affairs be entrustedL" In reply )uan hung said+ "Thy ser(ant is old and hardly %orth consulting' 7e(ertheless3 thy ser(ant has heard3 !7obody $no%s the ministers better than the ruler does Fust as nobody $no%s the sons better than the father does'* Suppose Bour Highness select one according to his Fudgment'" .their state'" "0ight3" the .u$e Mu of h!in %elcomed him3 appointed him . #hat is meant by "lea(ing home for distant tra(els"L &nce upon a time3 %hile /iscount T!ien h!?ng D< %as tra(elling on the sea and amusing himself3 he ga(e a (erbal order to all high officials3 saying3 "#hoe(er tal$s about going home shall be put to death'" Thereupon Ben ho-chMEJ remar$ed+ "Bour Highness is no% tra(elling on the sea and amusing himself' #hat can be done in case ministers at home plot against the stateL Though you are no% enFoying yourself3 %hat %ill you ha(e %hen bac$ homeL" In reply /iscount T!ien h!?ng said+ "I ha(e already issued the order3 saying3 !#hoe(er tal$s about going home shall be put to death'* 7o% that you should ha(e disobeyed my orderG" So he too$ up a lance to assail him' "0emember in by-gone days3" said Ben ho-chM3 " hieh $illed )uan -ungp*?ng and ho% $illed Prince Pi-$an' 7o%3 though Bour Highness $ills thy ser(ant and thus ma$es him the third martyr in the cause of loyalty3 be sure that thy ser(ant has spo$en in the interests of the %hole country and not for himself'" So saying3 he stretched his nec$ for%ard and added3 "May Bour Highness stri$eG" .ssistant Premier and as$ed him about the military strength and topographical features of the land of Cung' Ha(ing secured enough information3 he mobilized his army and attac$ed the country' In conse8uence he anne5ed t%el(e states and e5tended his territory one thousand li farther' DI Hence the saying+ "To indulge in %omen singers and neglect the state affairs forecasts the catastrophe of state-ruin'" D.u$e Huan of h!i called the feudal lords to meet nine times3 brought .

u$e' "7o'" replied )uan hung' "For Pao Shuya is by nature rigorous3 self-opinionated3 and stubborn-minded' 0igorous3 he is li$ely to be (iolent to%ards the people' Self-opinionated3 he cannot %in the hearts of the people' If he is stubborn-minded3 nobody is %illing to %or$ under him and all are not afraid of him' Therefore he is not the right $ind of assistant to the Hegemonic 0uler'" "Then ho% about Shu TiaoL" as$ed the . man li$e this is the right $ind of assistant to the Hegemonic 0uler' Suppose Bour Highness employ him'" " ertainly3" said the .ll-under-Hea(en3 although his armies had marched e(ery%here in the %orld and he had become the first Hegemonic 0uler himselfL It %as because of his fault in turning no ear to )uan hung' Hence the saying+ "To commit faults3 turn no ear to loyal ministers3 and enforce one*s o%n opinions3 destroys one*s high reputation and sets people to laugh at one'" .u$e did not employ Hsi P!?ng but passed the reins of go(ernment to Shu Tiao' Shu Tiao had handled the state affairs for three years already3 %hen .u$e Huan died of thirst and hunger in hea(ily-guarded confinement inside the bed chamber by the south gate' There his dead body lay unco(ered for three months3 EA until %orms cra%led outdoors' But %hy %as it that .u$e' "7o3" replied )uan hung' "Such is human nature3 indeed3 that e(erybody lo(es his o%n body' 7o% because Bour Highness %as habitually Fealous and fond of %omen3 Shu Tiao castrated himself for the single purpose of administering the harem' If he could not lo(e his o%n body3 ho% %ould he be able to lo(e his masterL" "Then ho% about Prince )!ai-fang of #eiL" as$ed the .u$e' More than one year later3 )uan hung died3 but the .u$e' "7o3" replied )uan hung' "The distance bet%een h!i and #ei is not more than ten days* %al$' Bet )!ai-fang in order to ser(e Bour Highness and meet his needs E@ ne(er %ent home for fifteen years to see his parents' Such is against human nature' If he could not hold his parents in affectionate esteem3 ho% %ould he be so able to hold his masterL" "#ell3 then3 ho% about Bi-yaL" as$ed the .u$e' "7o3" replied )uan hung' "Indeed3 Bi-ya %as in charge of the tastes of Bour Highness*s diet3 and3 finding that %hat Bour Highness had ne(er tasted %as human flesh only3 he steamed the head of his son and presented his master %ith the rare taste' This is %hat Bour Highness remembers' 7e(ertheless3 such is human nature that e(erybody lo(es his o%n son' 7o% that he steamed his o%n son to ma$e food for his master3 if he could not e(en lo(e his o%n son3 ho% %ould he be able to lo(e his masterL" "#ell3 then3 %ho %ill be the right manL" as$ed the .u$e Huan tra(elled south%ard to T!ang-fu' Thereupon Shu Tiao3 leading Bi-ya3 Prince )!ai-fang of #ei3 and the chief (assals3 launched a rebellion' In conse8uence3 .u$e Huan %as at last murdered by his ministers3 depri(ed of his high reputation3 and laughed at by ."Ho% about Pao Shu-yaL" as$ed the .u$e' "Hsi P!?ng is he3" replied )uan hung' "For he is habitually steadfast in mind and upright to%ards people and has fe% %ants but many credits' Indeed3 steadfast in mind3 he can offer an e5ample to othersH upright to%ards people3 he can be appointed to important officeH ha(ing fe% %ants3 he %ill be able to subFect the massesH and ha(ing many credits3 he %ill be able to ma$e friends %ith the neighbouring states' .

and the 0uler of Han became a laughing-stoc$ of the feudal lords' Hence the saying+ "7ot to consolidate the forces %ithin one*s boundaries but to rely on other feudal lords causes the country the calamity of dismemberment'" #hat is meant by "insulting big po%ers despite the smallness of one*s o%n state"L In by-gone days3 %hen Prince h!ung-erh of hin E< %as li(ing in e5ile3 he once passed through the Ts!ao State' The 0uler of Ts!ao made him ta$e off his slee(es and upper coat and loo$ed at him' =J Hsi Fu-chi and Shu han then attended in the front' The latter said to the 0uler of Ts*ao+ ".#hat is meant by "not consolidating the forces %ithin one*s boundaries"L &f old3 %hen h!in %as attac$ing Bi-yang3 the Han lan %as in imminent danger' Thereupon )ung-chung P!?ng said to the 0uler of Han+ "&ur allies are not reliable' Is it not the best policy to ma$e peace %ith h!in through hang Bi*s good officesL Suppose %e bribe h!in %ith a famous city and Foin her in her south%ard campaign against h!u' This %ill appease our trouble %ith h!in and defeat her friendship %ith h!u'" "4ood3" the 0uler ED said3 and then ordered )ung-chung to set out %est%ard to ma$e peace %ith h!in' #hen the )ing of h!u heard about this scheme3 he felt uneasy3 summoned h!?n h?n3 and said to him+ "P!?ng of Han is going %est%ard to ma$e peace %ith h!in' #hat shall %e doL" In reply h!?n h?n said+ " h!in3 after recei(ing one city from Han3 %ill mobilize her best-trained soldiers3 and %ill turn the combined forces of h!in and Han south%ard against h!u' This is %hat the )ing of h!in has sought in his prayer at his ancestral shrine' 7o doubt3 they %ill do h!u harm' Suppose Bour MaFesty 8uic$ly send out a good-%ill en(oy to present the 0uler of Han %ith many chariots and precious gifts and say+ !My country3 small as it is3 has already mobilized all her forces' I am hoping your great country %ill EE display high morale before the h!in in(aders3 and accordingly e5pects you to send a delegation to our border to %atch our mobilization'* " Han actually sent a delegation to h!u' The )ing of h!u3 accordingly3 despatched chariots and ca(alry and lined them up along the northern road' E= Then he told the Han delegation to inform the 0uler of Han that his troops %ere about to cross the border and enter the territory of Han' The delegation brought bac$ the message to the 0uler of Han3 %ho %as thereby greatly pleased and stopped )ung-chung from going %est%ard' "7o3 I should not stop going %est%ard3" said )ung-chung' "For h!in is harassing EI us in reality %hile h!u is rescuing us only in name' To listen to the empty %ords of h!u and ma$e light of the real disaster %hich h!in is causing3 is the outset of endangering the country'" The 0uler of Han %ould not ta$e )ung-chung*s ad(ice3 %herefore )ung-chung %as angry3 %ent home3 and for ten days ne(er (isited the court' The situation at Bi-yang became more and more threatening3 %hen the 0uler of Han despatched en(oys to press for reinforcements from h!u' &ne en(oy follo%ed on the heels of another so closely that their hats and canopies %ere almost %ithin one another*s sightH but all in (ain' Bi-yang %as finally ta$en E.s far as thy ser(ant can see3 the Prince of hin is not an ordinary man' Bour Highness has handled him %ithout mittens' Should he e(er get the opportunity to return to his nati(e country and raise armies3 he might .

cause Ts!ao a great harm' Suppose Bour Highness $ill him no%'" The 0uler of Ts!ao too$ no notice3 ho%e(er' Hsi Fu-chi %ent home3 feeling unhappy' So his %ife as$ed him+ "Bour 25cellency has Fust come home from outdoors but has some unpleasant colour on the face' #hyL" In reply Hsi Fu-chi said+ ".u$e raised an army of fi(e hundred leather-co(ered chariots3 t%o thousand good horsemen3 and fifty thousand footsoldiers3 to help h!ungerh enter hin and establish him as 0uler of hin' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain of regular offerings' To ma$e no decision to restore order to the country is not the %ay to maintain my intimate friendship %ith them' I am therefore thin$ing of supporting h!ung-erh and installing him on the throne of hin' Ho% do you thin$L" "Fine3" replied all the ministers' Thereupon the .fter he had stayed in h!in for three years3 .fter ha(ing been on the throne for three years3 h!ungerh raised an army and fell upon Ts!ao' He3 accordingly3 ordered his men to say to the 0uler of Ts!ao3 "Seize Shu han and send him outside the city' His Highness %ill $ill him as an e5piatory punishment for his insult of His Highness'" He also ordered his men to say to Hsi Fuchi3 "My troops are storming the city' I understand (ery %ell that formerly you ne(er meant to offend me' Put a sign on the gate of your residential 8uarters' =9 I %ill issue a decree3 ordering the troops not to trespass on it'" The people of Ts!ao3 hearing about this3 brought their relati(es into Hsi Fu-chi*s residential 8uarters3 %here up%ards of se(en hundred families had safety' This %as the effect of his respectfulness to the Prince' Thus3 Ts!ao %as a small state pressed bet%een hin and h!u' Its ruler %as in constant danger as piled eggs are3 but he accorded the Prince of hin such a discourteous reception' This %as the reason %hy his posterity %as %iped out' Hence the saying+ "To insult big po%ers despite the smallness of one*s o%n country and ta$e no ad(ice from remonstrants pa(es the %ay to the e5tinction of one*s posterity'" .u$e Hsien of hin $ept intimate friendship %ith me3 e(ery feudal lord has heard' 6nfortunately .s I ha(e heard3 !#hen the ruler has good luc$3 it %ill not (isit meH but %hen he has bad luc$3 it %ill befall me'* To-day His Highness summoned the Prince of hin and accorded him (ery discourteous treatment' I %as attending before him' Therefore I ha(e felt unhappy'" ".u$e Hsien passed a%ay from the body of officials' It is nearly ten years since' His successors so far ha(e been no good' I am therefore afraid lest this state of continuous chaos should lea(e their ancestral shrine deserted and depri(e their .s far as I can see3" said his %ife3 "the Prince of hin %ill be a ruler of ten thousand chariots3 and his follo%ers %ill be ministers to the ruler of ten thousand chariots' 7o% that he has been destitute and forced to see$ refuge in foreign countries and is passing through Ts!ao and Ts!ao is treating him so impolitely3 if he e(er returns to his nati(e country3 he %ill3 no doubt3 punish all brea$ers of eti8uette3 and then Ts!ao %ill be the first (ictim' #hy don*t you yourself no% treat him differentlyL" " ertainly3 I %ill3" replied Fu-chi' He3 accordingly3 put gold in pots3 co(ered them %ith food3 placed Fades upon them3 and at night sent men to present them to the Prince' Seeing the messengers3 the Prince repeated his salutations and accepted the food but declined the Fades' From Ts!ao the Prince entered h!u3 and from h!u entered h!in' .u$e Mu of h!in one day summoned all ministers for consultation3 saying+ "That in by-gone days .

un( for 3 shan( for .之/>' 9A' 01' .3 kioh for 23 pien9kioh for F O :peculiar>3 chih for 43 y8 for .mong the accepted family names of the hinese people "Shu" is found but not "Shuyang"' .3 kioh for 23 pien9kioh for F O :peculiar>3 chih for 43 y8 for .utumn3 ho%e(er3 not many commoners had family names3 so 豎 most probably meant a boy attendant in this case' By the time of Ssŭ-ma h!ien 豎 seems to ha(e definitely become a family nameH so much so that he made the superfluous addition of 從者 to it in the Historical .ecords has 從者 abo(e 豎陽穀' I regard 豎陽穀 as the full name and prefer to read it as "Shu Bang-$o"' .3 pien9kun( for B3 and kun( for :' This scale remained the same until the rise of the BMan . most probably a mista$e for the Ssŭ-ch!i Palace :-.ncient hinese music classified all $inds of tune into fi(e (arieties in accordance %ith fi(e different (ocal sounds3 %hich %ere accordingly named after their representati(e notes respecti(ely as follo%s+ kun( :/> for all guttural sounds3 shan( :1> for all sibilant sounds3 kioh :2> for all dental sounds3 chih :3> for all lingual sounds3 and y8 :4> for all labial sounds' It is said that the fi(e strings of the harp constructed by Fu-hsi %ere thus named' The fi(e notes had generally formed the hinese system of notation do%n to the Bin .e ue %siati7ue& 9<9A>' The Historical .ynasty' For detailed information the 2nglish reader is referred to .'otes 9' 十過' @' The Historical .ynasty :allegedly by )ing #?n>' In conse8uence3 the ancient hinese scale became closely e8ui(alent to the modern #estern scale as follo%s+K .ecords+ E' 不穀 means 寡人 by %hich the ruler refers to himself' =' 屈產之乘' 乘 here means a team of four good horses harnessed to one chariot' I' #ith BM BMeh and #ang Hsien-shen 克 should be supplied bet%een 伐虢 and 之遠' =EE $+c+ .uring the Period of Spring and .alst*s Chinese -usic+ .ynasty' To them %ere added pien9kun( :5/> and pien9kioh :5 2> at the beginning of the hou .un( for 3 shan( for .3 pien9kun( for B3 and kun( for :' .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen 反 abo(e 處三年 should be abo(e 興兵伐虢' <' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 而東夷叛之 should be supplied belo% ' 9J' #ith )u !王"#$之% should be supplied abo(e 而&'叛之' 99' Tso-ch!iu Ming*s Commentaries on the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals has 不過十年 in place of () *年' E@< $+c+ 9@' +夷之.ecords has 共王 in place of 恭王' A' In EIE B' ' D' 豎穀陽' Pelliot said in his re(ie% of I(ano(*s 0ussian translation of Han Fei Tzŭthat he %ould li$e to read the name as "Shu-yang )o"3 but did not gi(e any reason therefor :.

alst*s Chinese -usic+ 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen this referred to the pea$ generally $no%n as the T!ai Mountain among the (arious pea$s in the locality3 %hile the Small T!ai Mountain is sometimes called the 2astern T!ai Mountain' 9E' 67 %as a%arded him by the spirit of the mountain for his (irtue and merit' 9=' The spirit of the tree' 9I' Then a regent' 9.ynasty' For detailed information the 2nglish reader is referred to .ream S%amps in the h!u State' AA' hap' I has 三W in place of 三年 : ide supra& p' ii& n' E>' AD' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen X should read Y' AE' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Z should read -' . $+c+ These si5 clans comprised the so-called Si5 7obles of hin' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the Schemes of the Warrin( States has 8 abo(e 9:' @A' #ith #ang both hao Bung-hsien*s edition of Han Fei Tzŭ*s #or$s and the Schemes of the Warrin( States ha(e 不.' I regard K as a mista$e for L' @<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? M should be N' AJ' O人' O here means P' Therefore3 O人 means Q人 or "men leisured in household responsibilities"' A9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen RS should be 不T' A@' UV' Ch8n :U> %as the special name gi(en to the bamboos from the loudy .<之 belo% =>兵?8@A' @D' #ith #ang the Schemes of the Warrin( States has B abo(e C' @E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the Schemes of the Warrin( States has D in place of E' @=' hap' III has FGH in place of FIH : ide supra& p' @I>' @I' /iscount Hsiang*s father' J should be :' @.' The spirit of %ind' 9<' The spirit of rain' @J' In EA9 $+c+ @9' In DE.This scale remained the same until the rise of the BMan .

9 $+c+ The "0ight 0emonstrances" in the Selected )ersuasions has qrs in place of tu:' I thin$ Han Fei Tzŭ mistoo$ tu: for qrs' EJ' The same %or$ has vwx in place of vyz' E9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 而{H|} should in accordance %ith the introductory be supplied belo% ~內遠遊' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen • abo(e €i之 should be belo% it' EA' Si5ty-se(en days in fact' ED' I propose i for s3 because %hen this e(ent too$ place in A9I $+c+& the 0uler of Han had called himself $ing for si5 years and %as no longer a du$e' EE' • abo(e \ means ‚' E=' ƒe %as the road leading north%ard to the Han State' EI' #ith )u )uang-ts!? „ should be …' E.A=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen [ and \ in =[]而\^ should replace each other' AI' #ith -u #?n-shao _ should be `' A.' In AJ.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen l should in accordance %ith the introductory be supplied abo(e mn之o p' D<' The murderer of .' . $+c+ .u$e hien of h!i in D.pparently the campaign lasted for three years3 although the inundation of the city could not possibly last so long' A<' In DEA $+c+ DJ' BM %as the family nameH Shun3 the gi(en name' D9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen a reads b as %ell as c' D@' d is a tripod basin or bo%l for holding meal as sacrifice' DA' #ith #ang Hsien-shen e should read f' DD' #ith )u )uang-ts!? g should be h' DE' i:' 7either "gentlemen" nor "superior men" can con(ey its sense better than "the ruling class" in this case' D=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? j abo(e 遠 should be k' DI' In =@A $+c+ D.

.u$e #?n and subse8uently became Hegemonic 0uler' =J' It %as said that the ribs of h!ung-erh gre% together li$e a %all' Therefore3 many people of his time %ere curious to loo$ at his chest' =9' † %as ordinarily a (illage of t%enty-fi(e families' Chapter 2I. the so(ereign is3 the more po%erful the chief (assals become' .olitary In+ignation1 -en %ell (ersed in the principles of tact @ are al%ays farseeing and clearly obser(ing' For3 if not clearly obser(ing3 they cannot discern selfishness' Men able to uphold the la% are al%ays decisi(e and straightfor%ard' For3 if not straightfor%ard3 they cannot correct croo$edness' Ministers %ho attend to their duties in conformity to orders and fulfil their posts in accordance %ith la%s3 are not called "hea(y-handed men"' A The hea(y-handed men %ould %ithout any order act on their %ill3 benefit themsel(es by brea$ing the la%3 help their families by consuming state resources3 and ha(e enough po%er to manipulate their ruler' Such are the so-called D "hea(y-handed men"' Men %ell (ersed in the principles of tact3 being clearly obser(ing3 if listened to and ta$en into ser(ice by the ruler3 %ill discern the secret moti(es of the hea(y-handed men' Men able to uphold the la%3 being straightfor%ard3 if listened to and ta$en into ser(ice by the ruler3 %ill correct the croo$ed deeds of the hea(y-handed men' In short3 if these types of men are ta$en into ser(ice3 noble and po%erful ministers %ill infallibly fall off the in$ed string' E This is the reason %hy they and the authorities in charge of the state affairs = are bad enemies and unable to coe5ist' If the authorities concerned ta$e all matters of the state into their o%n hands3 then e(erybody3 %hether outside or inside the court3 %ill be bound to become their tool' Thus3 unless through their good offices3 feudal lords from abroad cannot accomplish any negotiation3 %herefore e(en enemy states praise I themH unless through their good offices3 no official in go(ernmental ser(ice can ad(ance his career3 %herefore the body of officials becomes their toolH unless through their good offices3 the courtiers cannot approach the so(ereign3 %herefore the courtiers conceal their (icesH and3 unless through their good offices3 the allo%ances of scholars %ill decrease and the treatment accorded them %ill deteriorate3 %herefore the learned men spea$ %ell of them' These four assistances are means %hereby %ic$ed ministers embellish themsel(es' The hea(y-handed men cannot be so loyal to the so(ereign as to recommend their enemies and the lord of men cannot rise abo(e their four assistances in such %ise as to discern the right types of ministers' Therefore3 the more deluded .E<' He spent nineteen years :=EE-=A= $+c+> in e5ile' 6pon his return to hin he ascended the throne as .

In general3 the authorities concerned3 in relation to the lord of men3 are rarely not trusted and belo(ed3 and3 moreo(er3 are his old ac8uaintances and long time intimates' To please the so(ereign*s mind by sharing the same li$es and hates %ith him3 is3 of course3 their beaten %ay of self-ele(ation' Their posts and ran$s are noble and po%erfulH their friends and partisans are numerousH and the %hole country praises them %ith one accord' ontrary to these3 upholders of la% and tact3 %hen they %ant to approach the Throne3 ha(e neither the relationship of the trusted and belo(ed nor the fa(our of the long ac8uaintances and old intimates3 and3 %hat is still %orse3 intend to reform the biased mind of the lord of men %ith lectures on la% and tactH %hich altogether is opposed to the taste of the lord of men' 7aturally they ha(e to ac8uiesce in a lo% and humble status and3 ha(ing no partisans3 li(e in solitude and singleness' Indeed3 the strange and distant3 %hen contesting %ith the near and dear3 ha(e no reason to %inH ne%comers and tra(ellers3 %hen contesting %ith long ac8uaintances and old intimates3 ha(e no reason to %inH opponents of the so(ereign*s opinion3 %hen contesting %ith his supporters of the same taste3 ha(e no reason to %inH the humble and po%erless3 %hen contesting %ith the noble and po%erful3 ha(e no reason to %inH and a single mouth3 < %hen contesting %ith the %hole country3 has no reason to %in' onfronted %ith these fi(e handicaps3 upholders of la% and tact3 though they %ait for a number of years3 are still 9J unable to see the so(ereign' &n the contrary3 the authorities concerned3 possessed of the ad(antages of fi(e %innings3 spea$ freely to the Throne at any time' If so3 ho% can upholders of la% and tact distinguish themsel(es and %hen can the lord of men realize his o%n mista$esL Being thus hopelessly handicapped in their e8uipment and rendered incompatible %ith the authorities by force of circumstances3 ho% can upholders of la% and tact a(oid dangersL Those %ho can be falsely accused of criminal offences are censured %ith state la%sH those %ho cannot be indicted as criminals are ended by pri(ate s%ordsmen' For this reason3 99 those %ho clarify the principles of la% and tact but act contrary to the so(ereign*s taste3 if not e5ecuted through official censure3 are infallibly dispatched by pri(ate s%ordsmen' Ho%e(er3 friends and partisans %ho form Funtas on purpose to delude the so(ereign and t%ist their %ords so as to benefit themsel(es3 al%ays %in the confidence of the hea(y-handed men' .ccordingly3 those %ho can be accorded the prete5t of meritorious ser(ices are ennobled %ith official ran$H those %ho cannot 9@ be accorded any good reputation are empo%ered through foreign influences' For this reason3 men %ho delude the so(ereign and fre8uent the gates of pri(ate mansions3 if not celebrated for official ran$3 are al%ays empo%ered through foreign influence' In these days3 the lord of men3 %ithout in(estigating e(idence and %itness3 inflicts censure and punishment upon upholders of la% and tact3 and3 %ithout %aiting for meritorious ser(ices to appear3 confers ran$ and bounties upon friends and partisans of the authorities' If so3 ho% can the upholders of la% and tact ris$ their li(es in presenting their ideas to the Throne3 and ho% %ould the %ic$ed ministers discard their pri(ate ad(antages and %ithdra% themsel(es from officeL Therefore3 the more humbled the so(ereign is3 the more ennobled are the pri(ate clans' Indeed3 the BMeh State %as rich and her army %as strong' Bet the so(ereign of e(ery entral State3 $no%ing that she %as useless to him3 %ould say+ "She is not %ithin the .

reach of my control'" Ta$e for e5ample a state at present' Ho%e(er e5tensi(e the territory and ho%e(er numerous the people3 if the lord of men is deluded and the chief (assals ha(e all po%ers to themsel(es3 that state is the same as BMeh' 9A If the ruler only percei(es 9D no resemblance of his state to BMeh but fails to percei(e no resemblance of the state out of his control to the state under his control3 he ne(er thoroughly understands %hat resemblance is' People 9E spea$ of the fall of h!i' 7ot that the land and cities fell to pieces3 but that the -M lan failed to rule %hile the T!ien lan assumed the ruling po%er' They spea$ of the fall of hin' 7ot that the land and cities fell to pieces3 but that the hi lan failed to rule %hile the Si5 7obles had all po%ers to themsel(es' To-day3 if chief (assals ha(e the ruling po%er in their grip and decide on all state policies by themsel(es and the so(ereign does not $no% ho% to reco(er his prerogati(es3 it is because the lord of men is not intelligent' #hoe(er catches the same diseases as dead people did3 cannot sur(i(eH %hoe(er sho%s the same symptoms as ruined states did3 cannot e5ist' Therefore3 the present follo%ers of the footsteps of h!i and hin3 e(en though they %ant to secure and preser(e their states3 %ill find it to be an unattainable tas$' In general3 the difficulty in enacting la% and tact is met not only by rulers of ten thousand chariots but also by rulers of one thousand chariots' . If they fail to get %hat they %ant and recei(e the bribes they e5pect3 then the refined and intelligent men*s merits of cleanness and elo8uence %ill come to naught %hile %ords of slander and false accusation %ill ensue instead' #hen merits of elo8uence 9< are restricted by the courtiers and (irtues of cleanness are estimated by slanderers3 then refined and intelligent magistrates %ill be deposed %hile the sagacity of the lord of men %ill be debarred' #hen the ruler estimates %isdom and (irtue not according to meritorious ser(ices and Fudges crimes and faults not through the processes of in(estigation and testimony but simply listens to the %ords of the courtiers and attendants3 then incapable men %ill fill up the court and stupid and corrupt magistrates %ill occupy all posts' .s the attendants of the lord of men are not necessarily intelligent3 if in estimating ne% personnel he first ta$es counsel from men %hom he considers %ise and then discusses their %ords %ith his attendants3 he is tal$ing about %ise men to fools' .s the attendants of the lord of men are not necessarily %orthy3 if in estimating ne% personnel he first pays respect to men %hom he considers %orthy and then discusses their deeds %ith his attendants3 he is tal$ing about %orthies to ruffians' If %ise men ha(e to submit their plans for fools* appro(al and %orthies ha(e to see their deeds estimated by ruffians3 men of %orthiness and %isdom %ill feel ashamed and the ruler*s conclusions %ill be full of fallacies' .mong the so(ereign*s subFects aspiring to official honours3 refined men %ould $eep their characters clean3 and %ise men %ould ad(ance their careers 9= by impro(ing their elo8uence' They cannot please anybody %ith bribes' ounting on their cleanness and elo8uence3 9I they are unable to Foin go(ernmental ser(ice by bending the la%' onse8uently3 refined and intelligent men %ould neither bribe the attendants nor comply %ith pri(ate re8uests' The attendants of the lord of men are not as upright in conduct as Poh-i' 9.

The threat to the ruler of ten thousand chariots is the chief (assals* being too po%erful' The threat to the ruler of one thousand chariots is the attendants* being too much trusted' Both these threats3 indeed3 are common to e(ery lord of men' Moreo(er3 %hether ministers commit maFor offences or the lord of men has serious faults3 ruler and minister al%ays ha(e mutually @J different interests' Ho% is this $no%nL In reply I say+ "The so(ereign is interested in appointing able men to officeH the minister is interested in securing employment %ith no competent abilities' The so(ereign is interested in a%arding ran$ and bounties for distinguished ser(icesH the minister is interested in obtaining %ealth and honour %ithout merit' The so(ereign is interested in ha(ing heroic men e5erting their abilitiesH the minister is interested in ha(ing their friends and partisans effect self-see$ing purposes' .ccordingly3 %hen the land of the state is dismembered3 pri(ate families are enrichedH %hen the so(ereign is degraded3 chief (assals are empo%ered' In conse8uence3 %hen the so(ereign loses his influence3 ministers gain the rule o(er the stateH %hen the so(ereign changes his title into that of a feudatory (assal3 the prime minister splits tallies into hal(es' @9 These are the reasons %hy ministers attempt to beguile the ruler and further their pri(ate interests'" Thus3 if the so(ereign e(er changes the circumstances3 @@ not e(en t%o or three out of ten chief (assals of the present age can remain in fa(our %ith him' #hat is the reason thereforL It is because crimes committed by ministers are serious' Ministers guilty of maFor offences must ha(e decei(ed their so(ereign' Such crimes deser(e the death penalty' The %ise men3 far-seeing and afraid of death3 ne(er %ill obey the hea(y-handed men' Similarly3 the %orthies3 an5ious to culti(ate their personal integrity and ashamed of Foining the %ic$ed ministers in decei(ing the so(ereign3 ne(er %ill obey the chief (assals' That being so3 the adherents and dependents of the authorities concerned3 if not stupid and ignorant of the impending calamity3 must be corrupt and mind no %ic$edness' The chief (assals3 holding such stupid and corrupt men under control3 co-operate %ith them in decei(ing the so(ereign from abo(e and collect spoils from belo%' Their friends and partisans e5ploit the masses of the people3 @A associate for treasonable purposes3 be%ilder the so(ereign by unifying their %ords3 and disturb the gentry and commoners by brea$ing the la%' In so doing they incline the state to%ards danger and dismemberment and the so(ereign to%ards hardship and disgrace' Such is a maFor offence' #hen ministers are guilty of such a maFor offence and the so(ereign ne(er suppresses them3 he is then committing a serious fault' Should the so(ereign commit such a serious fault and ministers commit such a maFor offence3 to pre(ent the state from going to ruin %ould be impossible' 'otes 9' ‡ˆ' This chapter (i(idly reflects the political and social bac$ground of the author*s intellectual responses' Since -in Butang in his boo$3 -y Country and -y )eople& repeatedly 8uoted Han Fei Tzŭ and since almost e(ery page of the boo$ re(eals his solitary indignation at his country and his people3 I %onder if it %as this %or$3 if not the %hole %or$s3 of Han Fei Tzŭ that inspired him to protest against his age' @' ‰ %as rendered by For$e3 .uy(enda$3 and Bodde as "method"3 %hich is too (ague and therefore rather misleading' My rendering is "tact" in most cases and "craft" or "statecraft" sometimes' .

fter the father*s death each refused the throne3 because each considered the other more entitled thereto' #hen the people in the country established the middle brother on the throne3 they %ent to spend the rest of their life under the protection of the 2arl of the #est' &n the %ay they met Fa3 subse8uently )ing #u of hou3 %ho had re(olted against ho% during the mournful period of the 2arl' .' Poh-i and Shu-ch!i %ere sons of the 0uler of )u-chu' The father appointed the younger brother Shu-ch!i to be his successor' .A' Š人' D' #ang Hsien-shen reads ‹" for ‹Œ' E' They %ill be found guilty and dismissed from office' =' •Ž之人' The personnel directing the course of the state' I' I read • for •' .s they ne(er appro(ed of such an action3 instead of submitting to the change of the ruling dynasty %hich they condemned as a change from tyrant to tyrant3 they left for the Shou-yang Mountains3 %here they died of star(ation' Hence both brothers became types of morality' 9<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¡ should be ¢' #ith #ang Hsien-shen hang Pang*s edition has ¢ in place of ¡' @J' #ith )u £ abo(e ¤ should be belo% it' @9' ¥¦ means to issue official decrees and e5ercise the ruling authorities' &n issuing them the prime minister %ould put each decree on a tally %hich he first splits into t%o hal(es and gi(es one to the appointee and $eeps the other half in his office for subse8uent identification' .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ‘ reads ’' <' “” here refers to e(ery upholder of la% and tact li(ing in solitude and singleness' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? • should be –' 99' I propose the supply of — belo% ˜' 9@' )u )uang-ts!? proposed the supply of 不 belo% =' #ang Hsien-shen disagreed %ith him' I agree %ith )u because Han Fei Tzŭ apparently intended to maintain parallelism bet%een this sentence and the corresponding sentence in the preceding paragraph' 9A' It is because that state slips off the so(ereign*s control Fust as BMeh %as situated beyond the reach of the control by the so(ereign of a entral State' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ™ in both cases should be š' 9E' #ith Sun I-Fang J belo% 人 is superfluous' 9=' #ith BM BMch and #ang Hsien-shen =›} belo% œ• is superfluous' 9I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? žŸ should be ž ' 9.

@@' 5§' For instance3 the so(ereign comes to realize his past faults3 discards fa(ouritism3 and enforces strict legalism' @A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen _¨©ª should be ©ª_¨' Chapter 2II.iffic)lties in the Way of Pers)asion1 i+1.s a %hole3 the difficulties in the %ay of persuasion lie in my $no%ing the heart of the persuaded in order thereby to fit my %ording into it' If the persuaded stri(es after high fame %hile you persuade him of big profit3 you %ill be considered lo%-bred3 accorded mean treatment3 and shunned from afar' If the persuaded stri(es after big profit %hile you persuade him of high fame3 you %ill be considered mindless and ignorant of %orldly affairs and %ill ne(er be accepted' If the persuaded stri(es after big profit in secret but openly see$s for high fame %hile you persuade him of high fame3 you %ill be accepted in name but $ept distant in factH and3 if you persuade him of big profit3 your %ord %ill be adopted in secret but your person %ill be left out openly' These points should be carefully deliberated' Indeed3 affairs succeed if $ept secret and @ fail if di(ulged' Though you ne(er intend to e5pose the ruler*s secrets3 yet if you happen to spea$ of anything he %ants to conceal3 you are then in danger' #hen the ruler embar$s openly on an enterprise but plans thereby to accomplish a different tas$3 if the persuader $no%s not only its moti(e but also its purpose3 he is then in danger' #hen the persuader has de(ised an e5traordinary scheme %hich suits the ruler3 if another %ise man finds it out by inferring it from other sources and di(ulges the secret to the %orld3 the ruler %ill thin$ he has di(ulged the secret3 %herefore he is in danger' If the persuader e5hausts all his %isdom before his master*s fa(our becomes thic$3 then though his persuasion pre(ails and has merits3 his fruitful ser(ices %ill be forgotten %ith ease' If his persuasion ta$es no effect and has demerits3 he %ill fall under suspicion' In such a case he is in danger' Supposing the ruler had an aptitude for certain faults and the persuader spo$e plainly on propriety and righteousness and thereby challenged his (ices3 he %ould be in danger' If the ruler has ta$en a scheme from somebody else3 %hich he assumes to be his o%n %or$3 and the persuader happens to $no% the %hole secret3 he is in danger' #hoe(er forcibly persuades the ruler to do %hat he cannot do and not to do %hat he cannot stop doing3 is in danger' Therefore3 if you tal$ about great men to him3 he thin$s you are intimating his defects' If you tal$ about small men to him3 he thin$s you are sho%ing off your superiority' If you discuss an obFect of his lo(e3 he thin$s you are e5pecting a special fa(our from it' If you discuss an obFect of his hate3 he thin$s you are testing his temper' If you simplify your discussion3 he thin$s you are un%ise and %ill spurn you' If your discussion is lucidly %ay%ard and e5tensi(ely refined3 A he thin$s you are superficial and flippant' D If you omit details and present generalizations only3 he thin$s you are .ifficulties in the %ay of persuasion3 generally spea$ing3 are not difficulties in my $no%ledge %ith %hich I persuade the ruler3 nor are they difficulties in my s$ill of argumentation %hich enables me to ma$e my ideas clear3 nor are they difficulties in my courage to e5ert my abilities %ithout reser(e' . .

u$e #u of h?ng3 thin$ing of in(ading Hu3 married his daughter to the 0uler of Hu and thereby pleased his mind' Then he as$ed his ministers3 "I am thin$ing of starting a military campaign' #hich country should be in(adedL" In reply High &fficer )uan h!i-Ssŭ said3 "Hu should be in(aded'" .co%ardly and incomplete' If you trace the principles of facts and use %ide illustrations3 he thin$s you are rustic and arrogant' These are difficulties in the %ay of persuasion3 %hich e(ery persuader should $no%' @'KIn general3 the business of the persuader is to embellish the pride and obliterate the shame of the persuaded' If he has any pri(ate urgent need3 you ought to encourage him %ith the cause of public Fustice' If the persuaded has a mean intention but cannot help it3 you ought to praise its e5cellent points and minimize its harmfulness to the public' If he has a high ambition in mind but his real ability falls short of the mar$3 you ought to enumerate its mista$es3 disclose its disad(antages3 and esteem his suspension from realizing it' If he aspires to the pride of %isdom and talent3 you ought to enumerate different species of the same genus %ith reference to e(ery obFect of $no%ledge and thereby supply him %ith abundant information and let him deri(e ideas from you but pretend to ignorance of his deri(ation so as to ele(ate his %isdom' If you %ant the persuaded to adopt your suggestion to culti(ate inter-state friendship3 you ought to e5plain it in the light of a glorious cause and intimate its accord %ith his pri(ate interest' If you %ant to describe things dangerous and inFurious to the state %elfare3 you ought to enumerate the reproaches and slanders against them first and then intimate their discord %ith his pri(ate interest' Praise those men doing the same things as he does' 2steem the tas$s under the same scheme as his tas$s are' In regard to men ha(ing the same faults as he has3 be sure to defend their harmlessness' In regard to men ha(ing met the same failures as he met3 be sure to bring out their incurring no loss' If he ma$es much of his o%n strength3 do not bring in any difficult tas$ that impedes him' If he thin$s his o%n decisions bra(e3 do not point out their unla%fulnessH that angers him' If he thin$s his o%n scheme %ise3 do not recall his past failures %hich embarrass him' #hen your meaning is not offensi(e and your %ording is not flippant3 you are then under %ay to use all your %isdom and elo8uence to persuade anybody' In this %ay you can become near and dear to him3 a(oid all suspicion3 and e5ert your speech to the utmost' I Bin had to %or$ as a coo$ and Pai-li Hsi had to go as a capti(e3 both aiming thereby to approach their masters' These t%o men %ere sages' Still they could not help lo%ering themsel(es to such a humble le(el in order to introduce themsel(es to notice' 7o% ta$e me E as coo$ or capti(e' If you find it possible to ta$e ad(ice from me3 carry out my suggestion3 and thereby sa(e the %orld3 it is no shame to an able man' Indeed3 as days multiply in the long course of time and fa(our %ith the ruler gro%s %ell-grounded3 %hen you are no longer suspected of de(ising schemes profoundly and not con(icted in Foining issue %ith the ruler on any point3 then you may fran$ly %eigh = the relati(e ad(antages and disad(antages of the trend of the times and thereby forecast your meritorious ser(ices and straightly point out %hat is right and %hat is %rong in the course of go(ernment and thereby assert yourself' If ruler and minister stand together in such relationship3 it is due to the success of persuasion' A'KIn by-gone days3 .

nother day3 %hen ta$ing a stroll %ith the 0uler in an orchard3 he ate a peach' It being so s%eet3 he did not finish it3 but ga(e the 0uler the remaining half to eat' So3 the 0uler said+ "Bou lo(e me so much indeed3 that you %ould e(en forget your o%n sali(a taste and let me eat the rest of the peach'" #hen the colour of Mi Tzŭ faded3 the 0uler*s lo(e for him slac$ened' &nce he happened to offend the 0uler3 the 0uler said+ "This fello% once rode in my coach under pretence of my order and another time ga(e me a half-eaten peach'" The deeds of Mi Tzŭ had themsel(es ne(er changed' Bet he %as at first regarded as %orthy and later found guilty because his master*s lo(e turned into hate' Therefore3 if anybody stands in his master*s fa(our3 his %isdom %ill function %ell and his intimacy %ith him %ill gro%H once he incurs the master*s hatred3 his %isdom %ill stop functioning 9J and his relationship %ith him %ill become more and more distant' For this reason3 %hoe(er attempts remonstration3 persuasion3 e5planation3 and discussion3 before the Throne3 must carefully obser(e the so(ereign*s feelings of lo(e and hate before he starts persuading him' Indeed3 %hen the dragon mo(es li$e a %orm3 man can tame it3 play %ith it3 99 and ride on its bac$' Ho%e(er3 there are belo% its throat in(erted scales3 each one foot in diameter' These scales %ould $ill anyone touching them' So does the lord of men ha(e in(erted scales' .u$e #u e5ecuted him saying+ "Hu is a sister I state' #hy do you suggest in(ading herL" Hearing about this3 the 0uler of Hu thought h?ng %as friendly to him and so too$ no precaution against her in(asion' Mean%hile3 the h?ngs made a surprise attac$ upon Hu and too$ the country' There %as in Sung a rich man' &nce it rained and his mud fence collapsed' Thereupon his son said+ "If the fence is not immediately rebuilt3 burglars might come'" So also did the father of his neighbours say to him' &n the e(ening of that day he incurred a great loss of money' Thereafter his family had high regard for his son*s %isdom but suspected the father of the neighbours' 7o%3 %hat these t%o men .ccording to the -a% of the #ei State3 "%hoe(er in secret rides in the 0uler*s coach shall ha(e his feet cut off'" &nce Mi Tzŭ-hsia*s mother fell ill' Somebody3 hearing about this3 sent a message to Mi Tzŭ late at night' Thereupon Mi Tzŭ on the pretence of the 0uler*s order rode in the 0uler*s coach' .ngered thereby3 .. said came out e8ually true' Bet3 the one in the serious case met the death penalty %hile the other in the minor case incurred suspicion' 7ot that they had difficulties in getting $no%ledge3 but that they had difficulties in using their $no%ledge' Therefore3 Cao h!ao3 < after his %ords had pro(ed true3 became a sage in hin but %as e5ecuted in h!in' This is %hat e(ery persuader should carefully deliberate' In by-gone days3 Mi Tzŭ-hsia %as in fa(our %ith the 0uler of #ei' .t the ne%s of this3 the 0uler regarded his act as %orthy3 saying+ "Ho% dutiful he isG For his mother*s sa$e he e(en forgot that he %as committing a crime ma$ing him liable to lose his feet'" .ny persuader able to a(oid touching the in(erted scales of the lord of men must be (ery near to the mastery of the art of persuasion' 'otes .

ecords has ¶ in place of ·' I' ¸¹之n literally means "brother state"' .ecords has 而 in place of «' A' #ith -u #?n-shao the Historical .u$e -ing of hin the hin 4o(ernment de(ised a scheme to get an able man3 Shih Hui3 bac$ from the h!in State' Ha(ing disco(ered the secret plot3 Cao h!ao submitted to .u$e )!ang of h!in a %ord of %arning3 %hich3 ho%e(er3 %as not listened to' .o not thin$ that nobody in h!in succeeded in detecting the scheme of hin' Because my %ord %as not adopted3 you are no% able to lea(e for your country'" This astonished the hins3 %ho3 accordingly3 esteemed him as a sage' In h!in3 ho%e(er3 he fell under suspicion and %as e5ecuted' 9J' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the 3xtracts from Classical Works has no º» belo% ™不•' 99' #ith )ao H?ng ¼½¾ should be ½¼¾' ' Chapter 2III.ecords has ¬-®¯ in place of °±® D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen ² should be ³' E' #ith )ao H?ng ´ belo% µ is superfluous' =' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the Historical .t the departure of Shih Hui from h!in3 Cao h!ao said+ ". The .fter three days and three nights his tears %ere all e5hausted and blood flo%ed out' .t this ne%s the )ing sent men out to as$ him the reason3 saying3 "Throughout .gain he said3 "It is an ordinary stone'" The )ing3 also regarding Ho as a liar3 had his right foot cut off' #hen )ing #?n died and )ing h!?ng ascended the throne3 Ho3 carrying the uncut Fade in his arms3 cried at the foot of the hing Hills' A .9' 說難' This chapter as a %hole is so systematic that it naturally falls into three sections' In the first section the author e5plains %hat the difficulties are in the %ay of persuasion' In the second section he suggests the $ind of tact a persuader ought to master in order to get o(er the difficulties' The last one contains certain facts illustrating his (ie%point3 %hile the concluding paragraph sums up the main points of the %hole discussion' For con(enience*s sa$e I ha(e mar$ed the beginning paragraph of each section %ith a numeral' @' #ith -u #?n-shao the Historical .' )uan h!i-Ssŭ and the neighbours* father' <' In =9D $+c+ during the reign of .ll-under-Hea(en men %hose feet %ere cut off are many' #hy should you be crying so bitterlyL" "I am lamenting not the loss of my feet3" said Ho in reply3 "but for the calling a precious gem an ordinary stone and for their dubbing an honest man a liar' This is the reason %hy I am lamenting'" Mean%hile3 the )ing had a Fe%eller polish up the Fade and got the treasure out at last' So it %as designated "the Cade of Pien Ho"' .iffic)lty of Pien Ho1 5nce a man of h!u3 named Pien Ho3 came by an uncut Fade in the h!u Hills' He brought it home and submitted it as a present to )ing #u' @ Thereupon )ing #u had a Fe%eller gi(e an opinion of it' "It is an ordinary stone3" said the Fe%eller' The )ing3 regarding Ho as a liar3 had his left foot cut off' 6pon )ing #u*s death3 )ing #?n ascended the throne3 %hen Ho again submitted it as a present to )ing #?n' )ing #?n also had a Fe%eller gi(e an opinion of it' .

u$e Hsiao %ith the immediate result that the so(ereign thereby became glorious and secure and the state thereby became rich and strong' 2ighteen . years later the .u$e Hsiao of h!in to organize groups of ten and fi(e families3 and establish the system of denunciation of crime and Foint responsibility for offence3 to burn the 'ooks of )oetry and HistoryI and thereby ma$e la%s and orders clear3 to bar the re8uests of pri(ate families and thereby encourage ser(ices to public offices3 to prohibit idlers from purchasing official posts3 and to celebrate farmers and %arriors' The theory %as carried into effect by .u$e passed a%ay3 %hereupon -ord Shang %as torn to pieces by chariots < in h!in' h!u3 not employing #u h!i3 %as dismembered and disturbedH h!in3 practising the -a% of -ord Shang3 became rich and strong' Though the t%o philosophers* %ords turned out true3 yet ho% came it that h!u dismembered #u h!i and h!in tore -ord Shang to pieces by chariotsL It %as because the chief (assals had regarded la% as annoyance and the masses had resented order' 7o% that in the present age the chief (assals* co(etousness of po%er and the masses* content %ith disorder are more (i(id than the conditions that once pre(ailed in h!u and h!in3 9J if the lord of men does not ha(e the same aptitude for counsels as )ing Tao and .u$e Hsiao had3 then ho% can upholders of la% and tact run the ris$ of the t%o philosophers to ma$e their .Indeed3 pearls and gems are %hat the lord of men %ants badly' Though Ho presented the uncut Fade to the Throne3 before it %as made beautiful3 he %as ne(er a harm to His MaFesty' 7e(ertheless3 it %as only after both his feet had been cut off that the treasure %as ac$no%ledged' That to establish an opinion of a treasure should be so difficultG To-day3 the lord of men feels the need of la% and tact not necessarily as badly as he %ants the Cade of Pien Ho3 %hereas he has to suppress the self-see$ing %ic$edness of all officials3 gentry3 and commoners' D That being so3 upholders of the right %ay of go(ernment are not punished because they ha(e not as yet presented the uncut Fade of emperors and $ings to the Throne' If the so(ereign uses tact3 then neither the chief (assals can fi5 the state policies at their %ill3 nor %ill the courtiers dare to sell off any personal fa(our' If the magistrate enforces the la%3 then (agabonds ha(e to turn to tillage %hile itinerants ha(e to stop tal$ing about %arfare' If so3 la% and tact offer a dra%bac$ to the officials3 gentry3 and commoners' Therefore3 unless the lord of men can rise against the chief (assals* protests3 abo(e the (agabonds* slanders3 and e5clusi(ely follo% E the dicta of the true path3 upholders of la% and tact3 e(en though dri(en to the (erge of death3 %ill ne(er see the true path ac$no%ledged' In by-gone days3 #u h!i taught )ing Tao of h!u a state policy for h!u3 saying+ "#hen chief (assals are too po%erful and enfeoffed retainers too numerous3 the body of officials %ill intimidate the ruler and oppress the people3 %hich is the %ay to impo(erish the state and %ea$en the army' Therefore3 better confiscate the ran$s and bounties of the enfeoffed retainers after the third generation of their successors3 reduce = the salaries and allo%ances of the magistrates3 and eliminate such superfluous offices as of no urgent need3 in order thereby to maintain %ell-chosen and %ell-trained %arriors'" )ing Tao3 after enforcing this policy for a year3 passed a%ay3 %hereupon #u h!i %as dismembered in h!u' -ord Shang taught .

%olest.u$e Hsiao reigned for eighteen years and during the last ten years Bang held the office of premier' <' The chariots bound to the head and limbs of the criminal %ere dri(en in opposite directions to tear them off his body' 9J' 2(idently this essay %as %ritten before the author entered h!in' 99' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ë should be supplied belo% ‹' Chapter 2I0. %inisters Apt to *etray.u$e Hsiao apparently ne(er carried it into effect' .ecords and other boo$s ne(er mention -ord Shang*s teaching to burn the 'ooks of )oetry and History+ -ord Shang might ha(e taught it3 but . or %)r+er the 1)ler1 Wicked ministers3 in general3 all thin$ of follo%ing the mind of the lord of men in order to attain the status of enFoying the so(ereign*s confidence and fa(our' For this reason3 %hate(er the so(ereign li$es they praise accordinglyH %hate(er the so(ereign hates they blame accordingly' &n the %hole3 such is the general nature of man$ind that people regard each other as right if their matters of acceptance and reFection are in common3 and as %rong if their matters of acceptance and reFection are di(erse' 7o% that %hat the ministers praise is %hat the lord of men regards as right3 this is called "acceptance in common"H since %hat the ministers blame is %hat the so(ereign regards as %rong3 this is called "reFection in common"' Indeed3 people %ho ha(e their matters of acceptance and reFection in common @ and offend each other3 are ne(er heard of' That is the %ay the ministers %in the so(ereign*s confidence and fa(our' Indeed3 if %ic$ed ministers can ta$e ad(antage of the status of enFoying the so(ereign*s confidence and fa(our to blame3 praise3 promote3 and degrade the officials3 it is because the lord of men has neither the tact and measure A to $eep them .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen it seemed better to supply 十 abo(e Ê inasmuch as .principles of la% and tact clearL This is the reason 99 %hy the age is chaotic and has no Hegemonic 0uler' 'otes 9' ¿À' Pien Ho being the real name is used throughout my translation' @' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the three successi(e $ings %ere )ings #u3 #?n3 and h!?ng' So throughout my translation Á王 is found in place of Â王3 ¯王 in place of Á王3 and u王 in place of ¯王' A' #ith #ang ÃÄ should be ÅÄ' D' #ang Hsien-shen ga(e up all hope of elucidating the hiatus belo% this passage' I ha(e attempted to ma$e the translation of this and the follo%ing passages as faithful to the original and intelligible to the reader as possible' E' #ith )ao H?ng ÆÇj´ means ÈÇj´' =' For 產 )u )uang-ts!? proposed É meaning b' I' The Historical .

ccordingly3 as .u$e hien' Indeed3 tactful men3 %hen ministering to a ruler3 %ould enforce < theories of regulations and measures to clarify the la% of the so(ereign and harass %ic$ed ministers in order to glorify the so(ereign and tran8uillize the state' . practise righteous principles3 and ne(er co(et %ealth and nobility3 to see$ safety is the same as to discriminate bet%een flat and sharp notes %ith deaf ears3 %hich is still more hopeless' If neither road leads to safety3 %hy should %e not associate for the purpose of deluding the so(ereign3 committing (illainy3 and thereby pleasing the hea(yhanded menL" Such people %ill no longer regard the intentions of the lord of men' -i$e%ise3 as soon as officials of all posts come to $no% the impossibility of see$ing safety by playing s8uare and upright3 they %ill certainly say+ "#hen %e ser(e the superior cleanly and incorruptibly3 to see$ safety is as hopeless as to ma$e s8uares and circles %ithout the carpenter*s compasses and s8uares' If %e hold office by obser(ing the la% and not forming Funtos3 to see$ safety is the same as to scratch the head %ith the foot3 %hich is still more hopeless' If neither road leads to safety3 %hy should %e not discard the la%3 practise selfishness3 and thereby please the hea(yhanded menL" Such people %ill no longer regard the la%s of the so(ereign' Such being the case3 those %ho %or$ for the hea(y-handed men by practising selfishness are manyH those %ho ser(e the ruler by obser(ing the la% are fe%' For this reason3 the so(ereign stands in isolation abo(e %hile the ministers form Funtos belo%' This %as the (ery reason %hy T!ien h!?ng finally murdered .under control nor D the procedures of comparison and (erification to Fudge them' #orse than this3 because in the past they held e(ery Fudgment in common %ith him3 he %ould belie(e in any %ord they no% utter' This is the reason %hy fa(ourite ministers can decei(e the so(ereign and accomplish self-see$ing tas$s' In conse8uence3 the so(ereign is al%ays deluded and the ministers are al%ays po%erful' Such ministers are called "lord-manipulating (assals"' E If the state has "lord-manipulating (assals"3 then no official %ill be able to e5ert his %isdom and strength and thereby e5press his spirit of loyalty nor %ill any magistrate be able to uphold the la% and thereby accomplish his merits' Ho% to e5plain thisL Indeed3 to choose safety and profit and lea(e danger and trouble3 this is human nature' 7o%3 if men %ho3 being ministers to a ruler3 apply their forces to accomplish their merits and e5ert their %isdom to e5press their spirit of loyalty3 e(entually plunge themsel(es into misery3 incline their families to%ards po(erty3 and entangle their fathers and sons in their o%n troubles3 and if those %ho delude the so(ereign for the sa$e of %ic$ed profits and ser(e nobles and (assals %ith bribes of cash and commodities3 al%ays glorify themsel(es3 enrich their families3 and benefit their fathers and sons3 then ho% can people lea(e the %ay to safety and profit and choose the place of danger and troubleL Should there be such a fault in the go(ernment of the state3 it is clear that it %ould be impossible for the superior to e5pect the inferior to do no %ic$edness and the magistrates to uphold the la%' For this reason3 as soon as the attendants come to $no% the impossibility of see$ing safety = by remaining honest and faithful3 they %ill certainly say+ "#hen %e ser(e the superior honestly and faithfully and increase our meritorious ser(ices3 to see$ safety is as hopeless as to distinguish bet%een blac$ and %hite colours %ith blind eyes' #hen by follo%ing the true path and the right tact I %e ser(e the superior3 .

ccordingly3 ministers able to e5press their spirit of loyalty are ne(er put out of sight 9@ H inferiors able to attend to their duties ne(er sho% resentment' That %as the %ay )uan hung go(erned h!i and -ord Shang strengthened h!in' From such a (ie%point3 I can see that the sage in go(erning the state pursues the policy of ma$ing the people ine(itably do him good 9A but ne(er relies on their doing him good %ith lo(e' For to rely on the people*s doing him good %ith lo(e is dangerous3 but to rely on their ine(itability to do him good is safe' To be sure3 ruler and minister ha(ing no blood $inship3 if able to see$ safety 9D by follo%ing the right and straight %ay3 the minister %ill apply all his strength to ser(e the so(ereignH if unable to see$ safety by follo%ing the right and straight %ay3 he %ill practise selfishness and thereby (iolate the superior' )no%ing this %ell3 the intelligent so(ereign simply establishes the system of ad(antages and disad(antages and thereby sho%s the %orld %hat is right and %hat is %rong' ertainly for this reason3 though the lord of men neither teaches the officials %ith his o%n mouth nor finds the culprits and ruffians %ith his o%n eyes3 yet the state is al%ays orderly' The lord of men does not ha(e to possess such eyes as those of -i -ou in order to be bright3 nor does he ha(e to possess such ears as those of Musician )!uang in order to be acute' If he does not trust to measures but relies on his eyes alone for his brightness3 then %hat he sees %ill be little' For it is not the techni8ue to a(oid delusion' If he does not count on his august position but relies on his o%n ears alone for his acuteness3 then %hat he hears %ill be little enough' For it is not the %ay to a(oid deception' The intelligent so(ereign %ould ma$e .nd ho% dare the officials e5ploit the masses co(etouslyL .ll-under-Hea(en ine(itably see and hear on his behalf' Therefore3 though his person is confined in the innermost court3 his brightness illumines e(erything %ithin the four seas' If nobody in .soon as theories of regulations and measures are enforced3 re%ard and punishment %ill infallibly become applicable' The lord of men %ill then earnestly illustrate the tact of the sage but ne(er ha(e to follo% 9J the commonplaces of the %orld' He %ill decide bet%een right and %rong according to the relation bet%een name and fact and scrutinize %ords and phrases by means of comparison and (erification' For this reason3 attendants and courtiers3 as soon as they come to $no% the impossibility of see$ing safety by means of falsehood and deceit3 %ill certainly say+ "If %e do not stop %ic$ed deeds and apply our strength and e5ert our %isdom to ser(e the so(ereign3 but merely associate %ith one another for treasonable purposes and ma$e arbitrary blame and praise so as to see$ safety3 it is as hopeless as to e5pect to li(e by falling into an abyss of immeasurable depth %ith a %eight of thirty thousand catties 99 carried on the bac$'" -i$e%ise3 officials of all posts3 as soon as they come to $no% the impossibility of see$ing safety by co(eting %ic$ed profits3 %ill certainly say+ "If %e do not obey the la% by $eeping oursel(es pure3 incorruptible3 s8uare3 and upright3 but simply %ant to secure %ic$ed profits by bending the la% %ith the greedy and corrupt minds3 it is as hopeless as to e5pect to li(e by going up to the top of a high hill and then falling do%n into the bottom of a deep ra(ine'" If the road to safety and danger is so clear3 then ho% can the attendants beguile the so(ereign %ith empty %ordsL .

became many' Hence the people dared not (iolate the la% and penalty could be inflicted on nobody' Therefore3 the state became orderly3 the army strong3 the territory e5tensi(e3 and the so(ereign honourable' The cause of all these %as nothing other than hea(y punishment for sheltering criminals and big re%ards for denouncing culprits' Such %as also the %ay to ma$e .u$e Hsiao enforced the -a% of -ord Shang to the utmost3 until at last the people came to $no% that men guilty of crimes %ould infallibly be censured and informers against culprits 9.ll-under-Hea(en see and hear on the ruler*s o%n behalf' The la% and craft of the best go(ernment are thus clear enough' Bet scholars in the %orld ne(er understand them' Further3 all stupid scholars in the %orld do not $no% the actual conditions of order and chaos but chatter nonsense and chant too many hac$neyed old boo$s to disturb the go(ernment of the present age' Though their %isdom and thought are not sufficient to a(oid pitfalls3 9< they dare to absurdly reproach the upholders of tact' #hoe(er listens to their %ords3 %ill incur danger' #hoe(er employs their schemes3 %ill in(ite confusion' Such is the greatest height of stupidity as %ell as the greatest e5treme of calamity' Though they gain fame for discussion and persuasion Fust as the upholders of tact do3 yet in reality the former are as far apart from the latter as a distance of thousands of li' That is to say3 the similarity is nominal but the difference is actual' Indeed3 %hat the stupid scholars in the %orld are to the upholders of tact3 that is the ant-hill to the big mound' They are (ery different from each other' The sage is the one %ho scrutinizes the facts of right and %rong and in(estigates the conditions of order and chaos' Therefore3 %hen go(erning the state he rectifies la%s clearly and establishes penalties se(erely in order to rescue all li(ing beings @J from chaos3 rid .u$e Hsiao of h!in to alter the la% and reno(ate the custom by ma$ing public Fustice clear3 re%arding the denouncers of culprits3 discouraging secondary callings3 9E and encouraging primary %or$s' 9= In those days the people of h!in %ere used to the beaten trac$ that men guilty of crimes could be pardoned and men of no merit could be honoured' Therefore3 they %ere (ery apt to (iolate the ne% la%' In the meantime3 ho%e(er3 the censure of offenders against the ne% la% became strict and definiteH the re%ard of the denouncers of culprits became big and of faith' Hence no culprit %as missed' Men sentenced to punishment became many' The people grumbled and resented it' riminal offences 9I %ere heard e(ery day' -ending no ear to all these3 .ll-under-Hea(en can delude or decei(e him3 %hat is the reason thereforL It is because the roads to dar$ness and chaos ha(e crumbled %hile the faculties of acuteness and brightness ha(e appeared' Therefore3 %ho can hold his august position s$ilfully3 finds his state in safetyH %ho does not $no% ho% to utilize his august position3 finds his state in danger' For illustration3 in by-gone days it %as the custom in h!in for both ruler and minister to discard state la%s and uphold pri(ate creeds3 %herefore the country %as disorderly3 the army %ea$3 and the so(ereign ignoble' Thereupon -ord Shang persuaded .ll-under-Hea(en of misfortune3 prohibit the strong from e5ploiting the %ea$ and the many from oppressing the fe%3 enable the old and the infirm to die in peace and the young and the orphan to gro% freely3 and see to it that the frontiers be not in(aded3 that ruler and minister be intimate %ith each other3 that father and son support each ..

ll-under-Hea(en those %ho understand Tao and Teh are fe%3 then the principles of Fustice %ill generally be disappro(ed' If the upholders of la% and tact3 being located in an unrighteous position3 accorded slanders by e(erybody3 and addicted to the %ords of the age3 %ant to face the se(ere Son of Hea(en and see$ safety3 is it not hard for them to hope @D for any successL This is the reason %hy e(ery %ise man to the end of his life ne(er becomes celebrated in the %orld' -ord h!un-sh?n3 @E younger brother of )ing huang of h!u3 had a belo(ed concubine named BM' The son born by his %edded %ife %as named hia' BM first %anted the -ord to desert his la%ful %ife' So she inFured herself' She3 sho%ing @= the inFuries to the -ord3 shed tears and said+ "To be able to become Bour 25cellency*s concubine3 is (ery fortunate3 indeed' Ho%e(er3 to please madame is not the %ay to ser(e the masterH to please the master is not the %ay to ser(e madame' Being un%orthy myself and not able enough to please t%o lords3 thy ser(ant %ill e(entually by force of circumstances displease both' Therefore3 instead of dying at the madame*s place3 I prefer to be allo%ed to $ill myself in front of Bour 25cellency' .other3 and that there be no %orry about being $illed in %ar or ta$en prisoner' Such is one of the greatest achie(ements' Bet the stupid men do not understand it and condemn it as misgo(ernment' &f course3 the stupid men %ant order but disli$e the true path to order' @9 They all hate danger but %elcome the %ay to danger' Ho% do I $no% thisL Indeed3 se(ere penalty and hea(y con(iction are hated by the people3 but by them the state is go(erned' Mercy and pity on the hundred surnames and mitigation of penalty and punishment are %elcomed by the people3 but by them the state is endangered' The sage %ho ma$es la%s in @@ the state is al%ays acting contrary to the pre(ailing opinions of the age3 but is in accord %ith Tao and Teh' @A #ho understands Tao and Teh3 %ill agree %ith the principles of Fustice but disagree %ith the commonplaces of the %orld' #ho does not understand Tao and Teh3 %ill disagree %ith the principles of Fustice but agree %ith the commonplaces of the %orld' If throughout .fter @I allo%ing thy ser(ant to $ill herself3 if Bour 25cellency fa(ours anybody else among the maid attendants3 %ill Bour 25cellency be more considerate than no% and ne(er become a laughingstoc$ of peopleL" The -ord3 accordingly3 too$ the falsehood of his concubine BM as true3 and deserted his la%ful %ife' BM ne5t %anted to $ill hia and ma$e her o%n son the heir apparent instead' So she tore the lining of her o%n petticoat' Sho%ing the torn clothes to the -ord3 she shed tears and said+ "It is a long time since BM became able to enFoy Bour 25cellency*s fa(our3 %hich hia has $no%n of course' Cust a %hile ago3 he thought of ta$ing liberties %ith BM by force' BM struggled %ith him3 till he tore her clothes' 7o other impious act committed by a son could be %orse than thisG" 2nraged thereby3 the -ord $illed hia' Thus3 the %ife %as deserted because of the falsehood of the concubine BM and the son %as $illed because of the same' From this I can see that e(en the father*s lo(e of the son can be demolished and damaged' 7o% that the mutual relationship of ruler and minister does not in(ol(e the $inship of father and son and the slanderous %ords of the officials are not so simple as those coming out only from the single mouth of a concubine3 no %onder %orthies and .

ccordingly3 nobody but an intelligent so(ereign can ta$e ad(ice from them' Scholars of the present age in counselling the lord of men do not say3 "Ma$e use of the august and commanding position and thereby harass the %ic$ed and (illainous ministers3" but all say3 "Practise nothing but bene(olence3 righteousness3 fa(our3 and lo(eG" . to the poor and destitute3 men of no merit %ill also be re%ardedH %hen he hesitates to inflict censure and punishment upon culprits3 then ruffians ne(er %ill be suppressed' If men of no merit in the country are re%arded3 the people %ill neither @< face enemies and cut heads off on the battlefield nor %ill they de(ote their strength to farming and %or$ing at home3 but all %ill use articles and money as bribe to ser(e the rich and noble3 accomplish pri(ate (irtues3 and ma$e personal names3 in order that they may thereby get high posts and big bounties' In conse8uence3 %ic$ed and self-see$ing ministers become many and (iolent and outrageous fello%s gain the upper hand' 6nder such circumstances3 %hat but ruin can befall the stateL Indeed3 se(ere penalty is %hat the people fear3 hea(y punishment is %hat the people hate' .ccordingly3 rulers of the present age ha(e praised the names of bene(olent and righteous men but ha(e ne(er e5amined their realities3 so that in serious cases they ha(e ruined their states and lost their li(es and in minor cases they ha(e seen their territories dismembered and their ran$s relegated' Ho% to e5plain thisL Indeed3 to gi(e alms to the poor and destitute is %hat the %orld calls a bene(olent and righteous actH to ta$e pity on the hundred surnames and hesitate to inflict censure and punishment on culprits is %hat the %orld calls an act of fa(our and lo(e' To be sure3 %hen the ruler gi(es alms @.sages are slaughtered and e5ecutedG This %as the (ery reason %hy -ord Shang %as torn to pieces by chariots in h!in and #u h!i %as dismembered in h!u' In general3 ministers3 %hen guilty of crimes3 ne(er %ant to be censured3 but3 %hen of no merit3 all %ant to be honoured and celebrated' Ho%e(er3 the sage3 %hen go(erning the state3 ne(er besto%s re%ards on men of no merit but definitely inflicts censures on culprits' If so3 the characters of the upholders of tact and measure are certainly disgusting to the attendants and %ic$ed ministers' .ccordingly3 the %ise man promulgates %hat they fear in order to forbid the practice of %ic$edness and establishes %hat they hate in order to pre(ent (illainous acts' For this reason the state is safe and no outrage happens' From this I $no% (ery %ell that bene(olence3 righteousness3 lo(e3 and fa(our3 are not %orth adopting %hile se(ere penalty and hea(y punishment can maintain the state in order' #ithout the se(erity of the %hip and the facility of the bridle3 e(en Tsao-fu could not dri(e the horseH %ithout the rule of the compasses and s8uares and the tip of the in$ed string3 e(en #ang 2rh could not dra% s8uares and circlesH and %ithout the position of authority and po%er and the la% of re%ard and punishment3 e(en Bao and Shun could not $eep the state in order' 7o% that rulers of the present age thoughtlessly discard hea(y punishment and se(ere censure and practise lo(e and fa(our3 to realize the achie(ement of the Hegemonic 0uler is also hopeless' Therefore3 the s$ilful so(ereign ma$es re%ards clear and displays ad(antages to encourage the people and ma$e them get re%ards for meritorious ser(ices but no prize for any act of bene(olence and righteousness' He ma$es penalties se(ere and punishments hea(y to restrain the people and ma$e them get censure for criminal .

offences but no pardon by lo(e and grace' Therefore3 men of no merit ne(er long for any re%ard and those guilty of crimes ne(er loo$ for an amnesty' If you ha(e a solid carriage and a good horse3 you can go o(er slopes and cliffs on landH if you embar$ in a safe boat and hold its easy helm in hand3 you can get o(er the hazards of streams and ri(ers on %ater' Similarly3 if you ha(e the measures of la% and tact in your grip and carry hea(y punishment and se(ere censure into effect3 you %ill be able to accomplish the achie(ement of the Hegemonic 0uler' 7o%3 to ha(e la% and tact3 re%ard and punishment3 in go(erning the state3 is the same as to ha(e a solid carriage and a good horse in tra(elling on land and ha(e a fast boat and an easy helm in tra(elling on %ater' #hoe(er has them in his grip %ill e(entually accomplish his purpose' Bi Bin mastered them3 %herefore T!ang became supremeH )uan hung mastered them3 %herefore h!i became hegemonicH and -ord Shang mastered them3 %herefore h!in became a po%erful state' These three men all understood the statecraft of supremacy and hegemony clearly and obser(ed the measures for order and strength closely and %ere ne(er restrained by %orldly and popular sayings' Thus3 meeting the demands of the intelligent so(ereigns of their times3 they emerged from the status of %earers of hemp cloth AJ to the posts of High &fficial and Prime Minister' #hen holding office and go(erning the state3 they actually accomplished the tas$ in honouring their masters and e5tending their territories' Such persons are called "ministers %orthy of respect"' A9 T!ang3 because he got Bi Bin3 rose from one hundred s8uare li of territory to become the Son of Hea(en' .ll-under-Hea(en to them3 AE both declined it and star(ed to death on the Shou-yang Mound' Ministers li$e them3 neither afraid of hea(y censure nor fond of big re%ards3 cannot be prohibited by punishment3 nor can they be encouraged by re%ard' They are called "ministers of no account"' A= They are %hat I ma$e light of and cast aside3 but are %hat rulers of the present age thin$ much of and see$ out' .ll-under-Hea(en and handing do%n his name to posterity' Such ministers are the so-called loyal ministers' A@ Ta$e the case of BM Cang' #hen ministering to 2arl hih3 he could not counsel the lord of men and ma$e him clearly understand the principles of la% and tact3 rule and measure3 so as to a(oid disasters3 nor could he lead and control his masses so as to $eep the state in safety' #hen /iscount Hsiang had $illed 2arl hih3 BM Cang branded AA his face and cut off his nose3 thus destroying his facial features in order to a(enge 2arl hih on /iscount Hsiang' In this %ise3 though he earned the reputation for destroying his features AD and sacrificing his life for the cause of the lord of men3 yet in reality he rendered 2arl hih not e(en such a bit of benefit as the tips of autumn spi$elets' Such a man is %hat I loo$ do%n upon3 %hereas rulers of the present age regard him as loyal and e5alt him' In anti8uity3 there %ere men named Poh-i and Shuch!i' #hen )ing #u offered to transfer .u$e Huan3 because he got )uan hung3 became the first Hegemonic 0uler3 called nine meetings of the feudal lords3 and brought .u$e Hsiao got -ord Shang3 his territory %as e5tended and his army %as strengthened' Therefore3 %hoe(er has loyal ministers3 has no %orry o(er enemy states outside and no an5iety about rebellious ministers inside3 enFoying permanent peace in .ll-underHea(en under one rule' Because .

u$e huang formed a liaison %ith her and fre8uented the house of the Ts!ui lan' &ne day3 %hen .u$e started to run a%ay' #hen he %as going across the mud fence on the north of the compound3 hia hM shot him %ith an arro% and hit his thigh' The .There is a pro(erb saying3 "2(en the leper feels pity for the $ing'" AI It is not a re(erent saying' 7e(ertheless3 since in anti8uity there %as no empty pro(erb3 e(erybody should consider it carefully' It spea$s for A.u$e %ith lances and $illed him' D@ Thereupon his younger brother %as installed on the throne as .utumn Period3 ne(er suffers such miseries as nec$strangling and thigh-shooting3 and3 as compared %ith rulers of recent times3 ne(er suffers such miseries as star(ation to death and sine%-pulling' Thus3 the mental agony and physical pain of the rulers molested and murdered certainly e5ceed those of the leper' From this (ie%point3 though the leper feels pity for the $ing3 there is good reason for it' 'otes 9' ÌÍ產M' The content of this chapter appears not (ery uni8ue' The thought seems to lac$ unity3 too' &nly the (arious paragraphs at the opening and to%ards the end fit %ell into the subFect matter' &n the %hole3 ho%e(er3 the %or$ sho%s no contradiction to the general system of the author*s teachings' #ith #ang Hsien-shen hao Bung-hsien*s edition has Î in place of 產' . such so(ereigns as are liable to molestation or murder' If the lord of men does not ha(e la% and tact to control his ministers3 then though he is still on the green margin of his life and has e5cellent talents3 chief (assals %ill3 as usual3 gain influence3 administer all state affairs at their %ill3 and ma$e all decisions on their o%n authority3 e(erybody %or$ing to his o%n ad(antage' Fearing lest uncles and brothers of the so(ereign or some heroic men should e5ercise the authority of the lord of men to suppress and censure them3 they %ould depose A< %orthy3 full-gro%n rulers and set up young3 %ea$ ones on the throne3 or set aside la%ful heirs DJ and place unla%ful ones in their stead' Hence it is recorded in the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals0 "Prince #ei of h!u %as once on his %ay to (isit the court of h?ng' Before he crossed the state border3 he heard about His MaFesty*s illness and therefore turned home%ard' #hen he %ent in to in8uire after the )ing*s illness3 he strangled His MaFesty to death %ith the ribbons of his hat3 and finally established himself on the throne' D9 The %ife of Ts!ui hu of h!i %as beautiful' .u$e' The .u$e fell do%n upon the ground3 %here Ts!ui Tzŭ*s follo%ers cut the .u$e hing'" .u$e then as$ed permission to $ill himself in the ancestral shrine3 but again Ts!ui Tzŭ %ould not listen to the re8uest' So the .u$e rushed into a room and suggested di(iding the state %ith him3 but Ts!ui Tzŭ %ould not grant the re8uest' The .u$e huang %ent again3 a dependent of Ts!ui Tzŭ3 named hia hM3 led the follo%ers of Ts!ui Tzŭ and attac$ed the .s %itnessed in recent times3 no sooner had -i Tai DA come into po%er in hao3 than he star(ed the Father So(ereign DD for one hundred days till he diedH no sooner had 7ao h!ih come into po%er in h!i3 than he pulled out the sine%s of )ing Min DE and hanged him on the beam of the ancestral shrine %here he died after one night' D= Therefore3 the leper3 despite the boils and s%ellings all o(er his body3 as compared %ith rulers of the Spring and .

@' #ith #ang È belo% ÏÐ should be Ñ' A' For Ò I usually use "measure" and casually "number" or "statistics"' D' #ang Hsien-shen suggested the supply of Ó belo% Ô' E' ÕJ之M' =' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ö belo% G is superfluous' I' #ang regarded × as a mista$e for ‰' .' #ith #ang çÌ者 should be „Ì者' 9<' #ith #ang èé should be éè' @J' êK3 an indigenous e5pression3 %as seemingly replaced by -K after Buddhistic ideas began to influence hinese thought : ide supra& p' EE>' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 者 should be supplied belo% ë' @@' )ao H?ng proposed to supply ? bet%een ì and n' @A' jí here as else%here cannot be rendered as "reason and (irtue" or "morals" or "morality"' Inasmuch as j refers to the natural course of the cosmos and í to the standard of conduct deri(ed from it3 transliteration seems preferable to translation' @D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? î abo(e 不ïð should be belo% it' .' #ith #ang ØÙ abo(e 而ÚG should be abo(e [ÛÜ' <' #ith #ang Ý abo(e Þ is superfluous' 9J' #ith #ang ß should be à' 99' áâ' &ne ch8n is about thirty catties' 9@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the Taoist Thesaurus edition has ’ in place of ‘' 9A' #ith BM BMeh 不Ý不ã` should be 不Ý不"`' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ö should be G' 9E' äå' Such professions as trade and handi%or$' 9=' æØ' Such professions as farming and fighting' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen -過 should be »過' 9.

' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ó abo(e +£ is superfluous' @<' #ith )u 不ô should be ô不' AJ' In ancient hina all commoners3 before they became %hite-haired3 %ere supposed to %ear no sil$ but hemp cloth' Hence %earers of hemp cloth came to mean commoners' A9' õö之M' A@' ÷M' AA' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ø should be ù' AD' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ú should be û' AE' They declined their father*s offer3 but no%here else is mentioned )ing #u*s offer' A=' Rü之M' AI' . $+c+ Three years later3 his eldest son3 hang3 %ho had once been the ro%n Prince3 launched a re(olt against Ho3 then )ing Hui-%?n3 but failed and sought refuge in the Father So(ereign*s detached palace at the Sandy Hill' -i Tai upon his arri(al first $illed the rebellious prince and then loc$ed up the Father So(ereign inside the palace and star(ed him to death' DE' Ha(ing suffered a crushing defeat by the in(ading forces of Ben in @.ccording to the Schemes of the Warrin( States& the passages beginning %ith this sentence and ending %ith the present chapter %ere %ritten by Sun Tzŭ to -ord h!un-sh?n' A. $+c+ DA' He became the 4rand .D $+c+& he as$ed for rescue from h!u' )ing h!ing-hsiang3 accordingly3 appointed 7ao h!ih commander of the reinforcements' 6pon his arri(al at h!i3 7ao h!ih %as appointed Prime Minister by )ing Min' Fearing the Ben in(aders3 ho%e(er3 he betrayed the )ing3 secretly made peace %ith Ben3 and finally murdered the )ing in @.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Œ should be "' A<' #ith -u #?n-shao I prefer ý to 產' DJ' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the Taoist Thesaurus edition and the Schemes of the Warrin( States ha(e Û€þ in place of Ûÿ' D9' E9E $+c+ D@' ED.@E' .ssistant to )ing Hui-%?n of hao in @<.A $+c+ .ifferent from another -ord h!un-sh?n %hose real name %as Huang Hsieh' @=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ñ should be ò' @I' #ith )ao H?ng Ë reads ó' @. $+c+ DD' J父 %as the title )ing #u-ling of hao ga(e himself after his abdication in fa(our of his younger son Ho in @<.

s a rule3 if the state of the lord of men is small but the fiefs of pri(ate families are big3 or if the ruler*s sceptre is insignificant but the ministers are po%erful3 then ruin is possible' @' If the ruler neglects la%s and prohibitions3 indulges in plans and ideas3 disregards the defence %or$s %ithin the boundaries and relies on foreign friendship and support3 then ruin is possible' A' If all officials indulge in studies3 sons of the family are fond of debate3 peddlers and shop$eepers hide money in foreign countries3 and poor people suffer miseries at home3 then ruin is possible' D' If the ruler is fond of palatial decorations3 raised $ios$s3 and emban$ed pools3 is immersed in pleasures of ha(ing chariots3 clothes3 and curios3 and thereby tires out the hundred surnames and e5hausts public %ealth3 then ruin is possible' E' If the ruler belie(es in date-selecting3 @ %orships de(ils and deities3 belie(es in di(ination and lot-casting3 and li$es f?tes and celebrations3 then ruin is possible' =' If the ruler ta$es ad(ice only from ministers of high ran$3 refrains from comparing different opinions and testifying to the truth3 and uses only one man as a channel of information3 then ruin is possible' I' If posts and offices can be sought through influential personages and ran$ and bounties can be obtained by means of bribes3 then ruin is possible' .' If the ruler3 being easy-going3 accomplishes nothing3 being tender-hearted3 lac$ing in decision3 and3 %a(ering bet%een acceptance and reFection3 has no settled opinion3 then ruin is possible' <' If the ruler is greedy3 insatiable3 attracted to profit3 and fond of gain3 then ruin is possible' 9J' If the ruler enFoys inflicting unFust punishment and does not uphold the la%3 li$es debate and persuasion but ne(er sees to their practicability3 and indulges in style and %ordiness but ne(er considers their effect3 then ruin is possible' 99' If the ruler is shallo%-brained and easily penetrated3 re(eals e(erything but conceals nothing3 and cannot $eep any secret but communicates the %ords of one minister to another3 then ruin is possible' 9@' If the ruler is stubborn-minded3 uncompromising3 and apt to dispute e(ery remonstrance and fond of surpassing e(erybody else3 and ne(er thin$s of the %elfare .D=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 宿昔 should be 宿夕' Chapter 20. Portents of 1)in1 9' .

' If the ruler is boastful but ne(er regretful3 ma$es much of himself despite the disorder pre(ailing in his country3 and insults the neighbouring enemies %ithout estimating the resources %ithin the boundaries3 then ruin is possible' 9<' If the state is small but the ruler %ill not ac8uiesce in a humble statusH if his forces are scanty but he ne(er fears strong foesH if he has no manners and insults big neighboursH or if he is greedy and obstinate but uns$ilful in diplomacyH then ruin is possible' @J' If3 after the inauguration of the cro%n prince3 the ruler ta$e in a %oman from a strong enemy state3 the cro%n prince %ill be endangered and the ministers %ill be %orried' Then ruin is possible' @9' If the ruler is timid and %ea$ in self-defence and his mind is paralysed by the signs of future e(entsH or if he $no%s %hat to decide on D but dare not ta$e any drastic measureH then ruin is possible' @@' If the e5iled ruler is abroad but the country sets up a ne% ruler3 or if before the heir apparent ta$en abroad as hostage returns3 the ruler changes his successor3 then the state %ill di(ide' .of the .nd the state di(ided against itself is liable to ruin' @A' If the ruler $eeps near and dear to the chief (assals %hom he has disheartened and disgraced or stands close E by the petty men = %hom he has punished3 then he %ill ma$e them bear anger and feel shame' If he goes on doing this3 rebels are bound to appear' #hen rebels appear3 ruin is possible' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain but stic$s to self-confidence %ithout due consideration3 then ruin is possible' 9A' The ruler %ho relies on friendship and support from distant countries3 ma$es light of his relations %ith close neighbours3 counts on the aid from big po%ers3 and pro(o$es surrounding countries3 is liable to ruin' 9D' If foreign tra(ellers and residents3 %hose property and families are abroad3 ta$e seats in the state council and interfere in ci(il affairs3 then ruin is possible' 9E' If the people ha(e no A confidence in the premier and the inferiors do not obey the superiors %hile the so(ereign lo(es and trusts the premier and cannot depose him3 then ruin is possible' 9=' If the ruler does not ta$e able men of the country into ser(ice but searches after foreign gentlemen3 and if he does not ma$e tests according to meritorious ser(ices but %ould appoint and dismiss officials according to their mere reputations till foreign residents are e5alted and ennobled to surpass his old ac8uaintances3 then ruin is possible' 9I' If the ruler disregards the matter of legitimacy and lets bastards ri(al legitimate sons3 or if the so(ereign dies before he inaugurates the cro%n prince3 then ruin is possible' 9.

nd a panic-stric$en state is liable to ruin' AE' If the ruler conceals his anger3 %hich he %ould ne(er re(eal3 suspends a criminal case3 %hich he ne(er %ould censure3 and thereby ma$es the officials hate him in secret and increases their %orries and fears3 and if he ne(er comes to $no% the situation e(en after a long time3 then ruin is possible' .@D' If chief (assals ri(al each other in po%er and uncles and brothers are many and po%erful3 and if they form Funtas inside and recei(e support from abroad and thereby dispute state affairs and struggle for supreme influence3 then ruin is possible' @E' If %ords of maids and concubines are follo%ed and the %isdom of fa(ourites is used3 and the ruler repeats committing unla%ful acts regardless of the grie(ances and resentments inside and outside the court3 then ruin is possible' @=' If the ruler is contemptuous to chief (assals and impolite to uncles and brothers3 o(er%or$s the hundred surnames3 and slaughters innocent people3 then ruin is possible' @I' If the ruler is fond of t%isting la%s by (irtue of his %isdom3 mi5es public %ith pri(ate I affairs from time to time3 alters la%s and prohibitions at random3 and issues commands and orders fre8uently3 then ruin is possible' @.' If the terrian has no stronghold3 . the city-%alls are in bad repair3 the state has no sa(ings and hoardings3 resources and pro(isions are scarce3 and no preparations are made for defence and attac$3 but the ruler dares to attac$ and in(ade other countries imprudently3 then ruin is possible' @<' If the royal seed is short-li(ed3 ne% so(ereigns succeed to each other continuously3 babies become rulers3 and chief (assals ha(e all the ruling authority to themsel(es and recruit partisans from among foreign residents and maintain inter-state friendship by fre8uently ceding territories3 then ruin is possible' AJ' If the cro%n prince is esteemed and celebrated3 has numerous dependents and protNgNs3 de(elops friendships %ith big po%ers3 and e5ercises his authority and influence from his early years3 then ruin is possible' A9' If the ruler is narro%-minded3 < 8uic$-tempered3 imprudent3 easily affected3 and3 %hen pro(o$ed3 becomes blind %ith rage3 then ruin is possible' A@' If the so(ereign is easily pro(o$ed and fond of resorting to arms and neglects agricultural and military training but (entures %arfare and in(asion heedlessly3 then ruin is possible' AA' If nobles are Fealous of one another3 chief (assals are prosperous3 see$ing support from enemy states and harassing the hundred surnames at home so as to attac$ their %rongdoers3 but the lord of men ne(er censures them3 then ruin is possible' AD' If the ruler is un%orthy but his half-brothers are %orthyH if the heir apparent is po%erless and the bastard surpasses himH or if the magistrates are %ea$ and the people are fierceH then the state %ill be seized %ith a panic' .

A=' If the commander in the front line has too much po%er3 the go(ernor on the frontier has too much nobility3 and if they ha(e the ruling authority to themsel(es3 issue orders at their o%n %ill and do Fust as they %ish %ithout as$ing permission of the ruler3 then ruin is possible' AI' If the 8ueen is adulterous3 the so(ereign*s mother is corrupt3 attendants inside and outside the court intercommunicate3 and male and female ha(e no distinction3 such a rNgime is called "bi-regal"' 9J .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain but obeys the orders of the do%ager 8ueen3 and if he allo%s %omen to administer the state affairs and eunuchs to meddle %ith politics3 then ruin is possible' DD' If %ords are elo8uent but not legal3 the mind is sagacious but not tactful3 the so(ereign is (ersatile but performs his duties not in accordance %ith la%s and regulations3 then ruin is possible' DE' If ne% 9A ministers ad(ance %hen old officials %ithdra%3 the un%orthy meddle %ith politics %hen the (irtuous pass out of the limelight3 and men of no merit are esteemed %hen hard-%or$ing people are disdained3 then the people left behind %ill resent it' If the people left behind resent it3 ruin is possible' D=' If the bounties and allo%ances of uncles and brothers e5ceed their merits3 their badges and uniforms o(erride their grades3 and their residences and pro(isions are too e5tra(agant3 and if the lord of men ne(er restrains them3 then ministers %ill become insatiable' If ministers are insatiable3 then ruin is possible' .ny country ha(ing t%o rulers is liable to ruin' A.' If the 8ueen is humble but the concubine is noble3 the heir apparent is lo% but the bastard is high3 the prime minister is despised but the court usher is esteemed3 then disobedience %ill appear in and out of the court' If disobedience appears in and out of the court3 the state is liable to ruin' A<' If chief (assals are (ery po%erful3 ha(e many strong partisans3 obstruct the so(ereign*s decisions3 and administer all state affairs on their o%n authority3 then ruin is possible' DJ' If (assals of pri(ate families are employed but descendants of military officers 99 are reFected3 9@ men %ho do good to their (illage communities are promoted but those %ho render distinguished ser(ices to their official posts are discarded3 self-see$ing deeds are esteemed but public-spirited %or$s are scorned3 then ruin is possible' D9' If the state treasury is empty but the chief (assals ha(e plenty of money3 nati(e subFects are poor but foreign residents are rich3 farmers and %arriors ha(e hard times but people engaged in secondary professions are benefited3 then ruin is possible' D@' The ruler %ho sees a great ad(antage but does not ad(ance to%ards it3 hears the outset of a calamity but does not pro(ide against it3 thus neglecting preparations for attac$ and defence and stri(ing to embellish himself %ith the practice of bene(olence and righteousness3 is liable to ruin' DA' If the ruler does not practise the filial piety of the lord of men but yearns after the filial piety of the commoner3 does not regard the %elfare of the .

llunder-Hea(en %ill ha(e no difficulty' 'otes 9' m徽' The (arious portents of ruin are enumerated3 but no facts are adduced in illustration of them' The numerical indication of each is mine' @' The ruler %ould as$ the court astrologer to select luc$y dates for inaugurations3 for instance' A' #ith BM BMeh 不 should be supplied abo(e •' D' #ith -u #?n-shao šÓŒ½斷 should be šÓ½斷' E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 逆 should be 近' =' #ith )u N should be 人' I' #ith )u [ should be ç' .' #ith -u #?n-shao R地固 should be 地R固' <' #ith -u and #ang Hsien-shen 5褊 should be 攣褊' 9J' 二J literally means "t%o masters"' 99' 馬府 literally means "horsemen*s mansions"' 9@' I propose the supply of 去 belo% 世' 9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen D should read 新' 9D' 7amely3 t%o %orthy rulers' 9E' 7amely3 t%o %ic$ed rulers' .DI' If the ruler*s sons-in-la% and grandsons li(e behind the same hamlet gate %ith the commoners and beha(e unruly and arrogantly to%ards their neighbours3 then ruin is possible' Thus3 portents of ruin do not imply certainty of ruin but liability to ruin' Indeed3 t%o Baos 9D cannot rule side by side3 nor can t%o hiehs 9E ruin each other' The secrets of rule or ruin lie in the inclination to%ards order or chaos3 strength or %ea$ness' It is true3 the tree brea$s do%n because 9= of (ermin3 the fence gi(es %ay on account 9I of crac$s' Bet3 despite the (ermin3 if no sudden gale blo%s3 the tree %ill not brea$ do%nH despite the crac$s3 if no hea(y rain falls3 the fence does not gi(e %ay' If the so(ereign of ten thousand chariots can e5ercise tact and enforce la% and thereby function as gale and rain to rulers ha(ing portents of ruin3 his anne5ation of .

Three Preca)tions1 The lord of men has three precautions to ta$e' If the three precautions are complete3 the state %ill be safe and he %ill be prosperousH if the three precautions are not complete3 the state %ill fall into danger and his life %ill become precarious' #hat are meant by the "three precautions"L #hene(er ministers memorialize the Throne the faults of the authorities in po%er3 the mista$es of the personnel in charge of state affairs3 and the actual conditions of the officials3 @ if the lord of men3 instead of $eeping the secret3 di(ulges it to courtiers and fa(ourite (assals and thereby ma$es ministers3 %ho %ant to spea$ to the Throne3 please the courtiers and fa(ourite (assals before they submit any instance to the lord of men3 then fran$ and straightfor%ard spea$ers %ill not be able to ha(e an audience of the ruler and loyal and honest men %ill be $ept farther and farther aloof' A If the ruler does not by himself benefit the men he lo(es but %ould benefit them only after the courtiers ha(e praised them3 and if he does not by himself hurt the men he hates but %ould hurt them only after the courtiers ha(e blamed them3 then the lord of men %ill lose his prestige3 and his ruling authority %ill fall into the hands of his attendants' D If the ruler disli$es the toil of go(erning the state by himself and lets the ministers group together and administer state affairs3 and if in so doing he passes his handles and shifts his position E to chief (assals and places the po%er o(er life and property in their hands3 then his prerogati(e %ill be infringed' = These are called "the three precautions unaccomplished"' If the three precautions remain incomplete3 the situation portends molestation and regicide' In general3 there are three $inds of molestation+ Molestation through the formation of Funtas3 I molestation through the dictation of state policies3 . and molestation through the application of penal la%s' < If ministers %ho hold the honour of chief (assals ha(e the $ey to the state go(ernment in their grip for patronizing the officials and ma$e the administration of foreign and home affairs necessarily go through their appro(alH and3 though there are %orthy and upright personages3 if people disobeying them al%ays ha(e bad luc$ and those obeying them al%ays ha(e good luc$H then no official %ould dare to be loyal to the so(ereign and %orry about state %elfare and thereby dispute the ad(antages and disad(antages of the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain' If the lord of men3 ho%e(er %orthy3 cannot de(ise plans by himself3 and if there are ministers %ho dare not be loyal to the so(ereign3 then the state must be doomed to ruin' It is then called "a state %ithout ministers"' Ho%e(er3 a state %ithout ministers does not imply the .9=' #ith )ao H?ng 通 in both cases should be j meaning 由' 9I' #ith )ao H?ng 通 in both cases should be j meaning 由' Chapter 20I.

4)ar+ing Against the Interior1 The difficulty of the lord of men lies in his confidence in men' onfiding in men3 he is restrained by men' .nd suppose the lord of men listens to them and upholds their policies e(en by humiliating himself and neglecting state %elfare' Then3 %hen the policies fail3 the so(ereign has to share the conse8uent disasters %ith themH %hen the policies succeed3 they ta$e all credit to themsel(es' Finally3 if all the go(ernment employees unite their minds and identify their %ords to spea$ of their (irtues3 then though others spea$ of their (ices to the Throne3 the so(ereign ne(er %ill belie(e' Such is called "molestation through the dictation of state policies"' Finally3 in matters of court and Fail administration as %ell as prohibition and punishment3 if ministers ha(e po%ers to themsel(es3 their act as such is called "molestation through the application of penal la%s"' In short3 if the three precautions are not complete3 the three molestations %ill ariseH if the three precautions are complete3 the three molestations %ill stop' If the so(ereign succeeds in stopping and debarring these three molestations3 he %ill attain supremacy' 'otes 9' 三守' @' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien 舉M implies -M' A' The first precaution is against di(ulging secrets' D' The second precaution is against losing prestige' E' #ith )ao H?ng 藉 refers to §位' =' The third precaution is against losing the reins of go(ernment' I' 明Í' I read 明 for © in this chapter' .' ØÍ' <' úÍ' Chapter 20II.gain3 suppose chief (assals distribute pri(ate fa(ours3 ha(e all po%ers to themsel(es3 o(era%e the country by pretending to ha(e influence abroad3 follo% the li$e and hate of the so(ereign %ith his forced interpretation of the signs of fortune and misfortune3 ad(antages and disad(antages' .scarcity of royal guards and the lac$ of ministers in the court' It really means a state %hose ministers hold to their bounties3 nourish their friends3 practise their pri(ate %ays of life3 and ne(er e5ert their spirit of loyalty to the public' Such is called "molestation through the formation of Funtas"' .

Ministers3 in relation to the ruler3 ha(e no $inship3 but3 solely because constrained by force of circumstances3 ser(e him' Therefore3 those %ho minister to a ruler3 al%ays %atch the mental condition of their master %ithout stopping e(en for a momentH %hereas the lord of men remains idle and arrogant o(er them' This is the reason %hy the %orld sees cases of ruler-molestation and regicide' If the lord of men has much confidence in his son3 then %ic$ed ministers %ill utilize his son to accomplish their selfish purposes' For illustration3 -i Tai3 %hile assisting the )ing of hao3 star(ed the Father So(ereign' If the lord of men has much confidence in his spouse3 then %ic$ed ministers %ill utilize his spouse to accomplish their selfish purposes' For illustration3 .ctor Shih3 %hile assisting Princess -i3 @ murdered Sh?n-sh?ng A and placed Hsi-ch!i D in his stead' E Indeed3 e(en the spouse %ho is so near and the son %ho is so dear to the so(ereign are not trust%orthy3 much less can anybody else be trust%orthy' Besides3 %hether he be a ruler of ten thousand chariots or a ruler of one thousand chariots3 the 8ueen3 the concubine3 or the cro%n prince3 e(en though he be the legitimate son3 might hope for his early death' Ho% do I $no% it is soL Indeed3 man and %ife3 ha(ing no $inship bet%een them3 are intimate %hen mutually in lo(e and distant %hen not in lo(e' Hence the saying+ "If the mother is lo(ed3 the son is held in the arms'" If so3 the contrary must run li$e this+ "If the mother is unlo(ed3 the son is cast aside'" Men fifty years old are as fond of %omen as usual3 but %omen only thirty years old are falling off in beauty' If %omen falling off in beauty ha(e to ser(e men still fond of the fair se53 then they %ill be neglected = and their sons %ill doubt if they %ill remain heirs of their fathers' This is the reason %hy 8ueens3 princesses3 and concubines cra(e the death of the rulers' It is only %hen the mother is the 8ueen do%ager and the son is the so(ereign that decrees ne(er fail to pre(ail and prohibitions ne(er fail to function' Then she finds as much pleasure bet%een man and %oman as at the time %hen the late ruler %as still ali(e3 and under no suspicion can she ha(e all the po%ers of the ruler of ten thousand chariots to herself' For such a reason3 poisoning %ith %ine and hanging in secret are practised' Hence it is said in T/ao9wu'sISprin( and %utumn %nnals0 "&f the lords of men3 those %ho died of illness %ere not e(en half of those that died'" If the ruler is ignorant of such a danger3 seeds of disorder %ill multiply' Hence the saying+ "If those %ho %ill profit by the ruler*s death are numerous3 then the lord of men is in danger'" Thus3 #ang -iang li$ed horses3 and )ou-chien3 )ing of BMeh3 li$ed able-bodied men3 merely for dri(ing and fighting purposes' The physician suc$s patients* cuts and holds their blood in his mouth3 not because he is intimate %ith them li$e a blood relation3 but because he e5pects profits from them' -i$e%ise3 %hen the cart%right finishes ma$ing carriages3 he %ants people to be rich and nobleH %hen the carpenter finishes ma$ing coffins3 he %ants people to die early' 7ot that the cart%right is bene(olent and the carpenter is cruel3 but that unless people are noble3 the carriages .

%ill not sell3 and unless people die3 the coffins %ill not be bought' Thus3 the carpenter*s moti(e is not a hatred for anybody but his profits are due to people*s death' For the same reason3 %hen the cli8ue of the 8ueen3 the princess3 the concubine3 or the cro%n prince3 is formed3 they %ant the ruler to die early' For3 unless the ruler die3 their positions %ill not be po%erful' Their moti(e is not a hatred for the ruler3 but their profits are dependent on the ruler*s death' Therefore the lord of men must specially mind those %ho %ill profit by his death' For illustration3 though the sun and the moon are surrounded by haloes3 the causes of their eclipses are inside themsel(es' Similarly3 though the ruler guards against %hat he hates3 the causes of his calamity consist in %hat he lo(es' For this reason3 the intelligent so(ereign . %ould neither carry out any untenable tas$3 < nor eat any inordinate food3 but %ould listen from all round and obser(e e(erybody closely in order thereby to scrutinize the faults of the interior and the e5terior3 9J and reflect on pros and cons so as to $no% the line of demarcation bet%een different factions3 compare the results of testimony3 and thereby hold e(ery utterance responsible for an e8ui(alent fact3 hold the conse8uent in correspondence %ith the antecedent3 go(ern the masses in accordance %ith the la%3 and gather causes of different affairs for comparison and obser(ationH so that nobody shall recei(e any undue re%ard and o(erstep the limits of his duties3 and that e(ery murderer shall be sentenced to proper penalty and no con(ict shall be pardoned' If so3 there %ill be left no room for %ic$ed and (illainous persons to accomplish their self-see$ing purposes' If compulsory labour ser(ice is fre8uent3 the people %ill feel afflictedH if the people are afflicted3 po%erful and influential men %ill appear to the foreH if po%erful and influential men ma$e their appearance3 e5emptions %ill multiplyH and if e5emptions multiply3 the nobles %ill3 by accepting bribes from the people e5empted from labour ser(ice3 become %ealthy' To afflict the people and thereby enrich the nobles and to (acate the august position and let ministers utilize it3 is not a permanent ad(antage to the %orld' Hence the saying+ "If compulsory labour ser(ice is rare3 the people %ill feel safeH if the people are safe3 the ministers %ill gain no e5tra po%erH if the ministers ha(e no e5tra po%er3 po%erful and influential men %ill be e5tinguishedH and if po%erful and influential men disappear3 all credit %ill be due to the so(ereign'" 7o%3 ta$e for illustration the truism that %ater o(erpo%ers fire' Bet3 %hen a tripod$ettle goes bet%een them3 then the %ater %ill be heated and boiled till it dries up o(er the fire %hile the fire can flame %ith (igour and continue burning beneath the %ater' Indeed3 the fact that go(ernment forbids %ic$edness is still clearer than this' Bet3 %hen ministers %ho ought to uphold the la% play the part of the tripod-$ettle by standing bet%een ruler and subFect3 then the la%3 ho%e(er clear in the so(ereign*s mind3 has already lost its reason to forbid %ic$edness' .ccording to the sayings handed do%n from remote anti8uity3 as recorded in the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals& %hoe(er (iolates the la%3 launches an insurrection3 and thereby commits high treason3 comes from among the high and noble ministers' Bet %hat la%s and orders guard against and penalties censure is al%ays among the lo% and humble' That being so3 the people gi(e up all hope of sal(ation and find nobody to petition for relief' The chief (assals form Funtas3 obscure the ruler en $loc& and maintain their intimate relationship in secret but pretend in the open to mutual hatred .

o)th1 The fault of the lord of men is+ .u$e Hsien' D' .fter ha(ing entrusted @ certain ministers %ith the state affairs3 he guards against them %ith ministers not entrusted' His reason for so doing is that the non-entrusted and the entrusted %ill become enemies' ontrary to his e5pectation3 the so(ereign %ill fall under the spell of the non-entrusted' In conse8uence3 the ministers %ith %hom he is no% guarding against the entrusted3 are mostly those %hom he used to guard against' If the lord of men cannot ma$e the la% clear and thereby restrain the po%er of chief (assals3 there %ill be no other %ay to %in confidence from the petty officials' A .u$e Hsien by Princess -i' E' In =EE $+c+ =' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 死 abo(e º疏賤 is superfluous' I' #ith BM BMeh the 3pisodes of Ch/u has 檮兀 in place of !' .ccording to #ang Hsien-shen3 the passage seems to introduce further passages %hich %ere apparently lost' Chapter 20III.' #ith -u #?n-shao the Taoist Thesaurus edition has J in place of 王' <' 不"之Ø literally means "uncompared tas$s"3 and refers to tas$s %hose names and realities cannot be compared %ith each other' 9J' The interior includes the 8ueen3 the princesses3 the consorts3 the heir apparent3 the sons3 the bastards3 and the courtiersH the e5terior3 ministers3 magistrates3 officers3 etc' 99' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the last ele(en characters #´人M之不½$%§p originally formed an annotation and %ere by mista$e interposed into the te5t' .u$e Hsien of hin' A' The heir apparent of . bastard of .in order to pro(e their unselfishness3 and %or$ as the ears and eyes of one another in order to %atch for the so(ereign*s unguarded moments' Thus3 surrounded and deluded3 the lord of men has no %ay to get ne%s from outside and retains the so(ereign*s title but not the reality %hile ministers ha(e all la%s to themsel(es and carry them into effect at their discretion' &f such a ruler the Sons of Hea(en of hou %ere good e5amples' In short3 if the po%er and influence of the Throne is deputed to any minister in particular3 high and lo% %ill displace their postsH %hich amounts to saying that no minister should be allo%ed to utilize the po%er and influence of the ruler' 99 'otes 9' 備內' @' Fa(ourite concubine of . acing the .

If the lord of men casts the la% aside and guards against ministers %ith ministers3 then those %ho lo(e one another %ill associate for %ic$ed purposes and spea$ %ell of one another %hile those %ho hate one another %ill form cli8ues and spea$ ill of one another' #hen blame and praise are crossing each other3 the so(ereign %ill fall into be%ilderment and confusion' Those %ho minister to a ruler3 unless they ha(e good reputations and ma$e fre8uent re8uests3 cannot ad(ance their careersH unless they act contrary to the la% and ta$e all po%ers to themsel(es3 they cannot uplift their prestigeH and3 unless they pretend to loyalty and faithfulness3 they cannot rid themsel(es of prohibitions' These three %ays are means of deluding the so(ereign and destroying the la%' The lord of men3 %hen employing ministers3 should not allo% them3 ho%e(er %ise and able they may be3 to act contrary to the la% and ta$e all po%ers to themsel(esH should not allo% them3 ho%e(er %orthy and (irtuous they may be3 to claim any priority among the men of merit and ta$e precedence of the hard-%or$ing peopleH and should not discard the la% and refrain from restricting them3 ho%e(er loyal and faithful they may be' Such a ruler is called an illustrator of the la%' The lord of men is sometimes tempted to tas$s and sometimes deluded by %ordsH %herefore both tas$s and %ords need due consideration' Ministers %ho imprudently propose tas$s3 usually underestimate the e5penditure and thereby decei(e the so(ereign %ith the proposition' .eluded thereby3 the so(ereign does not carefully consider the tas$s but thin$s much of the ministers' If so3 they %ill in turn restrain the so(ereign %ith the enterprises' Such is called "temptation to tas$s"' D The ruler once tempted to tas$s %ill be harassed by %orries' If the proposition purports a small tas$ but the actual e5penses are enormous3 then3 though meritorious ser(ices are performed3 the proposition is not one of faith' If the ministers %hose propositions are of no faith are found guilty3 and if the tas$s3 though they pro(ide results3 get no re%ard3 E nobody %ould dare to t%ist his %ords to blind the so(ereign' The %ay to be a so(ereign is to ma$e the ministers* pre(ious %ords ne(er de(iate from their subse8uent sayings and the subse8uent ne(er de(iate from the pre(ious and to find them guilty in case of any de(iation3 although the tas$s may ha(e pro(ided results' This is called "s$ilfully employing subordinates"' = The minister3 %hen he de(ises a proFect for his master and fears disappro(al3 %ill ma$e out a case and declare such a %arning as3 "#hoe(er criticizes the proFect of this tas$ is Fealous of the proFector'" Suppose the lord of men3 $eeping it in secret3 ne(er consults any other minister' The rest of the ministers3 frightened by the premonition3 dare not criticize the proFect' If these t%o sets of circumstances I pre(ail3 loyal ministers %ill not be accepted but %ell-reputed ministers %ill be employed e5clusi(ely' Such is called "delusion by %ords"' The ruler once deluded by %ords %ill be restrained by ministers' The right %ay to be the so(ereign is to ma$e all ministers understand the reasons %hy they are blamed for gi(ing opinions and %hy they are blamed for not gi(ing opinions' If they utter %ords that ha(e neither beginning nor ending or an argument that has no proof3 then they are blamed for gi(ing opinions' If they attempt to e(ade .

responsibilities by not gi(ing any opinion so as to maintain their high posts3 then they are blamed for not gi(ing opinions' The lord of men in $eeping ministers in ser(ice ought to $no% the moti(e and purpose .u$e #?n could ha(e become hegemonic' 4enerally spea$ing3 men hesitate to change ancient traditions because they are diffident about affecting the peace of the people' Indeed3 not to change ancient traditions is to inherit the traces of disorderH to accord %ith the mind of the people is to tolerate (illainous deeds' If the people are stupid and ignorant of disorder and the superior is %ea$-spirited and unable to reform traditions and institutions3 it is a failure in the process of go(ernment' The lord of men must be intelligent enough to $no% the true path to order and se(ere enough to carry out his orders %ithout reser(e' Therefore3 though he has to act contrary to the mind of the people3 he should by all means 99 establish an orderly go(ernment' .s a result3 e(en though the outgoing is t%ice as much as the income3 he ne(er notices the harm' Thus in name he gains but in fact he loses' If such is the case3 the achie(ement %ill be little %hile the harm is great' In general3 an achie(ement implies a big income and a small outgoing' &nly in such a case can it be called an achie(ement' 7o% that much %aste incurs no crime and little gain is a merit3 ministers naturally %aste enormous e5penses and perform small merits' .u$e Huan nor . of e(ery spea$er in order to hold his %ords responsible for an e8ui(alent fact3 and as$ the non-spea$ers to decide bet%een the pros and cons of the proposition so as to hold them accountable for the result of the %or$' If so3 nobody %ill dare to gi(e any arbitrary opinions nor to $eep silent' Because both spea$ing and silence e8ually in(ol(e accountabilities' #hen the lord of men %ants to accomplish a tas$3 if he does not understand its beginning and ending so as to clarify the obFect of his desire3 and then if he attempts to accomplish it3 his %or$ %ill gain no ad(antage but %ill incur disad(antage instead' If he understands this principle3 he %ill trust to reason and get rid of a(arice' The accomplishment of e(ery tas$ has its proper course' If its income is estimated to be big and its outgo is estimated to be small3 the proFect is practicable' Such is not the case %ith the deluded so(ereign' For he estimates the income but ne(er estimates the outgoings' .s small merits are performed3 so the so(ereign suffers losses' Those %ho do not $no% the right %ay to political order3 al%ays say3 "7e(er change ancient traditions3 ne(er remo(e e5isting institutions'" hange or no change3 the sage does not mind' For he aims only at the rectification of go(ernment' #hether or not ancient traditions should be changed3 %hether or not e5isting institutions should be remo(ed3 all depends upon the 8uestion %hether or not such traditions and such institutions are still useful for present-day political purposes' If Bi Bin had made no reform on behalf of Bin and T!ai$ung #ang < had made no reform on behalf of hou3 neither T!ang nor #u could become )ing' If )uan hung had made no reform on behalf of h!i and )uo Ben 9J had made no reform on behalf of hin3 neither .

yeing" has ^ in place of 0' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-shen @ should be supplied abo(e 1' 9@' #ith )ao H?ng 2 and 3 in anti8uity %ere interchangeable in meaning' 9A' #ith )ao 4 reads 5' 9D' #ith )ao OOOO should be 6 %hich means 7' 9E' #ith )ao T abo(e ?ë should be 8' .u$e #?n had an official bodyguard' #hen )uan hung began to assume the reins of go(ernment3 .ffairs" by -ord Shang3 %ho had iron spears and hea(y shields around him %hene(er going out to pro(ide against accidents' -i$e%ise3 %hen )uo Ben began to assume the reins of go(ernment3 .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ä should be supplied belo% /' <' -M Shang %as his real name' He %as called T!ai-$ung #ang3 %hich means "grandfather*s hope"3 because he %as found out of obscurity by the 2arl of the #est to fulfil the latter*s grandfather*s hope and prophecy' Henceforth T!ai-$ung #ang became the epithet of -M Shang' 9J' Mo Tzŭ*s %or$ "&n .should be Ø.The basis of this argument is found in the "25ternal and Internal .u$e Huan had an armoured carriage' Thus they all too$ precautions against mobs' For the same reason3 in dealing 9@ %ith stupid and idle people3 if one %orries himself about small e5penses3 then he is forgetting big profits' For instance3 Bin Hu3 bullied 9A and slandered3 %as (ery afraid 9D of e(en small changes and lost his permanent ad(antage in conse8uence' -i$e%ise3 the salesman of Tsou %as not a carrier3 but he %as accustomed to chaotic conditions and chary 9E of li(ing in an orderly %orld' Therefore3 the man of h?ng could not go home' ' ' ' 9= 'otes 9' &'' To face the south means to rule from the throne' #hen seated on the throne according to ancient hinese court eti8uette3 the so(ereign al%ays faces the south : ide supra& p' DJ>' @' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ( belo% ) is superfluous' A' #ith )u the Taoist Thesaurus edition has *M in place of *人' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ?Ø should be supplied belo% +' E' #ith )u ØÓ.者@.不-' =' )ƒ' I' 二§ refer to the facts that the so(ereign ne(er consults any other minister about the proFect and that nobody dares to criticize it' .Ó.

t the outset of the founding of the state3 #ey faced the east for se(eral years and completely con8uered both T!ao and #ei' Then she turned %est%ard for se(eral years to cope %ith h!in and3 as a result3 lost land to h!in' This %as not because such luc$y stars as F?ng-lung3 9J #u-hsing3 99 T!ai-yi3 9@ #ang-hsiang3 9A Sh?-t!i3 9D -iush?n3 9E #u-$ua3 9= T!ien-ho3 9I Bin-ch!iang3 9.ccording to #ang Hsien-shen the last annotation of anon / in hap' 111III contains hiatus from the end of this chapter' Chapter 2I2.gain3 this %as not because h!in*s tortoise-shell %as effecti(e and hao*s tortoise-shell %as decepti(e' .ccording to -u there seem a number of hiatuses and errors bet%een %ords and bet%een sentences' .9=' The te5t of the last paragraph is so corrupt and hardly intelligible that -u #?n-shao ga(e up hope for elucidation' So did Hiraza%a and the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press stopped short of their desire' . Shang-tang in hao' #hen her troops reached -i in Ben3 she had lost si5 cities to h!in' #hen they reached Bang-ch!?ng in Ben3 h!in had ta$en Beh in hao' #hen P!ang BMan turned hao*s army south%ard3 practically all the strongholds of hao had fallen into h!in*s hands' Thy ser(ant3 therefore3 says+ hao*s tortoise-shell3 e(en though not able to foresee the outcome of her campaign in Ben3 should ha(e been able to foretell the (ictory of h!in*s in(asion at hand' h!in3 belie(ing in the great luc$ of the e5pedition3 e5panded her territory in fact and rescued Ben in the good cause' < hao3 belie(ing in the great luc$ of the campaign3 had her soil dismembered and her forces humiliated3 till the so(ereign3 unable to realize his ambition3 passed a%ay' . (n Pretentions an+ Heresies$ A %e&orial1 6t %as hao that3 after boring the tortoise-shell3 counting the bamboo slips3 and finding the omen saying3 "4reat luc$3" attac$ed Ben' @ It %as Ben that3 after boring the tortoise-shell3 counting the bamboo slips3 and finding the omen saying3 "4reat luc$3" attac$ed hao' hM Hsin3 A %hen ser(ing Ben3 rendered no meritorious ser(ice3 till the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain fell into danger' Tsou Ben3 D %hen ser(ing Ben3 rendered no meritorious ser(ice3 till the course of the state policy came to a deadloc$' hao E %as first successful in Ben and later successful in h!i' Though her state once fell into confusion3 yet she al%ays held her prestige high and assumed herself ade8uate to ri(al h!in on an e8ual footing' It %as not because hao*s tortoiseshell %as effecti(e and Ben*s tortoise-shell %as decepti(e' hao once again bored the tortoise-shell3 counted the bamboo slips3 and in(aded Ben in the north %ith a (ie% to resisting h!in by molesting Ben' = The omen said3 "4reat luc$'" 7o sooner had her army marched out I through Ta-liang in #ey than h!in began to in(ade . and Sui-hsing3 9< %ere for so many years @J in the direction of h!in and to the %est of #eyH nor %as it because such unluc$y stars as T!ien-ch!Meh3 @9 Hu-ni3 @@ Hsing-hsing3 @A Bung-hui3 @D and )!uei-t!ai3 @E %ere for so many years @= in the direction of #ey and to the east of h!in' Hence the saying+ "Tortoise-shells3 bamboo slips3 de(ils3 and deities3 are not 8ualified to guarantee (ictoryH nor are the directions of the stars3 %hether right or left3 front or bac$3 8ualified to decide the outcome of %ar'" If so3 to belie(e in them is more stupid than anything else' .

s the la% %as made clear3 loyal subFects %ere encouraged' .In ancient times3 the early $ings e5erted their forces to reno(ate the people and doubled their efforts to clarify the la%' .ll these states3 indeed3 ne(er clarified la%s and prohibitions in order to go(ern their peoples3 but relied on foreign po%ers entirely3 and thereby dro(e their .s punishment %as made definite3 %ic$ed subFects %ere suppressed' It %as h!in %hose loyal subFects %ere encouraged and %ic$ed ones %ere suppressed and %hose territory %as e5panded and so(ereign %as glorified' It %as the states to the east of Mount Hua %hose officials formed factions3 associated for selfish purposes and thereby obscured the right %ay of go(ernment and committed croo$edness in secret3 and %hose territories %ere dismembered and so(ereigns humiliated' That disorderly and %ea$ states go to ruin3 is $no%n to e(erybody' That orderly and strong states attain supremacy has been the beaten trac$ since anti8uity' )ou-chien3 )ing of BMeh3 belie(ed in the Ta-p!?ng Tortoise and %aged a %ar %ith #u3 but did not %in3 till finally he had to surrender himself as (assal and %ent personally to ser(e the )ing of #u' @I 6pon his return3 he thre% a%ay the tortoise3 clarified the la%3 and reno(ated the people3 %ith a (ie% to gi(ing #u his re(enge' In the end Fu-ch!a3 )ing of #u3 %as ta$en capti(e' @. Therefore3 %hoe(er belie(es in de(ils and deities3 neglects the la%' Similarly3 %hoe(er relies on other feudal lords3 endangers his nati(e soil' For instance3 Ts!ao3 relying on h!i3 turned a deaf ear to Sung3 so that %hen h!i attac$ed hing3 Sung destroyed Ts!ao' Hsing3 @< relying on #u3 too$ no ad(ice from h!i3 so that %hen BMeh in(aded #u3 h!i destroyed Hsing' HsM3 relying on hing3 %ould not listen to #ey3 so that %hen hing attac$ed Sung3 #ey destroyed HsM' h?ng3 relying on #ey3 %ould not listen to Han3 so that %hen #ey attac$ed hing3 Han destroyed h?ng' To-day3 Han3 being a small state3 is relying upon big po%ers' Her so(ereign3 paying little attention to the la%3 ta$es e(ery %ord from h!in' The abo(e-mentioned small states3 ha(ing relied upon #ey3 h!i3 hing3 and #u for support3 AJ %ent to ruin one after another' Thus reliance on others is not sufficient to e5tend the nati(e soil' Bet Han ne(er loo$s at these instances' .gain3 %hen hing attac$ed #ey3 she sent her troops to #ey*s allies3 HsM and Ben' A9 #hen h!i attac$ed C?n and Hu and dismembered #ey*s territory3 the combined forces of the allies %ere not e(en sufficient to preser(e h?ng' A@ Bet Han ta$es no notice of these instances' .ltars of the Spirits of -and and 4rain to e5tinction' Thy ser(ant3 therefore3 says+ If measures for political order are clarified3 the state3 though small in size3 %ill become rich' If re%ard and punishment are dignified and of faith3 the people3 though small in number3 %ill become strong' If re%ard and punishment follo% no regulations3 the state3 ho%e(er large in size3 %ill ha(e %ea$ soldiers' For the soil is no longer its territory3 the people no longer its subFects' #ithout territory and people3 e(en Bao and Shun ne(er could reign supreme nor could the three dynasties AA e(er become strong' AD Moreo(er3 %hen the so(ereign gi(es indiscriminately3 ministers ta$e inconsiderately' Those %ho discard legal rules3 praise the early $ings3 and thereby illustrate the achie(ements of the ancients3 are entrusted by the ruler %ith the state affairs' Thy ser(ant3 therefore3 says+ Such an act is to hope for ancient achie(ements and re%ard .

t the time %hen #ey %as clarifying and establishing la%s and upholding mandates A.s soon as the state la%s came to be neglected and the personnel in charge of the state affairs became %ea$3 the state %as dismembered day after day' .rmy' 7o% that the High ommissioner of the .ll-under-Hea(en and her authority pre(ailed among the neighbours on the four sides' .s soon as la%s came to be neglected and re%ards became arbitrary3 the state %as dismembered day after day' Similarly3 at the time %hen hao %as enacting state la%s and training a big army3 she had a large population and a strong army and e5tended her territory into h!i and Ben' .s soon as he entered the tent3 he smelt %ine and turned bac$ right a%ay3 saying+ "In to-day*s battle3 I3 the )ing3 %as %ounded at my eye' The only person I ha(e loo$ed to for help is the High ommissioner of the .u$e -i of hin fought at Ben-ling' The hing troops suffered a defeat' )ing )ung %as %ounded' .rmy is so drun$3 he is certainly ruining the .rmy3 %as thirsty and %anted some drin$' His attendant3 A= Shu Bang-$o3 AI brought a cup of %ine and presented it to him' "4et a%ayG" e5claimed Tzŭ-fan' "It*s %ine'" "7o3" replied Bang-$o' Tzŭ-fan3 accordingly3 too$ it and dran$ it' Habitually fond of %ine3 Tzŭ-fan felt it so delicious that he could not $eep it off his mouth till he became drun$ and lay do%n asleep' Thin$ing of ha(ing another battle3 and fi5ing the stratagems therefor3 )ing )ung sent for Tzŭ-fan3 but Tzŭ-fan ga(e heart-aching as e5cuse for his absence from the conference' Thereupon3 )ing )ung rode in a carriage and %ent to see him' .uring the bloody battle3 Tzŭ-fan3 High ommissioner of the . %ithout fail3 men of merit %ere infallibly re%ardedH men guilty of crimes %ere infallibly censuredH her strength %as sufficient to rectify .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain of the hing State and feeling no concern for the %elfare of my subFects' I3 the )ing3 ha(e no reason to ha(e him %ith me on the battle-field any longer'" So he ceased hostilities and retreated' He then beheaded Tzŭ-fan as an e5piatory punishment for his disgrace of His MaFesty' Hence the saying+ "The presentation of %ine by Shu Bang-$o %as not out of any malice against Tzŭ-fan3 but his mind that really lo(ed him %ith loyalty %as only enough to put him to death'" This is to practise loyalty in small %ays and thereby betray loyalty in big %ays' Hence the saying+ "Small loyalty is the betrayer of big loyalty'" Thus3 if the ruler puts men loyal in small %ays in charge of Fudicial administration3 they %ill pardon criminal offences' To pardon culprits and thereby lo(e them3 is to enFoy temporary peace %ith the inferiors3 %hereas it stands in the %ay of go(erning the people' .gain3 at the time %hen Ben %as upholding the la% and scrutinizing official decisions in detail3 to .modern men %ith ancient re%ards' In conse8uence3 the so(ereign gi(es %rongly3 ministers ta$e idly' If the so(ereign gi(es %rongly3 then ministers %ill e5pect undue re%ardsH if ministers ta$e idly3 meritorious ser(ices %ill not be held in high esteem' If men of no merit recei(e re%ards3 the state e5che8uer %ill run lo% and the people %ill resent it AE H if the state e5che8uer runs lo% and the people resent it3 then nobody %ill apply his strength to his duties' Therefore3 %ho o(er-uses re%ard loses the peopleH %ho o(er-uses penalty cannot hold the people in a%e' If re%ard is not sufficient to encourage3 and penalty is not sufficient to prohibit the people3 then the state3 ho%e(er large in size3 %ill fall into danger' Hence the saying+ "#ho $no%s fe% things3 should not be allo%ed to scheme for enterprisesH %ho practises loyalty in small %ays3 should not be allo%ed to ta$e charge of Fudicial administration'" &nce )ing )ung of hing and .

the east she seized counties from the h!i State and to the south occupied the %hole territory of entral Hills' #hen the upholders of the la% died3 the official decisions became useless3 the attendants disputed %ith each other3 and public opinion had to follo% the lead of the inferiorsH then the army became %ea$3 the soil %as dismembered3 and the state fell under the spell of the surrounding enemies' Hence the saying+ "#ho clarifies the la%3 is strongH %ho neglects the la%3 is %ea$'" The causes of strength and %ea$ness are so (i(id' Bet so(ereigns of this age ne(er attempt to foster the cause of strength' 7o %onder their states are doomed to ruin' There is an ancient pro(erb saying+ "The family that has a definite occupation3 does not ha(e to star(e in time of famineH the state that has definite la%s3 does not go to ruin in case of emergency'" Indeed3 if the ruler discards definite la%s and follo%s pri(ate opinions3 then ministers %ill pretend to %isdom and abilityH if ministers pretend to %isdom and ability3 then la%s and prohibitions %ill not hold good' In other %ords3 %hen arbitrary opinions pre(ail3 the %ay of go(erning the state d%indles' Therefore3 the right %ay to go(ern the state is to remo(e the inFurers of the la%' In that case3 there %ill be neither be%ilderment by pretensions to %isdom and ability nor deception by pretensions to name and fame' &f yore3 Shun ordered officials to drain the 4reat .s the 0uler of Fang-f?ng arri(ed late3 BM beheaded him' From this (ie%point it is clear that if those %ho %ent ahead of orders %ere e5ecuted and those %ho lagged behind orders %ere beheaded3 the ancients must ha(e held conformity to orders in high esteem' For illustration3 if the mirror $eeps clean and has no obstacle3 then the beautiful and the ugly can be comparedH if the balance $eeps right and has no obstacle3 then the light and the hea(y can be %eighed' Indeed3 %hen you sha$e the mirror3 the mirror cannot $eep clearH %hen you sha$e the balance3 the balance cannot $eep e(en' The same is true of the la%' Therefore3 the early $ings too$ Tao as the constant standard3 and the la% as the basis of go(ernment' For3 if the basis is orderly3 the name is e5altedH if the basis is confused3 the name is e5tinguished' In general3 %isdom3 ability3 cle(erness3 and erudition3 if properly employed3 ta$e effectH other%ise3 all come to nought' Therefore3 though %isdom and ability are e5erted3 A< if the e5ertion is not proper3 the right %ay of go(ernment cannot be communicated to people' Indeed3 the true path and the la% are absolutely reliable3 %isdom and ability are liable to errors' Similarly3 to hang up the balance and $no% the plane3 and to turn round the compasses and $no% the circle3 is an absolutely reliable %ay' The intelligent so(ereign ma$es the people conform to the la% DJ and thereby $no%s D9 the true pathH %herefore %ith ease he har(ests meritorious results' To discard the compasses and trust to s$ilfulness3 and to discard the la% and trust to %isdom3 leads to be%ilderment and confusion' The (iolent so(ereign lets the people pretend to %isdom but does not $no% the true pathH %herefore in spite of his toil he gets no credit' If the so(ereign discards la%s and prohibitions and imprudently grants re8uests and audiences3 then ministers %ill obtain posts from the so(ereign for sale and accept pay D@ from their inferiors' For this reason3 profits go to pri(ate families and authority rests %ith ministers' In conse8uence3 the people ha(e no mind to e5ert their strength to ser(e the so(ereign but merely stri(e to de(elop friendships %ith their superiors' If the .eluge' &ne official set himself to %or$ before the order came3 and accomplished merit' Ho%e(er3 Shun e5ecuted him' &nce BM recei(ed the feudal lords in audience in the (icinity of )uei-chi' .

Those %ho condemn the la% as %rong3 regard heretic creeds as %ise and establish their o%n standards of conduct beyond the boundary of the la%' D< To suppress such croo$s3 is the duty of the so(ereign' EJ It is the duty of the so(ereign E9 to ma$e clear the distinction bet%een public and pri(ate interests3 enact la%s and statutes openly3 and forbid pri(ate fa(ours' Indeed3 to enforce %hate(er is ordered and stop %hate(er is prohibited3 is the public Fustice of the lord of men' To practise personal faith to friends3 and not to be encouraged by any re%ard nor to be discouraged by any punishment3 is the pri(ate righteousness of ministers' #here(er pri(ate righteousness pre(ails3 there is disorderH %here(er public Fustice obtains3 there is order' Hence the necessity of distinction bet%een public and pri(ate interests' 2(ery minister cherishes both selfish moti(e and public Fustice' To refine his personality3 impro(e his integrity3 practise public creeds3 and beha(e unselfish in office3 E@ is the public Fustice of the minister' To corrupt his conduct3 follo% his desires3 secure his personal interests3 and benefit his o%n family3 is the selfish moti(e of the minister' If the intelligent so(ereign is on the Throne3 e(ery minister %ill discard his selfish moti(e and practise public Fustice' If the (iolent so(ereign is on the Throne3 e(ery minister %ill cast public Fustice aside and act on his selfish moti(e' Thus3 ruler and minister ha(e different frames of mind' The ruler $eeps the minister in ser(ice %ith a calculating mind' So does the minister %ith a calculating mind ser(e the ruler' .people are fond of de(eloping friendships %ith their superiors3 then goods and cash %ill flo% up%ards and proficient spea$ers %ill be ta$en into ser(ice' Should that be the case3 men of merit %ould decrease3 %ic$ed ministers %ould ad(ance3 and talented ministers %ould %ithdra%3 till the so(ereign falls into be%ilderment and does not $no% %hat to do3 and the masses floc$ together but do not $no% %hom to obey' This is the fault of discarding la%s and prohibitions3 lea(ing merits and ser(ices behind3 e5alting names and reputations3 and granting re8uests and audiences' The la%-brea$ers3 on the %hole3 al%ays set fabrications and ma$e e5cuses in order thereby to see$ DA intimate contact %ith the so(ereign3 and %ould also spea$ about e(ents of rare occurrence in the %orld' This is the reason %hy the outrageous rulers and (iolent so(ereigns are be%ildered3 and %hy able ministers and %orthy counsellors are (iolated' For instance3 ministers %ho praise Bi Bin and )uan hung for their rendering meritorious ser(ices and their being ta$en into ser(ice3 DD %ill ha(e sufficient reason to act against the la% and pretend to %isdomH those %ho praise Pi$an and Tzŭ-hsM for their being loyal but $illed3 %ill ha(e sufficient citations to display hasty persuasions DE and forcible remonstrations' Indeed3 if they no% praise %orthy and intelligent rulers such as the masters of Bi Bin and )uan hung and then blame outrageous and (iolent so(ereigns such as the masters of Pi-$an and Tzŭ-hsM3 then their forced analogies are not %orth ta$ing' D= Such men must be suppressed' DI The ruler ma$es la%s so as to establish the standard of right' Bet most ministers of today e5alt their pri(ate %isdom' D.s both ruler and minister are e8ually calculating3 each for himself3 the minister ne(er cares to inFure his body and benefit the state3 nor does the ruler %ant to inFure the state and benefit the minister' By nature the minister %ould regard the inFury of himself as unprofitable' By nature the ruler %ould thin$ the inFury of the state as merciless' In short3 ruler and minister %or$ together3 each %ith a calculating mind' .

' #ith #ang Hsien-shen = and > should replace each other' <' #ith #ang #ei ÓÓ? should read •Ó?' 9J' @A3 the star of the god of thundering' 99' B[3 the constellation ha(ing fi(e stars around a circle' 9@' #C3 the star of a hea(enly god' 9A' 王¤3 the star commanding the motion of #u-hsing' 9D' DE' Both the right and left Sh?-ti stars are located in the constellation of Bootes according to modern astronomers' For this I o%e Mr' h!?n Tsun-)uei' 9E' FG3 stars of si5 gods' 9=' BH3 fi(e stars clustering in a certain constellation' . belo% < is superfluous' =' In @A= $+c+& %hen h!in and Ben %ere allies' I' In @A= $+c+& %hen h!in and Ben %ere allies' .In the face of a crisis3 the minister may sacrifice his life3 e5ert his %isdom3 and apply his strength' He %ould do so only on account of the la%' Therefore3 the early $ings3 in order to encourage ministers3 made re%ards clear3 and3 in order to o(era%e them3 made penalties se(ere' For3 %hen re%ards and penalties %ere clarified3 the people %ould ris$ their li(es in the cause of their nati(e soilH %hen the people %ere resol(ed to ris$ their li(es3 the army %ould become strong and the so(ereign %ould be honoured' #hen re%ard and penalty %ere not clearly enacted3 men of no merit %ould e5pect undue re%ardsH %hen men found guilty %ere pardoned by grace3 the army %ould become %ea$ and the so(ereign %ould become ignoble' Therefore3 the early $ings and their %orthy counsellors applied their strength and e5erted their %isdom to ma$e la%s clear and penalties se(ere' Hence the saying+ "That public and pri(ate interests must be clearly distinguished and la%s and prohibitions must be carefully enacted3 the early $ings already understood'" 'otes 9' 9:' The substance of this %or$ seems to ha(e been an admonitory memorial submitted to the )ing of Han' @' In @D@ $+c+ A' Ben*s general captured by P!ang BMan3 commander of hao*s forces' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? the career of Tsou Ben in Ben is not clear' E' #ith #ang #ei .

' KL3 a star portending %arfare and disturbance' 9<' 歲星3 Cupiter' @J' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ô abo(e Ò年 in both cases is superfluous' @9' IM3 the star of the god of lightning' @@' N逆3 four stars in a certain constellation %hose arc %as said to be irregular' @A' úO3 /enus' @D' PQ3 Mars3 %hich ancient hinese li$e ancient 4ree$s regarded as the god of %ar' Thus it is said in the .ecords has 豎陽穀 in place of 豎穀陽 : ide supra& p' IJ3 n' A>' A.' In DIA $+c+ @<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Å should be ú' AJ' #ith )ao H?ng 8TqÅ"U should be T8qÅ吳"U' A9' V not W' A@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? there are errors and hiatuses in these fe% sentences3 but he proposed no %ay of impro(ement' I ha(e $ept the 2nglish rendering as intelligible and faithful to the original as possible' AA' Hsia3 Bin3 and hou' AD' lear enough3 Han Fei Tzŭ regarded territory3 people3 and so(ereignty as the three basic elements of a state' AE' #ith #ang Hsien-shen X should be Y' A=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen Z abo(e 豎 is superfluous' AI' The Historical .ecords of the Hea ens that the appearance of Bung-hui or planet Mars forecasts serious %arfare3 and that the ruler in %hose direction it appears is bound to incur territorial losses' @E' RS3 the constellation ha(ing si5teen stars resembling a person striding' @=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ô abo(e Ò年 in both cases is superfluous' @I' In D<D $+c+ @.' #ith )u )uang-ts!? [ belo% [\ is superfluous' A<' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien ] means ^' DJ' #ith #ang #ei ìš should be supplied abo(e j' .9I' IJ3 the Mil$y #ay' 9.

' j人Mk1=ç™' D<' Ëì"Ô者i˜:Ë™i過ì1™' #ith )ao H?ng the last character ™ should be ç' EJ' .˜者ihJ之jp' E9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? h abo(e J is superfluous' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Û abo(e (l is superfluous' Chapter 22.D9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? š should precede j' D@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen .' DE' I propose the supply of 說 belo% f' D=' That is to say3 because great men li$e Bi Bin and )uan hung do not appear in e(ery age and because remonstrants are not al%ays as loyal as Pi-$an and Tzŭ-hsM3 it is improper for such ministers to compare themsel(es to Bi Bin and )uan hung or to Pi-$an and Tzŭ-hsM' If they do compare themsel(es to such great and loyal personages3 they only pretend to %orthiness and loyalty' DI' Hiraza%a and the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press for g˜者hii之1ìË"˜p misread g˜者i hi之1ìË"˜p' D.˜者hiJ之jp' For this the Capanese editors misread . Co&&entaries on Lao T5-#s Teachings1 Chapter <<<2666+ .i(hteousness .iscourse on 2irtue Superior irtue is un irtue+ Therefore it has irtue+ 6nferior irtue ne er loses si(ht of irtue+ Therefore it has no irtue+ Superior irtue is non9assertion and without pretension+ 6nferior irtue asserts and makes pretensions+ Superior $ene olence acts $ut makes no pretensions+ Superior ri(hteousness acts and makes pretensions+ Superior propriety acts and when no one responds to it& it stretches its arm and enforces its rules+ Thus one lea es Tao and then Teh appears+ 5ne lea es 2irtue and then 'ene olence appears+ 5ne lea es 'ene olence and then .should read _' DA' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ` should be Ú' DD' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 而ºU should be supplied belo% —人Mabcde之.

nything right .i(hteousness and then )ropriety appears+ The rules of )ropriety are the sem$lance of loyalty and faith& and the $e(innin( of disorder+ Foreknowled(e is the flower of Tao& $ut of i(norance the $e(innin(+ Therefore a (reat sportsman a$ides $y the solid and dwells not in the superficial+ He a$ides in the fruit and dwells not in the flower+ Therefore he discards the latter and chooses the former+ 2irtue is internal' .c8uirement is e5ternal' "Superior (irtue is un(irtue" means that the mind does not indulge in e5ternal things' If the mind does not indulge in e5ternal things3 the personality %ill become perfect' The personality that is perfect is called "ac8uirement"' In other %ords3 ac8uirement is the ac8uirement of the personality' In general3 (irtue begins %ith non-assertion3 de(elops %ith non-%anting3 rests secure %ith non-thin$ing3 and solidifies %ith non-using' If it acts and %ants3 it becomes restlessH if restless3 it is not perfect' If put into use and thought about3 it does not solidifyH if it does not solidify3 it cannot %or$ successfully' If it is not perfect @ and cannot %or$ successfully3 it %ill become self-asserti(e (irtue' If it becomes selfasserti(e (irtue3 A it is non-(irtue' ontrary to this3 if un(irtue3 it has (irtue' Hence the saying+ "Superior (irtue is un(irtue' Therefore it has (irtue'" The reason %hy men (alue non-assertion and nonthin$ing as emptiness is that by remaining empty one*s %ill is ruled by nothing' /erily3 tactless people purposely regard non-assertion and non-thin$ing as emptiness' To be sure3 those %ho purposely regard non-assertion and non-thin$ing as emptiness3 ne(er forget emptiness in their minds' They are thus ruled by the %ill to emptiness' By "emptiness" is meant the status of the %ill not ruled by anything' D To be ruled by the pursuit of emptiness is ipso facto not emptiness' #hen he %ho rests empty does not assert3 he does not regard non-assertion as ha(ing a constant %ay' If he does not regard non-assertion as ha(ing a constant %ay3 he is then empty' If he is empty3 his (irtue flourishes' The (irtue that flourishes is called "superior (irtue"' Hence the saying+ "Superior (irtue is nonassertion and %ithout pretension'" E By "bene(olence" is meant the lo(e of men in a pleasant mood in one*s innermost heart' It is to reFoice in the good luc$ of others and to lament on their bad luc$' It is born of the sense of sheer necessity3 but not of the %ant of re%ard' Hence the saying+ "Superior bene(olence acts but ma$es no pretensions'" "0ighteousness" co(ers the manners = of ruler and minister3 superior and inferior3 the distinction bet%een father and son3 high and lo%3 the contact bet%een intimate ac8uaintances3 bet%een friends3 and the difference bet%een the close and the distant3 the internal and the e5ternal' The minister ought to ser(e the ruler arightH the inferior ought to comfort the superior aright' The son ought to ser(e the father arightH the lo% ought to respect the high aright' Intimate ac8uaintances and good friends ought to help each other aright' The close ought to be ta$en in %hile the distant ought to be $ept off' In short3 "righteousness" implies %hate(er is done aright' .appears+ 5ne lea es .

ought to be done aright' Hence the saying+ "Superior righteousness acts and ma$es pretensions'" "Propriety" refers to the mode in %hich one*s feelings are e5pressed' It is concerned %ith the cultural embellishments of all righteous acts3 such as the mutual relations of ruler and minister3 father and son' It is the %ay %hereby high and lo%3 %orthy and un%orthy3 are differentiated' For instance3 %hen one pines after someone else but cannot ma$e himself understood3 he runs fast to%ards the person and bo%s lo% in front of him so as to e5press his attachment to that person' Similarly3 %hen one lo(es someone from one*s innermost heart and cannot ma$e himself $no%n3 he uses pleasing %ords and beautiful phrases to con(ince the person lo(ed' Thus3 propriety is the outer embellishment %hereby the inner heart is understood' Hence I "propriety" refers to the mode in %hich one*s feelings are e5pressed' In general3 %hen a man responds to e5ternal things3 he does not $no% that the response re(eals the propriety of his personality' The masses of the people practise propriety only to sho% respect for others3 %herefore propriety is no% cordial and again simple' The superior man practises propriety on purpose to culti(ate his personality' Since it is practised on purpose to culti(ate his personality3 it is intrinsic in mind and forms superior propriety' Since superior propriety is intrinsic in mind and popular propriety changes from time to time3 they do not respond to each other' Since they do not respond to each other3 hence the saying+ "Superior propriety acts and no one responds to it'" Though the masses of the people change propriety from time to time3 yet the saintly man is al%ays courteous and respectful3 practising the rules of propriety %hich bind him hand and foot' In so doing he ne(er slac$ens' Hence the saying+ "Superior (irtue stretches its arm and enforces its rules'" Tao accumulatesH accumulation . accomplishes an achie(ementH and Teh is the achie(ement of Tao' .chie(ement solidifiesH solidity shinesH and C?n < is the shining of Teh' Shine has glossH gloss has functionH and Ih 9J is the function of C?n' Function has proprietyH propriety has embellishmentH and -i 99 is the embellishment of Ih' Hence the saying+ "&ne lea(es Tao and then Teh appears' &ne lea(es /irtue and then Bene(olence appears' &ne lea(es Bene(olence and then 0ighteousness appears' &ne lea(es 0ighteousness and then Propriety appears'" 9@ Propriety is the mode e5pressi(e of feelings' 2mbellishment is the decoration of 8ualities' Indeed3 the superior man ta$es the inner feelings but lea(es the outer loo$s3 li$es the inner 8ualities but hates the outer decorations' #ho Fudges inner feelings by outer loo$s3 finds the feelings bad' #ho Fudges inner 8ualities by outer decorations3 finds the inner 8ualities rotten' Ho% can I pro(e thisL The Fade of Pien Ho %as not decorated %ith the fi(e bright colours' The bead of Mar8uis Sui 9A %as not decorated %ith yello% gold' 9D Their 8ualities are so good that nothing is fit to decorate them' /erily3 anything that functions only after being decorated must ha(e poor 8ualities' For this reason3 bet%een father and son propriety is simple and not brilliant' Hence the saying+ "Propriety is superficial semblance only'" In general3 things that do not flourish together are Bin 9E and Bang' 9= Principles that mutually ta$e and gi(e are threat and fa(our' #hat is substantial in reality but simple .

ccordingly3 they sent men out to in(estigate it and found the o5 %as blac$ and its horns %ere %rapped %ith %hite cloth' To be%ilder the minds of the masses %ith the accomplished tact of han Tzŭ is almost as brilliant as any gay flo%er' Hence the saying+ "Fore$no%ledge is the flo%er of 0eason'" Supposing by %ay of trial %e discarded the foresight of han Tzŭ and sent out an ignorant boy less than fi(e feet tall to in(estigate it3 then he %ould $no% the o5 %as blac$ and its horns %ere %rapped %ith %hite cloth3 too' Thus3 %ith the foresight of han Tzŭ3 %ho had afflicted his mind and e5hausted his energy in order to attain it3 %as accomplished this same merit %hich an ignorant boy belo% fi(e feet tall can do' Therefore3 it is said to be "the beginning of ignorance"' Hence the saying+ "Fore$no%ledge is the flo%er of 0eason3 but of ignorance the beginning'" ". To act before affairs ta$e place and mo(e before principles are clear3 is called fore$no%ledge' The fore$no%er ma$es arbitrary guesses %ith no special cause' Ho% can I pro(e thisL &nce upon a time3 han Ho %as seated and his disciples %ere %aiting upon him' #hen an o5 mooed outside the gate3 the disciples said3 "It is a blac$ o5 but %hite is on its forehead'" In response to this3 han Ho said3 "True3 it is a blac$ o5 but the %hite is on its horns'" .in appearance3 is the propriety bet%een father and son' From this (ie%point I can see that %hoe(er obser(es complicated rules of propriety is rotten in his innermost heart' 7e(ertheless3 to obser(e the rules of propriety is to comply %ith the naP(e minds of people' 9I The masses of the people3 %hen obser(ing the rules of propriety3 reFoice imprudently if others respond3 and resent it %ith blame if not' 7o% that the obser(ers of the rules of propriety %ith a (ie% to complying %ith the naP(e minds of people are gi(en the opportunity to blame each other3 ho% can there be no disputeL #here there is dispute3 there is disorder' Hence the saying+ "The rules of propriety are the semblance of loyalty and faith3 and the beginning of disorder'" 9. great sportsman" 9< is so called because his %isdom is great' To "abide by the solid and d%ell @J not in the superficial"3 as is said3 means to act upon inner feelings and realities and lea(e aside outer rules of propriety and appearance' To "abide in the fruit and d%ell @9 not in the flo%er"3 as is said3 means to follo% causes and principles and ma$e no arbitrary guesses' To "discard the latter and choose the former"3 as is said3 means to discard outer manners @@ and arbitrary guesses3 and adapt causes3 principles3 inner feelings3 and realities' @A Hence the saying+ "He discards the former and chooses the latter'" Chapter #2666+ %daptation to Chan(e Whose (o ernment is unostentatious& 7uite unostentatious& his people will $e prosperous& 7uite prosperous+ Whose (o ernment is pryin(& 7uite pryin(& his people will $e needy& 7uite needy+ -isery& alas= is what happiness rests upon+ Happiness& alas= is what misery is hidden in+ 'ut who foresees the catastrophe> 6t will not $e pre ented+ What is ordinary $ecomes a(ain extraordinary+ What is (ood $ecomes a(ain unpropitious+ This $ewilders people& and it happens constantly since times .

s soon as %ealth and nobility come to him3 his clothes and food become good' .immemorial+ Therefore the saintly man is s7uare $ut not sharp& strict $ut not o$noxious& upri(ht $ut not restrainin(& $ri(ht $ut not dazzlin(+ Man encountered by misery feels afraid in mind' If he feels afraid in mind3 his moti(es of conduct %ill become straight' If his moti(es of conduct are straight3 his thin$ing processes %ill become careful' If his thin$ing processes are careful3 he %ill attain principles of affairs' If his moti(es of conduct are straight3 he %ill meet no misery' If he meets no misery3 he %ill li(e a life as decreed by hea(en' If he attains principles of affairs3 he %ill accomplish meritorious %or$s' If he can li(e a life as decreed by hea(en3 his life %ill be perfect and long' If he accomplishes meritorious %or$s3 he %ill be %ealthy and noble' #ho is perfect3 long-li(ed3 %ealthy3 and noble3 is called happy' Thus3 happiness originates in the possession of misery' Hence the saying+ "Misery3 alasG is %hat happiness rests upon" for accomplishing its merit' #hen one has happiness3 %ealth and nobility come to him' .s soon as his clothes and food become good3 an arrogant attitude appears' #hen an arrogant attitude appears3 his conduct %ill become %ic$ed and his action unreasonable' If his conduct is %ic$ed3 he %ill come to an untimely end' If his action is unreasonable3 he %ill accomplish nothing' Indeed3 to meet the disaster of premature death %ithout ma$ing a reputation for achie(ement3 is a great misery' Thus3 misery originates in the possession of happiness' Hence the saying+ "Happiness3 alasG is %hat misery is hidden in'" Indeed3 those %ho administer affairs by follo%ing reason and principle ne(er fail to accomplish tas$s' Those %ho ne(er fail to accomplish tas$s3 can attain the honour and influence of the Son of Hea(en for their best or at least easily secure the re%ards and bounties of ministers and generals' Indeed3 those %ho discard reason and principle and ma$e arbitrary motions3 though they ha(e the honour and influence of the Son of Hea(en and the feudal lords on the one hand and possess ten times @D the %ealth of I Tun and T!ao hu3 %ill e(entually lose their subFects and ruin their financial resources' The masses of the people %ho discard reason imprudently and ma$e arbitrary motions easily3 do not $no% that the cycle of misery and happiness is so great and profound and the %ay is so %ide and long' Hence -ao Tzŭ taught men by saying+ "#ho foresees the catastropheL" 2(erybody %ants %ealth3 nobility3 health3 and longe(ity' Bet none can e(ade the disaster of po(erty3 lo%liness3 death3 or untimely end' To ha(e the %ant in mind for %ealth3 nobility3 health3 and longe(ity3 and meet po(erty3 lo%liness3 death3 or untimely end3 in the long run3 means the inability to reach %hat one %ants to reach' In general3 %ho misses the %ay he see$s and %al$s at random3 is said to be be%ildered' If be%ildered3 he cannot reach the place he %ants to reach' 7o% the masses of the people cannot reach the place they %ant to reach' Hence the saying of "be%ilderment"' That the masses of the people cannot reach the place they %ant to reach3 has been true since the opening of hea(en and earth till the present' Hence the saying+ "The people ha(e been be%ildered from time immemorial'" @E .

ll-under-Hea(en habitually is not the %ay to $eep oneself intact and enFoy a long life' For this reason3 the saintly men follo% the four standards of conduct and e5alt them in solitude' Hence the saying+ "The saintly man is s8uare but not sharp3 strict but not obno5ious3 upright but not restraining3 bright but not dazzling'" Chapter #6<+ The Way to -aintain 5rder in the State@< For (o ernin( the people and o$eyin( hea en nothin( is $etter than fru(ality+ ?ow consider that fru(ality is said to come from early practice+ 'y early practice it is said that we can accumulate an a$undance of irtue+ 6f one accumulates an a$undance of irtue& then there is nothin( that cannot $e o ercome+ 6f nothin( cannot $e o ercome& then no one knows his limit+ 6f no one knows his limit& one can ha e possession of the state+ Who has possession of the state's mother& may last and a$ide+ This is called the possession of deep roots and of a staunch stem+ To lon( life and to e erlastin( acti ity& this is the way+ Sharpness and brightness3 intuition and %isdom3 are endo%ed by hea(en' Motion and repose3 thin$ing and %orry3 are enacted by man' Man by (irtue of natural brightness sees3 by (irtue of natural sharpness hears3 and thin$s and %orries o%ing to natural intelligence' Therefore3 if he sees too much3 his eyes %ill not be bright' If he hears too much3 his ears %ill not be sharp' .By "s8uare" is implied the correspondence of the internal %ith the e5ternal3 the agreement of %ord %ith deed' By "strictness" is implied the determination to die in the cause of fidelity3 to ta$e matters of property and money easy' By "uprightness" is implied the sense of duty to stand by @= the Fust3 the frame of mind to be impartial' By "brightness" is implied the honour of official ran$ and the e5cellence of clothes and fur garments' 7o%3 the upholders of the right %ay of life3 though earnest in mind and adaptable outside3 neither slander the defamed nor debase the fallen' Though determined to die a martyr to fidelity and not be co(etous of money3 they neither insult the fic$le nor put the greedy to shame' Though righteous and impartial3 they neither spurn the %ic$ed nor accuse the selfish' Though their influence is great and their clothes e5cellent3 they neither sho% off before the humble nor loo$ do%n upon the poor' #hat is the cause of thisL #ell3 suppose those %ho ha(e lost the %ay are %illing to listen to able man @I and as$ $no%ers of the %ay' Then they %ill not be be%ildered' 7o%3 the masses of the people %ant successes but meet failures because they %ere born ignorant of reason and principle and are still un%illing to as$ the $no%ers and listen to the able' The masses of the people being thus not %illing to as$ the $no%ers and listen to the able3 if saintly men reproach @. their misery and failure3 they sho% resentment' The masses are many3 the saintly men are fe%' That the fe% cannot pre(ail upon the many3 is natural' 7o%3 to ma$e enemies of .nd if his thin$ing and %orry go beyond the limits3 .

his %isdom and $no%ledge %ill be confused' The eyes3 if not bright3 cannot tell the blac$ from the %hite colour' AJ The ears3 if not sharp3 cannot distinguish bet%een (oiceless and (oiced sounds' .nd %isdom and $no%ledge3 if confused3 cannot discriminate the gaining from the losing game' The eyes unable to tell the blac$ from the %hite colour are said to be blind' The ears unable to distinguish bet%een (oiceless and (oiced sounds are said to be deaf' .fter one*s spirit of peace becomes abundant3 one becomes able to scheme %ell' .nd insane3 one cannot e(ade the calamities of the (iolation of la%s and decrees pre(ailing among his fello% men' A9Therefore3 go(ernment of the people3 as is said in -ao Tzŭ*s te5t3 should suit the degree of motion and repose and sa(e the trouble of thin$ing and %orry' The so-called obedience to hea(en means not to reach the limits of sharpness and brightness nor to e5haust the functions of %isdom and $no%ledge' If anybody (entures such e5tremity and e5haustion3 he %ill ha(e to use too much of his mental energy' If he uses too much of his mental energy3 then disasters from blindness3 deafness3 and insanity %ill befall him' Hence the need of frugality' #ho is frugal3 lo(es his mental energy and sa(es his %isdom and $no%ledge' Hence the saying+ "For go(erning the people and obeying hea(en3 nothing is better than frugality'" The masses of the people3 %hen using their mental energy3 are in a great hurry' If in a great hurry3 they %aste too much of their energy' To %aste too much energy is said to be e5tra(agant' The saintly man3 %hen using his mental energy3 is reposed' 0eposed3 he consumes little energy' To consume a small amount of energy is said to be frugal' Frugality3 called a tact3 originates in reason and principle' The ability to be frugal3 indeed3 is due to obedience to reason and conformity to principle' The masses of the people3 though caught by troubles and o(erta$en by disasters3 are still not a%are of the need of retirement and %ould not follo% reason and principle' The saintly man e(en before he sees the signs of misery and disaster is already humble-minded and follo%s reason and principle' This is said to be early practice' Hence the saying+ "7o% consider that frugality is said to come from early practice'" #ho $no%s ho% to go(ern the people3 thin$s and %orries in repose' #ho $no%s ho% to obey hea(en3 $eeps his sense-organs humble' If one thin$s and %orries in repose3 A@ his old (irtue %ill not go out' If he $eeps his sense-organs humble3 the spirit of peace %ill come in e(ery day' Hence the saying+ ".fter one becomes able to scheme %ell3 one becomes able to control e(erything' If able to control e(erything3 one can easily o(ercome enemies in %arfare' If one can easily o(ercome enemies in %arfare3 his reputation %ill spread all o(er the %orld' Since the reputation spreads all o(er the %orld3 hence the saying+ "There is nothing that cannot be o(ercome'" .ccumulate an abundance of (irtue'" Indeed3 %ho can ma$e the old (irtue not go out and the spirit of peace come in e(ery day3 is a man of early practice' Hence the saying+ "By early practice it is said that %e can accumulate an abundance of (irtue'" .fter one*s mind becomes tran8uil3 one*s spirit of peace becomes abundant' .eaf3 one cannot percei(e the damage caused by thunder' .nd the mind unable to discriminate the gaining from the losing game is said to be insane' Blind3 one cannot escape dangers %hether by day or night' .fter one accumulates (irtue3 one*s mind becomes tran8uil' .

ll-underHea(en' If his reputation spreads all o(er the %orld3 the people %ill obey him' Thus3 %hen going for%ard3 he can anne5 .To find nothing in(ulnerable results from the accumulation of an abundance of (irtue' Hence the saying+ "If one accumulates an abundance of (irtue3 then there is nothing that cannot be o(ercome'" If one can easily o(ercome his enemies in %arfare3 he %ill be able to anne5 .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain in securityH %ho can $eep the safety of the body3 must be able to li(e through the period of life as decreed by hea(en' Such a man can be called able to ha(e possession of the state and $eep the safety of the body' Indeed3 %ho can ha(e possession of his state and $eep the safety of the body3 al%ays holds fast to Tao' If he holds fast to Tao3 his %isdom is deep' If his %isdom is deep3 his comprehension is far and %ide' If his comprehension is far and %ide3 then the masses of the people cannot $no% its limit' It is only by realizing the true path AA that one can pre(ent people from seeing the limits of one*s o%n affairs' #ho can pre(ent people from seeing the limits of his o%n affairs3 can $eep the safety of his body and ha(e possession of his state' Hence the saying+ "If no one $no%s his limit3 AD one can AE ha(e possession of the state'" .eepen the roots'" #ho realizes the true path3 lasts long in the course of life' Hence the saying+ "Staunch the stem'" If the stem is staunched3 the life %ill be long' If the roots are deepened3 the acti(ity %ill last for e(er' Hence the saying+ "To deepen the roots and staunch the stem is the %ay to long life and e(erlasting acti(ity'" Chapter #<+ How to 'e in 5ffice 4o ern a $i( country as you would fry small fish0 @neither (ut nor scale themA+ 6f with Tao %ll9under9Hea en is mana(ed& e en its (hosts will not haunt+ ?ot only will its (hosts not haunt& $ut its (ods will not harm the people+ ?ot only .s to the so-called "possession of the state*s mother"3 the mother is Tao' Tao appears in the craft %hereby the state is possessed' .ll-under-Hea(enH %hen turning bac$%ard3 he finds the people obedient to him' If his tact is profound3 the masses of the people cannot percei(e its beginning and ending' Inasmuch as the people cannot percei(e its beginning and ending3 no one $no%s his limit' Hence the saying+ "If nothing cannot be o(ercome3 then no one $no%s his limit'" In general3 %ho first has the state and then loses it3 and %ho first has the body and then dri(es it to misery3 cannot be called able to ha(e possession of the state and $eep the safety of the body' Indeed3 %ho can ha(e possession of the state3 must be able to $eep the .s one has possession of the craft %hereby the state is possessed3 he is said to ha(e possession of the state*s mother' Indeed3 Tao mo(es along %ith the %orld3 so that it lasts long in building life and abides fore(er in $eeping bounty' Hence the saying+ "#ho has possession of the state*s mother may last and abide'" Trees ha(e both %idespread roots and straight roots' The straight A= root is %hat is called "stem" AI in the te5t' By means of the stem the tree builds up its lifeH by means of the %idespread roots the tree $eeps up its life' 7o%3 (irtue is the means %hereby man builds up his lifeH bounty is the means %hereby man $eeps up his life' #ho establishes himself upon principle3 maintains his bounty long' Hence the saying+ ".

ll-under-Hea(en is managed3 e(en its ghosts %ill not haunt'" The people of an orderly age and ghosts and gods do not harm each other' Hence the saying+ "7ot only %ill its ghosts not haunt3 but its gods %ill not harm the people'" If ghosts fall upon sic$ persons3 DJ it is then said that ghosts harm men' If men dri(e ghosts a%ay3 it is then said that men harm ghosts' If the people (iolate la%s and decrees3 it is then said that the people harm the so(ereign' If the so(ereign punishes and chastises the people3 it is then said that the so(ereign harms the people' If the people do not (iolate the la%3 then the so(ereign does not ha(e to apply any penalty3 either' If the superior does not apply any penalty3 it is then said that the so(ereign does not harm the people' Hence the saying+ "7ot only %ill its gods not harm the people3 D9 but neither %ill its sages harm the people'" The so(ereign and the people do not ruin each other %hile men and ghosts do not harm each other' Hence the saying+ "7either %ill do harm'" If the people dare not (iolate the la%3 then the so(ereign does not ha(e to apply penalties on the one hand nor does he ha(e to %or$ to the ad(antage of his o%n in(estments on the other' If the so(ereign neither has to apply penalties nor has to %or$ to the ad(antage of his o%n in(estments3 the people %ill multiply and prosper' #hen the people are multiplying and prospering3 their sa(ings and hoardings %ill .will its (ods not harm the people& $ut neither will its sa(es harm the people+ Since neither will do harm& therefore their irtues will $e com$ined+ The craftsman3 if he fre8uently changes his %or$3 %ill lose his accomplishment' The %or$man3 if he fre8uently shifts his occupation3 %ill lose his accomplishment3 too' If one man loses half-a-day*s accomplishment e(ery day3 in ten days he %ill lose fi(e men*s accomplishment' If ten thousand men each lose half-a-day*s accomplishment e(ery day3 in ten days they %ill lose fifty thousand men*s accomplishment' If so3 the more numerous those %ho fre8uently change their %or$s are3 the greater losses they %ill incur' -i$e%ise3 if la%s and decrees are altered3 ad(antages and disad(antages %ill become different' If ad(antages and disad(antages are different3 the duties of the people %ill change' hange of duties is said to be change of %or$s' Therefore3 by reasoning I can see that if tas$s are big and many and are fre8uently shifted3 then fe% of them can be accomplishedH that if anybody $eeps a great (essel and mo(es it too often3 it %ill incur many damagesH that if3 %hen frying small fish3 you po$e them around too often3 you %ill ruin the coo$ingH and that if3 %hen go(erning a big country3 you alter la%s and decrees too often3 the people %ill suffer hardships' Therefore3 the ruler %ho follo%s the proper course of go(ernment3 (alues emptiness and tran8uillity and ta$es the alteration of the la% seriously' Hence the saying+ "4o(ern a big country A. as you %ould fry small fish'" People %hen ill hold physicians in esteem3 and3 %hen miserable3 hold ghosts in a%e' #hen the sage is on the throne3 the people %ill ha(e fe%er desires' #hen the people ha(e fe%er desires3 their blood and spirit %ill become orderly and their beha(iour and conduct reasonable' If blood and spirit are orderly A< and beha(iour and conduct reasonable3 there %ill be fe%er disasters' Indeed3 those %ho suffer no trouble of boils and piles inside and incur no misery of punishment and censure outside3 hold ghosts in great contempt' Hence the saying+ "If %ith Tao .

fter all3 horses are of great use to troops3 and "suburb" means "neighbourhood at hand"' Since they ha(e to replenish the army %ith mares D= and .flourish' To ha(e a people %ho multiply and prosper and %hose sa(ings and hoardings flourish3 is called to ha(e possession of (irtue' The so-called cursed person is one %hose soul is gone and %hose mind is perturbed' If his mind is perturbed3 he has no (irtue' If ghosts did not fall upon the man3 his soul %ould not go a%ay' If the soul did not go a%ay3 his mind %ould not be perturbed' To ha(e the mind not perturbed is called to ha(e possession of (irtue' Therefore3 if the so(ereign encourages sa(ings and hoardings and ghosts do not disturb their minds3 then all (irtue %ill go to the people' Hence the saying+ "Since neither %ill do harm3 therefore D@ their (irtues %ill be combined'" This means that the (irtues of high and lo% flourish and in both cases are combined into the %ell-being of the people' Chapter <#26+ -oderation of .ll-under-Hea(en follo%s Tao3 race-horses are reser(ed for hauling dung'" &n the contrary3 if the ruler of men does not uphold Tao3 at home he %ill misgo(ern the people and abroad he %ill offend the neighbouring states' If he misgo(erns the people3 the people %ill lose their propertyH if he offend the neighbouring states3 %arfare %ill fre8uently ta$e place' If the people lose their property3 the cattle %ill decreaseH if %arfare ta$es place fre8uently3 officers and soldiers %ill be e5hausted' If cattle decrease3 %ar horses %ill become fe%H if officers and soldiers are e5hausted3 the army %ill be Feopardized' If %ar horses are fe%3 then e(en mares DE %ill ha(e to appear on the battle-fieldH if the army is Feopardized3 then e(en courtiers %ill ha(e to march to the front line' .esire When %ll9under9Hea en follows Tao& race9horses are reser ed for haulin( dun(+ When %ll9under9Hea en does not follow Tao& war horses are $red in the su$ur$s+ ?o (reater crime than su$mittin( to desire+ ?o (reater misery than not knowin( sufficiency+ ?o (reater fault than a arice+ Therefore& who knows sufficiency's sufficiency is always sufficient+ The ruler %ho upholds Tao incurs no hatred from the neighbouring enemies outside and besto%s beneficence upon the people at home' /erily3 %ho incurs no hatred from the neighbouring enemies3 obser(es the rules of eti8uette DA %hen dealing %ith the feudal lordsH %ho besto%s beneficence upon the people3 emphasizes primary %or$s %hen administering the people*s DD affairs' If he treats the feudal lords according to the rules of eti8uette3 then %arfare %ill rarely ta$e place' If he administers the people*s affairs by emphasizing their primary %or$s3 then indulgence in pleasures and e5tra(agant li(elihood %ill stop' 7o%3 horses in general are greatly useful because they carry armour and %eapons and facilitate indulgence in pleasures and e5tra(agant li(elihood' Ho%e(er3 inasmuch as the ruler %ho upholds the true path rarely employs armour and %eapons and forbids indulgence in pleasures and e5tra(agant li(elihood3 the so(ereign does not ha(e to use horses in %arfare and dri(e them bac$ and forth and the masses of the people ne(er ha(e to employ horses for transporting lu5uries bet%een distant places' #hat they de(ote their strength to3 is farms and fields only' If they de(ote their strength to farms and fields3 they ha(e to haul dung for fertilizing the land and %ater for irrigating it' Hence the saying+ "#hen .

bo(e he does not belong to the hea(ens' Belo% he is not stuc$ to the earth' .s regards submission to desire3 the positi(e $ind %ould lead obedient citizens to (illainy3 the negati(e $ind %ould lead good persons to misery' #hen culprits appear3 the ruler %ill be (iolated and %ea$ened' #hen misery comes3 most people %ill be harmed' Thus3 all sorts of submission to desire either (iolate and %ea$en the ruler or harm the people' To (iolate and %ea$en the ruler and harm the people is3 indeed3 a great crime' Hence the saying+ "7o greater crime than submitting to desire'" Therefore the saintly men are ne(er attracted to the fi(e colours EJ nor do they indulge in musicH the intelligent ruler treats lightly amusement in curios and rids himself of indulgence in beauties' By nature man has neither %ool nor feather' If he %ears no clothes at all3 he cannot resist E9 cold' . to a deadloc$' #hen affairs go straight D< to a deadloc$3 disasters ta$e place' From this (ie%point it is clear that disasters are due to the croo$ed mind3 %hich is in its turn due to submission to desire' .courtiers3 hence the saying+ "#hen .nd the stomach and intestines are %hat he ta$es as roots of his life' 6nless he eat3 he cannot li(e' Therefore he cannot a(oid ha(ing an a(aricious mind' The a(aricious mind3 unless banished3 %ould cause one %orries' Therefore3 the saintly men3 if they ha(e sufficient clothes to resist cold and sufficient food to fill their empty stomachs3 ha(e no %orry at all' The same is not true of the ordinary man' #hether they are feudal lords or only %orth a thousand pieces of gold3 their %orry about %hat they %ant to get is ne(er sha$en off' It is possible for con(icts to recei(e special pardonsH and it happens occasionally that criminals sentenced to death li(e on E@ for some time' Since the %orry of those %ho $no% no sufficiency is life-long and ine(itable3 hence the saying+ "7o greater misery than not $no%ing sufficiency'" Therefore3 if a(arice is intense3 EA it causes %orry' If one %orries3 he falls ill' If he falls ill3 his intelligence declines' If his intelligence declines3 he loses the ability to measure and calculate' If he loses the ability to measure and calculate3 his action becomes absurd' If his action is absurd3 then misery %ill befall him' If misery befalls him3 the illness %ill turn from bad to %orse inside his body' If the illness turns from bad to %orse inside his body3 he feels pain' If misery hangs o(er him from %ithout3 he feels distressed' The pain and distress that ply out and in ED %ould hurt the in(alid seriously' Hurt seriously3 the in(alid retires and finds fault %ith himself' It is due to the a(aricious mind that he retires and finds fault %ith himself' Hence the saying+ "7o greater EE fault than a(arice'" Chapter <62+ )raisin( the -ysterious What we look at and is not seen is named Colourless+ What we listen to and is not heard is named Soundless+ What we (rope for and is not (rasped is named 'odiless+ These three thin(s cannot further $e analysed+ Thus they are com$ined and concei ed as a unity which on its surface is not clear and in its depth not o$scure+ .ll-under-Hea(en does not follo% Tao3 %ar horses are bred in the suburbs'" #hen a man has %ild desires3 his inferences become confused' #hen DI his inferences are confused3 his desire becomes intense' #hen his desire is intense3 the croo$ed mind rules supreme' #hen the croo$ed mind rules supreme3 affairs go straight D.

Fore er and aye it remains unnama$le& and a(ain and a(ain it returns home to non9 existence+ This is called the form of the formless& the ima(e of the ima(eless+ This is called the transcendentally a$struse+ 6n front its $e(innin( is not seen+ 6n the rear its end is not seen+ 'y holdin( fast to the way of the anti7uity control the present+ %nd there$y understand the ori(in of the anti7uity+ This is called the rule of Tao+ Tao is the %ay of e(erything3 the form of e(ery principle' Principles are the lines that complete things' Tao is the cause of the completion of e(erything' Hence the saying+ "It is Tao that rules E= e(erything'" Things ha(e their respecti(e principles and therefore cannot trespass against each other' Inasmuch as things ha(e their respecti(e principles and therefore cannot trespass against each other3 principles EI are determinants of things and e(erything has a uni8ue principle' Inasmuch as e(erything has its uni8ue principle and Tao disciplines the principles of all things3 e(erything has to go through the process of transformation' Inasmuch as e(erything has to go through the process of transformation3 it has no fi5ed frame' Since e(erything has no fi5ed frame3 the course of life and death depends upon Tao3 the %isdom of the myriad $inds conforms to it3 and the rise and fall of the myriad affairs is due to it' Hea(en can be high because of it3 earth can hold e(erything because of it3 the Polar Star can ha(e its maFesty because of it3 the sun and the moon can ma$e constant illumination because of it3 the fi(e constant elements as you might suppose it to be3 its gleam is glittering' Bright as you might suppose it to be3 its body is obscure' By its achie(ement hea(en and earth are formed' By its harmony thundering is transformed' Thus e(erything in the %orld o%es it its formation' By nature the inner reality of Tao is neither restrained nor embodied' It is either soft or %ea$ according as the occasion is3 and is al%ays in correspondence %ith principles' Because of it e(erything dies' Than$s to it e(erything li(es' Because of it e(ery affair fails' Than$s to it e(ery affair succeeds' Tao can be compared to %ater' #ho is dro%ning3 dies as he drin$s too much of it' #ho is thirsty li(es on as he drin$s a proper amount of it' .s they come by the s$eleton of a dead elephant3 they imagine its li(ing according to its features' Therefore it comes to pass that . can $eep their positions constant because of it3 all the stars can $eep their orbits right because of it3 the four seasons can control their di(erse e5pressions because of it3 Hsien-yMan could rule o(er the four directions at his discretion because of it3 Master 0ed Pine E< could li(e =J as long as hea(en and earth because of it3 and sages can compose essays and elaborate institutions because of it' It %as manifested in the %isdom of Bao and Shunm in the rampancy of hieh-yM3 =9 in the destruction of hieh and ho%3 and in the prosperity of T!ang and #u' 7ear as you might suppose it to be3 it tra(els to the four poles of the %orld' Far as you might suppose it to be3 it al%ays abides by the side of e(erybody' .gain3 it can be compared to a s%ord or a spear' =@ If the stupid man uses it for %rea$ing his grudge upon others3 calamities %ill happen' If the saintly man uses it for punishing the outrageous3 good luc$ %ill ensue' Thus3 people die of it3 li(e o%ing to it3 fail because of it3 and succeed on account of it' =A Men rarely see li(ing elephants' .

%hate(er people use for imagining the real is called "image"' =D Though Tao cannot be heard and seen3 the saintly man imagines its real features in the light of its present effects' Hence the saying+ "It is the form of the formless3 the image of the imageless'" =E Chapter 6+ Understandin( Tao The Tao that can $e traced as a way is not the eternal Tao+ The name that can $e defined as a name is not the eternal name+ What has no name is the $e(innin( of hea en and earth+ What has a name is the mother of the myriad thin(s+ Therefore it is said0 *He who desireless is found The spiritual of the world will sound+ 'ut he who $y desire is $ound Sees the mere shell of thin(s around+* These two thin(s are the same in source $ut different in name+ Their sameness is called a mystery+ 6ndeed& it is the mystery of mysteries+ 5f all su$tleties it is the (ate+ In general3 principles are %hat distinguish the s8uare from the round3 the short from the long3 the coarse from the fine3 and the hard from the brittle' .ccordingly3 it is only after principles become definite that things can attain Tao' Thus3 definite principles include those of e5istence and e5tinction3 of life and death3 and of rise and fall' Indeed3 anything that first e5ists and ne5t goes to ruin3 no% li(es and then dies3 and prospers at the beginning and declines after%ard3 cannot be said to be eternal' &nly that %hich begins %ith the creation of hea(en and earth and neither dies nor declines till hea(en and earth disappear can be said to be eternal' #hat is eternal has neither a changing location nor a definite principle == and is not inherent in an eternal place' =I Therefore the eternal cannot be traced as a %ay' The saintly man3 loo$ing at its mysterious emptiness and d%elling upon its uni(ersal course3 forcibly ga(e it the name Tao' &nly thereafter it can be tal$ed about' Hence the saying+ "The Tao that can be traced as a %ay is not the eternal Tao'" Chapter #+ The 3stimation of #ife %ppear in $irth& disappear in death+ There are thirteen dependencies of lifeB there are thirteen dependencies of death+ 5n thirteen a enues men that li e pass into the realm of death+ ?ow& what is the reason> 6t is $ecause they li e life's intensity+ Cea& 6 understand that one who takes (ood care of life& when tra ellin( on land& .

s they depend upon life3 they are said to be "dependencies"' Hence the saying+ "There are thirteen dependencies =< of life'" .ppear in birth3 disappear in death'" The human body is composed of three hundred and si5ty Foints %ith four limbs and nine passages as its important e8uipment' Four limbs plus nine passages are thirteen in number' =. The motion and the repose of all these thirteen depend upon life' .will not fall a prey to the $ison or the ti(er+ When (oin( amon( soldiers& he need not fear arms and weapons+ The $ison finds no place wherein to insert its horns+ The ti(er finds no place wherein to put his claws+ Weapons find no place wherein to thrust their $lades+ What is the reason> 6t is $ecause he does not $elon( to the realm of death+ Man begins in birth and ends in death' To begin is called to appearH to end3 to disappear' Hence the saying+ ".s regards death3 the thirteen e8uipments re(ert to their original status3 and all depend upon death' Therefore3 the dependencies of death are also thirteen' Hence the saying+ "There are thirteen dependencies of lifeH there are thirteen dependencies of death'" &n the %hole3 people %ho li(e by li(ing life*s intensity3 mo(e all the time' #hen motion is e5erted3 they incur losses' If motion does not stop3 losses %ill occur incessantly' If losses occur incessantly3 life %ill come to an end' -ife*s coming to an end is called "death"' That is to say3 the thirteen e8uipments are all a(enues to pass into the realm of death' Hence the saying+ "People mo(e to li(e in the realm of life' But motion includes all a(enues to the realm of death %hich are also thirteen in number'" IJ Therefore3 the saintly man sa(es mental energy and esteems the status of repose' &ther%ise3 conditions %ould become much %orse than the harm of bisons and tigers' True3 bisons and tigers ha(e lairs and their motion and repose come on certain occasions' If you $eep a%ay from their lairs and a(oid the occasions of their acti(ities3 then you %ill be able to e(ade their harm' Ho%e(er3 as people $no% bisons and tigers ha(e horns and cla%s but do not $no% e(erything else has horns and cla%s3 they cannot e(ade the harm of the myriad things' Ho% can this be pro(edL #ell3 %hen seasonal rain is falling in torrents and %ide fields are lonesome and 8uiet3 if you cross mountains and ri(ers at dus$ or at da%n3 the cla%s and horns of %ind and de% %ill harm you' #hen ser(ing the superior3 if you are not loyal or (iolate prohibitions and decrees imprudently3 the cla%s and horns of penal la% %ill harm you' #hen li(ing in the (illage3 if you ta$e no caution but sho% hatred and lo(e at random3 the cla%s and horns of dispute and 8uarrel %ill harm you' If you satiate your appetites %ithout limitation and ne(er regulate your motion and repose3 the cla%s and horns of piles and boils %ill harm you' If you are habitually fond of applying your self-see$ing %isdom and discarding rational principles3 the cla%s and horns of nets and traps %ill harm you' Thus3 %hile bisons and tigers ha(e lairs and the myriad harms ha(e causes3 only if you can $eep a%ay from the lairs and stop the causes3 %ill you be able to e(ade their harms' In general3 %eapons and armour are for pro(iding against harm' #ho clings firmly to life3 though ser(ing in the ran$s3 has no mind of grudge and dispute' #ithout the mind of grudge and dispute3 he finds no place %herein to use the pro(isions against harm' .

s he merges in the course of hea(en and earth3 hence the saying+ "He does not belong to the realm of death'" Inasmuch as he mo(es and does not belong to the realm of death3 he is said to be ta$ing good care of life' Chapter #<266+ The Three Treasures %ll9under9Hea en call me (reatB $ut 6 resem$le the unlikely+ ?ow a man is (reat only $ecause he resem$les the unlikely+ .id he resem$le the likely& how lastin(& indeed& would his mediocrity $e= 6ndeed& 6 ha e three treasures which 6 cherish and treasure+ The first is called compassion+ The second is called fru(ality+ The third is called not darin( to come to the front of %ll9under9Hea en+ The compassionate can $e $ra eB the fru(al can $e ma(nificentB those who dare not come to the front of %ll9under9Hea en can $ecome perfect as chief essels+ ?ow& if people discard compassion and are $ra eB if they discard fru(ality and are ma(nificentB if they discard modesty and are am$itious& they will surely die+ 6ndeed& the compassionate will in attack $e ictorious& and in defence firm+ Hea en when a$out to sa e one will with compassion protect him+ #ho lo(es his child3 is compassionate to the child' #ho clings firmly to life3 is compassionate to himself' #ho (alues successful accomplishment3 is compassionate to tas$s' The compassionate mother3 regarding her infant child3 al%ays stri(es to establish the child*s %ell-being' If she stri(es to establish the child*s %ell-being3 she %ill endea(our to rid the child of calamities' If she endea(ours to rid the child of calamities3 her reflection and consideration become thorough' If her reflection and consideration are thorough3 she %ill attain the principles of affairs' If she attains the principles of affairs3 she %ill certainly accomplish her purposes' If she is certain of accomplishing her purposes3 she %ill not hesitate in her action' To ma$e no hesitation is called "bra(ery"' 7o%3 the saintly man deals %ith the myriad affairs e5actly in the same %ay as the compassionate mother considers the %ell-being of her child' Therefore3 he finds reason for determined action' If he has reason for determined .This not only refers to the troops in the %ilderness' But it is also concerned %ith the saintly man %ho has no mind to harm anybody %hen ma$ing his %ay through the %orld' If he has no mind to harm anybody3 he %ill find no harm from anybody' If he finds no harm from anybody3 he need not guard against anybody' Hence the saying+ "#hen tra(elling on land3 he %ill not fall a prey to the bison or the tiger'" -i$e%ise3 he does not ha(e to depend on the pro(isions against harm %hen %al$ing through the %orld' I9 Hence the saying+ "#hen going among soldiers3 he need not fear I@ arms and %eapons'" Since he can thus $eep a%ay from all $inds of harm3 hence the saying+ "The bison finds no place %herein to insert its horns' The tiger finds no place %herein to put his cla%s' #eapons find no place %herein to thrust their blades'" It is the rational principle of hea(en and earth that man ta$es no precaution against any $ind of harm and ne(er is harmed' .

ll-under-Hea(en leads to the %elfare of li(ing beings' If it is protected %ith compassion3 e(erything %ill be successful' Then it is .action3 he %ill not hesitate in transacting affairs either' Thus3 to ma$e no hesitation is called "bra(ery"H unhesitating action is due to compassion' Hence the saying+ "The compassionate can be bra(e'" The .u$e of hou said+ "If it does not freeze hard in %inter days3 grass and trees %ill not flourish in spring and summer'" Thus3 e(en hea(en and earth can neither al%ays be e5tra(agant nor al%ays be frugal' Ho% much less can man$ind be soL Therefore3 the myriad things must ha(e prosperity and decline3 the myriad affairs must ha(e their rise and fall3 the state must ha(e ci(il and military institutions3 and go(ernment must ha(e re%ard and punishment' For this reason3 if %ise men frugally spend their money3 their families %ill become richH if the saintly man treasures his mind3 his energy %ill become abundantH and if the ruler of men emphasizes the usefulness of his soldiers for military purposes3 his subFects %ill become numerous' If the subFects are numerous3 the state %ill become magnificent' From all these facts there can be inferred the saying+ "The frugal can be magnificent'" In general3 anything that has a form can be easily cut and easily trimmed' Ho% can I pro(e thisL #ell3 if the thing has form3 it has lengthH if it has length3 it has sizeH if it has size3 it has a shapeH if it has a shape3 it has solidityH if it has solidity3 it has %eightH and if it has %eight3 it has colour' 7o%3 length3 size3 shape3 solidity3 %eight3 and colour are called principles' . hea(enly life refers to the right %ay of human nature' I< The true path of .ll-under-Hea(en3 then e(erything %ill be done3 e(ery achie(ement %ill be accomplished3 and his theory %ill pre(ail all o(er the %orld' Then3 e(en though he %ants not to attain to high office in go(ernment3 is it possibleL To attain to high office in go(ernment is called ID to become perfect as chief (essels' IE Hence the saying+ "Those %ho dare not come to the front of . %ill in attac$ be (ictorious3 and in defence firm'" Indeed3 %ho can perfect himself and thoroughly follo% the principles of the myriad things3 %ill e(entually li(e a hea(enly life' .s these are fi5ed3 the thing can be easily cut' Therefore3 if you present discussions first in the go(ernment and dra% your conclusion from them later3 then IA thoughtful and planful personages %ill $no% the right decision to ma$e' -i$e%ise3 supposing you %anted to construct s8uares and circles and follo%ed the compasses and s8uares3 then the accomplishment of any tas$ %ould ta$e its shape' .ll-under-Hea(en'" Thus3 if one dare not come to the front of .s %ith e(erything follo%ing the compasses and s8uares3 thin$ers and spea$ers must inspect and follo% the compasses and s8uares' The saintly man thoroughly follo%s the compasses and s8uares of the myriad things' Hence the saying+ "They dare not come to the front of .ll-underHea(en can become I= perfect as chief (essels'" II #ho is compassionate to his children3 dare not stop gi(ing them clothes and food' #ho is compassionate to himself3 dare not go astray from la%s and regulations' #ho is compassionate to s8uares and circles3 dare not discard the compasses and s8uares' For the same reason3 if one in the face of %arfare is compassionate to the ran$ and file3 he %ill o(ercome his enemies in attac$H if compassionate to %ar implements3 he %ill ma$e the city-%alls hard and firm' Hence the saying+ "The compassionate I.

gain3 those %ho pretend to %isdom and genius .A is the head of all musical instruments' Therefore3 once the BM ta$es the lead3 then follo% bells and harpsH once the BM sounds3 then Foin all other instruments' Similarly3 %here(er great culprits start3 there sing common peopleH %here(er common people sing3 there Foin small burglars' Hence3 to %ear ornaments .@ till they inFure the state3 their o%n families are al%ays rich' Since the pri(ate families are al%ays rich3 hence the saying of "ha(ing a redundance of costly articles"' If there are such croo$s in the state3 then e(en stupid people %ill infallibly follo% the e5ample' If they follo% the bad e5ample3 then small robbers %ill appear' From this (ie%point I can see that %here(er great culprits start3 there follo% small robbersH %hene(er great culprits sing3 then Foin the small robbers' Indeed3 the BM .nd beautiful decorations are part of the heretical %ay' If the palace is splendid3 litigations %ill become numerous' If litigations multiply3 fields %ill run %aste' If the fields run %aste3 treasuries and storehouses %ill become empty' If treasuries and storehouses are empty3 the country %ill become poor' If the country is poor3 the fol$%ays %ill become fri(olous and e5tra(agant' If the fol$%ays are fri(olous and e5tra(agant3 professions for earning clothes and food %ill stop' If professions for earning clothes and food stop3 the people %ill ha(e to pretend to genius and embellish falsehood' If the people pretend to genius and embellish falsehood3 they %ill use ornaments and gay clothes' To use ornaments and gay clothes is called "%earing ornaments and gay clothes"' If litigations are numerous3 granaries and storehouses are empty3 and certain people practise fri(olity and e5tra(agance as fol$%ays3 then the state %ill be inFured as though pierced through by sharp s%ords' Hence the saying of "carrying sharp s%ords"' .called "treasure"' Hence the saying+ "I ha(e three treasures .9 is the heretical %ay' The so-called by-paths are beautiful decorations' .J %hich I cherish and treasure'" Chapter #666+ 4ainin( 6nsi(ht 6f 6 ha e e er so little knowled(e& 6 shall walk in the 4rand Course+ 6t is $ut expansion that 6 must fear+ The 4rand Course is ery plain& $ut people are fond of $y9 paths+ When the palace is ery splendid& the fields are ery weedy and the (ranaries ery empty+ To wear ornaments and (ay clothes& to carry sharp swords& to $e excessi e in drinkin( and eatin(& to ha e a redundance of costly articles& this is the pride of ro$$ers+ Surely& this is non9 Course+ The so-called 4rand ourse in the te5t is the orthodo5 %ay' The so-called hypocrisy .

D of robbers' Chapter #62+ DE Culti atin( the 5$ser in( %$ility *What is well planted is not uprootedB What is well preser ed cannot $e looted=* 'y sons and (randsons the sacrificial cele$rations shall not cease+ Who culti ates it in his person& his irtue is (enuine+ Who culti ates it in his family& his irtue is o erflowin(+ Who culti ates it in his illa(e& his irtue is lastin(+ Who culti ates it in his country& his irtue is a$undant+ Who culti ates it in %ll9under9Hea en& his irtue is uni ersal+ Therefore & 'y one's person one looks at persons+ 'y one's family one looks at families+ 'y one's illa(e one looks at illa(es+ 'y one's country one looks at countries+ 'y one's %ll9under9Hea en one looks at %ll9under9 Hea en+ How do 6 know that %ll9under9Hea en is such> Throu(h 6T+ .and gay clothes3 to carry sharp s%ords3 to be e5cessi(e in drin$ing and eating3 and to ha(e a redundance of costly articles3 this is the BM .

Men3 %hether stupid or intelligent3 either accept or reFect things' If reposed and secure3 they %ould $no% the causes of misfortune and good luc$' 25cited by li$es and disli$es and beguiled by obscene obFects3 they become different and perturbed' The reason for this is that they are attracted to e5ternal things and perturbed by li$es and tastes' In fact3 repose in(ol(es the meaning of accepting li$es and reFecting disli$esH security purports the estimation of misfortune and good luc$' 7o%3 they are changed by li$es and tastes and attracted to e5ternal things' Since they are attracted to e5ternal things and thereby led astray3 hence the saying of "being uprooted"' Such is not the case %ith the saintly man3 ho%e(er' &nce he sets up his principle of acceptance and reFection3 then though he sees things he li$es3 he is ne(er attracted to them' 7ot to be attracted to them is said to "be not uprooted"' &nce he sets up the basis of de(otion3 then though there may be things that he li$es3 his mind is ne(er thereby mo(ed' 7ot to be mo(ed is said to "be not looted"' Sons and grandsons act upon this Tao and thereby maintain the ancestral halls' The indestructibility of the ancestral halls means "the e(erlasting duration of the sacrificial celebrations"' To accumulate energy is (irtue to oneself' To accumulate property is (irtue to one*s family' To tran8uillize the people is (irtue to the (illage3 to the state3 and to ..ll-under-Hea(en3 his (irtue is uni(ersal'" If the self-culti(ator differentiates the superior man from the small man by means of this principle3 and if the s8uire of the (illage3 the go(ernor of the country3 and the ruler of .I his (irtue is abundant'" If the ruler of .ll-under-Hea(en is suchL Through IT .= #ho manages his family affairs3 his decision is ne(er mo(ed by useless things' If this is so3 his resources %ill be o(erflo%ing' Hence the saying+ "#ho culti(ates it in his family3 his (irtue is o(erflo%ing'" If the s8uire of the (illage acts upon this principle3 then homes that ha(e abundance %ill multiply' Hence the saying+ "#ho culti(ates it in his (illage3 his (irtue lasts long and spreads %ide'" If the go(ernor of the country acts upon this principle3 then (illages that ha(e (irtue %ill multiply' Hence the saying+ "#ho culti(ates it in his country3 .< '" 'otes .ll-under-Hea(en3 all follo% this principle in ma$ing a comprehensi(e sur(ey of their respecti(e gains and losses3 there can be no single mista$e in a myriad cases' Hence the saying+ "By one*s person one loo$s at persons' By one*s family one loo$s at families' By one*s (illage one loo$s at (illages' By one*s country one loo$s at countries' By one*s .llunder-Hea(en' Since one refines his personality and e5ternal things cannot perturb his mind3 hence the saying+ "#ho culti(ates it in his person3 his (irtue is genuine'" By "genuineness" is meant "firmness of prudence"' .ll-under-Hea(en' Ho% .ll-under-Hea(en one loo$s at .ll-under-Hea(en acts upon this principle3 then the li(elihood of the people %ill al%ays recei(e his beneficence' Hence the saying+ "#ho culti(ates it in . do I $no% that .

s regards the 2nglish translation of the Tao Teh Chin(& I ha(e largely follo%ed Paul arus' @' #ang Hsien-shen proposed the supply of 不o abo(e R.' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ç belo% w should be p' 9<' xyz is rendered as "a great organizer" by arus' Ho%e(er3 I regard "a great sportsman" as its most appropriate e8ui(alent in 2nglish' @J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 處 abo(e ={ should be (' @9' #ith )u 處 abo(e =| should be (' @@' )u proposed the supply of q abo(e }' @A' #ith )u ~ abo(e •€ is superfluous' .' #ith )u í should be S' <' Bene(olence' 9J' 0ighteousness' 99' Propriety' 9@' #ith -u #?n-shao e(ery X belo% e(ery r should be remo(ed' 9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the 6mperial #i$rary 3dition has s in place of t' 9D' #ith #ang u黃 should be 黃金' 9E' 7egati(ity' 9=' Positi(ity' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien 通人 means v人' 9.9' mn' This chapter contains Han Fei Tzŭ*s interpretations of certain chapters and certain passages 8uoted from -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Teh Chin( or The Canon of .eason and 2irtue+ To understand Han Fei Tzŭ*s academic thoroughness3 it is necessary to read -ao Tzŭ*s %or$s' I ha(e therefore added in Italics before each commentary the te5t of -ao Tzŭ' .' A' #ang Hsien-ch!ien proposed the supply of KÓ abo(e í' D' #ith -u #?n-shao ‹R should be R‹' E' R不" should be RËp in accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t' =' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen Ø should be q' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? B belo% — is superfluous' .

@D' #ang Hsien-shen suspected that •‚ %as a mista$e for 十ƒ' @E' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t p belo% „ and Ë abo(e … should be remo(ed and — belo% † should be 固' @=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? s should be 1' @I' #ith #ang #ei ‡ should be ˆ' @.' #ith #ang € should read ‰' @<' The 2nglish rendering of 守j by Paul arus is "Hold Fast to 0eason"3 %hich is a serious mista$e' AJ' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Š should be ‹' A9' 2(idently3 neither insanity nor ignorance %as recognized as a defence' A@' #ith #ang l should be supplied abo(e —Œ' AA' #ith )u )uang-ts!? •j should be supplied abo(e ˆ' AD' #ith -u #?n-shao Žš=• should not be repeated' AE' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t l abo(e ½Ë should be remo(ed' A=' #ith BM BMeh • should be supplied abo(e ‘' AI' ’ should be “ in accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t' A.' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t 者 belo% ëxn should be remo(ed' A<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ”•ë而 should be supplied abo(e –—Ü' DJ' #ith #ang #ei p abo(e f人 is superfluous' D9' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t Ô=G不˜人 should be supplied abo(e ™人ï不˜N3 and N should be 人' D@' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t l should be —' DA' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ô abo(e Óqš is superfluous' DD' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 人 should be N' DE' #ith )u )uang-ts!? › should be œ' D=' #ith )u › should be œ' DI' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 而 belo% ¶•¡ should be l' .

part from its trun$ and tus$s 6 bears close "resemblance" to ¬ or "pig"' =E' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t R.' They are #ood3 Fire3 2arth3 Metal3 and #ater' E<' Master of 0ain at the time of 2mperor Sh?n-nung' =J' #ith Sun I-Fang © belo% I地 should be ª' =9' .< $+c+ that onfucius passed by him3 %hen he sang a song satirically blaming his not retiring from the %orld : ide Confucian %nalects& B$' 1/III3 h' />' =@' «3 strictly spea$ing3 is a $ind of spear %ith crescent-shaped blade at the side' =A' 7o critic could find out e5actly %hat part of -ao Tzŭ*s te5t on %hich Han Fei Tzŭ had made the commentary in this paragraph' It seems to me3 ho%e(er3 that the te5t of the paragraph contains certain hiatuses' =D' In hinese 6 originally means "elephant" and later comes to mean "resemblance"3 "copy"3 or "image"' .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 者 belo% 三 is superfluous' =<' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t p belo% ° and 者 belo% 三 should be remo(ed' .should be R6' ==' #ith )ao H?ng R®Ü should not be repeated' =I' )ao proposed the supply of ‹ belo% ¯' =.' #ith #ang ž in both cases means Ÿ' D<' #ith #ang ž in both cases means Ÿ' EJ' B‹3 including blue :including green>3 red3 yello%3 blac$3 and %hite3 implies all $inds of painting and dra%ing' E9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen means ¡' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Ó abo(e ¢死 should be abo(e »£¤' EA' Hiraza%a*s edition reads ? for l' ED' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¥¦ should be ô§' EE' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t 憯 should be x' E=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen Ü means ¨' Therefore3 Han Fei Tzŭ seemed to ha(e deri(ed the 8uotation from the last sentence of hapter 1I/ in -ao Tzŭ*s te5t' EI' Hiraza%a*s edition has no 之 belo% Ü' E.D.lias of -u T!ung3 a nati(e of the h!u State3 %ho feigned himself mad to escape being importuned to engage in public ser(ice' It %as about the year D.

9' #ith )ao H?ng } abo(e + is superfluous' .<' 7amely3 the "obser(ing ability"' Chapter 22I.E' #ang*s note has B十三 in place of B十g' I disagree %ith him' .A' .J' 7amely3 frugality3 compassion3 and not daring to come to the front of .ll-under-Hea(en' .ynasty %as -iu Pang3 scholars of this dynasty purposely put kuo :n> in place of pan( :½>3 both ha(ing practically the same meaning' Han Fei Tzŭ*s commentary ha(ing ½ instead of n is correct' .' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has ¾ in place of ¿' . Ill)strations of Lao T5-#s Teachings 1 Chapter <#26+ -oderation of .D' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has ¸ %hich arus translated as "pride"' In place of ¸ Han Fei Tzŭ put ¹' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ¸ con(eys no specific sense in the sentence' .IJ' The %hole saying is not identical in %ording %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t but the same in meaning' I9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ä should be 世' I@' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t 備 should be ±' IA' #ith )ao H?ng 1 belo% l should be z' ID' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien " belo% Œ is superfluous' IE' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t ز should be ³²' I=' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has no " abo(e u' II' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t ز should be ³²' I. $ind of musical instrument consisting of thirty-si5 reed pipes' .=' º meaning "prudence" is composed of » meaning "genuineness" and µ meaning "mind" or "heart"' #ith )ao H?ng º should be ¼' .' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t ? belo% ´ should be Ë' I<' #ith )ao H?ng Kµ should be ¶' .esire@ .s the name of the first emperor of the Han ..@' #ith )ao H?ng — belo% ™ should be ·' .I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen n in -ao Tzŭ*s te5t should be ½' .

o as$ed for the sandy and stony land by the Han 0i(er' .ccordingly3 sacrifices at his family shrine lasted for nine generations unbro$en' Hence the saying+ "#hat is %ell planted is not uprootedH %hat is %ell preser(ed cannot be looted' For by sons and grandsons the sacrificial celebrations shall not cease'" Thus %as the case %ith Sun-shu .nybody3 if able to li(e on3 is fair3 and3 if %ealthy and noble3 is e5cellent' Therefore3 if not self-destructi(e3 the state %ill not go to ruin and the self %ill not be $illed' Hence the saying+ "#ho $no%s sufficiency*s sufficiency E is al%ays = sufficient'" Chapter #62+ F Culti atin( of the 5$ser in( %$ility.o*s fief %as left intact' The reason %hy his fief 9J %as not confiscated %as because the land %as sterile' . )ing huang of h!u3 after %inning the %ar %ith hin3 < held a hunt at Ho-yung' 6pon his return3 he ga(e a re%ard to Sun-shu .ll-under-Hea(en does not follo% Tao3 there is constant %arfare3 and selfdefence against each other lasts for years %ithout stopping3 till the troops cannot return home3 e(en though armour and helmets bring about lice and moths and s%allo%s and sparro%s nest in the tents of the generals' Hence the saying+ "#ar horses are bred in the suburb'" &nce a man of Ti presented to .o' Ho%e(er3 Sun-shu .u$e #?n hea(ed a sigh3 saying3 "Because of the beauty of their s$in3 these animals became the (ictims of a chastisement'" Indeed3 the ruler of a state %ho fell a (ictim to a chastisement because of his popularity3 %as )ing Ben of HsM D H those %ho fell (ictims to chastisements because of their cities and territories3 %ere BM and )uo' Hence the saying+ "7o greater crime than submitting to desire'" 2arl hih3 ha(ing anne5ed the fiefs of Fan and hung-hang3 attac$ed hao incessantly' Mean%hile3 as Han and #ey betrayed him3 his army %as defeated at hin-yang3 he %as $illed to the east of )ao-liang3 his territory %as partitioned3 and his s$ull %as lac8uered and made into a li8uor (essel' Hence the saying+ "7o greater misery than not $no%ing sufficiency'" The 0uler of BM %anted the team of the h!M breed and the Cade from h!ui-chi and too$ no ad(ice from )ung hi.o' Chapter <<26+ The 2irtue of 4ra ity The hea y is of the li(ht the root& and rest is motion's .ll-under-Hea(en follo%s Tao3 there is no emergency3 tran8uillity increases daily3 A and couriers are not employed' Hence the saying+ "0ace-horses are reser(ed for hauling dung'" #hen .h!i' In conse8uence his state %ent to ruin and he himself to death' Hence the saying+ "7o greater fault than a(arice'" .When .ny country3 if able to preser(e itself3 is fair3 and3 if able to attain hegemony3 is e5cellent' .ccording to the -a% of the h!u State3 allotments to feudal nobles should be confiscated after t%o generations3 but only Sunshu .u$e #?n of hin fo5 furs %ith thin haired tails and leopard fur %ith blac$ spots' .ccepting the guest*s presents3 .

ll-under-Hea(en' To lose one*s o%n position 9@ is said to be "light" and to depart from one*s seat is said to be "mo(ing"' Therefore3 the Father So(ereign %as imprisoned ali(e and e(entually put to an end' Hence the saying+ "If he is too light3 he %ill lose his (assals' If he is too restless3 he %ill lose the throne'" This %as the case %ith the Father So(ereign' Chapter <<<26+ The .u$e hien lost it to T!ien h!?ng and the .u$e of hin lost it to the Si5 7obles3 their states %ent to ruin and they %ere put to death' Hence the saying+ "The fish should not escape from the deep'" True3 re%ard and punishment are the state*s sharp tools' If held in the hands of the ruler3 they control the ministers' If held in the hands of the ministers3 they control the ruler' If the ruler sho%s the tool of re%ard3 the ministers %ill minimize it and thereby distribute pri(ate fa(ours' If the ruler sho%s the tool of punishment3 the ministers %ill aggra(ate it and thereby o(era%e the people' Since if the ruler of men sho%s the tool .fter .e elation of Secrets When you are a$out to contract anythin(& you would first expand it+ When you are a$out to weaken anythin(& you would first stren(then it+ When you are a$out to set down anythin(& you would first set it up+ When you are a$out to take& you would (i e+ This is a re elation of the secrets where$y the soft con7uer the hard and the weak the stron(+ %s the fish should not escape from the deep& so should the state's sharp tools not $e shown to any$ody+ The position that is influential is the deep to the ruler of men' #ho rules men3 his position must be more 9A influential than the ministers* position' &nce lost3 it %ould not be reco(ered' .master+ Therefore the superior man99in his daily walk does not depart from (ra ity+ %lthou(h he may ha e ma(nificent si(hts& he calmly sits with li$erated mind+ 'ut how is it when the ruler of ten thousand chariots in his personal conduct is too li(ht for %ll9under9Hea en> 6f he is too li(ht& he will lose his assals+ 6f he is too restless& he will lose the throne+ If the ruler has the reins of go(ernment in his grip3 he is said to be "hea(y"' If the ruler does not depart from his seat3 he is said to be "resting"' If hea(y3 he can control the light' If resting3 he can subdue the mo(ing' Hence the saying+ "The hea(y is of the light the root3 and rest is motion*s master' Therefore the superior man in his daily %or$ does not depart from gra(ity'" The state is the gra(ity of the ruler of men' The Father So(ereign %hile still ali(e alienated the state' In other %ords3 he departed from gra(ity' Therefore3 though he enFoyed himself at Tai and BMn-chung3 he had already slipped the hao State off his grip' Thus3 the Father So(ereign3 ha(ing been a so(ereign of ten thousand chariots3 became in his personal conduct too light for .

of re%ard3 the ministers %ill abuse his position3 and if he sho%s the tool of punishment3 they %ill utilize his authority3 hence the saying+ "The state*s sharp tools should not be sho%n to anybody'" The )ing of BMeh3 after surrendering himself to #u3 9D sho%ed its ruler ho% to in(ade h!i %ith a (ie% to e5hausting its strength' The troops of #u3 ha(ing defeated h!i*s men at the Mug%ort Mound3 e5panded their forces from the hiang and the h!i 9E and displayed their strength at the Bello% Pool' 9= .e7uite hatred with irtue+ Contemplate a difficulty when it is easy+ -ana(e a (reat thin( when it is small+ The most difficult undertakin(s in %ll9under9Hea ennecessarily ori(inate while easy& and the (reatest undertakin(s in %ll9under9Hea en necessarily ori(inate while small+ Therefore& the saintly man to the end does not enture to play the (reat& and thus he can accomplish his (reatness+ .s a result3 it became possible for the )ing of BMeh to rout #u*s men at -a$e Fi(e' 9I Hence the saying+ "#hen you are about to %ea$en anything3 you %ould strengthen it'" #hen . to raid h!ou-yu3 he presented to them grand chariots' Hence the saying+ "#hen you are about to ta$e3 9< you %ould gi(e'" To carry out a plan before it ta$es shape and thereby accomplish a great achie(ement in .u$e Hsien of hin %as about to raid BM3 he presented to them a Fade and a team of horses' #hen 2arl hih %as about 9.ll-under-Hea(en3 is "a re(elation of secrets"' To be small and %ea$ but %illing to $eep humble3 is the %ay "the %ea$ con8uer the strong"' @J Chapter #<666+ Considerin( 'e(innin(s %ssert non9 assertion+ )ractise non9 practice+ Taste the tasteless+ -ake (reat the small+ -ake much the little+ .

fter standing for a %hile3 Pien h!iao said+ "Bour Highness has a disease in the capillary tubes' If not treated no%3 it might go deep'" "I ha(e no disease3" replied Mar8uis @= Huan' .gain Mar8uis Huan made no reply to the ad(ice' Pien h!iao %ent out' Mar8uis Huan %as again displeased' .fter ten more days3 Pien h!iao3 loo$ing at Mar8uis Huan3 turned bac$ and ran a%ay' The Mar8uis sent men out to as$ him' ". di$e ten thousand feet long begins its crumbling %ith holes made by antsH a room one hundred feet s8uare begins its burning %ith spar$s of fire @@ leaping through crac$s of chimneys' For the same reason3 @A Pai )uei on inspecting the di$es bloc$ed up all holesH old man @D on suppressing fire plastered all crac$s' Therefore3 Pai )uei met no disaster of any flood and old man met no fire disaster' Both %ere thus good e5amples of ta$ing precautions against things %hen they are easy in order to a(oid difficulties and paying attention to things %hen they are small in order to pre(ent their greatness' Pien h!iao once had an inter(ie% %ith .ll-under-Hea(en necessarily originate %hile easy3 and the greatest underta$ings in .fter ten more days3 Pien h!iao had another inter(ie% and said+ "The disease of Bour Highness is in the stomach and intestines' If not treated no%3 it %ill go still deeper'" .ash promises surely lack faith& and many easy thin(s surely in ol e in many difficulties+ Therefore& the saintly man re(ards e erythin( as difficult& and thus to the end encounters no difficulties+ #hat has a form3 al%ays begins its greatness from smallness' #hat endures a long time3 al%ays begins its abundance from scarcity' Hence the saying+ "The most difficult underta$ings in .ll-under-Hea(en necessarily originate %hile small'" Therefore3 %ho %ants to control anything3 starts %hen it is small' @9 Hence the saying+ " ontemplate a difficulty %hen it is easy' Manage a great thing %hen it is small'" .u$e Huan of h!i' @E .iseases that are in the capillary tubes3" said Pien h!iao3 "can be reached by hot %ater or flat irons' Those in the flesh and s$in can be reached by metal or stone needles' Those in the stomach and intestines can be reached by %ell-boiled drugs' But after they penetrate the bones and marro%3 the patients are at the mercy of the ommissioner of -ife @I %herefore nothing can be done' 7o% that the disease of His Highness is in his bones and marro%3 thy ser(ant has no more ad(ice to gi(e'" In the course of fi(e more days3 Mar8uis Huan began to feel pain in his body3 and so sent men out to loo$ for Pien h!iao3 %ho3 ho%e(er3 had already gone to the h!in State' Thus ended the life of Mar8uis Huan' ..fter Pien h!iao %ent out3 Mar8uis Huan remar$ed+ "Physicians are fond of treating healthy men so as to display their attainments'" Ten days later3 Pien h!iao again had an inter(ie% and said+ "The disease of Bour Highness is in the flesh and s$in' If not treated no%3 it %ill go still deeper'" To this ad(ice Mar8uis Huan made no reply' Pien h!iao %ent out' Mar8uis Huan %as again displeased' .

gainst the manner Shu han remonstrated %ith him3 saying+ "He is a %orthy prince' May Bour Highness treat him %ith great courtesy and thereby place him under an obligationG" To this counsel the 0uler of h?ng ne(er listened' Therefore Shu han again admonished him3 saying+ "If your Highness does not treat him %ith great courtesy3 the best %ay is to put him to death and let no calamity appear in the future'" .u$e Hsien of hin %ith the Cade from h*ui-chi as present %as going to borro% the %ay through BM3 to attac$ )uo3 High &fficer )ung hi-ch!i admonished the 0uler of BM3 saying+ "The re8uest should not be granted' #hen the lips are gone3 the teeth are cold' BM and )uo ought to rescue each other3 not because they %ant to place each other under any obligation3 but because if hin destroys )uo to-day3 tomorro% BM %ill follo% on its heels to ruin'" The 0uler of BM3 ta$ing no ad(ice from .gain the 0uler AJ of h?ng ne(er listened' . the saintly man begins to attend to things %hen it is early enough' Chapter #<62+ -ind the -inute What is still at rest is easily kept 7uiet+ What has not as yet appeared is easily pre ented+ What is still fee$le is easily $roken+ What is still minute is easily dispersed+ Treat thin(s $efore they come into existence+ .emain careful to the end as in the $e(innin( and you will not fail in your enterprise+ Therefore the saintly man desires to $e desireless& and does not prize articles difficult to o$tain+ He learns to $e not learned& and re erts to what multitudes of people pass $y+ He assists the myriad thin(s in their natural de elopment& $ut he does not enture to interfere+ &f yore3 %hen Prince of hin3 h!ung-erh3 %as li(ing in e5ile3 once he passed through the h?ng @< State' The 0uler of h?ng beha(ed impolitely to him' .e(ulate thin(s $efore disorder $e(ins+ The stout tree has ori(inated from a tiny rootlet+ % tower of nine stories is raised $y heapin( up $ricks of clay+ % thousand li's Gourney $e(ins with a foot+ He that makes mars+ He that (rasps loses+ The saintly man does not makeB therefore he loses not+ The people on undertakin( an enterprise are always near completion& and yet they fail+ .For this reason3 good physicians3 %hen treating diseases3 attac$ them %hen they are still in the capillary tubes' This means that they manage things %hen they are small' Hence3 @.fter the Prince*s return to the hin State3 he raised an army and sent an e5pedition against h?ng3 routing them by long odds and ta$ing eight cities from them' #hen .

fraid of the ending3 I cannot help trembling %ith fear at the beginning'" In the course of fi(e years3 ho% made piles of meat in the form of flo%er-beds3 raised roasting pillars3 %al$ed upon mounds of distiller*s grains3 and loo$ed o(er pools of %ine' In conse8uence ended the life of ho%' Thus3 by beholding the i(ory chop-stic$s3 the /iscount of hi fore$ne% the impending catastrophe of .isease of .fter ta$ing )uo3 hin %ithdre% and destroyed BM in turn' Thus3 these t%o ministers both stro(e to suppress troubles %hen they %ere still in capillary tubes3 but both their rulers failed to adopt their counsels' Thus3 Shu han and )ung hi-ch!i %ere the Pien h!iao of h?ng and BM3 to %hose %ords both their rulers paid no heed' .ll-underHea(en' Hence the saying+ "#ho beholds smallness is called enlightened'" )ou-chien3 after surrendering himself to #u3 held shield and spear and became a front guard of the horses A9 of )ing #u' Therefore3 he became able to $ill Fu-ch!a at )u-su' -i$e%ise3 )ing #?n %as insulted at the Cade 4ate3 A@ but his facial colour sho%ed no change' In the long run3 )ing #u too$ ho% prisoner at the Pastoral Field' Hence the saying+ "#ho preser(es tenderness is called strong'" Chapter #<<6+ The .eturnin( to the 5ri(in When %ll9under9Hea en takes its $e(innin(& Tao $ecomes the mother of %ll9 under9Hea en+ %s one knows his mother& so she in turn knows her childB as she 7uickens her child& so he in turn keeps to his mother& and to the end of life he is not in dan(er+ Who closes his mouth& and shuts his sense9(ates& in the end of life he will encounter no trou$leB $ut who opens his mouth and meddles with affairs& in the end of life he cannot $e sa ed+ Who $eholds smallness is called enli(htened+ Who preser es tenderness is called stron(+ Who uses Tao's li(ht and return home to its enli(htenment does not surrender his person to perdition+ This is called practisin( the eternal+ &f old3 ho% made chop-stic$s of i(ory' Thereby %as the /iscount of hi frightened' He thought+ "I(ory chop-stic$s %ould not be used %ith earthen-%ares but %ith cups made of Fade or of rhinoceros horns' Further3 i(ory chop-stic$s and Fade cups %ould not go %ith the soup made of beans and coarse greens but %ith the meat of longhaired buffaloes and unborn leopards' .s a result3 h?ng %as routed and BM destroyed' Hence the saying+ "#hat is still at rest is easily $ept 8uiet' #hat has not as yet appeared is easily pre(ented'" Chapter #66+ .gain3 eaters of the meat of long-haired buffaloes and unborn leopards %ould not %ear short hemp clothes and eat in a thatched house but %ould put on nine layers of embroidered dresses and mo(e to li(e in magnificent mansions and on lofty terraces' .him3 accepted the Fade and lent them the %ay' .nowled(e .

s he is not sic$3 he can get rid of sic$ness'" AA Chapter #<62+ -ind the -inuteAD &nce a countryman of Sung came by a Fade stone3 %hich he presented to Tzŭ-han' AE This Tzŭ-han refused to accept' "It is a treasure3" remar$ed the countryman3 "and should become a gentleman*s possession but not for a rustic*s use'" In reply Tzŭ-han said+ "Bou regard the Fade as treasure3 I regard the refusal to accept the Fade as treasure'" Thus3 the countryman desired the possession of the Fade3 but Tzŭ-han did not desire it' Hence the saying+ "The saintly man desires to be desireless3 and does not prize articles difficult to get'" &nce #ang Shou carried boo$s on his bac$ %hen tra(elling3 and met HsM F?ng in hou' To him HsM A= F?ng said+ ".ccordingly3 one should follo% its shape' Therefore3 if reposed3 one should stand on TehH if mo(ing3 he should act on Tao' &nce a man of Sung made for the ruler mulberry lea(es of i(ory' DJ It too$ him three years to complete them' Ha(ing stems and branches3 %ide and narro%3 and tiny buds and colourful D9 gloss3 they %ere scattered amidst real mulberry lea(es and sho%ed no difference from them' .fter all3 this man %as on account of his s$ilfulness endo%ed %ith a bounty in the Sung State' #hen -ieh Tzŭ heard this3 he said+ "Supposing hea(en and earth made a leaf in three years3 then things that ha(e lea(es %ould be fe%'" Therefore3 if you do not count on the natural resources of hea(en and earth but loo$ to one man for e(erything3 or if you do not follo% the course of reason and principle but learn from the %isdom of one man3 it is the same as to ma$e a single leaf in three years' For this reason3 farming in . This is %hat the %orld passes by3 and #ang Shou re(erted to it' In other %ords3 he learned to be not learned' Hence the saying+ "He learns to be not learned and re(erts A< to %hat multitudes of people pass by'" Indeed3 e(erything has a definite shape' It should accordingly be put to use' .ny tas$ is an actH action arises from the needs of the timeH and time AI has no permanent tas$s' Boo$s contain sayingsH sayings arise from $no%ledgeH and a %ell-informed person does not ha(e to $eep boo$s around' 7o%3 %hy should you carry them aroundL" Hearing this3 #ang Shou burned the boo$s and danced %ith Foy' For the same reason3 %ell-informed persons do not teach %ith sayings and intelligent persons do not fill cases %ith boo$s' A.To know the unknowa$le& that is ele atin(+ ?ot to know the knowa$le& that is sickness+ 5nly $y $ecomin( sick of sickness can we $e without sickness+ The saintly man is not sick+ 'ecause he is sick of sickness& therefore he is not sick+ The )ing of BMeh could become hegemonic because he %as not sic$ of surrender' )ing #u could become supreme because he %as not sic$ of insult' Hence the saying+ "The saintly man is not sic$' .

istant *Without passin( out of the door The Course of %ll9under9Hea en 6 pro(nosticate+ Without peepin( throu(h the window The Way of Hea en 6 contemplate+ The farther one (oes& The less one knows+* Therefore the saintly man does not tra el& and yet he has knowled(e+ He does not see thin(s& and yet he defines them+ He does not la$our& and yet he completes+ Holes are the doors and %indo%s of the spirit' The ears and the eyes are e5hausted by sounds and colours' Mental energy is e5hausted by outer attractions' .ll at once he started racing %ith BM-ch!i' He changed his horses three times3 but thrice he lagged behind' Thereupon /iscount Hsiang said+ "Bou teach me ho% to dri(e3 but the course is not as yet completed'" "The course is completed3" said BM-ch!i in reply3 "but the fault lies in the %ay it is applied' In general3 %hat is important in dri(ing is to fi5 the bodies of the horses firmly to the carriage and the mind of the dri(er to the horses' Then one can dri(e fast and far' 7o%3 Bour Highness3 %hene(er behind3 %ants to get ahead of thy ser(ant3 and3 %hene(er ahead3 is afraid of lagging behind thy ser(ant' To be sure3 %hen one runs a race %ith others on the same road3 D. he is either ahead of or behind others' #hether ahead or behind3 if the mind of Bour Highness is al%ays concentrated on thy ser(ant3 ho% can Bour Highness $eep the horses under controlL This %as the reason %hy Bour Highness lagged behind'" #hen Prince Pai Sh?ng D< %as planning a rebellion3 once after the office hour in the go(ernment he held his cane upside do%n and leaned on it' EJ The tip of the cane3 being so sharp3 pierced through his chin' Therefrom blood flo%ed do%n upon the ground but he ne(er noticed it' .s a result3 there is no master inside the body' If there is no master inside the body3 then though all $inds of good and bad luc$ pile li$e hills and mountains3 there is no %ay to $no% them' Hence the saying+ "#ithout passing out of the door the ourse of .%inter3 e(en the Master of 4rains D@ %ould not be able to turn out good cropsH but rich har(ests in years of abundance e(en bondmen and bondmaids could not spoil' Thus3 if you depend on the po%er of one man3 e(en the Master of 4rains %ould not be sufficientH but if you follo% the course of nature3 then bondmen and bondmaids %ould be plenty' Hence the saying+ "He assists DA the myriad things in their natural de(elopment3 but he does not (enture to interfere'" Chapter <#266+ 2iewin( the .t the ne%s of this accident3 the h?ngs said+ "#hen he forgot the pain on his chin3 for %hat %as it forgotten at allL" E9 Hence the saying+ "The farther one goes3 the less one $no%s'" This amounts to saying that if one*s .ll-underHea(en I prognosticate' DD #ithout peeping through the %indo% the #ay of Hea(en I contemplate'" DE This amounts to saying that the spirit ne(er goes astray from its real abode' &nce upon a time /iscount D= Hsiang of hao learned dri(ing from Prince BM DI -ch!i' .

rmy3 %hen attending on the Throne3 made before the )ing an intimation3 saying+ "There is a bird %hich has perched or a hill-top in the south' For three years it has neither .intelligence hits e(erything afar3 %hat is missed %ill be at hand' Therefore3 the saintly man has no definite destination3 but can $no% both far and near' Hence the saying+ "He does not tra(el3 and yet he has $no%ledge'" He can see both far and near' Hence the saying+ "He does not see things3 and yet he defines E@ them'" He inaugurates %or$s in accordance %ith the times3 accomplishes merits by means of resources3 and employs the utilities of the myriad things to get profits out of them' Hence the saying+ "He does not labour3 and yet he completes'" Chapter <#6+ Sameness in .ifference When a superior scholar hears of Tao& he endea ours to practise it+ When an a era(e scholar hears of Tao& he will sometimes practise it and sometimes lose it+ When an inferior scholar hears of Tao& he will (reatly ridicule it+ Were it not thus ridiculed& it would as Tao $e insufficient+ Therefore the poet says0 "The Tao9enli(htened seem dark and $lack& The Tao9ad anced seem (oin( $ack& The Tao9strai(ht9le elled seem ru((ed and slack+ "The hi(h in irtue resem$les a ale& The purely white in shame must 7uail& The staunchest irtue seems to fail+ "The solidest irtue seems not alert& The purest chastity seems per ert& The (reatest s7uare will ri(htness desert+ "The lar(est essel $ecomes complete slowly& The loudest sound is heard rarely& The (reatest form has no shape concrete+" Tao so lon( as it remains latent is unnamea$le+ Cet Tao alone is (ood for impartin( and completin(+ )ing huang3 for three years after he too$ the reins of go(ernment3 issued no decree and formulated no policy' Therefore3 one day the 0ight ommissioner of the .

gain3 huang h!iao has dared robberies %ithin the boundaries of the state3 but no magistrate has been able to stop him' This pro(es the disorder of her go(ernment' Thus3 Bour MaFesty has been suffering not less %ea$ness and disorder than BMeh and yet %ants to attac$ BMeh' This pro(es that Bour MaFesty*s %isdom is li$e the eyes'" Thereupon the )ing ga(e up the plan' Therefore3 the difficulty of $no%ledge lies not in $no%ing others but in $no%ing oneself' Hence the saying+ "&ne %ho $no%s himself is enlightened'" .fluttered nor flo%n nor sung but $ept silent %ithout ma$ing any sound' #hat is the name of that birdL" In reply the )ing said+ "For three years it has not fluttered in order thereby to gro% its %ings and feathers3 and has neither flo%n nor sung in order thereby to loo$ at the conditions of the people' Though it has not flo%n3 yet once it starts flying3 it %ill soar high up into the s$y' Though it has not sung3 yet once it starts singing3 it %ill surprise e(erybody' -ea(e it as it has been' I3 the )ing3 understand %hat you mean'" In the course of half a year3 the )ing began to administer the state affairs himself3 abolishing ten things3 establishing nine things3 censuring fi(e chief (assals3 and appointing si5 hitherto un$no%n personages to office3 %ith the immediate result that the state became (ery orderly' In the meantime he raised an army to punish h!i and defeated them at HsM-chou' EA Then he triumphed o(er hin at Ho-yung and called a conference of the feudal lords in Sung3 till he attained Hegemony in .ll-underHea(en' Thus3 )ing huang ne(er did good in a small %ay3 ED %herefore he accomplished a great achie(ement' Hence the saying+ "The largest (essel becomes complete slo%ly3 the loudest sound is rarely heard'" Chapter <<<666+ The 2irtue of .iscrimination 5ne who knows others is cle er& $ut one who knows himself is en(li(htened+ 5ne who con7uers others is powerful& $ut one who con7uers himself is mi(hty+ 5ne who knows contentment is rich and one who pushes with i(our has will+ 5ne who loses not his place endures+ 5ne who may die $ut will not perish& has life e erlastin(+ #hen )ing huang of h!u %as thin$ing of attac$ing BMeh3 huang Tzŭ admonished him3 as$ing+ "For %hat reason is Bour MaFesty going to attac$ BMehL" "It is because its go(ernment is disorderly and its army %ea$3" replied the )ing' "Thy ser(ant is afraid3" said huang Tzŭ3 "Bour MaFesty*s %isdom is li$e eyes able to see o(er one hundred steps a%ay but unable to see their o%n eyelashes' Since Bour MaFesty*s troops %ere defeated by h!in and hin3 h!u has lost a territory of se(eral hundred li+ This pro(es the %ea$ness of her army' .

&nce3 %hen Tzŭ-hsia sa% Ts?ng Tzŭ3 Ts?ng Tzŭ as$ed3 "#hy ha(e you become so stoutL" "Because I ha(e been (ictorious in %arfare3" replied Tzŭ-hsia' "#hat do you mean by thatL" as$ed Ts?ng Tzŭ' In reply Tzŭ-hsia said+ "#hene(er I %ent in and sa% the (irtue of the early $ings I reFoiced in it' #hene(er I %ent out and sa% the pleasure of the rich and noble I reFoiced in it3 too' These t%o conflicting attractions %aged a %ar %ithin my breast' #hen (ictory and defeat still hung in the balance3 I %as thin' Since the (irtue of the early $ings %on the %ar3 I ha(e become stout'" Therefore the difficulty of (olition lies not in con8uering others but in con8uering oneself' Hence the saying+ "&ne %ho con8uers himself is mighty'" Chapter <<266+ The Function of Skill *4ood Tra ellers lea e no trace nor track& 4ood speakers show no fault nor lack& 4ood counters need no countin( rack+ *4ood lockers $oltin( $ars need not& Cet none their locks can loose+ 4ood $inders need no strin( nor knot& Cet none unties their noose+* Therefore the saintly man is always a (ood sa iour of man& for there are no outcast people+ He is always a (ood sa iour of thin(s& for there are no outcast thin(s+ This is called applied enli(htenment+ Thus the (ood man does not respect multitudes of men+ The $ad man respects the people's wealth+ Who does not esteem multitudes nor is charmed $y their wealth& thou(h his knowled(e $e (reatly confused& he must $e reco(nized as profoundly mysterious+ &f old3 there %ere car(ed Fade plates in hou' &nce ho% sent hiao -i to get them3 but )ing #?n %ould not gi(e them a%ay' -ater3 Fei hung came for them3 %hereupon )ing #?n ga(e them out' It %as because hiao -i %as %orthy and Fei hung %as not a follo%er of Tao' Inasmuch as hou disli$ed to see any %orthy man ad(ancing his career under )ing ho%3 )ing #?n ga(e Fei hung the plates' )ing #?n raised T!ai-$ung #ang from the ban$ of the #ei 0i(er because he held him in high esteem3 and presented Fei hung %ith the Fade plates because he lo(ed his usefulness' Hence the saying+ "#ho does not esteem multitudes nor is charmed by their %ealth3 though his $no%ledge be greatly confused3 he must be recognized as profoundly mysterious'" 'otes 9' 產n' This chapter contains Han Fei Tzŭ*s illustrations of certain teachings selected from -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Teh Chin(+ ompared %ith the preceding one it has many facts adduced in illustration of -ao Tzŭ*s ideas %hile the content of the preceding chapter is largely composed of Han Fei Tzŭ*s interpretations of and commentaries on the &ld Philosopher*s teachings' .s the te5t of e(ery chapter that Han Fei Tzŭ .

commented in the preceding %or$ has already been added before each commentary3 in this %or$ I ha(e added only the te5ts of ne% chapters' @' 2ide supra& p' 9.@ $+c+ 9I' In DI.' 2ide supra& pp' @JA-D' <' In E<I $+c+ 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ½ should be À' 99' The modern edition of -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has ™人 in place of i:' #ith )u it is %rong' 9@' The 2nglish %ord "position" is probably the nearest possible e8ui(alent of § as used by Han Fei Tzŭ throughout his %or$s3 %hich hinese %ord implies both "influence" subFecti(ely and "circumstance" obFecti(ely' To Professor M' S' Bates I o%e this rendering : ide infra& hap' 1->' 9A' #ang Hsien-shen thought Á %as a mista$e for Ù' 9D' In D<D $+c+ 9E' Both %ere ri(ers3 the former referring to the Bangtse and the latter running in the lo%er (alley of the Bello% 0i(er' 9=' In D. $+c+ -a$e Fi(e %as the present T!ai -a$e near Soocho%' 9.I' Italics my addition3 and so throughout this chapter' A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? B should be †' D' .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen • should be supplied belo% ›' 9<' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has  in place of Ï' @J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 而ŠÃÄŒÅÆ¡Çp should read 而ŠÃÄÅi之ŒÆ¡Çp' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen there seem hiatuses belo% this sentence' @@' #ith #ang Bin-chi È should be É' @A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? B belo% — is superfluous' .s he had practised bene(olence and righteousness3 thirty-si5 feudal states situated bet%een the Bangtse 0i(er and the Huai 0i(er obeyed him' Therefore3 )ing Mu :9JJ9-<D= $+c+> of hou ordered h!u to punish HsM' )ing Ben3 as he lo(ed the people3 refused to offer resistance3 till his forces %ere completely routed by h!u' E' In accordance %ith -ao Tzŭ*s te5t õ should be supplied belo% 之' =' -i$e%ise3 " should be ¯' I' #ang Hsien-shen*s note has B十三 in place of B十g' I disagree %ith him' .

s he ne(er thought it %orth being sic$ of3 he could get rid of sic$ness'" AD' 2ide supra& pp' @9E-9=' AE' This must not ha(e been the Tzŭ-han of h?ng but a different person' A=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen Ž is a mista$e for Ô' AI' #ith #ang #ei and #ang Hsien-shen š abo(e 者 should be £' A.ecords has qÊs in place of ËÊs' @=' Mar8uis Huan should be .' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Õ belo% Ö should be abo(e it' A<' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has no × belo% Ø' DJ' The 'ook of #ieh Tzŭ reads L for 6' D9' #ith )ao H?ng Ù abo(e Ú should be v' D@' His name %as h!i' He taught the people the culti(ation of grains at the time of 2mperor Bao3 and %as a remote ancestor of the rulers of the hou .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? B belo% — is superfluous' @<' hap' 1 has Î in place of Ï' AJ' #ith #ang Hsien-shen s should be i' A9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ð馬 means Ñ馬' A@' #ith -u #?n-shao and )u )uang-ts!? 王Ò should be LÒ' #ith )ao H?ng3 this incident %as more legendary than actual3 ho%e(er' AA' Instead of Ë=不Ói˜ËRÓ -ao Tzŭ*s te5t reads Ë=ÓÓi˜Ë不Ó3 #ith #ang Hsienshen the passage as rendered by Han Fei Tzŭ means+ ".@D' y人 means n人' In the 'ook of Shih Tzŭ& it is said+ "He %ho is old in age plasters crac$s and ta$es precautions against chimneys3 %herefore throughout his life he meets no fire disaster' This3 ho%e(er3 he ne(er $no%s to regard as (irtue'" @E' The Historical .u$e Huan and so throughout the illustration' @I' ÌÍ %as the name of a star supposed to superintend the life-anddeath problem of e(ery mortal' @.ynasty' DA' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has Û for T' DD' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has no ½Ë abo(e š in both sentences' DE' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has no ½Ë abo(e š in both sentences' D=' I read J for :' .

eries1 T/an( had already subFugated hieh' Fearing lest .ecords it %as )ing #ei and not )ing huang of h!u %ho besieged the h!i forces at HsM-chou in AAA $+c+ ED' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Ý bet%een * and Þ is superfluous' Chapter 22II. The 6pper .ccording to the Historical .ffairs' In other %ords3 Bour 25cellency %ill hold an additional post'" Tzŭ-yM once introduced onfucius to the Prime Minister of Shang' A onfucius %ent out' Tzŭ-yM %ent in and as$ed for the Premier*s opinion of the (isitor' In reply the Prime Minister said+ ".ffairs' @ M?ng Mao said to him+ "Bour 25cellency had better choose the post of 4rand hamberlain' #hat Bour 25cellency e5cels in is the office of an en(oy' Though Bour 25cellency holds the post of 4rand hamberlain3 yet His MaFesty %ill appoint you en(oy in the hour of need' Then Bour 25cellency %hile holding the seal of the 4rand hamberlain in hand %ill be Minister of Foreign .fraid that onfucius might be held in high esteem by the ruler3 Tzŭ-yM persuaded the Prime Minister that .ll-under-Hea(en to him' In conse8uence3 #u )uang plunged into a ri(er' )ing #u of h!in ordered )an Mu to choose the post he %anted3 4rand hamberlain or Minister of Foreign .' #ith )ao H?ng + abo(e j means œ' D<' .ll-under-Hea(en should spea$ of him as co(etous3 he transferred the rule o(er . Collecte+ Pers)asions.u$e of #hite' Thenceforth Prince Sh?ng al%ays planned to a(enge his father on the h?ngs3 but his plan %as hampered t%ice by Tzŭ-hsi3 till he %as forced to assassinate Tzŭ-hsi and cause a rebellion against )ing Hui' EJ' #ith )ao H?ng 而 abo(e Ü銳 should be belo% it' E9' If Prince Sh?ng concentrated his mind upon his plan to a(enge his father in such a %ay as to forget the pain on his chin3 it %as because he %as thin$ing of the (ery state on %hich he %as going to a(enge his father' E@' -ao Tzŭ*s te5t has ? in place of 明' EA' ..gain3 fearing lest #u )uang should accept the throne3 he sent men to persuade #u )uang that T!ang ha(ing $illed the ruler %anted to pass the bad reputation to him and so transferred the rule o(er .ll-under-Hea(en to #u )uang' . $+c+& Tzŭhsi3 a half-brother of )ing P!ing3 called Sh?ng bac$ to h!u and enfeoffed him %ith the district of Ben and the title of . grandson of )ing P!ing of h!u3 and son of Prince hien' #hile a refugee in the h?ng State3 hien %as $illed by its ruler' Thereupon his son3 Sh?ng3 sought refuge in the #u State' -ater3 after the death of )ing hao :the youngest son of )ing P!ing> and the ascension of )ing Hui in D.fter I ha(e seen onfucius3 you loo$ as small as lice and fleas to me' 7o% I am going to introduce him to His Highness'" .DI' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-shen ? should be supplied abo(e *' D.

u$e Huan3 accordingly3 stopped sending reinforcements to Hsing' #hen Tzŭ-hsM %as ma$ing his escape3 a frontier patrol caught him' Tzŭ-hsM said+ "The authorities %ant me because they thin$ I ha(e a beautiful pearl' 7o% I ha(e already lost it' But I %ill say that you ha(e seized and s%allo%ed it'" Thereupon the patrol released him' h!ing F?ng had caused a ci(il %ar in h!i and %as thin$ing of see$ing refuge in BMeh' His relati(es said+ " hin is near' #hy %on*t you go to hinL" "BMeh is far3" replied h!ing F?ng3 "and so is good for see$ing safety'" "If your rebellious nature can be changed3" said the relati(es3 "it is all right to stay in hinH if it cannot be changed3 though you go far a%ay to BMeh3 %ill you be safe thereL" #hen 2arl hih demanded territory from /iscount HsMan of #ey3 the latter thought of not gi(ing' "#hy is Bour Highness not going to gi(eL" as$ed C?n hang' "For no reason3" replied /iscount HsMan3 "he is demanding land from us' Therefore I am not going to gi(e'" "If he demands territory from us %ithout any reason3" said C?n hang3 "other neighbouring countries %ill be afraid of the same demand' If his greed gro%s insatiable3 .after seeing onfucius3 the ruler might also consider him as small as lice and fleas' The Prime Minister3 accordingly3 ne(er sa% onfucius again' )ing Hui of #ey called a conference of the feudal lords at hiu-li %ith a (ie% to restoring the supreme authority to the Son of Hea(en' Thereupon P!?ng Hsi said to the 0uler of h?ng+ "Bour Highness had better not listen to him' Big po%ers disli$e the e5istence of the Son of Hea(en' Smaller states profit by it' If Bour Highness sides %ith the big po%ers and does not listen to him3 then ho% can the #ey State together %ith smaller ones restore the supreme authority to the Son of Hea(enL" #hen the hins %ere attac$ing Hsing3 .ll-under-Hea(en %ill %orry about it' If Bour Highness gi(es him land no%3 he %ill become arrogant and slight his enemies and the neighbouring countries %ill out of common fear consolidate their friendship' If mutually friendly troops cope %ith the country slighting its enemies3 the life of 2arl hih %ill not last long' It is said in the 'ook of Chou& !#hen about to con8uer anybody3 be sure to assist himH %hen about to ta$e3 be sure to gi(e'* Bour Highness had better gi(e and ma$e 2arl hih arrogant' Besides3 %hy should Bour Highness hesitate to scheme for the hih lan %ith the rest of the %orld instead of ma$ing oursel(es alone the target of the hihsL" "0ight3" replied the /iscount3 and3 accordingly3 ga(e out a fief of ten thousand families' Thereby 2arl hih %as greatly pleased' Then he also demanded territory from hao' The haos refused to gi(e3 %herefore he besieged hin-yang' It came to pass that Han and #ey re(olted outside %hile the haos responded to them from inside the city' Thus in the long run = the hihs %ere destroyed' .u$e Huan of h!i thought of rescuing it' Thereupon Pao Shu said+ "Too early' Hsing is not yet going to ruin' hin is not yet e5hausted' If hin is not e5hausted3 h!i cannot become (ery influential' Moreo(er3 the merit of supporting a state in danger is not as great as the (irtue of re(i(ing a ruined one' Bour Highness had better rescue it later so as to e5haust hinG The result D %ill be ad(antageous in fact' If %e %ait till Hsing is ruined and then re(i(e it3 it %ill be beautiful in name'" E .

s the s%amp %as drying up and the sna$es had to mo(e a%ay3 the small sna$e said to the big one+ !If you go in the front and I follo% from behind3 men %ill thin$ it is nothing but the migration of sna$es3 and some of them might $ill you' Better let our mouths hold each other' .&nce . mannerG .u$e )!ang of h!in built a to%er ta$ing three years' In the meantime3 the hings raised an army and %ere about to attac$ h!i' Thereupon C?n #ang said to the .ccordingly3 h!in made military preparations on its eastern border3 %herefore the hings actually halted their e5pedition' &nce h!i attac$ed Sung' Sung sent Ts!ang-sun Tzŭ to as$ for reinforcements from hing' The )ing of hing3 greatly pleased3 promised him reinforcements in a (ery encouraging I manner' Ho%e(er3 Ts!ang-sun Tzŭ loo$ed %orried during his return trip' Therefore the coachman as$ed+ "The re8uest for reinforcements has been Fust granted3 but %hy does Bour 25cellency loo$ %orriedL" In reply Ts!ang-sun Tzŭ said+ "Sung is small %hile h!i is big' To rescue small Sung and thereby offend big h!i3 it is %hat e(erybody %orries about' Bet the )ing of hing %as so %illing to gi(e us help' He must thereby mean to stiffen our resistance' For if %e offer stubborn resistance3 h!i %ill be e5hausted3 %hich %ill e(entually be to the ad(antage of hing'" So saying3 Ts!ang-sun Tzŭ returned' Mean%hile3 the h!is too$ fi(e cities from Sung3 but hing*s reinforcements did not come at all' &nce Mar8uis #?n of #ey %anted to borro% the %ay through hao to attac$ entral Hills' Mar8uis Shu of hao at first thought of not letting him ha(e the %ay' Thereupon hao )!? said+ "Bour Highness is mista$en' Suppose #ey attac$ entral Hills and does not %in3 #ey %ill then cease hostilities' Should she cease hostilities3 she %ill fall into contempt %hile hao %ill thereby increase her o%n prestige' 2(en though #ey succeeds in ta$ing entral Hills3 she %ill not be able to maintain her rule o(er the ne% territory across hao' This %ill e(entually mean that #ey uses her troops but hao gains their con8uered territory' Therefore3 be sure to grant their re8uest in a (ery encouraging .u$e+ "Famine calls in in(aders3 pestilence calls in in(aders3 compulsory labour ser(ice calls in in(aders3 ci(il %ar calls in in(aders' For three years Bour Highness has been building the to%er' 7o% the hings are raising an army and are about to attac$ h!i3 thy ser(ant is afraid they %ill fight h!i in name but raid h!in in fact' Better ta$e precautions against their in(asion'" .nd %ill you carry me on your bac$ %hile %e are mo(ing on%ardL Then men %ill regard me as ruler of spirits'* .ccordingly3 they held each other*s mouths and one carried the other' #hen they %ere mo(ing across the public a(enue in this manner3 e(erybody a(oided them3 saying3 !It*s the ruler of spirits'* 7o% that Bour Highness is handsome %hile I am homely3 if Bour Highness appears to be my guest of honour3 I %ould be ta$en for a ruler of one thousand chariotsH if Bour Highness appears to be my ser(ant3 I %ould be ta$en for a noble ser(ing under a ruler of ten thousand chariots' Suppose Bour Highness be my retainer'" /iscount h!?ng3 accordingly3 .s soon as they come to $no% that Bour Highness is going to profit thereby3 they %ill stop the e5pedition' Therefore better let them ha(e the %ay and sho% that %e are obliged to do so'" h!ih-i Tzŭ-p!i %as %or$ing for /iscount T!ien h!?ng' #hen /iscount T!ien h!?ng left h!i and %as ma$ing an escape to Ben3 h!ih-i Tzŭ-p!i carried his pass along and follo%ed him' 6pon their arri(al at Hope To%n Tzŭ-p!i said+ "Has Bour Highness e(er heard the story of the sna$es in a dry s%ampL .

nts li(e on the sunny side of the mountain in %inter and on the shady side in summer' #here(er there is an ant-hill one inch high3 there is al%ays %ater underneath it'" So they dug the ground and found %ater' Thus3 )uan hung despite his saintliness and Hsi P!?ng despite his intelligence ne(er hesitated to learn from old horses and ants %hat they did not $no%' Men of to-day3 ho%e(er lo% their mentality may be3 ne(er thin$ of learning from the %isdom of saintly men' Is it not a great faultL .u$e Huan in the e5pedition against )uchu' #hen spring %as gone and %inter came again3 they %ent astray and lost the %ay' Thereupon )uan hung said+ "The %isdom of old horses is trust%orthy'" So they let old horses go of themsel(es and follo%ed them from behind3 till they found the %ay' .ll-under-Hea(en' So does the !.o not indulge in %ine'* To indulge in %ine means to drin$ %ine habitually' The Son of Hea(en3 if he becomes a habitual drin$er3 %ill lose his rule o(er .n ordinary man3 if he becomes a habitual drin$er3 %ill lose his life'" )uan hung and Hsi P!?ng accompanied .nnouncement to )!ang* 9@ read+ !.carried the pass along and follo%ed him to an inn' The inn-$eeper actually entertained them %ith great hospitality and presented them %ith %ine and meat' &nce a man of #?n %ent to hou3 but the hous %ould not admit any alien' ".mong the body of officials3 if there are some forming factions inside and thereby acting arrogantly to%ards the so(ereign and some others culti(ating friendships %ith foreign states and thereby causing territorial dismemberment3 then Bour MaFesty*s state %ill be Feopardized'" &nce upon a time3 Shao hi-mei %as drun$ and asleep and lost his fur garment' The 0uler of Sung 99 as$ed3 "Is drun$enness sufficient to lose a fur garmentL" In reply he said+ "Because of drun$enness hieh lost his rule o(er .s hin employed the Si5 7obles3 the state %as e(entually partitionedH as .u$e hien employed both Ti!en h!?ng and )an hih3 he %as murdered in the long runH and as #ey employed both Hsi-shou and hang Bi3 all the territory to the %est of the Bello% 0i(er %as lost as a result' 7o% suppose Bour MaFesty employ both of them' Then the more po%erful one %ill form his o%n faction inside 9J %hile the less po%erful one %ill count on foreign influence' .s they %ent on%ard3 there %as no %ater in the mountains' Thereupon Hsi P!?ng said+ ".ll-under-Hea(en' .n alienL" as$ed a hou official' "7o3 a nati(e" %as the reply' The official then as$ed him about the alley he %as li(ing in3 but he did not $no%' Therefore he put him under arrest' The 0uler of hou then sent men to as$ him3 "Bou are not a nati(e of hou3 but %hy did you say you %ere not an alienL" In reply the man said+ "Since thy ser(ant %as a child3 he has been reciting the poem saying+ #here*er their arch the hea(ens e5pand3 The $ing can claim the land belo%' #ithin the seabounds of the land3 .t his summons come or go' < 7o% that Bour MaFesty is the Son of Hea(en3 thy ser(ant is one of his subFects' Then can thy ser(ant be both a subFect and an alien to His MaFestyL So3 thy ser(ant said he %as a nati(e'" Thereupon the 0uler ordered him to be released' )ing HsMan of Han once as$ed hiu -iu+ "I3 the )ing3 %ant to appoint to office both )ung hung and )ung Shu' #ill it be safeL" "7o3 it %ill not be safe3" replied hiu -iu' ".

u$e Mu of -u sent out the (arious princes to ta$e up office at the court of hin and the court of hing' Thereupon -i hM said+ "Suppose %e employ men from BMeh to rescue our dro%ning sons' Then though the BMehs are good s%immers3 our sons* li(es %ould not be sa(ed' Suppose a fire burst out and %e fetch %ater from the sea' Then though the %ater of the sea is abundant3 the fire %ould not go into e5tinction' Thus3 distant %ater cannot put out a fire at hand' 7o%3 though hin and hing are strong3 h!i is a close neighbour' Should -u %orry that hin and hing might not come in time to rescue -u in case of conflict %ith h!iL" Ben Sui %as not on good terms %ith the 0uler of hou3 %herefore the 0uler of hou 9E %orried' So F?ng hM 9= said+ "Ben Sui is Premier of the Han State3 but the 0uler holds Han )!uei in high respect' The best is to assassinate Han )!uei' Then the 0uler of Han %ould hold the Ben lan responsible for the act'" hang h!ien3 Premier of Han3 %as ill and about to die' )ung-ch!?ng #u-ch?ng too$ thirty taels of gold along in his bosom and in8uired after his health' In the course of one month the 0uler of Han %ent himself to as$ hang h!ien+ "If the Premier passes a%ay3 %ho else should ta$e his placeL" In reply hang h!ien said+ "#u-ch?ng upholds the la% and re(eres the superior' Ho%e(er3 he is not as good as Prince Shih%o in %inning the hearts of the people'" hang h!ien died' The 0uler3 accordingly3 appointed #u-ch?ng Prime Minister' Bo Bang commanded the #ey forces in attac$ing entral Hills3 %hen his son %as in that country' The 0uler of entral Hills steamed his son and sent him the soup' Bo Bang3 then seated beneath the tent3 supped the soup and dran$ up the %hole plateful' .&nce upon a time3 somebody presented the eli5ir of life to the )ing of hing' The court usher held it in his hand and entered the palace' There the guard as$ed him3 "May I eat itL" "&f course" %as the reply' The guard3 accordingly3 too$ it a%ay from the usher and ate it' 2nraged thereby3 the )ing sentenced him to death' The guard then sent men to persuade the )ing3 saying+ "Thy ser(ant as$ed the usher' The usher 9A said I might eat it' Therefore thy ser(ant ate it' This means that thy ser(ant is innocent and the usher is the one to blame' Further3 the guest is supposed to ha(e presented the eli5ir of life' 7o%3 if Bour MaFesty puts thy ser(ant to death after thy ser(ant ate it3 then the eli5ir must be a mortal drug' This %ill testify his deception of Bour MaFesty' Indeed3 to put thy innocent ser(ant to death and thereby pro(e somebody else*s deception of Bour MaFesty is not as good as to release thy ser(ant'" Hearing this3 the )ing refrained from $illing him' T!ien Ssŭ once decei(ed the 0uler of Tsou3 %herefore the 0uler of Tsou %as about to send men to $ill him' Fearing the penalty3 T!ien Ssŭ appealed to Hui Tzŭ for help' Hui Tzŭ3 accordingly3 inter(ie%ed the 0uler of Tsou3 saying+ "7o% suppose someone loo$ at Bour Highness %ith one eye shut3 %hat %ill Bour Highness do to himL" "I %ill put him to death3" replied the 0uler' "Bet the blind man shuts both his eyes' #hy don*t you $ill himL" as$ed Hui Tzŭ' "It is because by nature he cannot help shutting his eyes3" replied the 0uler' "#ell3 T!ien Ssŭ decei(ed the 0uler 9D of h!i in the east3" said Hui Tzŭ3 "and in the south decei(ed the )ing of hing' Ssŭ habitually decei(es people Fust as the blind man has to shut both his eyes' #hy should Bour Highness sho% resentment at him in particularL" Hearing this3 the 0uler of Tsou refrained from $illing him' .

u$e hia of Hsin said to him+ "Big states are hard to attac$3 small ones are easy to subFugate' The best is to subFugate small states and thereby intimidate big ones'" . forgot the date of the day' He as$ed his attendants about the date' 7one of them $ne%' So he sent men .ccordingly3 they fell upon the 7ine Barbarians %ith the result that Shang-$ai submitted also' ho% indulged in o(er-night drin$ing and through the pleasure 9.llunder-Hea(en %ill not be sufficient'" The saintly man by seeing the obscure $ne% the manifest3 and by seeing the origin $ne% the outcome' Therefore3 on seeing the i(ory chop-stic$s made3 he %as thereby frightened and $ne% that e(entually e(en .llunder-Hea(en %ould not be sufficient' .u$e Tan of hou3 ha(ing (an8uished Bin3 %as about to attac$ Shang-$ai3 %hen .gain3 eaters of the meat of longhaired buffaloes and unborn leopards %ould not %ear short hemp clothes and li(e in a thatched house but %ould put on nine layers of embroidered dresses and mo(e to li(e on lofty terraces and in magnificent mansions' Thus3 if their demands go on%ard at this rate3 e(en .Mar8uis #?n said to Tu Shih-chan+ "Bo Bang on account of His Highness ate the flesh of his son'" In response to this Tu Shih-chan said+ "2(en his o%n son he ate' #ho else then %ould he not eatL" #hen Bo Bang came bac$ from the campaign in entral Hills3 Mar8uis #?n re%arded him for his meritorious ser(ice but suspected his mind' M?ng Sun %ent out hunting and got a fa%n' He then ordered h!in Hsi-pa to bring it home' &n the %ay the mother deer follo%ed along and $ept crying' 6nable to bear that3 h!in Hsi-pa ga(e the fa%n bac$ to its mother3 %hen M?ng Sun arri(ed and as$ed for the fa%n' In reply Hsi-pa said+ "6nable to bear the mother*s crying3 I ga(e it bac$ to her'" 2nraged thereby3 M?ng Sun dismissed him' In the course of three months3 he recalled him and appointed him tutor of his son' &ut of %onder his coachman as$ed3 "#hy did Bour 25cellency blame him before and has no% called him bac$ to be tutor of the young masterL" "If he could not bear the ruin of a fa%n3" replied M?ng Sun3 "ho% %ould he bear the ruin of my sonL" Hence the saying+ "S$ilful deception is not as good as uns$ilful sincerity'" For instance3 Bo Bang despite his merit incurred suspicion %hile h!in Hsi-pa despite his demerit increased his credit' Ts?ng Ts!ung Tzŭ %as good in Fudging s%ords' The 0uler of #ei had ill %ill to%ards the )ing of #u' Therefore Ts?ng Ts!ung Tzŭ said to him+ "The )ing of #u is fond of s%ords' Thy ser(ant is good in Fudging s%ords' May thy ser(ant go to Fudge s%ords for the )ing of #u3 and3 %hen dra%ing out a s%ord to sho% him3 thrust him %ith it and thereby a(enge Bour HighnessL" In reply the 0uler of #ei said+ "Bour action 9I is right to your o%n ad(antage but not for any public cause' 7o% that #u is strong and rich %hile #ei is %ea$ and poor3 if you go at all3 you %ould3 I am afraid3 be employed by the )ing of #u to do the same to me'" So saying3 he dismissed him' #hen ho% made chop-stic$s of i(ory3 the /iscount of hi %as frightened' He thought+ "I(ory chop-stic$s %ould not be put on earthen-%ares but on cups made of Fade or of rhinoceros horns' Further3 Fade cups and i(ory chop-stic$s %ould not go %ith the soup made of beans and coarse greens3 but %ith the meat of long-haired buffaloes and unborn leopards' .

to as$ the /iscount of hi' Thereupon the /iscount of hi said to his follo%ers 9< + "7o% that he %ho is the -ord of .ll-under-Hea(en finds e(erybody in the %hole country forget the date of the day3 .ll-under-Hea(en must be in danger' Since nobody in the country is a%are of the date and I alone am a%are of it3 I must be in danger3 too'" So saying3 he refused to tell the date by pretending to drun$enness and ignorance of it' &nce upon a time3 a man of -u3 %ho %as a good ma$er of sandals3 and %hose %ife %as a good %ea(er of gloss-sil$3 %as about to migrate to BMeh' Thereupon someone said3 "Bou are bound to become poor thereG" "#hyL" as$ed the man' "Because sandals are for the feet to %ear3 but the BMehs go bare-footed' 4loss-sil$ is for ma$ing cro%ns3 but the BMehs dishe(el their hair' #ith your s$ill unemployed in that country3 ho% can you help becoming poorL" h!?n HsM @J %as held in esteem by the )ing of #ey' Hui Tzŭ said to him+ "Be sure to $eep on good terms %ith the attendants' Indeed3 the aspen3 %hether planted side%ise or upside do%n or from a branch bro$en off3 gro%s Fust the same' Ho%e(er3 suppose ten men plant ten aspens and only one man pulls them out' Then there %ill gro% no aspen' 7o%3 ten men planting trees so easy to gro% cannot o(ercome only one person pulling them out' #hyL It is because it is hard to plant them but easy to pull them out' Similarly3 though Bour 25cellency is s$ilful in establishing himself %ith the fa(our of the )ing3 if those %ho %ant to oust Bour 25cellency are many3 Bour 25cellency %ill be in danger'" hi Sun of -u had recently murdered the 0uler3 %hile #u h!i %as still ser(ing him' Thereupon someone said to #u h!i+ "Indeed3 a dead person %ho has Fust died still has li(ing blood' But li(ing blood %ill turn into dead blood3 dead blood into ashes3 and ashes into earth' #hen it is earth3 nothing can be done about it' 7o%3 hi Sun still has li(ing blood' Might it be possible to fore$no% %hat he %ill becomeL" Hearing this3 #u h!i left for hin' &nce3 %hen Hsi Ssŭ-mi (isited /iscount T!ien h!?ng3 /iscount T!ien h!?ng too$ him to a to%er to loo$ out o(er the four directions' In three directions they could admire far-reaching (ie%s3 but %hen they loo$ed out o(er the south3 they sa% the trees of Hsi Tzŭ*s residence @9 in the %ay' Thereat /iscount T!ien h!?ng as %ell as Hsi Ssŭ-mi made no remar$' 6pon his return to his residence Hsi Tzŭ ordered ser(ants to he% do%n the trees' 7o sooner had the a5es made se(eral cuts than Hsi Tzŭ stopped them' "#hy does Bour 25cellency change his mind so suddenlyL" as$ed the house ser(ants' In reply Hsi Tzŭ said+ "The ancients had a pro(erb saying3 !#ho $no%s the fish in the abyss is unluc$y'* Indeed3 /iscount T!ien is about to launch an e5traordinary affair' If I sho% him that I $no% its minute details3 I %ill be Feopardized' 7ot he%ing do%n the trees %ill constitute no offenceH $no%ing %hat he ne(er utters in %ord %ill amount to a serious offence'" So they stopped he%ing do%n the trees' &nce Bang Tzŭ passed through Sung and stayed @@ in an inn' The inn had t%o %aitresses' The ugly one of them %as esteemed but the beautiful one %as despised' Therefore Bang Tzŭ as$ed the reason' In reply the old inn-$eeper said+ "The beautiful one thin$s so much of her o%n beauty3 but I ne(er notice her being so beautiful' The ugly one is so conscious of her o%n ugliness3 but I ne(er notice her being so ugly'" .

lias of Sung' D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen q abo(e €Ö should be =' E' #ith #ang #ei € bet%een =? and ß is superfluous' =' #ith #ang Hsien-shen à should be à' .u$e Huan' Their punishing themsel(es %as the same3 but the moti(es behind their selfpunishment %ere different' Therefore3 Hui @= Tzŭ said+ ".Thereupon Bang Tzŭ said to his disciples+ "#ho practises %orthiness and abandons the aptitude for self-esteem3 %ould be praised %here(er he goes'" &nce a man of #ei on gi(ing a daughter in marriage taught her3 saying+ "Be sure to accumulate your o%n sa(ings because it is usual for a married %oman to be di(orced and it is unusually luc$y if she can succeed in ma$ing a ne% home'" The daughter3 accordingly3 accumulated her o%n sa(ings in secret' In conse8uence3 her mother-inla%3 regarding her as e5traordinarily self-see$ing3 di(orced her' 6pon her return her possession %as t%ice as much as her do%ry' The father not only ne(er blamed himself for ha(ing gi(en his daughter a %rong precept but e(en considered the %ay he had increased his %ealth astute' @A In these days3 @D office-hunters %hen appointed to posts %ould do the same as the daughter gi(en in marriage' -u Tan thrice persuaded the 0uler of entral Hills3 but his ad(ice %as ne(er ta$en' So he spent fifty taels to gain the good-%ill of the attendants' Then he %ent to ha(e another audience3 %hen the 0uler3 before spea$ing one %ord to him3 in(ited him to a ban8uet' #hen -u Tan %ent out3 he did not return to his lodging place but left entral Hills at once' &ut of %onder his coachman as$ed him+ "The 0uler of entral Hills only began to sho% Bour 25cellency courtesies during the last inter(ie%3 but %hy should Bour 25cellency lea(e so soonL" In reply he said+ "Indeed3 Fust as he sho%ed courtesies to me in accordance %ith people*s %ords3 he %ould charge me %ith crimes in accordance %ith people*s %ords3 too'" True3 before they %ent out of the state border3 the heir apparent slandered him3 saying that he had come to spy for hao' The 0uler of entral Hills3 accordingly3 searched for him and found him guilty' 2arl T!ien Ting lo(ed %arriors and scholars and thereby $ept his 0uler in safetyH the .u$e of #hite lo(ed %arriors and scholars and thereby thre% hing into confusion' Their lo(ing %arriors and scholars %as the same3 but the moti(es behind the action %ere different' .n insane person is running east%ard and a pursuer is running east%ard3 too' Their running east%ard is the same3 but the moti(es behind their running east%ard are different'" Hence the saying+ "Men doing the same thing ought to be differentiated in moti(e'" 'otes 9' 說林上' @' #ith BM BMeh Ø belo% [ is superfluous' A' .gain3 )ung-sun hi @E cut off his feet and thereby recommended Paili HsiH Shu Tiao castrated himself and thereby ingratiated himself %ith .

utumn Period3 ho%e(er3 almost e(ery feudal lord called himself .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 7 should be í' 9<' The 6mperial #i$rary has 從 in place of î' @J' #ith )u ï and t %ere synonyms and ð should be ñ' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien ò之 should be 之ò' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen huang Tzŭ put 宿 in place of 東 and repeat 逆ó @A' #ith )u )uang-t!s? š reads ™' @D' Hiraza%a*s edition has j in place of \' #ang Hsien-shen*s effort to interpret the connotation of \ seems futile' @E' #ith -u #?n-shao Z should be ô3 %hich %as a synonym of õ' @=' #ith -u ö and ÷ %ere synonyms' Chapter 22III.u$e' To a(oid such confusion I prefer to render ê as "0uler"' 9E' #ith -u #?n-shao belo% Æi there should be supplied another Æi' 9=' The 'ook of Chou has ë in place of ì' 9I' #ith )ao H?ng :"之 should be :之"' 9. Collecte+ Pers)asions.I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? á should be â' .uring the Spring and .' #ith )u á should be â' <' 2ide 'ook of )oetry& Pt' II3 B$' /I3 "The .ecade of Pei Shan'" 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? § should be supplied abo(e ã=ª' 99' The 6mperial #i$rary has ä in place of å' 9@' The 'ook of History has æç " ommandment against #ine" in place of èç' The ".nnouncement to )!ang" %as composed of the address of )ing #u to one of his younger brothers3 F?ng3 also called )!angshu3 on appointing him to the Mar8uisate of #ei' 9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen é者 should be repeated' 9D' qê h!i %as originally a Mar8uisate' .eries1 . The Lo"er .

$ind of bird called "little cuc$oo" has a hea(y head and a cur(ed tail' &n drin$ing %ater from the ri(er3 it is bound to be o(erturned' Therefore3 another bird has to hold its feather up%ard and let it drin$' Similarly3 men %ho fall short of drin$ing ought to find support for their o%n feather' . 2els are li$e sna$es3 sil$%orms li$e caterpillars' Men are frightened at the sight of sna$es and shoc$ed at the sight of caterpillars' Ho%e(er3 fishermen %ould hold eels in hand and %omen %ould pic$ up sil$%orms' Thus3 %here there is profit3 there e(eryone turns as bra(e as M?ng P?n and huan hu' Pai-lo taught men %hom he disli$ed ho% to select s%ift race-horses and taught men %hom he li$ed ho% to select inferior horses3 because s%ift race-horses being fe% and far bet%een %ould yield slo% profits %hile inferior horses being sold e(ery day %ould bring about 8uic$ profits' That s%ift race-horses yield profits is as casual < as the use of (ulgar %ords in a refined style mentioned in the 'ook of Chou+ Huan 9J H? said+ "The first step of sculpture is to ma$e the nose large and the eyes small' Because the nose3 if too large3 can be made small3 but3 if too small3 cannot be enlargedH and the eyes3 if too small3 can be enlarged3 but3 if too large3 cannot be made small' The same is true %ith the beginning of any enterprise' If made reco(erable at any time3 it seldom fails' Mar8uis h!ung and #u-lai $ne% that they %ould not be chastised by ho% but ne(er foresa% that )ing #u %ould destroy them' Pi-$an and Tzŭ-hsM $ne% that their masters %ould go to ruin but ne(er $ne% the impending death of themsel(es' Hence the saying+ "Mar8uis h!ung and #u-lai $ne% the mind of their master but not the course of e(ents %hile Pi-$an and Tzŭ-hsM $ne% the course of e(ents but not the minds of their masters' The saintly man $no%ing both is al%ays secure'" .)ai9lo@ once taught t%o men ho% to select horses that $ic$ habitually' -ater3 he %ent %ith them to /iscount hien*s stable to inspect the horses' &ne of the men pulled out a $ic$ing horse' The other man A %ent near behind the horse and patted its flan$ three times3 but the horse ne(er $ic$ed' D Therefore3 the man %ho had pulled out the horse E thought he had been %rong in the %ay of selection' Bet the other man said+ "Bou %ere not %rong in the %ay of selection' The shoulders of this horse are short but its laps are s%ollen' The horse that $ic$s habitually has to raise the hindlegs and lay its %hole %eight upon the forelegs' Bet s%ollen laps are not dependable' So the hind legs cannot be raised' Bou %ere s$ilful in selecting $ic$ing horses but not in obser(ing = the s%ollen laps'" /erily3 e(erything has the supporter of its %eight' Ho%e(er3 that the forelegs ha(e s%ollen laps and therefore cannot support its %hole %eight3 is $no%n only by intelligent men' Hui Tzŭ said+ "Suppose the mon$ey %as put into a cage3 it %ould turn as clumsy as the pig'" For the same reason3 as long as the position is not con(enient3 nobody can e5ert his ability' /iscount #?n3 a general of the #ei State3 once called on Ts?ng Tsŭ ' Ts?ng Tzŭ did not stand up but as$ed him to ta$e a seat %hile he set himself on a seat of honour' I -ater3 /iscount #?n said to his coachman+ "Ts?ng Tzŭ is rustic' If he thin$s I am a gentleman3 %hy should he pay me no respectL If he thin$s I am a rascal3 %hy should he offend a rascalL That Ts?ng Tzŭ has ne(er been humiliated is good luc$'" .

on*t beat the dog' Bou %ill do the same3 too' Supposing the dog %ent out %hite and came bac$ blac$3 %ouldn*t you feel strangeL" Hui Tzŭ said+ "If Hou Bi put the thimble 9@ on his right thumb3 held the middle of the edge %ith his left hand3 dre% the bo%3 and then released the string3 then e(en men of BMeh %ould contentiously go to hold the target for him' But %hen a small child dra%s the bo%3 then e(en the compassionate mother %ill run into the house and shut the door'" Hence the saying+ "If certain of no miss3 e(en men of BMeh %ould not doubt Hou Bi' If not certain of no miss3 e(en the compassionate mother %ill escape her small child'" .uring the inter(ie%3 are you sure the Prime Minister %ill be presentL &ther%ise3 you might not be able to e(ade disasters'" hi Tzŭ3 accordingly3 persuaded the 0uler of the need of ta$ing care of his health 99 and lea(ing the state affairs in the hands of able (assals' Bang hu*s younger brother3 Bang Pu3 once %ore %hite clothes and %ent out' .ll coachmen became Fealous of him' Therefore3 he said3 "Thy ser(ant %hen dri(ing can catch deer'" So he %as granted an audience' #hen the )ing himself dro(e3 he could not catch any deer' Then the man dro(e and caught them' The )ing praised his dri(ing3 %hen he told the )ing about the coachmen*s Fealousy of him' #hen hing ordered )ung-sun h!ao 9E to lead the e5peditionary forces against h!?n3 his father-in-la% sa% him off3 saying3 " hin is strong' Be sure to ta$e precautions against their reinforcements'" "#hy should Father %orryL" said )ung-sun h!ao' "I %ill rout the hins on your behalf'" ".u$e Huan of h!i once as$ed )uan hung if there %as any limit of %ealth' In reply )uan hung said+ "#here there is no more %ater3 there is the limit of %ater' #here there is content %ith %ealth3 there lies the limit of %ealth' If one cannot stop %ith his content3 it is because he forgets 9A the limit of %ealth'" In Sung there %as a rich merchant named hien hih Tzŭ' &nce3 %hen he %as competing %ith other people for buying an uncut Fade 8uoted at one hundred taels of gold3 he pretended to drop it and thereby brea$ it by mista$e' .s it started raining3 he too$ off the %hite clothes and put on blac$ ones' 6pon his return3 his dog3 unable to recognize him3 bar$ed at him' Bang Pu became (ery angry and %as about to beat it3 %hen Bang hu said+ ".s a result3 he had to pay one hundred taels of gold for the damage' Then he repaired the brea$age and sold it for t%enty thousand taels' 9D Thus3 affairs are started and are sometimes ruined' People must ha(e considered it %ise not to ha(e started the competition at the moment %hen the merchant had to pay the damages' &nce there %as a man %ho o%ing to his s$ilfulness in dri(ing %anted to see the )ing of hing' .The Prime Minister of Sung %as po%erful and in charge of all important decisions' #hen hi Tzŭ %as about to (isit the 0uler of Sung3 -iang Tzŭ heard about it and said to him+ ".ll right3" said his father-in-la%' "Then I %ill build a hut outside the south gate of the capital of h!?n and %ait there for mournful ne%s'" "#hy do you say thatL" as$ed h!ao' "I ha(e to laugh3" replied the old man3 "at the thought that if it is so easy to scheme for the ruin of enemies as you suppose3 %hy should )ou-chien alone ha(e to endure ten years* hardships in secret and solitudeL" .

u$e Huan of h!i sent spies to %atch him' They came bac$ %ith the report that Prince hiu3 inasmuch as he ne(er reFoiced %hen laughing and ne(er sa% %hen loo$ing at a thing3 %ould certainly cause a rebellion' Hearing this3 . man %ho li(ed ne5t-door to a rascal thought of selling off his estate and thereby $eeping a%ay from him' Thereupon someone said to him3 "His string of %ic$edness %ill soon be full' Better %ait for a %hile'" "I am afraid he is going to do something against me for filling his measure of %ic$edness3" %as the reply' So saying3 the man left for else%here' Hence the saying+ "7o hesitation on the (erge of danger'" onfucius once as$ed his disciples3 "#ho can tell me the %ay Tzŭ-hsi made his nameL" "Tz!ŭ 9= can3" replied Tzŭ-$ung3 "and hopes nobody %ill doubt it' Tzŭ-hsi 9I said+ !Be broad-minded3 ne(er be enticed by profit3 and $eep the people upright' By nature the people follo% certain constant principles3 considering croo$edness croo$ed and straightness straight'* " "Bet Tzŭ-hsi could not e(ade a disastrous end3" remar$ed onfucius' ".u$e Huan made the -us $ill him' )ung-sun Hung bobbed his hair and became a ca(alier of the )ing of BMeh' To se(er his relationship %ith him3 )ung-sun Hsi sent someone to tell him3 "I and you %ill no longer be brothers'" In reply )ung-sun Hung said+ "I ha(e my hair cut off' Bou might ha(e your nec$ cut off %hile ser(ing in the army under somebody else' #hat do I ha(e to say to you thenL" True3 in the battle south of hou3 )ung-sun Hsi %as $illed' .ll-under-Hea(en because he ne(er $ne% of HsM Bu' &nce three lice %ere biting a pig and disputing %ith one another' .Bao transferred the rule o(er .ll ministers %ho 8uarrel about public affairs and thereby ruin the state3 are all li$e tape%orms' If buildings are painted %hite and furniture cleansed %ith %ater3 then there is cleanliness' The same is true of human conduct and personality' If there is left no room for further painting and cleansing3 then faults must be fe%' #hen Prince hiu %as about to cause a rebellion3 .uring the rebellion of the .ll-under-Hea(en to HsM Bu' But HsM Bu ran a%ay' #hen he stayed in a farmer*s house3 the farmer put his fur hat out of the guest*s sight' Indeed3 the farmer put his hat out of the sight of HsM Bu %ho had e(en declined the rule o(er .u$e of #hite he %as $illed' Hence the saying+ !#ho pretends to straightness in conduct3 is croo$ed in desire'* " /iscount #?n of hung-hang of hin3 %hile li(ing in e5ile3 once passed through a county to%n3 %hen his follo%ers said+ "The s8uire of this place is an old ac8uaintance of Bour 25cellency' #hy does Bour 25cellency not stay in his house and %ait for the carriage coming from behindL" In reply /iscount #?n said+ "I used to lo(e music3 .nother louse3 passing by them3 as$ed3 "#hat are you disputing aboutL" "#e are fighting for fat places3" replied the three lice' "If you fello%s do not %orry about the arri(al of the mid-%inter festi(al and the burning of the miscanthus3 %hat else should you %orry aboutL" So saying3 the last louse Foined the three in biting the body of the pig and ate as much as they %anted' In the meantime3 the pig became (ery thin3 %herefore people did not $ill it at the time of the festi(al' There is a $ind of %orm called "tape%orm"3 %hich has t%o mouths' &nce they 8uarrelled for food and bit each other3 till they $illed each other' .

gain3 dead persons ne(er feel' If so3 there is no use .id you di(ine your fortunes before you started coming hereL" "Bes3 %e did'" "4ood luc$L" "&f course3 good luc$'" "7o%3 %e are going to $ill you and paint our festi(e drum %ith your blood' #hyL" "That is the reason %hy the omen is good3" replied the t%o men' "#u sent us here to test Bour 25cellency' @J If Bour 25cellency is serious3 they %ill dig deep trenches and build high rampartsH if not3 they %ill rela5 their preparations' 7o% that Bour 25cellency $ills thy ser(ants3 the #us %ill ta$e strict precautions against your attac$' Moreo(er3 the state*s di(ination %as not for one or t%o men' /erily3 if it is not called luc$y to ha(e one subFect $illed and thereby preser(e the %hole state3 %hat isL . Pai )uei once said to the Premier of Sung+ ".s soon as your master gro%s up3 he %ill administer the state affairs himself3 and you %ill ha(e nothing to do' 7o% your master is young and fond of ma$ing a name' Better ma$e the hing State congratulate him on his filial piety' Then your master ne(er %ill depri(e you of your post and %ill pay high respects to you and you %ill al%ays hold high office in Sung'" )uan hung and Pao Shu said to each other+ "The 0uler %ho is e5tremely outrageous3 is bound to lose the State' .rmy said3 ".rrest them and $ill them for painting the festi(e drum %ith their blood'" Then he as$ed3 ".mong all the princes in the h!i State3 the one %orth supporting must be Prince Hsiao-pai3 if not Prince hiu' -et each of us ser(e one of them and the one %ho succeeds first recommend the other'" So saying3 )uan hung ser(ed Prince hiu and Pao Shu ser(ed Hsiao-pai' In the meantime3 the 0uler %as actually assassinated by his subFects' Hsiao-pai entered the capital first and proclaimed himself 0uler' The -us arrested )uan hung and sent him to h!i' Thereupon Pao Shu spo$e to the Throne about him and made him Prime Minister of h!i' Hence the pro(erb saying+ "The magician ma$es good prayers for people but cannot pray for $eeping himself a%ay from e(il spiritsH Surgeon h!in 9< %as s$ilful in curing diseases but unable to treat himself %ith the needle'" Similarly3 despite his o%n %isdom3 )uan hung had to rely on Pao Shu for help' This is e5actly the same as %hat a (ulgar pro(erb says3 "The sla(e sells fur coats but does not buy them3 the scholar praises his elo8uent speeches but does not belie(e in them'" The )ing of hing attac$ed #u' #u sent hM #ei and hMeh Bung to entertain hing*s troops %ith presents' The ommander of the hing .%hen this man presented me %ith an automatic harp' #hen I li$ed girdle ornaments3 he presented me %ith a Fade bracelet' In this %ay3 he aggra(ated my indulgences' #ho ingratiated himself %ith me by using such articles as presents3 %ill ingratiate himself %ith others by using me as a present too'" So saying3 he left the place' Mean%hile3 the man actually retained /iscount #?n*s t%o carriages that arri(ed later and presented them to his ruler' hou Ts!ao once said to )ung T!a3 "#ill you tell the )ing of h!i that if His MaFesty helps me attain to high office in #ey %ith h!i*s influence I %ill in return ma$e #ey ser(e h!iL" "7o3" replied )ung T!a' "Bour re8uest %ill sho% him your being po%erless in #ey' I am sure the )ing of h!i %ould not help any po%erless man in #ey and thereby incur hatred from the po%erful men in the country' Therefore3 you had better say3 !#hate(er His MaFesty %ants3 thy ser(ant %ill ma$e #ey do accordingly'* Then the )ing of h!i %ould thin$ you are po%erful in #ey and support you' In this %ay3 after you become influential in h!i3 you %ill gain influence in #ey %ith h!i*s support'" 9.

painting the drum %ith the blood of thy ser(ants' If dead persons can feel and $no%3 thy ser(ants %ill ma$e the drum stop sounding during the battle'" .fter ha(ing been rainy for ten days3 the %eather began to clear @9 up at night' Thereupon the -eft ourt Historiographer Bi Hsiang said to Tzŭ-ch!i+ "It has been raining for ten days' The #us must ha(e assembled piles of armour and a number of troops' To-night they %ould come' Better ma$e preparations against their raid'" .fter they found out that Mar8uis #?n had intended to patch up a peace bet%een them3 both paid (isits to the ourt of #ey' h!i attac$ed -u and demanded the tripod made in h!an' -u sent them a forged one' "It*s a forged one3" said the h!is' "It*s a real one3" said the -us' "Then bring Boch?ng Tzŭ-ch!un here to loo$ at it3" said the h!is' "#e %ill listen to %hat he is going .ccordingly3 the )ing ceded as bribe to hing the land of fi(e hundred li on the shady side of the .ccordingly3 they pitched their camps' @@ Before the camps %ere completed3 the #us actually arri(ed3 but3 seeing the camps of the hings3 they %ithdre%' "The #us ha(e made a round trip of si5ty li3" remar$ed the -eft ourt Historiographer' "By this time their officers must be resting3 and their soldiers eating' If %e go thirty li and attac$ them3 %e %ill certainly be able to defeat them'" .ccordingly3 they pursued them and routed #u*s troops by long odds' #hen Han and hao %ere menacing each other3 the /iscount of Han as$ed for reinforcements from #ey3 saying3 "#e hope you %ill lend us troops to attac$ hao'" In reply Mar8uis #?n of #ey said3 "#ey and hao are brothers' I cannot listen to you'" -i$e%ise3 %hen hao as$ed for reinforcements from #ey to attac$ Han3 Mar8uis #?n of #ey said3 "#ey and Han are brothers' I dare not listen to you'" 0ecei(ing no reinforcements3 both countries %ere angry and %ithdre%' .e% Mountains' hing attac$ed h!?n' But #u %ent to rescue it' There %as only thirty li bet%een the opposing armies' .ccordingly3 the hings did not $ill them' 2arl hih %as about to attac$ the h!ou-yu State3 and found the path too hazardous to go through' Thereupon he cast large bells and offered to present them to the 0uler of h!ou-yu' The 0uler of h!ou-yu3 greatly pleased thereby3 thought of clearing up the path for accepting the bells' "7o3" said h!ih-chang #an-chi3 "he is acting in the %ay a small state pays respects to a big po%er' 7o% that a big state is sending us such a present3 soldiers %ill certainly follo% it' .o not accept it'" To this counsel the 0uler of h!ouyu %ould not listen but accepted the bells in the long run' Therefore3 h!ihchang #an-chi cut the na(es of his carriage short enough for the narro% road and dro(e a%ay to the h!i State' Se(en months after%ards h!ou-yu %as destroyed' BMeh ha(ing already (an8uished #u as$ed for reinforcements from hing in order to attac$ hin' Thereupon the -eft ourt Historiographer Bi Hsiang said to the )ing of hing+ "Indeed3 BMeh on smashing #u had able officers $illed3 bra(e soldiers e5tinguished3 and hea(ily-armed %arriors %ounded' 7o% they are as$ing for reinforcements from us to attac$ hin and sho%ing us that they are not e5hausted' #e had better raise an army to partition #u %ith them'" "4ood3" said the )ing of hing3 and3 accordingly3 raised an army and pursued the BMehs' 2nraged thereby3 the )ing of BMeh thought of attac$ing the hings' "7o3" said the High &fficer hung' "&ur able officers are practically all gone and hea(ily-armed %arriors %ounded' If %e fight them3 %e %ill not %in' Better bribe them'" .

u$e3 and3 accordingly3 started building %alls around the Pot Hill and told the .s long as Bour 25cellency remains po%erful in h!i3 %hy should he care about HsMehL Bet once you lose po%er in h!i3 then though the city %alls of HsMeh are as high as hea(en3 you %ill labour in (ain'" "0ight3" said the -ord of h!ing-$uo3 and3 accordingly3 ne(er built %alls around HsMeh' The younger brother of the )ing of hing %as in h!in' #hen h!in refused to send him home3 a certain lieutenant @E spo$e to the )ing3 "May Bour MaFesty finance thy ser(ant %ith one hundred taels of gold' Then thy ser(ant %ill be able to ma$e Prince #u come home'" .u$e P!ing' In reply he said+ "The younger brother of the )ing of hing is in h!in but h!in refuses to send him home' This means that h!in has hatred for hing' Therefore3 h!in %ill certainly not dare to protest against our construction of %alls around the Pot Hill' If they do3 then %e %ill tell them that if they let the younger brother of the )ing of hing go home3 %e %ill not build the %alls' In case they let Prince #u go home3 %e %ill place the hings under obligation to us' In case they refuse to send him home3 they %ill e5ecute their %ic$ed plan and therefore certainly not dare to protest against our construction of the %alls around the Pot Hill'" "0ight3" said the .to say'" Thereupon the 0uler of -u as$ed Bo-ch?ng Tzŭ-ch!un to ta$e his side' "#hy did you not send them the real oneL" as$ed Bo-ch?ng Tzŭ-ch!un' "Because I lo(e it3" replied the 0uler' "I lo(e my o%n reputation3 too3" replied Bo-ch?ng' #hen Han hiu proclaimed himself 0uler and e(erything %as not as yet stabilized3 his younger brother %as in hou' The ourt of hou %anted to support him but feared the Hans might not accept him' @A Thereupon h!i-mu Hui said+ "The best is to send him bac$ %ith one hundred chariots' If the people accept him3 %e %ill say that the chariots are precautions against emergencies' If they refuse to accept him3 %e %ill say that %e are deli(ering their traitor to them'" #hen the -ord of h!ing-$uo @D %as about to build city %alls around HsMeh3 many of his guests remonstrated against the plan' The -ord of h!ing-$uo3 therefore3 told the usher not to con(ey their messages to him' Ho%e(er3 there came a man from h!i %ho re8uested an inter(ie%3 saying3 "Thy ser(ant begs to spea$ only three %ords' If he utters more than three %ords3 he %ill be %illing to be steamed to death'" The -ord of h!ing-$uo3 therefore3 granted him an audience' The (isitor ran for%ard and said3 "Big sea fish3" and then ran a%ay' "May I $no% its meaningL" as$ed the -ord of h!ing-$uo' "Thy ser(ant dare not regard dying as Fo$ing3" said the (isitor' "Be $ind enough to e5plain its meaning to me3" insisted the -ord of h!ing-$uo' In reply the (isitor said+ "Has Bour Highness e(er heard about the big fishL 7either the net can stop it nor the string arro% can catch it' #hen it Fumps at random and gets out of %ater3 then e(en ants %ould ma$e fun of it' 7o%3 %hat the h!i State is to Bour 25cellency3 that is the sea to the big fish' .ccordingly3 he too$ one hundred taels of gold along and %ent to hin' There he called on Shu-hsiang and said+ "The younger brother of the )ing of hing is in h!in but h!in %ould not let him go home' Therefore His MaFesty %ith one hundred taels of gold as present begs Bour 25cellency to help his brother go home'" Ha(ing accepted the money3 Shu-hsiang %ent to see .u$e P!ing of hin @= and said+ "It is no% time to construct %alls around the Pot Hill'" "#hyL" as$ed .u$e of h!in that if he %ould send the younger brother of the )ing of hing home3 the hins %ould not build the %alls' In accordance %ith the demand h!in sent .

had a son' &n going to ta$e up his official post3 he said to the family fol$s3 "Be sure to repair the bro$en places on the mud fence' &ther%ise3 bad men might come in to steal things'" Some d%eller in the same alley also said3 ")eep the fence in good repairG" . man of h?ng @.' hao Bung-hsien suspected that there %ere hiatus belo% this passage' <' #ith )ao H?ng Q means ü' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ê might ha(e been a mista$e for ý' 99' #ith )u öJ should be öK' 9@' #ith #ang Bin-chi þ should be ÿ' 9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen m should read 忘' 9D' á鎰' &ne yi %as e8ui(alent to t%enty taels' 9E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen s: should be s孫朝 and so throughout the %hole illustration' 9=' The personal name of Tzŭ-$ung' .ctually a thief bro$e into the house' The family3 @< therefore3 considered the young man %ise but suspected that the d%eller in the same alley %ho had %arned them %as the thief' 'otes 9' 說林下' @' His real name %as Sun Bang' A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen –ø馬=“人 should be remo(ed from belo% =“人 to the place abo(e à ËpX¤3 and = means 之' D' I regard # belo% ø as superfluous' E' 7amely3 –ø馬之“人ÃËpX¤' =' #ith )ao H?ng ) sometimes means ù' I' ú means û3 the south-%estern corner of the sitting-room %here seats of honour %ere reser(ed' .Prince #u bac$ to hing' Thereat the )ing of hing %as greatly pleased3 and presented hin %ith t%o thousand taels of fused gold' Ho-lM attac$ed Bing and in the fighting %on three battles' Then he as$ed Tzŭ-hsM3 "May %e turn bac$ no%L" In reply Tzŭ-hsM said+ "#ho %ants to dro%n anybody and stops after gi(ing him one drin$3 cannot dro%n him to death' @I 2(en to $eep gi(ing him %ater3 is not as 8uic$ as to follo% the force of circumstances and sin$ him'" .

n-yM3 being slo%-minded3 %ore bo%strings on his feet to ma$e himself 8uic$' Therefore3 the ruler %ho supplies scarcity %ith abundance and supplements shortness %ith length is called "an intelligent so(ereign"' There are in .' The ".ee+s1 -en of anti8uity3 because their eyes stopped short of self-seeing3 used mirrors to loo$ at their facesH because their %isdom stopped short of self-$no%ing3 they too$ Tao to rectify their characters' The mirror had no guilt of ma$ing scars seenH Tao had no demerit of ma$ing faults clear' #ithout the mirror3 the eyes had no other means to rectify the %his$ers and eyebro%sH %ithout Tao3 the person had no other %ay to $no% infatuation and be%ilderment' For the same reason3 Hsi-m?n Pao3 being 8uic$tempered3 purposely %ore hide on his feet to ma$e himself slo%H Tung .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Óq should be qÓ' 9<' 7amely3 Pien h!iao : ide supra& pp' @9D-9E>' @J' #ith -u #?n-shao 怒 belo% ›軍 is superfluous' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen O means 晴' @@' ï should be 陣' @A' I propose the change of 恐韓咎不1p into 恐韓人不1之' @D' 7amely3 T!ien Bing3 son of )ing #ei of h!i and father of -ord M?ngch!ang' @E' The 6mperial #i$rary has 中尉 in place of 中射' @=' #ith Hiraza%a 之 bet%een ˺ and 晉平s is superfluous' @I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 逆 should be à' @. (bser!ing .ifficulties in the #ay of Persuasion" has å in place of Ï : ide supra& p' 99J>' @<' #ith #ang Hsien-shen =ò should be supplied abo(e Ë=:"™' Chapter 22I0.9I' #ang Hsien-shen suspected that 孔:B %as a mista$e for :西B' 9.ll-under-Hea(en three truths+ First3 that e(en %ise men find unattainable tas$sH second3 that e(en strong men find immo(able obFectsH and third3 that e(en bra(e men find in(incible opponents' For instance3 though you ha(e the %isdom of Bao but ha(e no support of the masses of the people3 you cannot accomplish any great achie(ementH though you ha(e the physical force of #u Huo but ha(e no help from other people3 you cannot raise yourselfH and though you ha(e the strength of M?ng P?n and Hsia BM and uphold neither la% nor tact3 you cannot triumph for e(er' @ Therefore3 certain positions are .

afety an+ .s the lord of men has these three obFects to face3 if he e5presses the colours of Foy and anger3 "personages of gold and stone" = %ill be estranged %hile the %ise and shre%d %ill e5plore the depth of the ruler*s mentality' Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign obser(es people*s deeds but ne(er lets people obser(e his o%n moti(es' 7o% that you understand the inability of Bao to accomplish the rule by himself3 the inability of #u Huo to raise his o%n body by himself3 and the inability of M?ng P?n and Hsia BM to triumph by themsel(es3 if you uphold la% and tact3 then the course of obser(ing deeds %ill be completed' 'otes 9' 觀[' Beginning %ith this3 si5 successi(e %or$s gi(e the summary ideas of Han Fei Tzŭ*s legalism' oncise and simple3 they seem to ha(e been the miscellaneous records of his teachings %hose details he de(eloped in other %or$s' @' I propose ²¡ for ²K' Because in the last sentence of this chapter there is found ²¡ instead of ²K in regard to the function of the ability of P?n and BM' A' £ implies "opportunities"' D' Ø' E' -' =' 金石之} refers to those men %hose talents are as precious as gold and %hose minds are as stable as stones' Chapter 220. .untenableH certain tas$s3 unattainable' Thus3 #u Huo found a thousand chMn light but his o%n body hea(y' 7ot that his body %as hea(ier than a thousand chMn3 but that position %ould not facilitate his raising his o%n body' In the same %ay3 -i hu found it easy to see across one hundred steps but difficult to see his o%n eyelashes' 7ot that one hundred steps %ere near and eyelashes far3 but that the %ay of nature %ould not permit him to see his o%n eyelashes' For such reasons3 the intelligent so(ereign neither reproaches #u Huo for his inability to raise himself nor embarrasses -i hu %ith his inability to see himself' Bet he counts on fa(ourable circumstances and see$s for the easiest %ay3 so that he e5erts small effort and accomplishes both an achie(ement and a reputation' Times A %a5 and %aneH affairs D help and harmH and things E come into e5istence and go into e5tinction' .anger1 The means of safety ha(e se(en (arietiesH the %ays to danger3 si5' &f the means of safety+K The first is said to be "re%ard and punishment in accordance %ith right and %rong"' .

The second is said to be "fortune and misfortune in accordance %ith good and e(il"' The third is said to be "life and death in accordance %ith la%s and institutions"' The fourth is said to be "discrimination bet%een the %orthy and un%orthy but not bet%een the lo(ed and the hated"' The fifth is said to be "discrimination bet%een the stupid and the %ise but not bet%een the blamed and the praised"' The si5th is to "ha(e feet and inches but let nobody guess the ruler*s mind"' The se(enth is to "ha(e good faith but no falsehood"' &f the %ays to danger+K The first is to "ma$e cuts %ithin the string"' The second is to "ma$e brea$s beyond the string"' @ The third is to "profit by people*s danger"' The fourth is to "reFoice in people*s disaster"' The fifth is to "endanger people*s safety"' The si5th is "not to $eep intimate %ith the lo(ed nor to $eep the hated at a distance"' In cases li$e the abo(e-mentioned3 people %ill lose the reason to reFoice in life and forget the reason to ta$e death seriously' If people do not reFoice in life3 the lord of men %ill not be held in high esteemH if people do not ta$e death seriously3 orders %ill not ta$e effect' -et .ll-under-Hea(en de(ote their %isdom and talent to the refinement of manners and loo$s and e5ert their strength to the obser(ance of yard and %eight3 A so that %hen you mo(e3 you triumph3 and3 %hen you rest3 you are safe' #hen go(erning the %orld3 ma$e men reFoice in life in doing good and ma$e them lo(e their bodies too much to do e(il' Then small men %ill decrease and superior men %ill increase' onse8uently3 the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain %ill stand for e(er and the country %ill be safe for aye' In a rushing carriage there is no need of hung-niH beneath a %rec$ed ship there is no use of Po-i' So are commands and orders the ship and carriage of the state' In time of safety3 intelligent and upright men D are bornH in case of danger3 there arise disputants and rustics' Therefore3 $eeping the state safe is li$e ha(ing food %hen hungry and clothes %hen cold3 not by %ill but by nature' The early $ings left principles of go(ernment on bamboo slips and pieces of cloth' Their course of go(ernment being proper3 subse8uent ages follo%ed them' In the present age3 to ma$e people discard clothes and food %hen they are hungry and cold3 e(en M?ng P?n and Hsia BM E cannot e5ecute such an order' #hoe(er discards the %ay of nature3 though his course of go(ernment is proper3 cannot hold %ell' #here(er e(en strong and bra(e men cannot e5ecute orders3 there the superiors cannot be safe' #hen the insatiable .

a small country could (an8uish his big one' The intelligent so(ereign consolidates internal forces and therefore encounters no e5ternal failure' #ho fails %ithin his reach3 is bound to fail at a distance' For instance3 the hous on supplanting the Bins learned by the latter*s failures in the court' Should the Bins ha(e made no mista$e in their court3 e(en for an autumn do%n < the hous .gain3 hieh I %as the Son of Hea(en but sa% no distinction bet%een right and %rong3 re%arded men of no merit3 too$ slanderers into ser(ice3 respected hypocrites as noble3 censured innocent men3 ordered men born humpbac$ed to ha(e their bac$s cut open3 appro(ed falsehood3 and disappro(ed inborn reason' In conse8uence3 .fter the bone has been pierced through3 the body suffers a little pain but the person secures a permanent benefit' .fter the ear has been offended3 the mind feels some%hat th%arted but the state secures a permanent ad(antage' Therefore3 seriously ill persons gain by enduring painsH stubborn-minded rulers ha(e good luc$ only through ear-offending %ords' If patients could endure the pain3 Pien h!iao could e5ert his s$ill' If the ruler*s ear could be offended3 Tzŭ-hsM %ould not ha(e ended in failure' Thus3 pain-enduring and ear-offending are means to longe(ity and security' 7aturally3 %hen one %as ill but could not endure pain3 he %ould miss Pien h!iao*s s$illH %hen one is in danger but does not %ant to ha(e his ear offended3 he %ill miss the sage*s counsels' #ere such the case3 no permanent benefit %ould continue nor %ould any glorious fame last long' If the lord of men does not culti(ate himself %ith Bao as e5ample but re8uests e(ery minister to imitate Tzŭ-hsM3 he is then doing the same as e5pecting the Bins to be as loyal as Pi )an' If e(erybody could be as loyal as Pi )an3 the ruler %ould neither lose the throne nor ruin himself' .s the ruler does not %eigh the ministers* po%ers despite the e5istence of rapacious ministers li$e T!ien h!?ng but e5pects e(erybody to be as loyal as Pi )an3 the state can ne(er ha(e a moment of safety' If the e5ample of Bao and Shun is set aside and that of hieh and ho% is follo%ed instead3 then the people can neither reFoice in their o%n merits nor %orry o(er their o%n defects' If they lose their merits3 the country %ill accomplish nothingH if they stic$ to the defects3 they %ill not reFoice in life' If the authorities ha(ing accomplished nothing attempt to rule the people not reFoicing in life3 they %ill not succeed in unifying the people' Should such be the case3 the superiors %ould ha(e no %ay to employ the inferiors %hile the inferiors %ould find no reason to ser(e the superiors' Safety and danger rest %ith right and %rong but not %ith strength and %ea$ness' 25istence and e5tinction depend upon substantiality and superficiality3 but not on big and small numbers' For e5ample3 h!i %as a state of ten thousand chariots3 but her name and her reality %ere not mutually e8ui(alent' The ruler had superficial po%ers inside the state and pa(ed no gap bet%een name and reality' Therefore3 ministers could depri(e the so(ereign of the throne' .superiors blame the e5hausted inferiors3 the latter %ill al%ays gi(e "7o more" as reply' #hen they gi(e "7o more" as reply3 they slight the la%' The la% is %hat the state is go(erned by' If it is slighted3 neither merit %ill be rendered nor name %ill be made' They say that3 of old3 Pien h!iao3 %hen treating serious = diseases3 pierced through bones %ith $ni(es' So does the sage on rescuing the state out of danger offend the ruler*s ear %ith loyal %ords' .

The Way to %aintain the .s high and lo% are li(ing in harmony3 users of forces e5ert their strength to the obser(ance of yard and %eight and stri(e to play the role of C?n P!iH %arriors march out at the ris$ of their li(es A and hope to accomplish the merits of M?ng P?n and Hsia BMH and upholders of the true path all cherish the mind of gold and stone to die in the cause of fidelity as Tzŭ-hsM did' If the users of forces are as strong as C?n P!i and fight .%ould not dare to hope from them' Ho% much less %ould they dare to shift their throneL The Tao of the intelligent so(ereign is true to the la%3 and his la% is true to the mind' Therefore3 %hen standing close by it3 he acts on the la%H %hen going a%ay from it3 he thin$s of it in the mind' Thus3 Bao made no co(enant as binding as glue and (arnish %ith his age3 but his Tao pre(ailed' Shun left no territory sufficient to set a gimlet on %ith subse8uent ages3 but his Teh is bearing fruit' #ho can trace his Tao to remote anti8uity and lea(e his Teh to the myriad subse8uent ages3 is called "an enlightened so(ereign"' 'otes 9' G危' @' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ì should be 繩' That is the in$ed string of the carpenter3 %hich in this case means the fi5ed rule' A' 7amely3 orders and prohibitions' D' Such as hung-ni and Po-i' E' I propose 育 for •' =' #ang Hsien-shen proposed 甚 for =' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Î should be 桀' .tate1 #hen a sage-$ing ma$es la%s3 he ma$es re%ards sufficient to encourage the good3 his authority sufficient to subFugate the (iolent3 and his preparation sufficient to accomplish @ a tas$' Ministers of an orderly age3 %ho ha(e rendered the country many meritorious ser(ices3 hold high posts' Those %ho ha(e e5erted their strength3 recei(e big re%ards' Those %ho ha(e e5erted the spirit of loyalty3 establish names' If good3 they li(e on as flo%ers and insects do in springH if bad3 they die out as flo%ers and insects do in autumn' Therefore3 the people stri(e to apply all their forces and reFoice in e5erting the spirit of loyalty' This is said to ha(e high and lo% li(ing in harmony' .' I propose the supply of — abo(e *Ý¡x' <' 秋毫 is the do%n on hares and plants in autumn or the tip of an autumn spi$elet3 %hich in this case means the tiniest thing' Chapter 220I.

ll-under-Hea(en to the care of the -a% of Bao3 honest men ne(er miss their due posts and %ic$ed men ne(er see$ any godsend' If the arro% of Hou Bi is entrusted %ith a thousand taels of gold3 Po-i cannot lose and 0obber h? dare not ta$e' .s Bi %as too s$ilful to miss the mar$3 the thousand taels of gold %ould not be lost' Thus3 %ic$ed men could not li(e long3 and 0obber h? %ould stop' Should such be the case3 among the pictures there %ould be inserted no %orthy li$e Tsai BM and enumerated no rapacious ministers li$e the Si5 7oblesH among the boo$s there %ould be recorded no personage li$e Tzŭ-hsM and described no tyrant li$e Fuch!aH the tactics of Sun #u and #u h!i %ould be abandonedH and 0obber h?*s malice %ould gi(e %ay' Then the lord of men might enFoy sound sleep inside the Fade palace %ith no trouble of glaring his eyes and grinding his teeth %ith anger and turning his ear %ith an5ietyH %hile the ministers might drop their clothes and fold their hands in an iron-%alled city %ith no calamity of seeing their arms clutched3 their lips shut tight3 and hearing sighs and griefs' To subdue the tiger not by means of the cage3 to suppress the culprit not by means of the la%3 or to impede the liar not by means of the tally3 %ould be a %orry to P?n and BM and a difficulty to Bao and Shun' Therefore3 to construct a cage is not to pro(ide against rats but to enable the %ea$ and timid to subdue the tigerH to establish la%s is not to pro(ide against Ts?ng Ts!an and Shih h!iu but to enable the a(erage so(ereign .ll-under-Hea(en %ill become Fust and fair and the common people %ill become right-spirited' &nce the lord of men lea(es the la% and loses the hearts of the people3 he %ill fear lest Po-i should ta$e anything a%ay3 and %ill not escape such calamities as are caused by T!ien h!?ng and 0obber h?' #hyL Because the present %orld has not a single man as upright as Po-i but the age is full of culprits' That is the reason %hy la%s3 %eights3 and measures are made' If %eights and measures are of faith3 Po-i loses no reason to be right and 0obber h? cannot do %rong' If la%s are distinct and clear3 the %orthy cannot o(er-run the un%orthy3 the strong cannot outrage the %ea$3 and the many cannot (iolate the fe%' If the ruler commits .s Bao %as too cle(er to miss the culprits3 .as bra(ely as P?n and BM %hile cherishing the mind of gold and stone3 then the ruler of men can sleep %ithout %orries D and his preparations for the maintenance of the state are already complete' In by-gone days3 the good maintainers of the state forbade %hat they considered light %ith %hat they considered hea(y3 and stopped %hat they considered easy %ith %hat they considered hard' Therefore3 both gentlemen and rustics %ere e8ually upright' 0obber h? and Ts?ng Ts!an and Shih h!iu %ere e8ually honest' Ho% do I $no% thisL Indeed3 the greedy robber does not go to the ra(ine to snatch gold' For3 if he goes to the ra(ine to snatch gold3 he %ill not be safe' Similarly3 P?n and BM3 %ithout estimating their opponents* strength3 %ould ha(e gained no fame for bra(eryH 0obber h?3 %ithout calculating the possibilities of success3 %ould ha(e gained no booty' #hen the intelligent so(ereign enacts prohibitions3 e(en P?n and BM are restrained by %hat they cannot (an8uish and 0obber h? is afflicted %ith %hat he cannot ta$e' Therefore3 if the ruler can forbid %ith %hat P?n and BM cannot transgress and maintain %hat 0obber h? cannot ta$e3 the (iolent %ill become prudentH the bra(e3 respectfulH and the %ic$ed3 upright' Then .llunder-Hea(en had no %ic$edness' .

s they clarified the principles of re%ard and punishment3 Po-i and 0obber h? %ere ne(er mi5ed up' That being so3 %hite and blac$ %ere clearly distinguished from each other' Ministers of an orderly state render meritorious ser(ice to the country so as to fulfil their official duties3 manifest their talents in office so as to obtain promotions3 and de(ote their strength to the obser(ance of yard and %eight so as to manage affairs' . abo(e # is superfluous' =' #ith #ang #ei Q is a mista$e' I propose 審 for it' Chapter 220II.s the ruler $no%s ho% to honour ran$s and ma$e re%ards definite3 he can ma$e people apply their strength to the obser(ance of yard and %eight3 die in the cause of their official duties3 understand the real desire of P?n and BM not to choose the death penalty before a peaceful life3 and scrutinize = the co(etous acts of 0obber h? so as not to ruin their characters for the sa$e of money' Then the %ay to maintain the state is completely pa(ed' 'otes 9' 守j' @' -u #?n-shao suspected that ì belo% 完 %as superfluous' A' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n there are hiatuses belo% this passage' D' ^枕 literally means to use a high pillo% %hile asleep' E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen .to prohibit 0obber h?H and to ma$e tallies is not to guard against #ei Sh?ng but to ma$e the masses ne(er decei(e one another' Thus3 the right %ay is not to rely on Pi )an*s martyrdom in the cause of fidelity nor to count on the rapacious minister*s committing no deception3 but to rely on the ability of the timid to subdue the tiger and appropriate the facilities of the a(erage so(ereign to maintain the state' In the present age3 %ho schemes loyally for the so(ereign and accumulates (irtue for .s they conformed to the %ay of hea(en3 they e5pended fe% efforts3 but har(ested fruitful results' .ll-underHea(en3 finds no ad(antage more permanent than thisG E If so3 the ruler of men %ill see no figure of a doomed state and the loyal ministers %ill cherish no image of a ruined personality' .s they accorded %ith the nature of man3 penal acts %ere simplified3 but orders too$ effect' .s all officials ha(e due abilities3 are competent for their duties3 and do not co(et any additional post @ H and as they ha(e no ulterior moti(e in mind and shift no responsibility of any of their additional offices to the rulerH inside there occurs no uprising from hidden resentment nor does such a disaster as caused by the -ord of Ma-fu A happen outside' . Ho" to 6se %en$ Proble&s of Personnel A+&inistration1 They say the ancients %ho %ere s$ilful in personnel administration al%ays conformed to the %ay of hea(en3 accorded %ith the nature of man3 and clarified the principles of re%ard and punishment' .

ll-under-Hea(en %ill not be able to harm one another' Such is the height of order' asting la% and tact aside and trusting to personal Fudgments3 e(en Bao could not rectify a state' .u$e #?n in the cause of righteousness3 and3 being unable to bear the thirst of the . had neither ran$ nor bounty but follo%ed .u$e*s mouth and the hunger of his stomach3 sliced off his o%n flesh to feed his .The intelligent ruler allo%s no offices to meddle %ith each other3 %herefore no dispute can happenH no personage to hold an additional post3 %herefore e(erybody*s talented s$ill can impro(eH and nobody to share the same meritorious ser(ice %ith anybody else3 %herefore no ri(alry can ensue' #hen ri(alry and dispute cease and talents and specialities gro%3 the strong and the %ea$ %ill not struggle for po%er3 ice and charcoal %ill not mi5 their features3 D and .ccordingly3 %orthies are encouraged by re%ards and ne(er meet Tzŭ-hsM*s disasterH un%orthy people commit fe% crimes and ne(er see the humpbac$ being cut openH blind people %al$ on the plain and ne(er come across any deep ra(ineH stupid people $eep silent and ne(er fall into hazards' Should such be the case3 the affection bet%een superior and inferior %ould be %ell founded' The ancients said3 "It is hard to $no% the mind' It is hard to balance Foy and anger'" Therefore3 the so(ereign uses bulletins to sho% the eye3 instructions E to tell the ear3 and la%s to rectify = the mind' If the ruler of men discards these three easy measures and practises the sole difficult policy of mind-reading3 then anger %ill be accumulated by the superior and resentment %ould be accumulated by the inferior' #hen accumulators of anger are go(erning accumulators of resentment3 both %ill be in danger' The bulletins of the intelligent so(ereign being so easy to see3 his promises $eep' His teachings being so easy to understand3 his %ords function' His la%s being so easy to obser(e3 his orders ta$e effect' #hen these three things are %ell founded and the superiors ha(e no self-see$ing mind3 the inferiors %ill obey the la% and maintain orderH %ill loo$ at the bulletin and mo(eH %ill follo% the in$ed string and brea$H and %ill follo% the flat pins I and se%' In such a case3 superiors %ill incur no bad name for selfishness and arrogance nor %ill inferiors recei(e any blame for stupidity and a%$%ardness' Hence the ruler is enlightened and rarely angry %hile the people are loyal and rarely guilty' They say3 "To manage an affair and ha(e no %orry3 e(en Bao %ould be unable'" Bet the %orld is al%ays full of affairs' The ruler of men3 unless generous in conferring titles and bounties and easy in re%arding people of merit %ith riches and honours3 is not %orth helping in sa(ing his Feopardized state' Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign encourages men of integrity and bashfulness and in(ites men of bene(olence and righteousness' &f yore3 hieh Tzŭ-t!ui .iscarding compasses and s8uares and trusting to optional measures3 e(en Hsi hung could not ma$e a single %heel' 4i(ing rulers up and thereby attempting to ma$e shortness and length e(en3 e(en #ang 2rh could not point out the middle' Supposing an a(erage so(ereign abode by la% and tact and an uns$ilful carpenter used compasses3 s8uares3 and rulers3 certainly there %ould be no mista$e in a myriad cases' #ho rules men3 if he casts aside %hat the %ise and the s$ilful fall short of and maintains %hat the a(erage and the uns$ilful ne(er fail in3 can then e5ert the forces of the people to the utmost and accomplish his achie(ement and reputation' The intelligent so(ereign offers re%ards that may be earned and establishes punishments that should be a(oided' .

" but the conse8uent disaster befalls "B"3 9J then hidden resentment %ill gro%' Therefore3 in the state of the highest order there are re%ard and punishment but neither Foy nor anger' For the same reason3 the sage enacts all $inds of penal la%H %hereas3 though he sentences criminals to death3 he is neither malicious nor cruel' Hence the culprits yield to his Fustice' #here(er the shot arro% hits the mar$ and re%ard and punishment correspond %ith the tallies of merits and demerits3 there Bao can come to life again and Bi can reappear' In such an orderly country3 superiors %ill encounter no catastrophe as met by the Bins and the HsiasH inferiors %ill suffer no disaster as met by Pi-$anH the ruler can sleep %ithout %orriesH ministers can reFoice in their daily %or$H Tao %ill spread all o(er hea(en and earthH and Teh %ill last throughout a myriad generations' Indeed3 if the lord of men3 instead of pa(ing crac$s and gaps3 %or$s hard on painting the surface %ith red and %hite clay3 be sure s%ift rain and sudden gale %ill tumble the .master in the cause of bene(olence' Henceforth the lords of men ha(e cited his (irtue and boo$s and pictures ha(e 8uoted his name' 4enerally spea$ing3 the lord of men reFoices in ma$ing the people e5ert their strength for public causes and suffers by the usurpation of his authority by self-see$ing ministers' The minister feels content %hen recei(ing appointment to office and o(erburdened %hen ta$ing charge of t%o responsibilities at one time' The intelligent so(ereign3 therefore3 abolishes %hat the ministers suffer and establishes %hat the lord of men reFoices in' Such an ad(antage to both superior and inferior is surpassed by nothing else' ontrary to this3 if the ruler fails to obser(e closely the interiors of pri(ate residences3 handles important affairs %ith slight concerns of mind3 inflicts se(ere censure for minor offences3 resents small faults for a long time3 habitually teases people for amusement*s sa$e and fre8uently re8uites trouble-ma$ers %ith fa(ours3 it is the same as to cut off the arm and replace it %ith a Fe%el one' Hence the %orld encounters calamities of dethronement' If the lord of men institutes difficult re8uirements and con(icts anybody %hosoe(er falls short of the mar$3 then secret resentment %ill appear' If the minister disuses his merit and has to attend to a difficult %or$3 then hidden resentment %ill gro%' If toil and pain are not remo(ed and %orry and grief are not appeasedH if the ruler3 %hen glad3 praises small men and re%ards both the %orthy and the un%orthy3 and3 %hen angry3 blames superior men and thereby ma$es Po-i and 0obber h? e8ually disgraced3 then there %ill be ministers rebelling against the so(ereign' Supposing the )ing of Ben hated his people at home but lo(ed the -us abroad3 then Ben %ould not ser(e him nor %ould -u obey him' The Bens3 < as hated3 %ould not e5ert their strength to render him meritorious ser(icesH %hile the -us3 though delighted3 %ould ne(er forget the death-or-life 8uestion and thereby become intimate %ith the so(ereign of another state' In such a case3 the ministers %ould fall into discordH the lord of men3 into isolation' The country in %hich ministers in discord ser(e the so(ereign left in isolation3 is said to be in a great danger' Supposing you discarded the mar$ and target and shot blindly3 then though you hit it3 you %ould not thereby be s$ilful' Similarly3 supposing you cast la%s and institutions aside and got angry blindly3 then3 though you slaughter many3 the culprits %ould not be afraid of you' If the crime is committed by ".

u$e #?n of hin' <' #ith )u )uang-ts!? W should be supplied abo(e º'' 9J' ( in hinese is often used as ".cting contrary to the hearts of the people3 e(en P?n and BM cannot ma$e them e5ert . Achie!e&ent an+ 1ep)tation1 The factors of the intelligent ruler*s success in accomplishing achie(ement and establishing reputation are four+ The first is said to be "the time of hea(en"H the second3 "the hearts of the people"H the third3 "technical ability"H and the fourth3 "influential status'" #ithout the time of hea(en3 e(en ten Baos cannot in %inter gro% a single ear of grain' .house do%n' -i$e%ise3 if he does not escape the impending disaster as near as the eyebro%s and eyelashes but yearns after the manner of the death of P?n and BMH if he ta$es no heed of the imminent trouble %ithin the enclosure but solidifies the iron castles in remote frontiersH and if he does not adopt the schemes of the %orthies near by him but culti(ates friendships %ith the states of ten thousand chariots a thousand li a%ayH then once the %hirl%ind arises3 P?n and BM %ill not be in time to rescue him nor %ill foreign friends arri(e in time3 till the catastrophe %ill be surpassed by none' In the present age3 %hoe(er gi(es loyal counsels to the so(ereign3 should neither ma$e the )ing of Ben li$e the -us3 nor ma$e the modern age yearn after the %orthies of anti8uity3 nor e5pect the BMehs to rescue the dro%ning persons in the entral States' Should such be the case3 superior and inferior %ould be mutually affectionate3 great achie(ement %ould be accomplished at home3 and good reputation %ould be established abroad' 'otes 9' U人' The 2nglish rendering by -' T' h!?n is "The 6se of Men" :-iang h!i-ch!ao3 op' cit'3 p' 9@93 n' A>' @' #ith #ang Hsien-shen =) means 不!l' A' The title of hao )ua3 ommander of the hao .rmy3 defeated by 4eneral Pai h!i in @=J $+c+ at h!ang-p!ing' D' This is to say3 good and bad people3 %ho are as clearly differentiated from each other as ice and charcoal are3 %ill not be confused %ith each other' E' )u )uang-ts!? proposed " for #' =' #ith )u " is a mista$e but no correction is made' I propose $ for it' I' BM BMeh proposed % for &' .' ." in 2nglish to symbolize a certain thing or person' So is C e8ui(alent to "B"' Chapter 220III. loyal follo%er of Prince h!ung-erh3 subse8uently .

their forces to the utmost' Therefore3 %hen grains gain the fa(our of the time of hea(en3 they gro% of themsel(es %ith no need of special careH %hen the ruler %ins the hearts of the people3 he ele(ates himself %ithout being raised' #hen one relies on his technical ability3 he hastens by himself %ithout being hurried' #hen one occupies an influential status3 his name is made %ithout being commended' -i$e %ater flo%ing and li$e the ship floating3 the ruler follo%s the course of nature and enacts boundless decrees' Hence he is called "an enlightened so(ereign"' Indeed3 the possessor of talent %ho has no position3 e(en though he is %orthy3 cannot control the un%orthy' For illustration3 %hen a foot of timber is placed on the top of a high mountain3 it o(erloo$s the ra(ine a thousand fathoms belo%' 7ot that the timber is long3 but that its position is high' hieh3 %hile the Son of Hea(en3 could rule o(er . %eight of one thousand chMn3 if aboard a ship3 floatsH but the utmost farthing3 if o(erboard3 sin$s' 7ot that one thousand chMn is light and the utmost farthing is hea(y3 but that the former has a fa(ourable position %hile the latter has none' Therefore3 the short thing can by its location o(erloo$ the tall oneH the un%orthy man can by his position rule o(er the %orthy' The lord of men3 because supported by .ll-under-Hea(en %ith united forces3 is safeH because upheld by the masses of the people %ith united hearts3 he is glorious' The minister3 because he maintains his merit and e5erts his ability3 is loyal' If a glorious so(ereign @ rules loyal ministers3 e(erybody in the state can li(e a long and enFoyable life and accomplish achie(ement and reputation' 7ame and reality %ill support each other and %ill be accomplished' Form and shado% %ill coincide %ith each other and stand together' Hence so(ereign and minister ha(e the same desire but different functions' The an5iety of the lord of men comes from the absence of minister*s responses to his call' Hence the saying+ "7obody can clap %ith one hand3 ho%e(er fast he mo(es it'" The an5iety of the minister lies in the inability to secure a full-time routine of %or$' Hence the saying+ "The right hand dra%ing a circle and the left hand dra%ing a s8uare at the same time cannot both succeed'" Hence the saying again+ "In the state at the height of order the ruler is li$e the drumstic$ and the minister li$e the drumH the techni8ue is li$e the carriage and the tas$ li$e the horse'" Therefore3 men ha(ing surplus strength respond easily to callsH techni8ues ha(ing e5cessi(e s$ill are con(enient to tas$s' &n the contrary3 if those %ho accomplish achie(ements are not sufficiently strongH if those %ho are near and dear to the ruler are not sufficiently faithfulH if those %ho ha(e made names are not sufficiently influentialH if only those %ho %or$ %ithin the ruler*s reach become intimateH and if those %ho are stationed far a%ay are not familiarH such %ill instance the discrepancy bet%een name and fact' If the position of a sage li$e Bao and Shun in (irtue and li$e Po-i in conduct is not supported by the %orld3 his achie(ement %ill not be accomplished and his reputation %ill not be established' Therefore3 the ancients %ho could secure both achie(ement and reputation3 %ere all assisted by the multitudes %ith forces3 the near supporting them in earnest3 A the distant praising them %ith names3 and the honourable supporting them %ith .ll-under-Hea(en' 7ot that he %as %orthy but that his position %as influential' Bao3 %hile a commoner3 could not rectify three families' 7ot that he %as un%orthy but that his position %as lo%' .

influences' Such being the case3 their achie(ements as magnificent as Mountain T!ai ha(e stood permanently in the country and their reputations as glorious as the sun and the moon ha(e shone upon hea(en and earth for e(er and e(er' It %as in such %ise that Bao faced the south and maintained his reputation and Shun faced the north and accomplished his achie(ement' D 'otes 9' . The Principal eat)res of Legalis&1 The ancients %ho completed the principal features of legalism3 loo$ed upon hea(en and earth3 sur(eyed ri(ers and oceans3 and follo%ed mountains and ra(inesH %herefore they ruled as the sun and the moon shine3 %or$ed as the four seasons rotate3 and benefited the %orld in the %ay clouds spread and %inds mo(e' They ne(er burdened their mind %ith a(arice @ nor did they e(er burden themsel(es %ith selfishness3 but they entrusted la% and tact %ith the settlement of order and the suppression of chaos3 depended upon re%ard and punishment for praising the right and blaming the %rong3 assigned all measures of lightness and hea(iness to yard and %eight' They ne(er acted contrary to the course of hea(en3 ne(er hurt the feeling and reason of man$ind3 ne(er ble% off any hair to find small scars3 ne(er %ashed off any dirt to in(estigate anything hard to $no%3 ne(er dre% the in$ed string off the line and ne(er pushed the in$ed string inside the line3 and %as neither se(ere beyond the boundary of la% nor lenient %ithin the boundary of la%H but obser(ed ac$no%ledged principles and follo%ed self-e5istent standards' Thus3 disaster and fortune %ere based on rational principles and legal regulations3 but not on lo(e and hateH the responsibility for prosperity and humility rested %ith nobody but oneself' Therefore3 in the age at the height of safety la% is li$e the morning de%3 pure and simple but not yet dispersed' There is no resentment in the mind nor is there any 8uarrelsome %ord from the mouth' arriages and horses3 accordingly3 are not %orn out on the roadH flags and banners are ne(er confused on the big s%ampsH the myriad people do not lose li(es among bandits and %eaponsH courageous %arriors do not see their longe(ities determined by flags and streamers A H e5cellent men are not reputed in pictures and boo$s nor are their merits recorded on plates and (ases D H and documents of annals are left empty' E Hence the saying+ "7o benefit is more permanent than simplicity3 no fortune is more perpetual than security'" = Supposing arpenter Stone $ept the longe(ity of one thousand years3 had his scythes3 %atched his compasses and s8uares3 and stretched his in$ed string3 for the purpose of .?' @' #ith #ang #ei J should not be repeated' A' #ith )ao H?ng u reads )' D' This refers to the time %hen Bao %as ruler and Shun %as minister' Chapter 22I2.

rectifying Mountain T!ai I and supposing P?n and BM girdled the )an-chiang .ll-under-Hea(en ne(er ordered arpenter Stone to e5ert his s$ill and thereby brea$ the shape of Mountain T!ai nor did they instruct P?n and BM to e5ercise all their authorities and thereby harm the inborn nature of the myriad people'" If in accordance %ith Tao3 the la% is successfully enforced3 the superior man %ill reFoice and the great culprit %ill gi(e %ay' Placid3 serene3 and leisurely3 the enlightened ruler should in accordance %ith the decree of hea(en maintain the principal features of legalism' Therefore3 he ma$es the people commit no crime of going astray from la% and the fish suffer no disaster by losing %ater' onse8uently3 nothing in . S%ord to unify the myriad people3 then though s$ill is e5erted to the utmost e5tent and though longe(ity is prolonged to the utmost limit3 Mountain T!ai %ould not be rectified and the people %ould not be unified' Hence the saying+ "The ancient shepherds of .ll-under-Hea(en %ill be unattainable' If the superior is not as great as hea(en3 he ne(er %ill be able to protect all inferiorsH if his mind is not as firm as earth3 he ne(er %ill be able to support all obFects' Mountain T!ai3 seeing no difference bet%een desirable and undesirable clouds3 can maintain its heightH ri(ers and oceans3 ma$ing no discrimination against small tributaries3 can accomplish their abundance' -i$e%ise3 great men3 patterning after the features of hea(en and earth3 find the myriad things %ell pro(ided3 and3 applying their mind to the obser(ation of mountains and oceans3 find the country rich' The superior sho%s no harm from anger to anybody3 the inferior thro%s no calamity of hidden resentment at anybody' Thus3 high and lo% both li(e on friendly terms and ta$e Tao as the standard of (alue' onse8uently3 permanent ad(antages are piled up and great merits accomplished' So is a name made in a lifetime' So is the benefaction left to posterity' Such is the height of order' 'otes 9' x•' This chapter seems to ha(e been interposed by follo%ers of Han Fei Tzŭ3 %ho attempted to $eep his ideas more Taoistic than the master himself' The %hole %or$ sounds li$e the description of a Taoistic 6topia' @' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the 6mperial #i$rary has • in place of ™' A' It means that they ne(er ha(e to die on the battlefield' D' In ancient hina merits of great men %ere often inscribed on such (essels' E' Such are supposed to be some scenes of the Taoistic 6topia' =' The ideal implied in this saying is typically Taoistic' I' #Ä # seems to be a mista$e for *' .' +› : ide supra& p' D93 n' @>' .

u$e Ssŭ %anted political order3 but3 not $no%ing any special $ind of statecraft3 merely made the ministers hostile to one another' For the same reason3 the intelligent so(ereign %ould infer the need of guarding against rapacious ministers from the reason for piling iron bars on the %alls of the room as measures against stray arro%s3 and Fudge the e5istence of an impending calamity in the mar$et-place from the allegation of facts by three men' 7.e!en Tacts1 There are se(en tacts %hich the so(ereign ought to employ3 and si5 minutiQ %hich he ought to penetrate' &f the se(en tacts3 the first is said to be "comparing and inspecting all a(ailable different theories"H the second3 "ma$ing punishment definite and authority clear"H the third3 "besto%ing re%ards faithfully and e(erybody e5ert his ability"H the fourth3 "listening to all sides of e(ery story @ and holding e(ery spea$er responsible for it"H the fifth3 "issuing spurious edicts and ma$ing pretentious appointments"H the si5th3 "in8uiring into cases by manipulating different information"H and the se(enth3 "in(erting %ords and re(ersing tas$s'" These se(en are %hat the so(ereign ought to employ' 1.u$e Ssŭ3 $no%ing the necessity of ma$ing punishment definite3 bought bac$ a labour fugiti(e' 3. Comparing Different Views3 If the so(ereign does not compare %hat he sees and hears3 he %ill ne(er get at the real' If his hearing has any particular passage to come through at all3 he %ill be deluded by ministers' The saying is based on the clo%n*s dream of a coo$ing sto(e and on . aking !"nishment Definite If the ruler is too compassionate3 the la% %ill ne(er pre(ail' If the authority is too %ea$3 the inferior %ill offend the superior' For this reason3 if penalties are not definite3 prohibitions and decrees %ill ta$e no effect' The saying is based on Tung Tzŭ*s tour to the Stony ountry and Tzŭch!an*s instruction to Bu hi' For further illustration3 hung-ni tal$ed about the function of frost3 the -a% of Bin punished anybody thro%ing ashes into the streets3 the high%ay guards left Bo h!ih3 and )ungsun Bang strictly censured minor offences' &n the contrary3 the gold-dust in the lear #ater %as not $ept safe3 the fire at the Product S%amp %as not suppressed' h!?ng Huan thought that e5treme bene(olence %ould %ea$en the h!i StateH Pu P!i thought that compassion and beneficence %ould ruin the )ing of #ey' )uan hung3 $no%ing the necessity of ma$ing prohibitions strict3 e5tended Furisdiction o(er dead persons' . Inner Congeries of . #estowing $eward and Hono"r .eries$ .i*s saying that his mind became be%ildered because of no ad(isory council' For further illustration3 the man of h!i claimed to ha(e seen the 2arl of the 0i(er3 Hui Tzŭ remar$ed that the ruler had lost half the brains in the country' Its contrary is instanced by the star(ation of Shu Sun by Shu 7iu and the interpretation of hing*s customary la% by hiang Bi' . The 6pper .u$e .Chapter 222.ayings.

.If re%ard and honour are insufficient and faithless3 the inferior %ould not obey' If re%ard and honour are great and of faith3 the inferior %ill ma$e light of death' The saying is based on /iscount #?n*s saying3 "The inferior turn to great re%ard and high honour Fust li$e the %ild deer going to lu5uriant grass'" For further illustration3 the )ing of BMeh set fire to the palace building3 #u h!i leaned the shaft of a carriage outside the city-gate3 -i )!uei Fudged la%suits on the basis of the litigants* shooting abilities3 and the people of h!ung-m?n in Sung %ould on account of re%ard and honour reduce themsel(es to death' )ou-chien3 $no%ing the utility of re%ard and honour3 saluted an angry frogH Mar8uis hao3 $no%ing the utility of re%ard and honour3 stored up old trousers' Big re%ard3 indeed3 ma$es e(erybody as bra(e as M?ng P?n and huan hu' #omen daring to pic$ up sil$%orms and fishermen daring to grasp eels3 both testify to the utility of re%ard and honour' D 8. aking !retentio"s &ppointments If someone has fre8uent audience %ith his superior and is accorded a long reception but not appointed to any office3 then (illainous men %ill disperse in his presence li$e deer in all directions' If the superior sends men out to find anything other than %hat is in 8uestion3 the inferior %ould not dare to sell pri(ate fa(ours' Therefore3 P!ang hing recalled the sheriff3 Tai Huan ordered men to find out if there %as any co(ered %agon3 the So(ereign of hou purposely lost Fade bod$ins3 and the Premier of Shang spo$e about o5 dung' :. anip"lating Different *nformation If you ma$e in8uiries by manipulating different information3 then e(en un$no%n details %ill come to the fore' If you $no% e(erything of something3 then all the hidden %ill be seen in a different light' The saying is based on Mar8uis hao*s holding one of his nails in his fist' For further illustration3 %hen the $no%ledge of the conditions outside the south gate became definite3 conditions going on in the other three directions %ere found out3 too' The So(ereign of hou loo$ed for croo$ed canes3 %herefore the officials became afraid of him thereafter' Pu P!i employed = a petty official as detecti(e' Hsi-m?n Pao pretended I to ha(e lost the linchpin of his carriage' . %istening to &ll 'ides of ()ery 'tory If the ruler listens straight to one proFect alone3 he cannot distinguish bet%een the stupid and the intelligent' If he holds e(ery proFector responsible3 ministers cannot confound their abilities' The saying is based on the demand of the h?ng territory by #ey and on the playing of the BM instrument' Its opposite is instanced by Sh?n Tzŭ*s employment of hao Shao and Han Ta to test the opinion of the 0uler of Han' For further instance3 Prince h!ih E suggested the cession of the territory east of the Bello% 0i(erH Mar8uis Bing proposed to loosen the garrison at Shang-tang' 9. purposely slandered hiu Shu3 7ao h!ih fabricated an en(oy from h!in3 the h!is %anted to create disturbances3 . *n)erting Words In(ert %ords and re(erse affairs3 and thereby cross-e5amine the suspect' Then you %ill get at the reality of culprits' Thus3 Shan-yang .

u$e in anger3 "%ho sees the lord of men in dreaming dreams the sun' #hy did you see a coo$ing sto(e in your dream of His HighnessL" In reply the d%arf said+ "Indeed3 the sun shines upon e(erything under hea(en %hile nothing can co(er itH the ruler of men reigns all o(er the country %hile nobody can delude 9J him' .i 9A as$ed3 "In spite of the common saying3 !4etting be%ildered because of not ha(ing three persons to consult %ith3* %hy is it that -u cannot help becoming disorderly3 although I consult %ith the %hole nationL" In reply Ben Tzŭ said+ "The ancient saying3 !4etting be%ildered because of not ha(ing three persons to consult %ith3* means that as one person may miss the point %hile the other t%o may get at it3 three persons are sufficient to form an ad(isory council' Hence the saying3 !4etting be%ildered because of not ha(ing three persons to consult %ith'* 7o% that the officials throughout the -u State3 numbering hundreds and thousands3 all tal$ in accordance %ith the pri(ate bias of the hi lan3 though the number of persons is not small3 yet %hat they say is the opinion of one man' Then ho% can there be threeL" &nce somebody of h!i said to the )ing of h!i+ "The 2arl of the 0i(er is a great god' #hy may Bour MaFesty not try to meet %ith himL May thy ser(ant enable Bour MaFesty to meet %ith himG" Thereupon he built an altar on the middle of the flood and stood %ith the )ing upon it' In the meantime3 there %as a big fish ma$ing motions' "That is the 2arl of the 0i(erG" said the man' .ccordingly3 %ho sees the lord of men in dreaming3 dreams the sun' In the case of a coo$ing sto(e3 ho%e(er3 if one person stands before it3 then nobody from behind can see' 7o%3 supposing someone %ere standing before Bour Highness3 %ould it not be possible for thy ser(ant to dream of a coo$ing sto(e 99 L" &nce .u$e3 said3 "The dream of thy ser(ant has materialized3 indeed'" "#hat did you dreamL" as$ed the .s I understand3" said the .u$e Ssŭ purposely made his men go through the pass of the city' So much abo(e for the canons' &nnotations to Canon *+< .u$e' "Thy ser(ant dreamt that a coo$ing sto(e stood in lieu of Bour Highness3" replied the clo%n' "#hatL .u$e .i of -u as$ed onfucius3 saying3 "In spite of the popular pro(erb3 !4etting be%ildered because of no ad(isory council3* %hy is it that in administering the state affairs the more I consult %ith the body of officials the more disorderly the state becomesL" In reply onfucius said+ "#hen the enlightened so(ereign as$s ministers about state affairs3 one minister might $no% %hile another might not $no%' In that case3 the enlightened so(ereign can preside o(er a conference %hile the ministers earnestly discuss the affairs before him' 7o% that e(ery official utters e(ery %ord in accord %ith the opinion of hi Sun and the %hole State of -u falls under the s%ay of one and the same bias3 e(en though Bour Highness consults %ith e(erybody %ithin the state boundaries3 the state cannot help becoming disorderly'" .ccording to a different source 9@ + #hen Ben Bing Tzŭ (isited the court of -u3 .Tzŭ-chih lied about the %hite horse3 Tzŭ-ch!an separated the litigants3 and .u$e -ing of #ei3 Mi Tzŭ-hsia %as in fa(our %ith him3 and administered all public affairs in the #ei State' &ne day3 the clo%n3 < %hile inter(ie%ing the .t the time of .u$e .

s a result3 Shu Sun ate nothing and star(ed to death' #hen Shu Sun %as already dead3 Shu 7iu intentionally held no funeral ser(ice3 but mo(ed his pri(ate storages and treasure bo5es3 emptied them3 and ran a%ay to h!i' Indeed3 if anybody listens to the %ords of a trusted croo$ and in .hang Bi %anted to attac$ h!i and hing %ith the allied forces of h!in3 Han3 and #ey3 %hile Hui Shih %anted to halt the %ar by befriending h!i and hing' The t%o opened a debate' The officials and the chamberlains all spo$e in fa(our of hang Tzŭ3 pointing out the ad(antage of attac$ing h!i and hing3 %hile nobody spo$e in fa(our of Hui Tzŭ' The )ing actually follo%ed hang Tzŭ*s ad(ice3 considering Hui Tzŭ*s proposal impracticable' .fter the e5pedition against h!i and hing had been successfully carried out3 Hui Tzŭ %ent into the court to ha(e an audience3 %hen the )ing said+ "Sir3 you should not ha(e said anything at all' The e5pedition against h!i and hing actually turned out to our ad(antage' .ngered thereby3 he banished Ping' Ping ran out and escaped to h!i' &ne year later3 Shu 7iu on behalf of Ping apologized to Shu Sun' Shu Sun then ordered Shu 7iu to recall Ping' #ithout recalling Ping3 Shu 7iu in his report said3 "I ha(e already summoned Ping3 but he is (ery angry and %ill not come'" Shu Sun3 enraged thereby3 ordered men to $ill him' .fter all3 e(ery scheme is a doubt from the outset' #ho really doubts at all3 usually considers e(ery scheme half practicable and half impracticable' 7o% that all brains of the nation too$ the practicable side3 it means that Bour MaFesty lost half the brains3 namely3 the brains of the negati(e side' The so(ereign intimidated by %ic$ed ministers is3 as a rule3 a loser of half the brains in the country'" #hen Shu Sun %as Premier of -u3 he %as influential and in charge of all state affairs' His fa(ourite3 named Shu 7iu3 also abused his orders' Shu Sun had a son named C?n' Cealous of C?n3 Shu 7iu %anted to $ill him' .ccordingly3 he %ent %ith C?n to (isit the inner court of the 0uler of -u' The 0uler of -u besto%ed upon him a Fade ring' C?n3 ma$ing a deep bo%3 accepted it' But he dared not hang it on his girdle and so told Shu 7iu to secure Shu Sun*s permission beforehand' .nd the %hole nation had so e5pected'" Thereupon Hui Tzŭ said+ "May Bour MaFesty not refrain from deliberating upon the %hole situationG Indeed3 the e5pedition against h!i and hing turned out to our ad(antage' .s a matter of fact3 C?n has already had se(eral inter(ie%s %ith the 0uler3" said Shu 7iu' "The 0uler besto%ed upon him a Fade ring3 %hich he has already started %earing'" Thereupon Shu Sun summoned C?n and found him actually %earing it on his girdle' .nd so had the %hole nation e5pected' Ho% numerous %ise men %ereG If the e5pedition against h!i and hing turned out to our disad(antage %hile the %hole nation had e5pected the ad(antage3 then ho% numerous must stupid men ha(e beenL .fter the death of the t%o sons3 Shu Sun fell ill3 %herefore Shu 7iu alone too$ care of him3 discharged the attendants3 and %ould not let anybody else in3 saying3 "Shu Sun does not %ant to hear anybody*s noise'" .ngered thereby3 Shu Sun $illed C?n' C?n*s elder brother %as named Ping' Shu 7iu %as also Fealous of him and %anted to $ill him' So he cast a bell for Ping' #hen the bell %as ready3 Ping dared not toll it and so told Shu 7iu to secure Shu Sun*s permission beforehand' Instead of securing the permission for him3 Shu 7iu again decei(ed him and said+ "I ha(e already secured his permission for you to toll it'" Therefore Ping tolled it' Hearing this3 Shu Sun said3 "#ithout securing my permission Ping tolled the bell at his o%n pleasure'" .ecei(ing him3 Shu Sun said+ "I ha(e already secured his permission for you to %ear it'" Therefore C?n %ore it on his girdle' Shu 7iu then purposely said to Shu Sun3 "#hy does Bour 25cellency not present C?n to the 0ulerL" "#hy is the boy %orth presentingL" said Shu Sun' ".

u$e of #hite*s rebellion in(ol(e no danger at allL If you uphold such a customary la%3 then (icious ministers %ill be pardoned for committing capital crimes'" .conse8uence father and son are put to death3 it is the calamity of not comparing different (ie%s' #hen hiang Bi %as sent by the )ing of #ey as en(oy to hing3 he said to the )ing of hing+ ".u$e Ssŭ' Indeed3 if arro%s come from a certain direction3 then pile iron bars in that direction to guard against them' If arro%s come from un$no%n directions3 then ma$e an iron%alled room to guard against all of them' If one guards against them this %ay3 his body %ill recei(e no inFury' Therefore3 in the %ay one guards against all arro%s and recei(es no inFury3 the ruler should stand in opposition to all ministers and thereby encounter no culprit' #hen P!ang )ung together %ith the ro%n Prince %as going to Han-tan as hostage3 he said to the )ing of #ey+ "7o%3 if someone says there in the mar$et-place is a tiger3 %ill Bour MaFesty belie(e itL" "7o3 I %ill not belie(e it3" replied the )ing' "Then3 if t%o men say there in the mar$etplace is a tiger3 %ill Bour MaFesty belie(e itL" "7o3 I %ill not belie(e it3" %as another reply' "If three men say there in the mar$et-place is a tiger3 %ill Bour MaFesty belie(e itL" "I %ill belie(e it3" affirmed the )ing finally' Thereupon P!ang )ung said+ "That there is no tiger in the mar$et-place is clear enough3 indeed' 7e(ertheless3 because three men allege the presence of a tiger3 the tiger comes into e5istence' 7o% that Han-tan is far more distant from the #ey State than the mar$et-place is from the court and those %ho criticize thy ser(ant are more than three men3 may Bour MaFesty deliberate o(er the mission of thy ser(antG" .fter entering the boundaries of Bour MaFesty3 thy ser(ant heard that3 according to the customary la% of your honourable $ingdom3 a gentleman should neither obscure anybody else*s (irtue nor e5pose anybody else*s (ice' .o you really ha(e such a customary la%L" " ertainly3 %e doG" replied the )ing' "If so3 did the .n 9I -yM3 Magistrate of the 6pper -and in the hao State3 once toured the mountains in the Stony ountry' Seeing there a deep gorge %ith steep sides li$e high %alls3 one hundred fathoms deep at least3 he as$ed the (illagers in the surrounding (icinities3 "Has anybody e(er %al$ed into this gorgeL" "7obody3" replied they' "Then has any child or baby or any blind or deaf man or any insane or unconscious person .u$e Ssŭ $ne% the need of suffering no delusion but ne(er got at the right techni8ue' Indeed3 if the so(ereign does not allo% the humble to criticize the noble and the inferior to denounce 9E the superior3 but al%ays e5pects the po%ers of high and lo% to balance3 then ministers on e8ual footing %ill dare to conspire %ith each other' In so doing he %ill increase the number of delusi(e and deceitful officials' Thus %as begun the delusion of .s e5pected3 %hen P!ang )ung returned from Han-tan3 he could not secure an admission 9= into the city' &nnotations to Canon **+< Tung .u$e 9D Ssŭ of #ei had confidence in Cu 2rh and lo(ed Princess Shih' Fearing lest both should delude him because of his confidence and lo(e3 he purposely ennobled Po Bi to ri(al Cu 2rh and fa(oured Princess #ey to counteract Princess Shih and said3 "This is to ma$e one compare himself or herself %ith the other'" .

fter my death you %ill certainly be appointed Premier of h?ng' Then be sure to handle the people %ith se(erity' Indeed3 fire appears se(ere3 %herefore men rarely get burnedH %ater appears tender3 %herefore men often get dro%ned' Bou must not forget to ma$e your penalties se(ere and do not immerse yourself in tenderness'" .fter a combat lasting a %hole day and a %hole night3 he finally %as barely able to o(ercome them' Ta$ing a hea(y breath3 Bu hi sighed and said+ " ould I ha(e practised my master*s instruction early3 I %ould not ha(e come to regret to this pointG" .u$e . death3 ho%e(er3 Bu hi could not bear applying se(ere penalties' Mean%hile3 young men in h?ng follo%ed one another in becoming robbers and established themsel(es on the Bushy Tail S%amp ready to menace h?ng at any time' Thereupon Bu hi led chariots and ca(alrymen and fought %ith them' .fter Tzŭ-ch!an*s 9.e(er %al$ed into itL" "7o3" they replied similarly' "Then has any o5 or horse or dog or pig e(er %al$ed into itL" "7o3" %as again the reply' Thereat Tung .n-yM hea(ed a deep sigh3 saying+ "-oG I ha(e ac8uired the ability to go(ern the people' &nly if I ma$e my la% grant no pardon Fust li$e the %al$ into the gorge al%ays leading to death3 then nobody dare to (iolate it' .nd if anybody obscures the sight of others3 he %ould irritate them' #hen irritated3 they start 8uarrelling' &n 8uarrelling3 each side %ould mobilize their three clans @9 to slaughter the other' It means that thro%ing ashes into the streets leads to the mutual onslaught bet%een the three clans of both sides' Therefore it is right to punish any offender' Indeed3 hea(y punishment is disli$ed by the people3 but thro%ing no ashes is easy to them' To ma$e the people do easy things and not ignore their disli$e is the right %ay of go(ernment'" .i of -u once as$ed hung-ni+ "There is the record in the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals that in %inter during the month of Canuary 9< frost does not $ill grass' @J #hy %as there made such a recordL" In reply hung-ni said+ "This is to say that %hat ought to be $illed %as not $illed' Indeed3 frost should $ill grass but ne(er $ills it' Peach.ccording to a different source+ .nd e(erything %ill be %ell go(erned'" Tzŭ-ch!an3 Premier of h?ng3 %hen ill and about to die3 said to Bu hi+ ".and plum-trees bear fruits in %inter' If hea(en loses its proper course3 e(en grass and trees %ill (iolate and transgress it' Ho% much more %ould the people do so if the ruler of men loses his true pathL" The -a% of Bin %ould punish anybody thro%ing ashes into the streets' This Tzŭ-$ung regarded as too se(ere and so as$ed hung-ni about it' "They $ne% the right %ay of go(ernment3" replied hung-ni' "Indeed3 ashes thro%n into the streets %ould blo% into the eyes of the passers-by and obscure their sight' .ccording to the -a% of Bin3 %hoe(er thre% ashes on the public road should ha(e his hands cut off' Tzŭ-$ung said+ "The crime of ashthro%ing is light but the punishment of hand-cutting is hea(y' #hy %ere the ancients so cruelL" In reply onfucius said+ "7ot to thro% ashes is easy but to ha(e hands cut off is disli$ed' The ancients considered it easy to enforce the easy and pre(ent the disli$ed' Therefore they enacted the la%'" Bo h!ih3 Premier of entral Hills3 %hen appointed en(oy to hao3 too$ one hundred chariots along and selected the %ise and able men among his guests to be his high%ay guards' &n the %ay they became disorderly' "4entlemen3" said Bo h!ih3 "I regarded you as %ise and appointed you high%ay guards' 7o% that you are creating a commotion on the %ay3 %hat is the reasonL" The guests3 accordingly3 resigned from .

their posts and %ent a%ay3 saying+ "Bour 25cellency does not $no% the right %ay of go(ernment' Indeed3 it needs prestige to $eep people @@ obedient and it needs profit to encourage them' @A Therefore good go(ernment is possible' 7o%3 thy ser(ants are Bour 25cellency*s Funior guests' Indeed3 to employ the Funior in disciplining the senior and the lo% in go(erning the high and thereby become unable to e5ercise the authorities of re%ard and punishment to control the subordinates3 is the cause of confusion' Suppose you employ your subordinates on trial3 appoint the good ones ministers3 and behead those not good' Then ho% could there be disorderL" The -a% of )ung-sun Bang too$ minor offences seriously' MaFor offences are hard for men to commit %hile small faults are easy for men to remo(e' To ma$e men get rid of easy faults and not ignore difficult offences is the right %ay of go(ernment' Indeed3 %hen small faults ne(er appear3 big offences %ill not come into e5istence' For this reason3 men committed no crime and disorder did not appear' .ll-under-Hea(en is a great ad(antage3 but he %ould not accept it as he $ne% he %ould be put to death' Therefore3 if not al%ays caught3 people ne(er stop stealing gold-dust despite the danger of being stoned to death' But if they are certain of being put to death3 then they dare not accept e(en the reign o(er .u$e .i' Thereupon hung-ni issued the order that absence in the suppression of the fire should be sentenced to the same punishment as surrender to or escape from enemies and hunting animals should be sentenced to the same punishment as trespass upon the inner court of the palace' In conse8uence3 the fire %as put out before the order spread all o(er' .s the northern %inds appeared3 the fire spread south%ard' Fearing lest the state capital might be burned3 .u$e .i trembled and personally directed the masses in suppressing the fire' Mean%hile3 he found nobody around3 all ha(ing gone to hunt animals and lea(ing the fire unsuppressed' Thereupon he summoned hung-ni and as$ed him about it' "Indeed3 hunting animals3" said hung-ni3 "is a pleasure and incurs no punishment' But putting out the fire is a hardship and promises no re%ard' That is the reason %hy the fire is not put out'" "0ight3" remar$ed .ll-under-Hea(en and put you to death3" then e(en a mediocre man %ould not accept the offer' Indeed3 the reign o(er .u$e .i' "It is untimely3 ho%e(er3 to offer re%ards Fust in time of emergency li$e this3" added hung-ni' "If Bour Highness has to re%ard all the participants in the suppression of the fire3 then e(en the %hole state %ealth is not enough for re%arding them' Suppose %e enforce the policy of punishment for the time being'" "4ood3" said .ll-under-Hea(en' The -us once set fire to the Product S%amp' .ccording to a different source+ )ung-sun Bang said3 "In applying penalties3 ta$e light ones seriously because if light penalties are not applied3 hea(y ones %ill not come at all' This is said to be getting rid of penalties by means of penalties'" @D In the southern part of hing the bottom of the lear #ater produced gold-dust' Many men in secret dug out gold-dust' In accordance %ith the prohibition la%3 a number of gold-diggers %ere caught and stoned to death in the mar$et-place' Then the authorities built %alls to bar the %ater from the people' Still people ne(er stopped stealing gold-dust' Indeed3 no chastisement is se(erer than stoning to death in the mar$et-place' That people ne(er stopped stealing gold-dust %as because the culprits %ere not al%ays caught' In this connection3 supposing someone said3 "I %ill gi(e you the reign o(er .

nd yet the people %ill hold e5pensi(e funeral rites and ne(er stop Ho% can prohibition be effectedL" In reply )uan hung said3 "If people do anything at all3 it is done for profit if not for repute'" Thereupon he issued the order that if the thic$ness of both inner and outer coffin%alls %ere to go beyond legal limits3 the corpse should be cut into pieces and the mourning relati(es should be held guilty' Indeed3 to cut the corpse into pieces %ould create no reputeH to hold guilty the mourning relati(es %ould produce no profit' #hy should the people continue holding e5pensi(e funeral rites thenL .u$e Huan said to )uan hung+ "If the people e5haust cloth this %ay3 nothing %ill be left for national %ealth' If they e5haust %ood this %ay3 nothing %ill be left for military defence' .u$e @.u$e of HsMeh and too lenient to the (arious T!iens' @I If Bour MaFesty is too bene(olent to the .gainst this decision all the officials and attendants remonstrated %ith the )ing3 as$ing %hether it should be practicable to e5change a city for a labour fugiti(e' "Bou3 gentlemen3 do not understand my reason3" e5plained the 0uler' @< "Indeed3 go(ernment must be concerned e(en %ith small affairs so that no serious disturbance can ta$e place' If the la% does not stand firm and censure is not .u$e Ssŭ decided to e5change the ity of Tso-shih for the man' .h!?ng Huan @E said to the )ing of h!i3 "Bour MaFesty is too bene(olent but too lenient to bear censuring people'" "Isn*t it a good name to be too bene(olent and too lenient to bear censuring peopleL" as$ed the )ing' In reply h!?ng Huan said+ "It is good to ministers but not %hat the lord of men ought to do' Indeed3 ministers must be bene(olent in order to be trust%orthy3 and must be lenient to people in order to be accessible' If not bene(olent3 he is not trust%orthyH if not lenient to people3 he is not accessible'" "If so3 to %hom am I too bene(olent and to %hom @= am I too lenientL" as$ed the )ing' In reply h!?ng Huan said+ "Bour MaFesty is too bene(olent to the .t the time of .u$e Ssŭ of #ei heard about this3 he sent men out and offered fifty taels of gold for the purchase money of the fugiti(e' The men %ent bac$ and forth fi(e times3 but the )ing of #ey refused to surrender the con(ict' Thereupon .u$e of HsMeh3 then chief (assals %ill sho% no respect for order' If Bour MaFesty is too lenient to the T!iens3 then uncles and brothers %ill (iolate the la%' If chief (assals sho% no respect for order3 the army %ill become %ea$ abroad' If uncles and brothers (iolate the la%3 then at home the go(ernment %ill fall into disorder' To ha(e the army %ea$ened abroad and the go(ernment disordered at home3 this is the fundamental factor ruining the state'" )ing Hui of #ey said to Pu P!i3 "#hen you hear His MaFesty*s (oice3 ho% does it sound to youL" "Thy ser(ant hears the compassion and beneficence of Bour MaFesty3" %as the reply' "Then to %hat e5tent %ill my achie(ement progressL" as$ed the )ing in great delight' "To the e5tent of ruin3" %as the reply' "To be compassionate and beneficent is to practise good deeds' #hy should such a practice lead to ruinL" %ondered the )ing' In reply Pu P!i said+ "To be sure3 compassion means leniencyH beneficence3 fondness of gi(ing fa(ours' If lenient3 Bour MaFesty %ill not censure those %ho ha(e faultsH if fond of gi(ing fa(ours3 Bour MaFesty %ill besto% re%ards %ithout %aiting for merits to appear' If men guilty of faults are not punished and those of no merit are re%arded3 isn*t ruin the possible outcomeL" The people of the h!i State %ould hold e5pensi(e funeral rites3 till cloth and sil$ fabrics %ere e5hausted by clothes and co(ers3 and %ood and lumber by inner and outer coffin-%alls' #orried o(er this3 . Ssŭ of #ei3 once a labour con(ict escaped to the #ey State and there too$ care of the illness of the 8ueen of )ing Hsiang' #hen .

s soon as the order %as issued3 e(erybody started to practise archery day and night and ne(er stopped' .s soon as somebody remo(ed it3 he %as re%arded according to the order' .ccordingly3 he sent off the fugiti(e in a cart and surrendered him free of charge' &nnotations to Canon ***+< The )ing of h!i once as$ed /iscount #?n ho% to go(ern a state %ell' In reply /iscount #?n said+ "Indeed3 re%ard and punishment as means of political control are sharp %eapons' Bour MaFesty should ha(e them in your grip and ne(er sho% them to anybody else' For ministers turn to re%ard and honour li$e %ild deer going to lu5uriant grass'" The )ing of BMeh once as$ed High &fficial hung3 "I %ant to attac$ #u' Is it practicableL" " ertainly practicable3" replied hung' "&ur re%ards are liberal and of faithH our punishments are strict and definite' If Bour MaFesty %ants to $no% the effect of re%ard and punishment3 %hy should Bour MaFesty hesitate to try setting fire to the palace buildingL" Thereupon fire %as set to the palace building3 %hereas nobody %ould come to put the fire out' .definite3 there is no use in $eeping ten Tso-shihs' If the la% stands firm and censure is definite3 there is no harm e(en by losing ten Tso-shihs'" Hearing about this3 the )ing of #ey said3 "#hen one so(ereign %ants to go(ern %ell3 if another does not listen to him3 it is sinister'" .istrict under Mar8uis #u of #ey3 h!in had a small castle standing close by the state border' #u h!i %anted to attac$ it3 for if it %ere not got rid of3 it %ould remain a serious harm to the farmers in the neighbourhood' Bet3 to get rid of it3 he could not enlist sufficient armed troops' Thereupon he leaned the shaft of a carriage outside the north gate and ordered that anybody able to remo(e the shaft to the outside of the south gate should be a%arded a first-class field and a first-class residence' Bet nobody dared to remo(e it' .ll at once #u h!i placed one picul of red beans outside the east gate and ordered that anybody able to remo(e it to the outside of the %est gate should be re%arded similarly' This time men struggled to remo(e it' Thereupon he issued the order3 "&n storming the castle tomorro%3 the foremost to rush into it shall be appointed High &fficer in the State and a%arded a first-class field and a first-class residence'" Then men as e5pected struggled for precedence to rush into the castle3 so that they stormed it and too$ it in a forenoon' #hen -i )!uei %as 4o(ernor of the 6pper -and under Mar8uis #?n of #ey3 he %anted e(ery man to shoot %ell' So he issued the order that men in(ol(ed in any unsettled legal dispute should be ordered to shoot the target3 and those %ho hit the target should %in the suit and those %ho missed it should lose it' .ccordingly3 an order %as issued that "those %ho die AJ in the suppression of the fire shall be re%arded li$e men $illed by enemies in %ar3 those %ho are not $illed in the suppression of the fire shall be re%arded li$e men (ictorious o(er enemies in %ar3 and those %ho do not ta$e part in putting the fire out shall be held guilty as men surrendering to or escaping from enemies"' In conse8uence3 men %ho painted their bodies %ith mud and put on %et clothes and rushed A9 at the fire numbered three thousands from the left and three thousands from the right' In this %ay the )ing $ne% the circumstances assuring (ictory' #hen #u h!i %as 4o(ernor of the #estern 0i(er .

#hen they came to %ar %ith the h!ins3 they imposed a crushing defeat upon the enemy inasmuch as e(ery one of them %as a good archer' &nce a slum-d%eller of h!ung-m?n in Sung3 by obser(ing funeral rites3 inFured his health and became (ery thin' 0egarding him as filially pious to his parents3 the so(ereign raised him and appointed him Master of &fficial 0ites' In the follo%ing year more than ten men died of physical inFury by obser(ing funeral rites' 7o%3 sons obser(e funeral rites for their parents because they lo(e them' 2(en then the sons can be encouraged %ith re%ards' Ho% much more can ordinary people be encouraged by the ruler and superiorL The )ing of BMeh schemed to attac$ #u' .s he %anted e(erybody to ma$e light of death in %ar3 once %hen he %ent out and sa% an angry frog3 he saluted it accordingly' "#hy should Bour MaFesty pay it such respectsL" as$ed his attendants' "Because it possesses a courageous spirit3" replied the )ing' Starting from the follo%ing year e(ery year there %ere more than ten men %ho begged to offer their heads to the )ing' From this (ie%point it is clear that honour is sufficient to dri(e anybody to death' .ccording to a different source+ )ing )ou-chPen of BMeh once sa% an angry frog and saluted it3 %hen the coachman as$ed3 "#hy does Bour MaFesty salute itL" In reply the )ing said3 ". frog ha(ing a courageous spirit as such does deser(e my saluteG" Hearing this3 both gentry and commons said+ "The spirited frog %as saluted by the )ing3 to say nothing of the gentry and commons %ho are bra(e'" That year there %ere men %ho cut off their heads to death and offered their heads to the )ing' Therefore3 the )ing of BMeh in order to %age a successful %ar of re(enge against #u e5perimented on his instructions' #hen he set fire to a to%er and beat the drum3 the people rushed at the fire because re%ard %as due to the fireH %hen he faced a ri(er and beat the drum3 the people rushed at the %ater because re%ard %as due to the %aterH and %hen on the %ar front3 the people had their heads cut off and stomachs chopped open %ith no frightened mind because re%ard %as due to combat' If so3 it goes %ithout saying that to promote the %ise in accordance %ith the la% re%ard %ould be e(en more useful than on those occasions' Mar8uis hao of Han once ordered men to store up old trousers' The attendants remar$ed+ "Bour Highness is rather un$ind3 not gi(ing old trousers to ser(ants around but storing them up'" "The reason is not %hat you3 gentlemen3 $no%3" said Mar8uis hao in response' "I ha(e heard that an enlightened so(ereign3 though fond of fro%ning and smiling3 al%ays fro%ns because there is something to fro%n at and smiles because there is something to smile at' 7o%3 trousers are not as simple as sneers and smiles3 nay3 they are (ery different from the latter' I must %ait for men of merit and therefore store up the trousers and ne(er gi(e them a%ay' 2els resemble sna$es3 sil$%orms resemble moths' #hen men see sna$es3 they are frightenedH %hen they see moths3 their hair stands up' 7e(ertheless3 %omen pic$ up sil$%orms and fishermen grasp eels' Thus3 %here there lies profit3 people forget their disli$e and all become as bra(e as M?ng P?n and huan hu' &nnotations to Canon *V+< .

ll- .rmour A< 4orge and seize our %hole country in a panic' Then Bour MaFesty %ill certainly regret a great deal3 saying3 DJ !That is because %e %ould not cede the three cities to them'* Therefore3 thy ser(ant says3 !Bour MaFesty %ill regret either suing for peace or not suing for peace'* " "If I ha(e to regret either %ay at all3" said the )ing3 "I prefer to lose the three cities and regret therefor' . and told him the dilemma' In reply the Prince said+ "It %ill in(ol(e a regret either to sue for peace or not to sue for peace' Supposing Bour MaFesty no% ceded the territory east of the 0i(er and the allies turned home%ard3 Bour MaFesty %ould certainly say3 !The allies from the beginning intended to %ithdra%' #hy should %e ha(e gi(en them three cities purposelyL* Supposing Bour MaFesty refused to sue for peace3 then the allies %ould enter the .The )ing of #ey once said to the )ing of h?ng A@ + "In origin h?ng and -iang AA %ere one state and later separated from each other' #e hope %e %ill reco(er h?ng and anne5 it to -iang'" #orried o(er this3 the 0uler of h?ng summoned all the ministers and consulted %ith them about the measures against #ey' "It is (ery easy to cope %ith #ey3" said a prince of h?ng to the 0uler of h?ng' "May Bour MaFesty tell the #eys that if h?ng is regarded as a former part of #ey and can no% be anne5ed at all3 our humble $ingdom %ould li$e to anne5 -iang to h?ng3 too'" Hearing this3 the )ing of #ey ga(e up the threatening plan' )ing HsMan of h!i ordered men to play the BM instrument and al%ays had three hundred men in the orchestra' Thereupon pri(ate gentlemen from the southern suburbs of the capital as$ed to play the same music for the )ing' .rmour AE 4orge3 the )ing of h!in A= said to -ou BMan3 "The allied forces of the three states ha(e entered deep into our line' I3 the )ing3 am thin$ing of ceding the territory east of the Bello% 0i(er to them and thereby sue for peace' Ho% is the ideaL" In reply the latter said+ "Indeed3 to cede the territory east of the 0i(er is a great cost3 but to rescue our country from a calamity is a great merit' 7e(ertheless3 to ma$e any decision as such is the duty of the royal uncles and brothers' #hy does Bour MaFesty not summon Prince h!ih AI for consultationL" The )ing3 accordingly3 sent for Prince h!ih A.s it %ill in(ol(e no danger but regret3 I decide to sue for peace'" Mar8uis Bing said to the )ing of h!in+ "Bour MaFesty already con8uered the districts of BMan-yeh3 -an-t!ien3 and Bang-hsia3 held under control the land %ithin the 0i(er boundaries3 and dominated the affairs of -iang and h?ng' D9 But because hao has not yet been subdued3 Bour MaFesty has not yet attained supremacy o(er .elighted at them3 the )ing fed se(eral hundreds of them' 6pon the death of )ing HsMan3 )ing Min ascended the throne and %anted to listen to each one of them' The men %ent a%ay' &ne day Mar8uis hao of Han remar$ed3 "The BM players are so numerous that I cannot by any means tell the good ones'" In reply T!ien Ben said3 "By listening to them each by each'" hao sent men out to as$ for reinforcements from Han through the good office of Sh?n Tzŭ in order thereby to attac$ #ey' Sh?n Tzŭ %anted to spea$ to the 0uler of Han but %as afraid lest His Highness should suspect him of accepting bribes from foreign authorities' Bet if he did not do so3 he feared lest he should incur hatred from hao' Thereupon he sent hao Shao and Han Ta to see the mo(es and loo$s of His Highness before he started spea$ing' Thus at home he could foretell the opinion of Mar8uis hao and abroad could render meritorious ser(ice to hao' #hen the allied forces of the three states AD arri(ed at the .

ccordingly3 the Premier instructed the messenger not to tell anybody else %hat he had as$ed about' Then he summoned the mayor3 blamed him3 and as$ed him %hy there %as so much o5 dung outside the gate of the mar$etplace' 4reatly astonished at the 8uic$ness of the Premier*s information3 the mayor trembled and became afraid of his %ide $no%ledge' &nnotations to Canon V*+< Mar8uis hao of Han once held his nails in his fist3 pretending to ha(e lost one of his nails3 and %as (ery an5ious to find it' &ne of his attendants purposely cut off one of his nails and presented it to His Highness' Thereby Mar8uis hao comprehended the insincerity of the attendant' Mar8uis hao of Han sent horsemen out into the local districts' #hen the ser(ants came bac$ to report3 he as$ed them %hat they had seen' "7othing3" replied they' "Bet .ll-under-Hea(en' -ater3 subdue the haos %ith troops' Ho%e(er3 Shang-tang has peace and Foy3 and is (ery %ealthy' Thy ser(ant is3 therefore3 afraid that though he proposes to loosen the garrison there3 Bour MaFesty might not listen' Then %hat else can be doneL" " ertainly3 the garrison there shall be loosened3" said the )ing' &nnotations to Canon V+< P!ang hing3 a prefect3 sent tradesmen out on a mission' Suddenly he recalled the sheriff from among them3 stood %ith him for a%hile3 ga(e him no special instruction and sent him off finally' The tradesmen thought the prefect and the sheriff had had some pri(ate tal$ and therefore %ould not confide in the sheriff' &n the %ay they dared not commit any (illainy' Tai Huan3 Premier of Sung3 at night sent men out and said to them3 "For se(eral nights I ha(e heard somebody riding in a co(ered %agon going to the residence of -i Shih' arefully find that out for meL" The ser(ants came bac$ %ith the report that they had seen no co(ered %agon but somebody bringing a bamboo chest as present and spea$ing %ith -i Shih3 and that after a %hile -i Shih accepted the chest' The So(ereign of hou lost Fade bod$ins and ordered officials to search for them' For three days they could not find them' The So(ereign of hou then ordered men to loo$ for them and found them inside the room of some pri(ate house' "7o% I $no% the officials do not attend to their duties3" remar$ed the So(ereign of hou' "Searching for the Fade bod$ins for three days3 they could not find them' The men I ordered to loo$ for them found them out %ithin one day3 ho%e(er'" Thereafter the officials became (ery afraid of him3 thin$ing His MaFesty %as di(ine and enlightened' The Prime Minister of Shang once sent a petty official out3 and as$ed him upon his return %hat he had seen in the mar$et-place' "7othing3" replied the official' "Bet you must ha(e seen something' #hat %as thatL" as$ed the Premier insistently' "There %ere outside the south gate of the mar$et-place a number of o5 carts3 through %hich one could barely %al$3" replied the official' .under-Hea(en' 7o%3 to loosen the garrison at Shang-tang is to gi(e up our hold of one district only' But if %e thereby march our main column to%ard Tung-yang3 then Hantan3 capital of hao3 %ill become as precarious as a flea in the mouth %hile Bour MaFesty %ill be able to fold his hands and reign o(er .

s they could not find it3 he sent out men to search for it and found it inside the room of some pri(ate house' &nnotations to Canon V**+< #hen the -ord of Shan-yang D@ heard about the )ing*s suspicion of him3 he purposely slandered hiu Shu3 a fa(ourite of the )ing3 in order thereby to $no% the truth through hiu Shu*s reaction' #hen 7ao h!ih heard about the hatred of the )ing of h!i for him3 he fabricated an en(oy from h!in in order thereby to $no% the truth' Some h!is %anted to create disturbances and %ere afraid the )ing might $no% their conspiracy beforehand' So they pretended to dri(e a%ay their fa(ourites and let DA the )ing $no% of it3 and thereby dispensed %ith all suspicion' &nce Tzŭ-chih3 Premier of Ben3 %hile seated indoors3 as$ed decepti(ely3 "#hat %as it that Fust ran outdoorsL .you must ha(e seen something' #hat %as thatL" as$ed Mar8uis hao insistently' "There %ere outside the south gate yello% cal(es eating rice plants on the left-hand side of the road'" .ccordingly3 Mar8uis hao instructed the ser(ants not to di(ulge %hat he had as$ed about' Then he issued the order to the effect "that %hile seedlings are gro%ing3 o5en and horses be e5cluded from the rice fieldsH that since despite the order the magistrates ha(e neglected their duties3 till a great number of o5en and horses ha(e entered the fields of people3 the inspectors 8uic$ly count the number of them and report to the authoritiesH and that if they fail in the matter3 their punishment be doubled"' Thereupon the inspectors counted all the cattle in the rice fields in three directions and reported to the superior authorities' "7ot yet finished3" remar$ed Mar8uis hao' So they %ent out again to in(estigate the case and found the yello% cal(es outside the south gate' Thereafter the magistrates3 thin$ing Mar8uis hao %as clear-sighted3 all trembled for fear of his sagacity and dared not commit any %rong' The So(ereign of hou issued an order to loo$ for croo$ed canes' The officials sought after them for se(eral days but could not find any' The So(ereign of hou sent men out in secret to loo$ for them and found them %ithin one day' Thereupon he said to the officials+ "7o% I $no% the officials do not attend to their duties' It is (ery easy to find croo$ed canes3 but the officials could not find any' I ordered men to loo$ for them and found them %ithin one day' Ho% can you be called !loyal*L " The officials all trembled for fear of his sagacity3 thin$ing His MaFesty %as di(ine and enlightened' #hen Po P!i %as a prefect3 his coachman %as unclean and had a belo(ed concubine' So he employed a petty official to pretend to lo(e her in order thereby to detect the secret affairs of the coachman' Hsi-m?n Pao3 Prefect of Bah3 once pretended to ha(e lost the linchpin of his carriage and therefore ordered officials to loo$ for it' .ll his attendants said they had seen nothing running outdoors' Mean%hile3 someone ran out after it and came bac$ %ith the report that there had been a %hite horse' Thereby Tzŭ-chih came to $no% the insincerity and unfaithfulness of the attendant' . %hite horseL" .

u$e Ssŭ of #ei once sent men out to go through the pass as tra(ellers' There the officers made them serious trouble3 %herefore they bribed the officers %ith gold' The officers3 accordingly3 released them' -ater3 .u$e Ssŭ said to the officers3 ". Fester or comedian in the court' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 2 should be 3' 99' Thenceforth3 "to stand before a coo$ing sto(e" came to mean "to befool one*s ruler3 said of a (icious minister"' 9@' In Cen Tzŭ's Sprin( and %utumn %nnals+ 9A' #ith #ang #ei Cen Tzŭ's Sprin( and %utumn %nnals has 4 for 5' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen i should be s3 and so throughout this paragraph' 9E' #ith #ang @ abo(e 6 is superfluous' 9=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the #iterary Works on Facts and 2arieties has 7 in place of º' 9I' #ith #ang I and G %ere synonyms' .should be .&nce there %ere litigants' Tzŭ-ch!an separated them and ne(er allo%ed them to spea$ to each other' Then he in(erted their %ords and told each the other*s arguments and thereby found the (ital facts in(ol(ed in the case' .說上七術' The 2nglish rendering of §ô.t a certain time there came certain tra(ellers to go through the pass' Since they ga(e you gold3 you sent them a%ay3 did youL" Thereby the officers %ere frightened and thought . : ide infra& p' AJE>' =' #ith #ang Hsien-shen Ø should be /' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 0 means 1' .J>' @' #ith )ao H?ng “產 means ““產之' A' The te5t puts the topic of each discussion not at the beginning but at the end3 %hich is confusing to readers' Therefore3 I ha(e remo(ed it from the end to the beginning' D' #ith BM BMeh ˜ËÞ之 should be ˘Þ之 and Þ means 明' E' .iscussions"3 %hich is inaccurate :Fung Bu-lan3 History of Chinese )hilosophy0 The )eriod of the )hilosophers& p' .說 by .er$ Bodde is "Inner and &uter .u$e Ssŭ %as clear-minded' 'otes 9' §.' #ith )u 陽Ä should be Ä陽' <' .

' #ith -u #?n-shao — abo(e :產 is superfluous' 9<' The t%elfth month :十二W> of the lunar calendar roughly corresponds to the month of Canuary in the solar calendar' @J' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 8 should be 9' @9' The clans of the father3 the mother3 and the %ife' @@' I regard 之 abo(e 人 as superfluous' @A' I propose 人 for 之' @D' It means "pre(enting hea(y penalties by means of applying light penalties"' @E' : reads á' @=' #ith #ang #ei there should be ‹ belo% G' @I' Members of the royal family' @.' A.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen i should be s' @<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 王 should be i' AJ' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 者死 should be 死者' A9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen and -u #?n-shao .9.' #ith )u .in both cases should be .' A<' 韓 is again a mista$e for =' DJ' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen 王 abo(e B is superfluous' D9' #ith #ang ä and Ï refer to 8 and 韓 respecti(ely' D@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 陽Ä should be Ä陽3 and I regard ¤Œ belo% i as superfluous' .in both cases should be . should be <' A@' Ï refers to 韓3 as h?ng had been destroyed and incorporated into the territory of Han' AA' The name of the capital of #ey3 %hich later became the alias of the #ey State' AD' Han3 hao3 and #ey' AE' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 韓 is a mista$e for = and > should be supplied belo% it' A=' #ith )u ? should be supplied abo(e 王' AI' #ith )u .

DA' #ith BM BMeh .i= %in)tiae 9 5f the si5 minutiae3 the first is said to be "authority left in the hands of the inferior"H the second3 "difference of ministers in interest from the ruler and their conse8uent dependence upon foreign support"H the third3 "resort to disguise and falsification"H the fourth3 "antinomies in matters of ad(antage and harm"H the fifth3 "mutual confusions in position and domestic dissentions for supremacy"H and the si5th3 "manipulation of dismissal and appointment of officials by enemy states'" These si5 are %hat the so(ereign ought to consider carefully' 1.u$e -i3 in hou Hou*s unification of the attendants* sayings3 and in the Ben man*s bathing in dung' 7.ation Matters of falsification and disguise ma$e the lord of men miss %hat he ought to censure and ma$e the ministers accomplish their pri(ate interests' Thus3 the gate-men poured %ater but I-sh? %as censuredH the -ord of hi-yang forged the )ing*s order but his t%o enemies paid for the crimeH Ssŭ-ma Hsi $illed Buan h*ien but hi Hsin %as censuredH h?ng Hsiu said the ne% court ladies disli$ed the bad smell of His MaFesty*s breath and the ne%comers had their noses cut offH Fei #u-chi < told h!i .n instance is found in the husband*s and %ife*s prayer in #ei' For further illustration3 Tai Hsieh discussed the danger of allo%ing sons and brothers to ta$e up office in the courts of foreign states3 the Three Huan families attac$ed .eries$ .e in *nterest 0uler and minister differ in interest' Therefore3 ministers are ne(er loyal' .s long as their pri(ate interest is accomplished3 they ne(er mind any disaster to the state' .ayings.s soon as the minister*s I interest stands up3 the so(ereign*s interest goes to ruin' Thus %ic$ed ministers %ould e5terminate their opponents at home by sending for enemy troops and be%ilder their lord by enumerating foreign affairs' . On Disg"ise and Falsifi. taught Sh?n Pu-hai the %ay to their mutual ad(antage3 Ssŭ-ma Hsi di(ulged secret ne%s to the )ing of hao3 -M Ts!ang induced h!in and h!u to in(ade his nati(e soilH Sung Shih %rote #ei hMn a personal letterH and Pai )uei taught Pao h!ien the %ay to their mutual ad(antage' 3. On the Differen.u$e hao3 )ung-shu conspired secretly %ith the army of h!i3 hieh Huang sent for troops from Han3 Premier P!i persuaded High &fficial hung of his personal interest3 Ta-ch!?ng #u . The Lo"er . Inner Congeries of .uthority and position should not be lent to anybody else' If the so(ereign loses one3 the minister %ould turn that into one hundred' Thus3 if the minister can borro% po%er and position from the ruler3 his strength %ould multiply' Should his strength multiply3 then men in and out of the court %ould be utilized by him' If men in and out of the court are utilized by him3 then the lord of men %ould be deluded' The saying is based in -ao Tan*s discussion A on the loss of fish' For further illustration3 a man became %ealthy D simply after one e(ening*s E tal$ %ith his influential friend3 and an attendant gained prestige because his master had gi(en = him a hairbrush' Its contrary is found in HsM T!ong*s remonstration %ith . belo% \ is superfluous' Chapter 222I. On &"thority and !osition7 .

u$e hien of h*i and the 0uler of Sung %ere respecti(ely murdered' The saying is based on Hu T!u*s tal$ on the t%o $inds of fondness on the part of the so(ereign and on h?ng hao*s reply that the heir apparent %as not yet born' :. On Dismissal and &ppointment #hat one state %or$s after is to obser(e secretly the on-going affairs in its enemy states and ta$e ad(antage of their %ea$nesses' If the lord of men is not alert3 enemies %ill dismiss or appoint his men' Thus )ing #?n financed Fei hungH the )ing of h!in %orried o(er the en(oy from h!uH -i hM got rid of hung-niH and )an Hsiang obstructed )an Mu' For the same reason3 Tzŭ-hsM spread rumours %herefore Tzŭch!ang %as ta$en into ser(iceH beauties %ere accepted3 %herefore BM and )uo %ent to ruinH a letter %as falsified3 %herefore h!ang Hung %as e5ecutedH and chic$en and pig sacrifices %ere offered3 %herefore all able men of )!uai %ere e5terminated' 0egarding matters of confusion and suspicion and of dismissal and appointment3 the enlightened so(ereign e5terminates them at home but propagates them abroad' Financing the poor and supporting the %ea$ in the enemy states is called "interpalatial assaults"' 9@ If the system of three units and basic fi(es 9A is adopted inside3 %hile obser(ations and informations function outside3 then %hat can the enemy doL The saying is based on the h!in clo%n*s secret report to 0uler Hui-%?n' For further .BMan to parade %eapons but the magistrate censured the latterH h!?n HsM $illed hang Shou but Hsi-shou 9J had to run into e5ileH and3 similarly3 %hen the silo %as burned3 the )ing of entral Hills held the innocent prince guilty3 and %hen the old literatus %as $illed3 the -ord of hi-yang re%arded the assassin' 8.u$e #?n found hairs around the roast meatH and Mar8uis Hsiang offered to proclaim the 0uler of h!i 2astern 2mperor' 9. On "t"al Conf"sions in !osition The situation of mutual confusions in position causes disturbances' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign ta$es precautions against it' For this reason3 -i-chi of hin $illed Sh?n-sh?ngH the Mistress of h?ng used poisonous drugsH hou HsM of #ei murdered his 0uler3 BManH Prince )?n occupied 2astern houH Prince hih enFoyed His MaFesty*s e5ceeding fa(our3 %herefore Shang-ch!?n actually caused a disturbanceH Ben Sui and Han )!uei ri(alled each other3 %herefore . On the (-isten.i encountered rebelsH T!ien h!ang and )an hih3 Tai Huan and Huang Hsi3 %ere enemies3 %herefore .u$e .e of Opposites If any e(ent happens and has any ad(antage at all3 the so(ereign must master it' If it has any disad(antage3 he must discern the opposite' For this reason3 the enlightened so(ereign3 in estimating the %elfare of the country3 %ould reflect on the ad(antage %hen the state has any disad(antageH %hen the minister has any disad(antage3 he %ould deliberate upon its opposite' The saying is based on the appointment of h!?n HsM to premiership upon the arri(al of the h!u troops3 and on the rise of the price of millet seed because of the granary-$eeper*s dishonesty' Thus3 hao Hsi-hsM arrested the reed-sellerH Mar8uis hao-hsi 99 blamed the second coo$H .

t the time of . man of Ben %as easily be%ildered and therefore %ould bathe in dogs* dung' The %ife of the man of Ben %as intimate %ith a bachelor' &nce3 %hen her husband came home early from outside3 the fello% happened to be going out from the home' "#ho is the (isitor"L as$ed the husband' "7o (isitor at all3" replied the %ife3 Then he as$ed the .gain3 HsM T!ong and h!ang BM-chiao remonstrated %ith him3 saying+ "Indeed3 to punish certain and not all of the men guilty of the same crime is to ma$e the sur(i(ors resent and %atch for a chance'" In response the .u$e Ssŭ besto%ed a ne% mat upon the prefect ' ' ' 9D So much abo(e for the canons' &nnotations to Canon *+< High authority is the pool of the lord of men' Ministers are the fish s%imming in high authority' Cust as the fish once lost outside the pool cannot be reco(ered3 so can the high authority of the lord of men once lost to the ministers not be reco(ered' The ancient 9E found it difficult to say e5plicitly3 and therefore used the metaphor of the fish s%imming in the pool' 7o%3 re%ard and punishment are sharp %eapons' By handling them the ruler controls ministers' By appropriating them ministers delude the so(ereign' Therefore3 if the ruler let ministers see any re%ard before he besto%s it upon anybody3 ministers %ould sell it as a personal fa(ourH if the ruler let ministers see any punishment before he inflicts it upon anybody3 ministers %ould use it as a personal threat' Hence the saying+ "The %eapons of the state should not be sho%n to anybody'" The -ord of hing-$uo3 Premier of h!i3 once tal$ed %ith an old ac8uaintance in an e(ening3 9= %hereupon the old ac8uaintance became %ealthy' .u$e3 and accordingly3 %iped out three 7obles' .u$e -i of hin3 the Si5 7obles %ere (ery po%erful' Therefore3 HsM T!ong and h!ang BM-ch!iao remonstrated %ith him3 saying+ "#hen chief (assals are po%erful and influential3 they ri(al the so(ereign3 cause disputes in state affairs3 and3 by accepting bribes from foreign po%ers3 forming cli8ues at home3 and (iolating the la% of the state3 intimidate the so(ereign3 %herefore the state is al%ays endangered'" "0ight3" said the .u$e said+ "In one morning I e5terminated three of the Si5 7obles' I cannot bear e5terminating all of them'" "Bour Highness cannot bear e5terminating them3 but they %ill bear causing Bour Highness harm3"* said h!ang BM-ch!iao' To this the .illustration3 Hsiang Tz!ŭ foretold his master the enemies* stratagem to fall upon Beh3 and .u$e %ould not listen' In the course of three months3 the remaining 7obles started a rebellion3 and finally $illed .u$e -i and partitioned his territory' hou Hou3 Premier of hing3 %as influential and dictated to all state affairs' Suspecting him3 the )ing of hing as$ed the attendants about his rampancy' In reply all of them said "7othingG" as though the reply came out from one mouth' . of a hairbrush constitute (ery little resources' 7e(ertheless3 they are sufficient to enrich men' Ho% much more can authority and position left in the hands of officials doL .nother time he ga(e 9I one of his attendants a hairbrush3 %herefore the attendant gained prestige' Indeed3 ha(ing an e(ening*s tal$ and ma$ing a present 9.

u$e hao3 till they usurped his state and managed all public affairs at their pleasure' .nd3 by conspiring secretly %ith the army of h!i inside the city of h?ng3 capital of Han3 and thereby intimidating his master3 he made his o%n position secure and consolidated the alliance of the t%o states' .ccording to another different source he bathed in hot orchid %ater' &nnotations to Canon **+< .u$e hao could not o(ercome them but sought refuge in hi!i @@ and died at h!ien-hou' )ung-shu %as Premier of Han and3 furthermore3 @A %as on good terms @D %ith h!i' )ung-chung %as highly trusted by the )ing' )ung-shu %as afraid lest the )ing should appoint )ung-chung premier' Therefore3 he made h!i and Han form an alliance for attac$ing #ey' .u$e hao attac$ed the hi Sun lan' Therefore3 the M?ng Sun lan and the Shu Sun lan consulted %ith each other as to %hether they should rescue the %ould-be (ictim' The coachman of the Shu Sun lan said+ "I am Fust a domestic ser(ant' Ho% can I understand public affairsL #hether hi Sun remains in e5istence or goes into e5tinction3 neither %ill gain me anything'" The rest said+ "If hi Sun is gone3 Shu Sun %ill certainly pass out too' -et us rescue them'" So they bro$e through the north%estern corner and %ent in' #hen the M?ng Sun lan sa% the flag of Shu Sun going in3 they also ran to the rescue' The Three Huans thus became one' .t first3 %hen the Three Huans @J %ere bearing do%n upon the .ll right3" said hi' So he bathed in the dung' . man of Ben3 named -i hi3 %ould go far a%ay' His %ife %as intimate %ith a bachelor' &ne day he suddenly came home %hile the fello% %as in' &(er this his %ife %orried3 so her %oman ser(ant said to her+ "-et the young gentleman go na$ed and %ith his hairs dispersed rush straight out through the door' Then all of us %ill pretend to ha(e been nothing'" Thereupon the young fello% follo%ed the plan and ran out fast through the door' "#ho is that manL" as$ed hi' "7obody3" replied e(eryone in the house' "Ha(e I seen a ghostL" " ertainly'" "#hat shall I do thenL" "4et the dung of the fi(e animals 9< and bathe in it'" ".ccording to a different source+ .mong the #eis3 there %ere a man and his %ife %ho once during their prayer said as benediction3 "4i(e us no misery but one hundred rolls of cloth'" "#hy is the benediction so simpleL" %ondered the husband' "#hatL If it be more elaborate than this3 then you might be thin$ing of buying a concubine thereby3" replied the %ife' The )ing of hing %anted the (arious princes to ta$e up office in the courts of the neighbouring states' "It is impracticable3" said Tai H?' "#hyL If I3 the )ing3 allo% them to ta$e up official posts in the neighbouring states the neighbouring states %ould certainly treat them %ell3" said the )ing' "The princes sent out are %ell recei(ed3" remar$ed Tai H?3 "Ho%e(er3 %hen %ell treated3 they become partisans of the states that treat them %ell' If so3 such a policy is simply to induce the princes to the betrayal of their nati(e land to foreign po%ers3 and therefore is disad(antageous to Bour MaFesty'" The clans of M?ng Sun3 Shu Sun3 and hi Sun3 united their strength and molested .ser(ants3 %ho all said "7oneG" as though the reply came from one mouth' "Bou certainly became insane'" So saying3 his %ife bathed him in dogs* dung' .u$e3 @9 .

ccordingly3 he sent for troops from Han and made them attac$ #ey' Then he purposely offered to sue for peace on behalf of His MaFesty in order thereby to ele(ate his o%n position' The )ing of BMeh attac$ed the )ing of #u' The )ing of #u apologized and offered submission' #hen the )ing of BMeh %as thin$ing of forgi(ing him3 Fan -i and High &fficial hung said+ "7o3 it is impracticable' Formerly Hea(en presented BMeh to #u but #u refused the present' 7o% if @E %e let Fu-ch!a go home3 %e %ill incur a similar calamity from Hea(en' . gate-man as$ed3 "Has Bour 25cellency not any intention of gi(ing the remaining drops of %ine to thy humble ser(antL" In reply I-sh? scolded him3 saying3 "4et a%ayG Ho% dare a penalized man as$ for %ine from his superiorL" The cut- .fter fighting both %ill certainly not remain in coe5istence' The present crisis is a personal feud bet%een the t%o so(ereigns' Bou and I ha(e no pri(ate hatred' Being good to each other3 %e should a(oid fighting each other'" Pai )uei %as Premier of #eyH Pao h!ien3 Premier of Han' The former said to the latter+ "If you assist me in #ey %ith the influence of Han %hile I support you in Han %ith the influence of #ey3 then I %ill al%ays remain in po%er in #ey %hile you in Han'" &nnotation to Canon ***+< &ne of the Middle &fficers of h!i3 named I-sh?3 once had a drin$ing feast %ith the )ing' 4reatly drun$3 he %ent out and leaned on the gate of the lobby' Thereupon the cut-footed@.s Hea(en is no% presenting #u to BMeh3 %e ought to repeat bo%s and accept the present' 7e(er forgi(e him'" Thereupon Premier P!i of #u %rote to High &fficial hung3 saying+ "#hen %ild hares are e5hausted3 tame dogs %ould be coo$edH %hen enemy states are destroyed3 state councillors %ould be ruined' High &fficial3 %hy %ould you not release #u and $eep BMeh in %orryL" #hen High &fficial hung recei(ed the letter3 he read it3 hea(ed a deep sigh3 and said3 "Put the messenger to death' The BMeh State and my @= life are the same'" Ta-ch!?ng #u @I ser(ed hao and said to Sh?n Pu-hai in Han+ "Sir3 if you %ould ele(ate my position in hao %ith the influence of Han3 I should ele(ate your position in Han %ith the influence of hao' In this %ay you %ill e5tend your sphere of influence t%ice as large as Han %hile I %ill e5tend mine t%ice as large as hao'" Ssŭ-ma Hsi3 minister to the ruler of entral Hills3 %as on good terms %ith hao and therefore al%ays reported in secret to the )ing of hao the stratagems of entral Hills' -M Ts!ang3 minister to the )ing of #ey3 %as on good terms %ith h!in and hing' &nce he ga(e h!in and hing a secret hint and made them attac$ #ey' Then he offered to sue for peace in order thereby to ma$e his o%n position secure' Sung Shih %as a general of #ey+ #ei hMn3 a general of hing' #hen the t%o States too$ up arms against each other3 both %ere commanders of their respecti(e armies' Then Sung Shih %rote #ei hMn a personal letter3 saying+ "The t%o armies are opposing each other' The t%o flags are facing each other' -et there be no fighting' .hieh Huang %as minister to the )ing of #ey but %as on good terms %ith Han' .

ccording to a different source+ &nce the )ing of #ey presented the )ing of hing a beauty' The )ing of hing %as greatly pleased by her' His royal concubine3 h?ng Hsiu3 $no%ing the )ing lo(ed her %ith pleasure3 also lo(ed her %ith pleasure e(en more than the )ing did3 and among clothes and ornaments selected %hate(er she %anted and ga(e them to her' "Madame3 $no%ing I lo(e the ne% lady3 lo(es her %ith pleasure e(en more than I do3" remar$ed the )ing' "This is the %ay the dutiful son should support his parents3 and loyal subFects should ser(e the ruler'" )no%ing the )ing ne(er thought she %as Fealous3 the royal concubine purposely told the ne% lady3 "The )ing lo(es you (ery much but disli$es your nose' #hen you see the )ing3 al%ays co(er your nose %ith hands' Then the )ing %ill fore(er lo(e you'" Thereafter the ne% lady follo%ed the ad(ice3 and3 e(ery time she sa% the )ing3 %ould co(er her nose' So the )ing as$ed his royal concubine3 "#hy does the ne% lady al%ays co(er her nose e(ery time she sees meL" "Ho% can I $no%L" said the royal concubine' The )ing $ept as$ing her insistently' "Cust a %hile ago3" said she in reply3 "I heard her saying she disli$ed to smell the odour of Bour MaFesty'" " ut off her nose3" said the )ing in anger' .s the )ing ne%ly got a beautiful girl3 h?ng Hsiu purposely told her3 "The )ing %as (ery fond of seeing people co(ering their mouths %ith hands' Be sure to co(er your mouth %hen @< you go near to the )ing'" #hen the beautiful girl %ent in to ha(e an audience %ith the )ing3 she3 accordingly3 co(ered her mouth' The )ing as$ed the reason therefor' "She has already tal$ed about the bad odour of Bour MaFesty3" replied h?ng Hsiu' &ne day3 the )ing3 h?ng Hsiu3 and the beautiful girl3 all three too$ seats in a carriage3 Hsiu told the coachman to carry out the order definitely and immediately as soon as the )ing said any %ord' #hen the beautiful girl came up (ery near to the )ing3 she co(ered her mouth se(eral times' .ispleased3 the )ing became (ery angry3 saying3 " ut off her noseG" %hen the coachman dre% out his s%ord and cut off the beautiful girl*s nose' .s soon as I-sh? left the cut-footed man purposely poured %ater belo% the ea(es of the lobby gate in the manner of urination' 7e5t day3 %hen the )ing %ent out3 he rebu$ed it and as$ed3 "#ho passed %ater hereL" In reply the cut-footed man said+ "Thy ser(ant has seen nobody' Ho%e(er3 yesterday Middle &fficer I-sh? stood here' The )ing3 therefore3 blamed I-sh? and $illed him' The )ing of #ey had t%o ministers %ho %ere not on good terms %ith the -ord of hi-yang' &nce the -ord of hi-yang purposely made his men falsify the )ing*s order to scheme to attac$ himself' Thereupon the )ing sent out men to as$ the -ord of hiyang3 "#ho bears you a grudgeL" "Thy ser(ant is not at feud %ith anybody3" replied the -ord3 "but he has not been on good terms %ith t%o of your MaFesty*s ministers' Still that displeasure should not ha(e come to thisG" The )ing then as$ed the attendants about it3 and all said3 "&f courseG" The )ing3 accordingly3 censured the t%o ministers' hi Hsin and Buan h!ien %ere at feud %ith each other' Ssŭ-ma Hsi came recently to bad terms %ith hi Hsin3 and so secretly ordered men to assassinate Buan h!ien' The ruler of entral Hills3 thin$ing hi Hsin %as the contri(er of the murder3 held him guilty' The )ing of hing had a fa(ourite concubine named h?ng Hsiu' .s the royal consort had instructed the coachman to carry out any .footed man ran a%ay' .

t last the -ord admitted him into his confidence' AE &nnotations to Canon *V+< h!?n HsM3 minister to the )ing of #ey3 %as on good terms %ith the )ing of hing' &nce he induced hing to attac$ #ey' Then he concluded the peace terms on behalf .ccording to a different source+ The -ord of hi-yang had a petty official %ho %as not noticed by his master but %anted to %in his special fa(our' &nce upon a time3 the h!i State sent an old literatus out to dig herbs in the Horse Pear Mountain' In order to render the master some meritorious ser(ice3 the petty official of hi-yang %ent in to see the -ord and said+ " h!i sent an old literatus out to dig herbs in the Horse Pear Mountain' In name he is digging herbs but in fact he is spying the country of Bour Highness' If Bour Highness does not AD $ill him3 he %ill implicate the -ord of hiyang in the plot against h!i' May thy ser(ant then beg to despatch himL" "Bou may do so3" replied the -ord' &n the follo%ing day the petty official found the old literatus on the shady side of the city-%alls and pierced him' .order definitely as soon as the )ing said any %ord3 the coachman3 accordingly dre% out his s%ord and cut off the beauty*s nose' Fei #u-chi %as a courtier of the Magistrate of hing' h!i BMan ne%ly came to ser(e the magistrate' The magistrate li$ed him (ery much' Therefore3 #u-chi said to the magistrate3 "Bour 25cellency li$es BMan so much' #hy does Bour 25cellency not hold a %ine feast at his home sometimeL* "4ood3" said the magistrate3 and ordered #u-chi to prepare a %ine feast at the home of h!i BMan' Then #u-chi told BMan3 "The Magistrate is (ery militant and fond of %eapons' Bou should be cautious and respectful and 8uic$ly parade %eapons beneath the hall and in the courtyard'" So did BMan accordingly' #hen the Magistrate arri(ed3 he %as greatly surprised3 as$ing3 "#hat is all this aboutL" "Bour 25cellency3 be sure AJ to lea(e here3" replied #u-chi3 "as %e do not $no% %hat is going to happen'" 2nraged thereby3 the Magistrate too$ up arms3 censured h!i BMan3 and finally put him to death' Hsi Shou and hang Shou %ere at feud %ith each other' h!?n HsM ne%ly came on bad terms %ith A9 Hsi Shou3 and so made men assassinate hang Shou' The )ing of #ey3 thin$ing Hsi Shou %as the contri(er of the assassination3 censured A@ him' There %as in the entral Hills State a humble prince3 %hose horse %as (ery s$inny and carriage terribly %orn-out' Some of the chamberlains %ho had a pri(ate hatred for him made a re8uest on his behalf to the )ing3 AA saying+ "The prince is (ery poor' His horse is (ery thin' #hy does Bour MaFesty not increase the food supplies for his horseL" The )ing did not grant the re8uest' The chamberlain3 therefore3 secretly set fire to the silo at night' The )ing3 thin$ing the humble prince %as the contri(er of the arson3 censured him' There %as in #ey an old literatus %ho %as not on good terms %ith the -ord of hiyang' &ne of the guests of the -ord had pri(ate hatred for the old literatus and so purposely assaulted the old literatus and $illed him' onsidering it a distinguished ser(ice to the -ord of hi-yang3 he said+ "Thy ser(ant $illed him because he had been at feud %ith Bour 25cellency'" Hearing this3 the -ord of hi-yang3 %ithout in(estigating his moti(e3 re%arded him' .

u$e P!ing entertained guests at a %ine feast3 a petty official brought in roast meat %hich %as t%isted %ith hairs' .mong them he actually found out the true culprit3 %hom he put to death' .t the time of .lasG Thy ser(ant has committed three crimes3 and ho% does he not $no% the death penalty for them himselfL" "#hat do you mean by saying thatL" as$ed .u$e P!ing sprang to his feet and %as going to $ill the coo$ and allo%ed nobody to disobey his order' The coo$ cried to hea(en and said+ ".of the )ing of #ey' He3 accordingly3 became Premier of #ey through the influence of hing' .u$e P!ing' In reply the coo$ said+ "The $nife of thy ser(ant is so sharp that bones can be cut Fust as grass is blo%n do%n by %inds3 and yet hairs %ere not cut3 %hich is the first capital crime thy ser(ant .u$e #?n3 one day %hen the coo$ brought in roast meat3 it %as t%isted %ith hairs' So .u$e said3 and then summoned all the subordinates inside and 8uestioned them' .t the time of Mar8uis hao-hsi3 one day %hen the coo$ brought in the meal3 the soup had pieces of ra% li(er in it' Therefore3 the Mar8uis sent for the second coo$3 blamed him3 and as$ed3 "#hy did you put pieces of ra% li(er in the soup for meL" Bo%ing his head to the ground3 the coo$ admitted his capital crime and confessed that he had thereby intended to get rid of the chief coo$' .ccording to a different source+ &nce upon a time3 %hen .o you intend to cho$e me to deathL #hy did you t%ist the roast meat %ith hairsL" The coo$ bo%ed his head to the ground3 repeated salutations3 begged for pardon3 and said+ "Thy ser(ant has committed three capital crimes+ He held the grindstone and %hetted the $nife till the $nife became as sharp as the )an-chiang s%ord' In cutting the meat it tore the meat but the hairs did not tear' This is the first crime of %hich thy ser(ant is guilty' Then he held the a%l and pierced through the meat chop but failed to see the hairs3 %hich is the second crime' Finally3 he $ept the charcoal burning in the coo$ing sto(e so that all the meat became red and %as roasted and %ell done3 but the hairs %ere not burned at all3 %hich is the third crime' ould there be nobody inside the hall %ho has been Fealous A= of thy ser(antL" "Bou are right3" the .ccording to a different source+ &nce %hen Mar8uis Hsi %as going to ta$e a bath3 the hot %ater had pebbles in it' Mar8uis Hsi then as$ed the attendants if anybody %ould ta$e up the (acancy upon the dismissal of the bath-boy' " ertainly3" replied the attendants' "Bring him here3" said Mar8uis Hsi' Then he 8uestioned the man %hy he had put pebbles in the hot %ater' In reply the man said+ "If the bath-boy is dismissed3 thy ser(ant %ill be able to ta$e his place' Therefore3 thy ser(ant put pebbles in the hot %ater'" .t the time of Mar8uis hao of Han seeds of millet continued e5pensi(e and farmers scarcely had any of it' Therefore Mar8uis hao sent men to inspect the state granary' They found the granary-$eeper had been stealing millet seeds and smuggling a big amount to foreign countries' #hen hao Hsi-hsM %as in official ser(ice in hing3 once someone set fire to the openings of the state storehouses and silos but it %as not $no%n %ho he %as' Thereupon hao Hsi-hsM ordered officials to arrest sellers of reeds and e5amine them3 and found out they %ere actually the incendiaries' .u$e #?n sent for the coo$ and as$ed him+ ".

t the same time of .oes it seem that there is somebody inside the hall %ho hates AI thy ser(antL If so3 is it not too early to $ill thy ser(ant so abruptlyL" #hen Mar8uis Hsiang %as Premier of h!in3 h!i %as po%erful' Mar8uis Hsiang %anted to proclaim the 0uler of h!in emperor3 %hich h!i refused to recognize' Then he offered to proclaim the 0uler of h!i eastern emperor' Thereby A. he became able to proclaim the 0uler of h!in emperor' &nnotations to Canon V+< .i of Han' Ben Sui %as highly regarded by the 0uler' So the t%o abhorred each other' &ne day3 Ben Sui ordered men to assassinate .u$e Hsien of hin3 -i-chi enFoyed the same pri(ileges as the real duchess' She %anted her son3 Hsi-ch!i3 to replace the heir apparent3 Sh?n-sh?ng3 and therefore slandered A< Sh?n-sh?ng before the 0uler and had him put to death' Finally she succeeded in setting up Hsi-ch!i as heir apparent' The 0uler of h?ng had already installed an heir apparent3 %hereas his belo(ed beautiful girl %anted him to ta$e her son for the heir apparent' Fearing this3 his %ife used poisonous drugs3 betrayed the 0uler3 and put him to death' hou HsM of #ei %as influential in #ei and beha(ed li$e the 0uler' The body of officials and the masses of people %ere all afraid of his position and influence' 2(entually hou HsM murdered the 0uler and usurped the reins of go(ernment' Prince hao %as heir apparent of hou' His younger brother3 Prince )?n3 %as in special fa(our %ith the ruler' 6pon the death of the royal father3 )?n occupied 2astern hou3 rose in rebellion and partitioned the original territory into t%o states' )ing h!?ng of h!u proclaimed Shang-ch!?ng heir apparent' -ater3 he %anted to ta$e Prince hih' Therefore3 Shang-ch!?n caused a disturbance3 and finally attac$ed and murdered )ing h!?ng' .ccording to a different source+ )ing h!?ng proclaimedDJ Shang-ch!?n heir apparent' -ater3 he %anted to set up Prince hih' Shang-ch!?n heard about this but %as not yet sure of it' So he said D9 to his tutor3 P!an hung3 "Ho% can %e be sure of the real situationL" "In(ite hiang BM to dinner and sho% him no respect3" said Pan hung' The ro%n Prince follo%ed the ad(ice' Pro(o$ed thereby3 hiang BM said+ "Bou bruteG 7o %onder your royal father %ants to set you do%n and set hih up as heir apparent'" "It*s true3" said Shang-ch!?n' "#ill you be able to ser(e hihL" as$ed P!an hung' "7o3 not able'" "Then %ill you be able D@ to ta$e shelter under the feudal lordsL" "7o3 not able3" "#ell3 then are you able to start a rebellionL" " ertainly able'" Thereupon they raised all the armed soldiers in the barrac$s around his court and attac$ed )ing h!?ng' )ing h!?ng as$ed permission to eat a bear*s pa% and then die' 0efused permission3 he finally committed suicide' Han )uei %as Premier to Mar8uis .is guilty of' 0oasted %ith mulberry charcoal3 the meat became red and then %hite but the hairs %ere not burned3 %hich is thy ser(ant*s second capital crime' #hen the meat %as roasted and %ell done3 thy ser(ant repeated mo(ing his eyelashes and loo$ed at it carefully3 but the hairs t%isting the roast meat %ere not seen3 %hich is thy ser(ant*s third capital crime' .

i is reFoicing in ne% pleasures3 he %ill certainly neglect go(ernmental affairs3 and hung-ni %ill certainly remonstrate %ith him' If hung-ni ma$es any remonstrance at all3 he %ill certainly be slighted in -u'" "4ood3" said .u$e .i' 2nFoying their dance and music3 .u$e hien and usurped the reins of go(ernment' Tai Huan %as Prime Minister of Sung' Huang Hsi %as highly regarded by the 0uler' The t%o disputed in affairs and abhorred each other' In the long run Huang Hsi $illed the 0uler of Sung and usurped the reins of go(ernment' Hu Tu once said+ "If the ruler of a state has a fa(ourite inside3 DA the heir apparent is FeopardizedH if he has a fa(ourite outside3 DD the premier is Feopardized'" The 0uler of h?ng once as$ed h?ng hao3 "Ho% is the ro%n PrinceL" "The ro%n Prince is not yet born3" %as the reply' "The ro%n Prince has already been set up3" said the 0uler3 "but you said3 !He is not yet born'* #hyL" In reply h?ng hao said+ ".lthough the ro%n Prince has been set up3 yet Bour Highness lo(es %omen and ne(er stops' Supposing any of the belo(ed ga(e birth to a son3 Bour Highness %ould lo(e him3 too' Should Bour Highness lo(e him3 Bour Highness %ould certainly %ant to proclaim him heir apparent' Thy ser(ant3 therefore3 said3 "The ro%n Prince is not yet born'* " &nnotations of Canon V*+< )ing #?n financed Fei hung3 made him stay around ho%3 and told him to admonish ho% and disturb his mind' The )ing of hing once sent an en(oy to h!in' The )ing of h!in sho%ed him great courtesies' -ater3 he said+ "If any enemy state has %orthies it causes us %orries' 7o% that the en(oy of the )ing of hing is (ery %orthy3 I am %orried o(er it'" Then the body of officials ad(ised him3 saying+ "#in the en(oy of the )ing of hing to our side %ith the %orthiness and saintliness of Bour MaFesty and %ith the resources and generosity of our country' #hy does Bour MaFesty not culti(ate deep friendship %ith him and pretend DE to $eep him in Bour MaFesty*s ser(iceL Then3 if hing thin$s he is rendering ser(ice to foreign states3 they %ill infallibly censure him'" #hen hung-ni %as go(erning the -u State3 no one %ould pic$ up things dropped on the road' &(er this .u$e hien' The t%o hated each other and %ere about to $ill each other' T!ien H?ng3 by distributing pri(ate fa(ours among the masses of people3 too$ o(er the country3 and finally $illed .Han )uei at the court' Han )uei ran to%ards His Highness and held him in his arms' .u$e hing+ "To get rid of hung-ni is as easy as to blo% off a hair' #hy does Bour Highness not in(ite him to office %ith big emolument and high position and present .u$e .u$e .t last the assassins pierced through Han )uei and also through Mar8uis .u$e .u$e hing3 and then ordered -i hM to present girl musicians3 t%ice eight in number3 to .i actually neglected go(ernmental affairs' hung-ni remonstrated %ith him3 but he %ould not listen' So hung-ni left him and %ent to h!u' .i D= girl musicians so as to ma$e him self-conceited and be%ilder DI his ideasL #hen .u$e hing of h!i %orried' Therefore3 -i hM said to .i' T!ien H?ng %as Premier of h!i' )an hih %as highly regarded by .

ll-under-Hea(en to be offensi(e and cruel' 7e(ertheless3 )an Mu ser(ed him %ith obedience' )ing Hui is enlightened3 hang Bi is discriminating' )an Mu has ser(ed them and has been appointed to ten successi(e offices but has committed no fault %hate(er' This sho%s )an Mu*s %orthiness'" Then the )ing as$ed3 "To find a %orthy D.u$e Hsien of hin %anted to in(ade BM and )uo and therefore made a present of the team of the hM breed3 the Fade of h!ui-chi3 and girl musicians3 t%ice eight in number3 in order thereby to be%ilder E@ the ideas of their rulers and disturb their go(ernmental affairs' #hen Shu Hsiang %as slandering h!ang Hung3 he falsified a letter from h!ang Hung in %hich the latter said to him+ "#ill you please on my behalf spea$ to the 0uler of hin that it is no% time to carry out the agreement I made %ith His Highness and as$ him %hy he has not promptly sent troops hereL" Then he pretended to drop the letter at the court of the 0uler of hou and left immediately' EA The 0uler of hou3 regarding h!ang Hung as a betrayer of hou3 censured him and put him to death' #hen .u$e Huan of h?ng %as about to raid )!uai3 he as$ed about the able men3 %orthy ministers3 elo8uent3 intelligent scholars3 and daring3 gallant %arriors3 recorded ED all their names3 selected the good fields of )!uai as bribes to them3 and %rote do%n the posts and ran$s reser(ed for them' He then constructed an altar compound outside the city-%alls3 buried the %ritten documents there3 and smeared the sacrificial (essels %ith the blood of chic$ens and piglings as though there they had ta$en an oath together' The 0uler of )!uai3 regarding this as a ci(il disturbance3 $illed all his %orthy subFects' Mean%hile3 .The )ing of h!u said to )an Hsiang+ "I %ant to support )an Mu %ith h!u*s influence and ma$e him premier of h!i Is this practicableL" "Impracticable3" %as the reply' "#hy impracticableL" as$ed the )ing' In reply )an Hsiang said+ ")an Mu %hen young studied under Master Shih hM' Shih hM3 %hile gate-man of Shangts!ai3 neither ser(ed his master %ell nor pro(ided his family %ell3 %herefore he %as $no%n throughout . for the premiership of the enemy state is not practicable' #hyL" In reply )an Hsiang said+ "Formerly Bour MaFesty sent out Shao Hua to BMeh and in fi(e years could ruin BMeh' The reason therefore %as that BMeh %as then misgo(erned %hile h!u %as %ell go(erned' In the past D< Bour MaFesty $ne% %hat to do %ith BMeh but no% forgets %hat to do %ith h!in' Is he not (ery 8uic$ to forget thingsL" "#ell3 if so3 then %hat shall %e do about itL" as$ed the )ing' "#e may as %ell ma$e )ung -i Premier of h!in'" "#hy is it practicable to ma$e )ung -i PremierL" as$ed the )ing' ")ung -i in his youth3" replied Hsiang3 "%as lo(ed and fa(oured3 and gre% up to be a noble and an official' #earing beautiful clothes embroidered %ith precious stones3 EJ holding fragrant grass E9 in his mouth and $eeping Fade armlets around his hands3 he attends to his public duties at the court' Furthermore3 he thin$s he can gain by a misgo(ernment of h!in'" #u %as in(ading hing' Tzŭ-hsM then sent men out to spread rumours in hing that if Tzŭ-ch!i3 %ere ta$en into ser(ice by hing3 #u %ould attac$ hing3 but if Tzŭch!ang %ere ta$en into ser(ice3 she %ould lea(e them free' #hen the hings heard about these %ords3 they too$ Tzŭ-ch!ang into ser(ice and dismissed Tzŭ-ch!i from his office' The #us then fell upon them and triumphed o(er them' .u$e Huan raided )!uai all of a sudden and too$ it' .

s the )ing of #ey al%ays too$ precautions against any sudden attac$3 hao had to stop EI her e5pedition e(ery time' .u$e Ssŭ E.' #ith -u #?n-shao C should be D' <' #ith #ang Hsien-shen E should be •' 9J' Fw %as originally the name of the post held by )ung-sun Ben3 till it almost became his penname' 99' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 不 abo(e GH should be 4' 9@' I=' 9A' 6nder the system of )uan Tzŭ the country %as di(ided into three units for military purposes and the basis of local organization %as fi(e families3 and t%o thousand fi(e hundred families formed a county ruled by a magistrate' 9D' The te5t has I= in the ne5t line as though it %ere topic of the preceding paragraph' #ith #ang Hsien-shen this is absurd inasmuch as the %or$ is presupposed to enumerate si5 instead of se(en .u$e %as superhuman' 'otes 9' §.t the time of .說下六徽 @' I remo(e the topic of each discussion from the end to the beginning' A' + -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Tah Chin(& hap' 111/I' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? J should be @' E' #ith BM BMeh … should be 夕' =' #ith )ao H?ng A means B' I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen — abo(e M is superfluous' . of #ei3 detecti(es by his side %ere ordered to %atch the prefect' &nce the prefect opened up his mattress and found the mat seriously torn' That day3 %hen . EE certain clo%n at the ourt of h!in %as on good terms %ith the )ing of hing' Besides E= he %as secretly on good terms %ith the attendants of the )ing of hing and at home %as highly trusted by the 0uler Hui-%?n' #hene(er hing had any stratagem3 the clo%n %ould hear about it before anybody else did and reported it to the 0uler Hui-%?n' Hsiang Tzŭ3 Magistrate of Beh3 %as secretly on good terms %ith the attendants of the )ing of hao' #hene(er the )ing of hao schemed to raid Beh3 Hsiang Tzŭ al%ays heard about it and fore%arned the )ing of #ey' ..u$e Ssŭ %ent home3 he ordered men to gi(e the prefect a ne% mat and said+ "His Highness has heard you Fust opened your mattress and found the mat seriously torn' So he is besto%ing upon you this ne% mat'" 4reatly astonished thereby3 the prefect thought the .

' AJ' #ith #ang M abo(e 去 means @' A9' #ith BM BMeh 7 belo% 新 is superfluous' A@' #ang Hsien-shen suspected N "to censure" a mista$e for K "to banish" because anon Three stated that Hsi Shou ran into e5ile' I disagree %ith #ang inasmuch as Hsi Shou could run a%ay from censure as %ell as from banishment' AA' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ? should be added abo(e 王' AD' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien 不 should be supplied abo(e Î之' AE' #ith #ang ü abo(e D之 seems superfluous' A=' #ith #ang f means O' .3 and %ith )ao H?ng should be .minutise' #ang thought the t%o characters continued from the preceding passage3 %hich3 ho%e(er3 can hardly ma$e any sense3 either additional or separate' 9E' 7amely3 -ao-tzŭ' 9=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen … should be 夕3 and so throughout this annotation' 9I' #ith )ao H?ng A in both cases means B' 9.u$e Huan of -u and therefore %ere fre8uently called "Three Huans'" @9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen sJ should be Js' @@' #ang Hsien-shen thought K abo(e 之 %as a mista$e for à and proposed the addition of q belo% 之' @A' #ith BM BMeh Ó reads •' @D' #ith BM = means Þ' @E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen jI should be jg' @=' #ith #ang 吳 should be µ' @I' #ith #ang C should be D' @.' #ith )ao H?ng A in both cases means B' 9<' 7amely3 o5en3 sheep3 pigs3 dogs3 and fo%ls' @J' The three families descended from .' #ith #ang L means õ' Foot-cutting %as a form of penalty' @<' #ith #ang " should be .

()ter Congeries of . The 6pper Left .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 不 abo(e ˆ should be Q' A<' #ith #ang Hsien-shen R should be S' DJ' #ith #ang Ë should be added abo(e 1M' D9' #ith #ang " means Œ' D@' #ith BM BMeh " belo% ˆ is superfluous' DA' i'e' among concubines3 court ladies3 etc' DD' i'e' among subordinate officials3 itinerant opportunists3 etc' DE' #ith #ang Hsien-shen T should be 陽 %hich means 1' D=' #ith #ang .' \i should be \s' Chapter 222II.' #ith #ang ¤ abo(e V is superfluous' D<' #ith )ao H?ng †者 means W昔' EJ' #ith BM BMeh 王 should be L' E9' It must ha(e been something li$e a cigar' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen U should be P' EA' #ith #ang [ belo% 去 is superfluous' ED' #ith BM BMeh £ should be –' EE' #ith #ang Hsien-shen there should not be X at the head of this passage' E=' #ith #ang Ó reads •' EI' #ith #ang 7ien-sun YZ should be [[' E.i %as Han Fei Tzŭ*s mista$e for .ayings.u$e .AI' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the 6mperial .eadin(s has no P abo(e ' ' A.u$e Ting' DI' #ith #ang #ei U should be P' D.eries .

fter all3 %hen the early $ings* %ords are of little use3 people of the present %orld thin$ they are (ery usefulH %hen they are (ery useful3 people of the present %orld thin$ they are of little use' They cannot al%ays tell %hich are really (ery useful and %hich are not so' The basis of the .u$e #?n 8uoted the pro(erb about the shrine-builders %as to ascertain his self-e5cuse' Supposing one listened to the scholars and made glorious and e5aggerating 8uotations from the early $ings3 might not the %hole thing be unsuitable to the present ageL Bet conditions as such cannot be reformedG This is Fust li$e the man from the Prefecture of h?ng getting a yo$e3 the man of #ei shooting stringed arro%s3 9= the %ife of Po Tzŭ purposely ma$ing ne% trousers li$e old ones3 the youngster attending on the elder men drin$ing' 9I .u$e Huan concealed his anger at Ts!ai and attac$ed h!u' #u h!i %anted his subordinate officer*s 9D earliest reco(ery and so suc$ed his boil' Moreo(er3 the loose and panegyric poems composed by the early $ings as %ell as the precepts inscribed on bells and tripods are all li$e the footprint left by the Father So(ereign of hao on Mountain Fan-%u 9E and the bac$gammon made by )ing hao of h!in on the Hua Mountain' Ho%e(er3 %hat the early $ings e5pected %as material profit %hat they employed %as physical strength' That .u$e #?n*s declaration of enemies* faults before he opened any attac$ upon Sung and on )ouchien*s mention of the Cu-huang To%er built by #u' For further illustration3 .s their theories3 being roundabout3 profound3 magnificent3 and e5aggerating3 %ere not practicalH #ey = Mou and han Ho I %hen the former %as dealing .9 I' The enlightened so(ereign*s %ay of go(ernment is li$e the remar$ Bu-Fo ga(e Mi Tzŭ' The stupid @ so(ereign3 in listening to %ords3 admires their elo8uence3 and3 in obser(ing deeds3 re(eres their un%orldliness' In conse8uence3 it becomes the %ay of the officials3 gentry and commoners3 to utter roundabout and high-sounding %ords and attempt in personal conduct to rise abo(e the %orldly fact' The saying is based on T!ien hiu*s reply to the )ing of hing' For further illustration3 Mo Tzŭ constructed the %ooden $ite and the Singer )uei built the %ar palace' Indeed3 drugged %ine and useful ad(ice are %hat %ise men and enlightened so(ereigns ought to appreciate in particular' A II' If the lord of men3 in listening to %ords3 does not ta$e function and utility as obFecti(e3 dialecticians %ill present such absurd discussions as the Stories of the Bramble Thorn and the #hite Horse' If there is no aim and mar$ concerned3 then e(ery archer %ill become as s$ilful as Bi' The lord of men inclined to%ards theories is al%ays li$e the )ing of Ben attempting to learn the %ay to immortality' Those men proficient in argumentation are all li$e the h?ngs contending for seniority in age' Therefore3 %ords that are too minute to be scrutinized and too ineffable to be carried out are not the need of honour' Thus3 for instance3 hi D -iang3 Hui Shih3 Sung Hsing3 and Mo Ti3 E %ere li$e the painter of the %hip' . %ith the latter3 %ere both < li$e de(ils and demons inasmuch as their deeds3 being fre8uently unnatural3 difficult3 stubborn3 and angular3 %ere unpracticalH and #u )uang3 Pien Sui3 Pao hiao3 hieh Tzŭ-t!ui3 9J and T!ien hung3 99 %ere all li$e hard gourds' Moreo(er3 BM h!ing impressed the carpenter 9@ %ith reasons3 %herefore the house fell to piecesH Fan hM brought the bo%-ma$er to his %its* end3 %herefore the bo%s bro$e to pieces' For this reason3 to see$ for truth one must trust to practical means' III' Indeed3 %hen t%o persons %or$ together3 they blame each other for losses and hope for gains from each otherH %hen one %or$s for himself3 the affair proceeds %ell' Thus3 e(en father and son sometime blame and scold 9A each other' The employer of %or$men3 pro(ides them %ith delicious soup' The saying is based on .

saying is found in the Sung man*s understanding of an ancient boo$ and in the -iang man*s reading of an ancient record' Thus3 %hene(er the early $ings %rote do%n any %ord as the man of Bing did in his letter to the Premier of Ben3 most people of posterity re(ere it in the %ay the Premier of Ben interpreted the meaning of the %ord' Indeed3 %hoe(er does not suit means of political control to actual state affairs but ta$es ad(ice solely from the %ords of the early $ings instead3 is li$e the man going home from the shoe mar$et to get the measurements of his feet' I/' #here(er lies profit3 there people goH %here(er fame is offered3 there officers die' Therefore3 if any meritorious ser(ice goes beyond the limits of the la% and re%ard is besto%ed therefore3 then the superior cannot 9.u$e hing %hen he left the carriage and ran on foot3 )ing hao read the code and fell do%n asleep3 and a certain ruler A9 co(ered %ith his hands his %orn-out plain clothes' )ung h!iu3 not $no%ing this3 said that the ruler %as li$e a basin' The 0uler of Tsou3 not $no%ing this3 humiliated himself before doing anything else' The %ay of the enlightened so(ereign is the same as Shu Hsiang distributing bounties A@ and as Mar8uis hao granting nobody any re8uest' /I' If small faith is %ell accomplished3 great faith %ill naturally be established' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign accumulates faith' If re%ard and punishment are .u$e hien of h?ng and . gain any profit from the inferiorH if fame goes beyond the limits of the la% and honour accompanies it3 then officers %ill stri(e after their o%n fame but ne(er 9< %ill culti(ate any fame for the ruler' For this reason3 after hung-chang and HsM-i had been appointed to office3 the people of hung-mou deserted their fields and farms and those %ho pursued the literary studies numbered half the population of the fief' Similarly3 because .u$e P!ing3 in spite of the soreness of his cal(es and the numbness of his legs3 dared not lea(e his seat %hen Shu Hsiang %as ha(ing an audience %ith him3 men of hin %ho resigned from official posts and yearned after Shu Hsiang occupied one-third @J of the size of the country' These three personages3 %hen their %ords %ere in accordance %ith the la%3 %ere merely subFects loyal to the go(ernment3 and3 %hen their deeds %ere suitable to affairs3 %ere simply people obedient to orders' Bet the tributes paid them by both their 0ulers %ere too great' If their %ords %ent beyond the limits of the la% and their deeds %ere far from meritorious3 then they %ere people slipping out of the in$ed string' @9 In that case %hy should both their 0ulers ha(e paid them any tribute at allL If they did3 they missed the point of propriety' Moreo(er3 pri(ate scholars pursuing studies3 %hen the state is at peace3 ne(er e5ert their physical strength3 and3 once an emergency comes3 ne(er don armour' If re(ered3 they neglect the %or$ of farming and fightingH if not re(ered3 they inFure @@ the la% of the so(ereign' #hen the state is in security3 they are ennobled and celebratedH %hen the state is in danger3 they are as co%ardly @A as h!M )ung' Such being the case3 %hat can the lord of men gain out of the pri(ate scholars pursuing studiesL Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign @D %ould ta$e into consideration -i Tz!ŭ*s report of the entral Hills State' /' It is said in the 'ook of )oetry& "In him3 himself inert3 the people put no trust'" @E &f this precept a 4rand Tutor persuaded a feudal lord to %ear no purple clothes' In illustration of it the cases of . but merely ma$es himself an e5ample to the inferior3 @< does the same AJ as .u$e Hsiang of Sung can be cited' @= It charges e(ery ruler %ith the duty of honouring and esteeming3 @I farming and fighting' Indeed3 %ho distinguishes bet%een high and lo%3 does not hold subordinates responsible for successful outcome3 @.

maids to it' 6pon their arri(al in hin3 the hins lo(ed the concubines but slighted the princess' This may be said to be good in marrying out the concubines but cannot be said to be good in marrying out the daughter' &nce upon a time a man of h!u %as selling pearls in h?ng' For the pearls he made magnolia bo5es3 %hich he perfumed %ith cassia spice3 bound %ith beads3 decorated them %ith red gems3 and filled harmoniously %ith the $ingfisher*s feather' A< In the long run people in h?ng bought the cas$ets but returned the pearls' This may be said to be good in selling cas$ets but cannot be said to be good in trading pearls' 7o%3 the itinerants of the present %orld all spea$ %ith the %ords of elo8uent persuasi(eness and literary phrasing' In conse8uence the lord of men reads the literature %ith e5ceeding interest but forgets its utility' The teachings of Mo Tzŭ con(ey the principles of the early $ings and theorize the %ords of the saintly men and thereby propagate ideas among people' If he made his phrasing elo8uent3 people might3 it %as feared3 harbour the literature but forget the utility3 DJ that is to say3 he might inFure the utility %ith the literature' That %ould be doing e5actly the same thing as the man of h!u trading pearls and the 2arl of h!in marrying out his daughter' Therefore3 the sayings of Mo Tzŭ %ere mostly not elo8uent'" Mo Tzŭ once constructed a %ooden $ite3 %hich it too$ him three years to complete' .of no faith3 then prohibitions and orders cannot pre(ail' The basis of the saying is found in .ll-under-Hea(en %as %ell go(erned' 7o% that San-fu is so tiny and you ha(e %orried about go(erning it3 %hat can be done %ith .ll-underHea(enL Thus3 if you ha(e the right craft to rule the country3 then e(en though you remain seated in the hall of the palace and retain the charming comple5ion of a girl3 there %ill be no harm to political order' But if you ha(e no tact to rule the country3 then e(en though your body becomes e5hausted and s$inny3 still there %ill not be help to political order'" The )ing of h!u once said to T!ien hiu+ "Mo Tzŭ %as a celebrity for learning' #hat he personally practised A= is agreeable but his sayings are mostly not elo8uent' #hyL" In reply T!ien hiu said+ "Formerly %hen the 2arl of h!in married his daughter to the prince of hin3 he embellished her do%ry AI by adding se(enty beautifully dressed A.u$e #?n*s attac$ on BMan and in hi h?ng*s rescue of the star(elings' For the same reason3 #u h!i %aited for his old friend till he came to dine %ith himH Mar8uis #?n met the men of BM at the appointed time before he started hunting' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign %ould (alue AA faith in the %ay Ts?ng Tzŭ $illed a pig' The calamity of brea$ing faith is illustrated by )ing -i*s AD beating the alarm drum and by -i )uei!s decei(ing the guards of both gates' So much for the canons' &nnotations to Canon *+< Mi Tzŭ hien go(erned San-fu' &nce Bu-Fo sa% him and as$ed him' "#hy ha(e you become so thinL" In reply Mi Tzŭ said+ "His Highness3 not $no%ing my inferiority and un%orthiness3 appointed me 4o(ernor of San-fu' The official duties are urgent' My mind is al%ays %orried o(er them' Therefore I ha(e become thin'" Thereupon Bu-Fo remar$ed+ "In bygone days Shun played the fi(e-stringed guitar and sang the South #ind Poem AE but .fter flying for one day3 it bro$e' His disciples said+ "The master*s s$ill is so e5cellent as to ma$e the %ooden $ite fly'" Mo Tzŭ said+ "I am not as s$ilful as the ma$er of the .

s a rule3 the instruments of engra(ers and car(ers must al%ays be smaller than their obFects' Being a smith himself3 thy ser(ant finds no %ay to ma$e him any instrument for car(ing' It is an unattainable obFect' May Bour MaFesty deliberate on the matterG" .s regards the solidity of the %alls3 they can pierce fi(e inches through )uei*s %or$ but only t%o inches through Hsieh hi*s %or$'" Indeed3 good drugs are bitter to the mouth3 but intelligent people are %illing to ta$e them because they $no% the drugs after being ta$en %ill cure their diseases' -oyal %ords are unpleasant to the ears3 but the enlightened so(ereign listens to them3 because he $no%s they %ill bring about successful results' &nnotations to Canon **+< &nce a man of Sung as$ed permission to engra(e a female ape on the edge of a bramble thorn for the )ing of Ben' .s a result3 the passers-by ne(er stopped %hile the builders percei(ed their o%n %eariness' "7o% that the passers-by do not $no% %hat is going on %hile the builders percei(e their o%n %eariness3 he sings not DA as %ell as )uei' #hat is the reasonL" as$ed the )ing' In reply )uei said3 "Suppose Bour MaFesty measure the respecti(e results' )uei by his singing had only four panel boards done %hile Hsieh hi had eight' .s a result3 the passers-by stopped to see them %hile the builders ne(er felt tired' Hearing about this3 the )ing summoned )uei and re%arded him therefor' Thereupon )uei said3 "Thy ser(ant*s master Hsieh hi3 sings better than thy ser(ant does'" The )ing3 accordingly3 summoned Hsieh hi and ordered him to sing' .cross-bar for yo$ing the o5en' He uses a piece of %ood eight inches or one foot D9 long and spends less time than one morning %hile the bar can pull the burden of thirty piculs3 D@ has the strength for going a long %ay3 and lasts for a number of years' 7o%3 in constructing a %ooden $ite3 it too$ me three years to complete it3 %hich bro$e after one day*s flying'" Hearing about this3 Hui Tzŭ said3 "Mo Tzŭ %as e5ceedingly s$ilful3 considering the construction of the cross-bar s$ilful and the construction of the %ooden $ite clumsy'" The )ing of Sung %as at feud %ith h!i' #hen he %as building the %ar palace3 the Singer )uei led the chorus of the %or$men' .ccordingly3 the )ing arrested and 8uestioned the man of Sung3 found out his falsehood3 and put him to death' The smith again said to the )ing3 "If the state has no %eights and measures to regulate things3 itinerants %ould present mostly such absurd discussions as the Bramble Thorn Story'" .elighted3 the )ing of Ben supported him %ith the emolument of fi(e chariots' Then the )ing as$ed "May I3 the )ing3 for trial see the ape on the bramble thorn engra(ed by my honourable guestL" "If the lord of men %ants to see it3" replied the guest3 "he must be absent from his harem and abstain from %ine and meat for half .ccording to a different source+ &nce the )ing of Ben %as recruiting s$ilful artists3 %hen a man of #ei as$ed permission to engra(e a female ape on the edge of a bramble thorn' .ccording to him3 the )ing must remain purified for three months before he could see it' The )ing3 accordingly3 supported him %ith the emolument DD of three chariots' DE Thereupon the smith %ho attended on the )ing said D= to him+ "Thy ser(ant has heard3 !7o lord of men can remain purified for ten days %ithout ha(ing a drin$ing feast in the meantime'* 7o% that the Sung man $no%s the inability of Bour MaFesty to remain purified long enough in order to see a useless obFect3 he purposely set three months as the period of purification' .

n a%l3" "I %ant to see D.a year' Then3 %hen the rain clears up and the sun shines again3 he %ill be able to see the female ape in a dar$ shady place'" In conse8uence3 the )ing of Ben purposely supported the man of #ei but could not see his female ape' In the meantime a smith famous for ma$ing $itchen utensils in h?ng said to the )ing of Ben+ "Thy ser(ant is a car(er' 2(ery tiny obFect to be car(ed must ha(e a car(ing $nife3 and the car(ing instrument is al%ays larger than the obFect to be car(ed' 7o% that the edge of the bramble thorn is too small e(en for the tip of an a%l3 it must be e5traordinarily difficult to handle the edge of the bramble thorn' Suppose Bour MaFesty try to see the a%l of the guest' Then either his ability or inability %ill be $no%n'" "4ood3" the )ing said3 and then as$ed the man of #ei3 "#hat $ind of an instrument does my honourable guest use in car(ing the female ape on the bramble thornL" DI ". it3" said the )ing' "May thy ser(ant go bac$ to his lodging place and get itL" So saying3 the guest ran a%ay' 7i BMeh D< %as a s$ilful dialectician among the Sungs' Maintaining the argument that "the %hite horse is not the horse3" EJ he o(ercame the debaters beneath the 4rain E9 4ate of the capital of h!i' &nce %hen he rode a %hite horse and came to a pass3 he had to pay the horse-ta5 for the %hite horse' Thus3 on playing %ith empty terms3 he could triumph o(er the %hole country3 but on in(estigating facts and e5amining features he could not decei(e anybody' Indeed3 suppose you sharpen an arro%3 dra% the bo%3 and shoot the arro%3 then though you close your eyes and shoot at random3 the pointed head of the arro% is bound to hit the tip of an autumn spi$elet' Ho%e(er3 unless you can hit the same spot again3 you cannot be called a s$ilful archer' For you ha(e no constant aim and mar$' 7o% if the target %ere fi(e inches in diameter and the arro% %ere shot from a distance of one hundred steps3 E@ then nobody other than Bi and F?ng M?ng could %ith certainty hit EA the mar$ e(ery time' For there %ould then be a constant aim and mar$' Therefore3 in the presence of a constant aim and mar$ the straight hit by Hou Bi and F?ng M?ng at a target fi(e inches in diameter is regarded as s$ilfulH %hereas in the absence of a constant aim and mar$ the %ild hit at the tip of an autumn spi$elet is regarded as a%$%ard' For the same reason3 if the so(ereign has no fi5ed standard and ma$es responses to any spea$er3 then the itinerants %ill tal$ too much nonsenseH %hereas if he establishes a fi5ed standard and holds any spea$er to it3 then e(en intelligent men %ill be afraid of ma$ing mista$es and dare not spea$ at random' ED 7o%3 the lord of men3 in listening to suggestions3 does not consider them under a fi5ed standard but simply appro(es EE of their elo8uence3 does not measure them %ith their meritorious ser(ices but plainly honours their (irtuous deeds3 and does not ta$e any concern in a constant aim amd mar$' E= This is the reason %hy the lord of men is al%ays decei(ed and the itinerants are for e(er supported' &nce a tra(eller taught the )ing of Ben the %ay to immortality' The )ing then sent men to learn it' Before the men sent to learn completed their study3 the tra(eller died' 2nraged thereby3 the )ing chastized the students' Thus3 the )ing did not $no% that he himself had been decei(ed by the tra(eller3 but censured the students for their tardiness' Indeed3 to belie(e in an unattainable thing and chastize innocent subFects is the calamity of thoughtlessness' Moreo(er3 %hat a man cares for is nothing other than his o%n self' If he could not ma$e himself immortal3 ho% could he ma$e the )ing li(e for e(erL .

has heard about the principle of the respected master not to depend upon people for his food supplies' 7o%3 )u has a %ay of planting the gourd3 %hose fruits are as hard as stones and are solid but not hollo% inside' Therefore3 he is presenting them to the master'" Then hung said+ "Indeed3 gourds are (aluable because they can ser(e as (essels' 7o% that they are solid and not hollo%3 they cannot E< ser(e up anything' If they are as hard as stones3 =J they cannot be split for emptying out' =9 I ha(e no use for these gourds'" "If so3 )u %ill thro% them a%ay'" 7o% that T!ien hun not depending upon people for food supplies %as also of no use to the country of people3 he %as li$e the hard gourds' BM h!ing %as building a house3 and said to the carpenter3 "This house %ill be too high'" Then the carpenter said+ "This is a ne% house3 its plaster being %et and its beams supporting the ea(es still unseasoned' Indeed the %et plaster is hea(y and the unseasoned beams are cur(ed' #ith cur(ed beams supporting %et plaster3 the house ought to become lo% enough'" "That %ill not be so3" said BM h!ing' ".ogs and horses are the hardest'" "Then %hat is the easiestL" ".&nce there %ere men of h?ng contending for seniority in age' &ne man said3 "My age is the same as Bao*s'" .nother man said3 "I am as old as the elder brother of the Bello% 2mperor'" They brought the dispute to the court3 but the Fudge could not ma$e any decision' Finally he ruled that the one %ho %as the last to stop arguing %on the case' &nce a tra(eller3 %ho painted the %hip for the 0uler of hou3 spent three years to complete it' #hen the 0uler sa% it3 it loo$ed e5actly li$e a plainly (arnished %hip' Thereby the 0uler of hou %as enraged' Then the painter of the %hip said3 "Build a %all t%enty feet EI high and a %indo% eight feet long' Place the %hip upon it at sunrise and then loo$ at it'" The 0uler of hou3 accordingly3 loo$ed at the features of the %hip in the %ay he had been instructed and found them all turning into dragons3 serpents3 birds3 beasts3 carriages3 and horses3 and the forms of myriad other things all present' Thereat he %as greatly pleased' The %or$ done to this %hip certainly %as delicate and difficult' Bet its utility %as the same as that of any plainly (arnished %hip' &nce upon a time there %as a tra(eller dra%ing for the )ing of h!i' "#hat is the hardest thing to dra%L" as$ed the )ing' ".fter a number of days3 the plaster %ill be dry and the beams %ill be seasoned' #hen dry3 the plaster %ill be lightH %hen seasoned3 the beams %ill be straight' #ith straight beams supporting dry plaster3 the house %ill be still higher'" Thereby the carpenter ga(e in and did the building in the %ay BM h!ing %anted3 but the house collapsed' .e(ils and demons are the easiest' Indeed3 dogs and horses are %hat people $no% and see at da%n and dus$ in front of them' To dra% them no distortion is permissible' Therefore they are the hardest' &n the contrary3 de(ils and demons ha(e no shapes and are not seen in front of anybody3 therefore it is easy to dra% them'" In h!i there %as a retired scholar named T!ien hung' &nce a man of Sung named h!M )u sa% him and said+ ")u E.ccording to a different source+ BM h!ing %as going to build a house3 %hen the carpenter said+ "The %ood is unseasoned and the plaster is %et' Indeed3 %hen unseasoned3 the %ood is cur(edH %hen %et3 the plaster is hea(y' #ith cur(ed %ood supporting hea(y plaster3 the house3 though it may be completed no%3 %ill certainly .

s the carpenter and the craftsman =I could not e5ert their technical s$ill3 the house collapsed and the bo% bro$e' -i$e%ise3 as the e5perts in statecraft cannot carry out their policy3 the state is disorderly and the so(ereign is Feopardized' To be sure3 children3 %hen they play together3 ta$e soft earth as coo$ed rice3 muddy %ater as soup3 and %ood sha(ings as slices of meat' Ho%e(er3 at dus$ they %ould go home for supper because dust rice and mud soup can be played %ith but cannot be eaten' Indeed3 tributes to the legacy of remote anti8uity3 are appreciati(e and elo8uent but superficialH and admiration of the early $ings for their bene(olence and righteousness3 cannot rectify the course of the state' Therefore3 they can be played %ith but cannot be used as instruments of go(ernment3 either' Indeed3 those %ho ha(e longed after bene(olence and righteousness and become %ea$ and disorderly are the Three hins' The one %ho has ne(er longed but has become orderly and strong is h!in' Ho%e(er3 she has not yet become an empire because her go(ernment is not yet perfect' &nnotations to Canon ***+< .t his %its* end3 the bo%-ma$er made bo%s in the %ay Fan hM %anted' The bo%s bro$e to pieces' The sayings of Fan hM and BM h!ing are all elo8uent in structure and e5cellent in diction to the realities of things' Bet the lord of men is al%ays delighted at such sayings and ne(er suppresses them' This is the cause of his failure' Indeed3 not to see$ for the merits in attaining order and strength but to co(et the (oices in ma$ing elo8uent speeches and beautiful compositions3 is to reFect the e5perts in statecraft and trust to such laymen as %ould brea$ houses and bo%s' Therefore3 the lord of men in administering state affairs is al%ays not as s$ilful as the carpenter in building houses and the craftsman in ma$ing bo%s' Ho%e(er3 the e5perts are dri(en to their %its* end by Fan hM and BM h!ing' Because =D of the futility of =E empty phrases the latter triumph' Because of the immutability of == practical things the former are dri(en at bay' The lord of men ma$es much of useless elo8uent speeches and ma$es light of immutable propositions' This is the cause of disorder' In the present %orld there are al%ays men %ho %ould imitate Fan hM and BM h!ing3 but the lord of men is uncreasingly delighted %ith them' This is to re(ere such types of men as the houseand bo%-ma$ers and loo$ at the technical e5perts as carpenters or craftsmen' .collapse as time goes on'" In response to this BM h!ing said+ "#hen dry3 the %ood %ill become straightH %hen dry the plaster %ill become light' Suppose the %ood and the plaster are really dry no%' Then they %ill become lighter and straighter day by day and %ill ne(er collapse e(en after a long period of time'" Thereby the carpenter ga(e in and did the building in the %ay BM h!ing %anted' In the meantime follo%ing the completion3 the house actually collapsed' Fan hM =@ said+ "The bo% brea$s al%ays to%ards the end and ne(er at the beginning' To be sure3 the bo%-ma$er first dra%s the bo%3 lea(es it in the stand for thirty days3 =A then puts the string on it3 and after one day shoots arro%s %ith it' Thereby he ma$es it tender at the beginning and tough to%ards the ending' Ho% can the bo% not brea$L hM*s %ay of ma$ing bo%s is not the sameKnamely3 to lea(e the bo% in the stand for one day3 then put the string on it3 and after thirty days shoot arro%s %ith it' Thereby I ma$e it tough at the beginning and tender to%ards the ending'" .

u$e Huan %ould not listen' So 6ncle hung said+ "Suppose Bour Highness cannot help attac$ing Ts!ai' #ell3 for three years h!u has not brought thorny reeds ID as tribute to the Son of Hea(en' Bour Highness had better raise an army and attac$ h!u on behalf of the Son of Hea(en' .u$e Huan' &ne day .u$e Huan and she %ent on a boat' She mo(ed the boat at random' Much frightened3 .If one recei(es no good care in his childhood from his parents3 %hen he gro%s up3 as a son he sho%s resentment at them' Though the son gro%s to be a big and strong man3 his pro(isions for his parents are rather scanty' Then the parents become angry and reprimand him' 7o%3 father and son are the closest relati(es' Bet they either reprimand or sho% resentment at each other simply because they are dri(en together by force of circumstances and neither can accomplish his self-see$ing purpose' Indeed3 in the case of %or$men selling their ser(ices in so%ing seeds and tilling farms3 the master %ould at the e5pense of his house$eeping gi(e them delicious food and by appropriating cash and cloth =.u$e Huan became (ery angry and thought of attac$ing Ts!ai' 6ncle hung3 accordingly3 admonished him3 saying+ "Indeed3 the trouble due to the play bet%een sleeping partners ma$es no sufficient cause for attac$ing their country' &ther%ise3 the achie(ement of Hegemony cannot be e5pected' Please do not ta$e this as a %ise plan'" .fter h!u is subdued3 turn bac$ and raid Ts!ai and say to the %orld3 !%hen His Highness %as attac$ing h!u on behalf of the Son of Hea(en3 Ts!ai ne(er follo%ed him %ith reinforcements' Therefore His Highness is destroying it'* This %ill be righteous in name and profitable in fact' In conse8uence3 Bour Highness %ill ha(e .u$e #?n attac$ed Sung but made a declaration beforehand3 saying+ "I ha(e heard the 0uler of Sung follo%s no right %ay of go(ernment3 insulting seniors and elders3 ma$ing unfair distribution of alms3 and issuing faithless precepts and ordinances' Therefore3 I am coming to punish him on behalf of the people'" BMeh %as attac$ing #u' The )ing of BMeh made a declaration beforehand3 saying+ "I ha(e heard the )ing of #u built the Cu-huang To%er and dug the .u$e Huan stopped her but she $ept on doing it' 2nraged3 he di(orced her' Soon he recalled her' But the Ts!ais replied that they had married her out else%here' Thereat .eep Spring Pool3 %earing out the hundred surnames and %asting the money and resources of the country and thereby e5hausting the strength of the people' Therefore3 I am coming to punish him on behalf of the people'" . ma$e payments for their ser(ices' 7ot that they lo(e the hired %or$men3 but that3 they say3 by so doing they can ma$e the %or$men till the land deeper and pic$ the %eed more carefully' =< The hired %or$men3 by e5erting their physical strength3 speedily pic$ the %eed and till the land3 IJ and3 by using their s$ill3 rectify the boundaries bet%een different tracts I9 of ground and the dy$es separating different fields' I@ 7ot that they lo(e their master3 but that3 they say3 by their so doing the soup %ill be delicious and both cash and cloth %ill be paid to them' Thus3 the master*s pro(isions and the %or$men*s ser(ices supplement each other as if bet%een them there %ere the compassion of father and son' Ho%e(er3 their minds are %ell disposed to act for each other because they cherish self-see$ing moti(es respecti(ely' Therefore3 %hen men deal %ith each other in managing affairs and rendering ser(ices3 if their moti(e is hope for gain3 then e(en %ith a nati(e from BMeh3 it %ill be easy to remain harmonious' If the moti(e is fear of harm3 then e(en father and son %ill become estranged and sho% resentment to%ard each other' IA . princess of Ts!ai became a concubine of .

So saying3 he repeated bo%ing and too$ his lea(e' Stopping him from lea(ing3 .u$e #?n on the %ay to his homeland reached the Bello% 0i(er3 %here he ordered all bamboo and %ooden (essels for food to be thro%n into the ri(er3 the sheets and mats to be thro%n into the ri(er3 the men %hose hands and feet are thic$ and chapped and those %hose faces and eyes %ere blac$ or dar$ to follo% from behind' Hearing about this3 6ncle II Fan %ept all night' So .u$e #?n said+ "There is a pro(erb saying3 !Builders of the shire ta$e off their clothes %hen installing the image in it but %ear their blac$ hats straight %hen commemorating the enshrined spirit'* 7o%3 %ith me you ha(e reco(ered the country but you are not going to go(ern the country %ith me' This is the same as though you installed the image in the shrine %ith me but %ould not commernorate the enshrined spirit %ith me'" So saying3 he untied the horse attached to the left of the yo$e of his carriage and s%ore by the 0i(er to repeal the order' &nce a man of the Prefecture of h?ng3 named Po Tzŭ3 as$ed his %ife to ma$e a pair of trousers' "Ho% %ould you li$e to ha(e your trousers made this timeL" as$ed the .oes it mean that he does not %ant His Highness to return to his nati(e countryL" In reply Fan said+ "The bamboo and %ooden (essels ha(e been used for ser(ing food but Bour Highness is going to thro% them a%ay' The sheets and mats ha(e been used for ma$ing beddings but Bour Highness is going to gi(e them up' The men %hose hands and feet are thic$ and chapped and faces and eyes are blac$ or dar$ ha(e rendered meritorious ser(ices but Bour Highness is going to $eep them follo%ing from behind' 7o% thy ser(ant happens to be among the group follo%ing from behind' 6nable to bear the sadness3 I am crying' Moreo(er3 thy ser(ant in order to enable Bour Highness to return to his nati(e country committed misrepresentations many times' &f this e(en thy ser(ant ne(er appro(es' Ho% much less %ould Bour HighnessL" I.mong his soldiers someone became sic$ of boils' Therefore3 #u h!i $nelt do%n himself and suc$ed the pus out of the boil' The mother of the %ounded soldier %as standing by and crying' People then as$ed her3 "The general is so $ind to your son' #hy should you $eep cryingL" In reply she said+ "#u h!i suc$ed the pus out of his father*s %ound and his father later died fighting' 7o% the son %ill die fighting3 too' I IE am3 therefore3 crying'" The Father So(ereign of hao once ordered masons to use a scaling ladder3 thereby climb Mountain Fan-%u3 and on the summit engra(e a human footprint three feet %ide and fi(e feet long3 and inscribe it3 "The Father So(ereign once strolled here'" )ing hao of h!in ordered masons to use a scaling ladder3 thereby climb the Hua Mountain3 on the summit construct a bac$gammon board %ith the $ernels of pines and cypresses and arro%s eight feet long and chess pieces eight inches long3 and inscribe on the board3 ")ing hao once played bac$gammon %ith a hea(enly god here'" I= .u$e #?n as$ed him3 "I ha(e been e5iled for t%enty years till no% %hen I am barely able to return to my nati(e soil' Hearing about this3 6ncle Fan is not delighted but crying all the time' .the name of punishing the disobedient on behalf of the Son of Hea(en and the fact of ta$ing re(enge'" #u h!i commanded #ey*s forces in attac$ing entral Hills' .

man of Bing once %rote a letter to the Prime Minister of Ben' He %rote the letter at night' #hen the light %as not bright3 he3 accordingly3 said to the candle-holder3 "0aise the candleG" So saying he %rote do%n by mista$e the %ords3 "0aise the candle3" although raising candles %as not the gist of the letter' Ho%e(er3 the Prime Minister of Ben on recei(ing the letter %as glad and said+ "To raise the candle means to e5alt the bright' To e5alt the bright means to ele(ate the %orthy and appoint them to office'" Therefore3 the Premier of Ben spo$e to the )ing about the policy of appointing the %orthy to office3 %hich the )ing %as (ery glad to carry into effect' In conse8uence3 the state became orderly' . youngster of Sung %anted to learn eti8uette' &nce at a feast he sa% elder people drin$ing a toast and not lea(ing a single drop' So he started finishing the %hole cup though not drin$ing a toast' It is said in an ancient boo$3 "4ird yourself3 belt yourselfG" .s regards the problem of political order3 they . man of -u %anted to learn eti8uette' . man of #ei intended to shoot arro%s %ith strings tied to them' #hen a bird came3 he bec$oned to the bird %ith the ball of string' The bird %as frightened' He did not shoot' &nce the %ife of Po Tzŭ3 a man of the Prefecture of h?ng3 %ent to the mar$et3 bought turtles3 and %as bringing them home' Passing by the Bing #ater3 she thought the turtles %ere thirsty3 let them go drin$ing3 and lost her turtles' &nce upon a time a youngster %as attending an elder man drin$ing %ine' But e(ery time the elder too$ a drin$3 he %ould himself drin$3 . man of Sung3 %ho once ran across this passage3 doubled his sash and girdled himself %ith it accordingly' "#hy do you do thatL" as$ed someone else' "The ancient boo$ saying so3 so must I do3" %as the reply' It is said in an ancient record3 .ccording to a different source+ .%ife' "-i$e my old trousers3" replied the husband' .J too' .9 He sa% elder people drin$ing %ine and spitting it out %hene(er unable to finish it' So he follo%ed them in spitting %ine out' .lready engra(ed and already car(ed3 it re(erts to its nai(etN'" . man of -iang3 %ho once ran across this passage3 %ould tal$ about learning in his daily action and 8uote facts from the %riting in illustration of his theory' 2(eryday .ccordingly the %ife tore the ne% trousers and made them loo$ li$e the old ones' &nce a man of the Prefecture of h?ng came by a yo$e but did not $no% its name' So he as$ed somebody else3 "#hat thing is thisL" I< "It is a yo$e3" %as the reply' Suddenly he found a yo$e again and as$ed3 "#hat thing is thisL" "It is a yo$e3" %as again the reply' Thereby the man %as enraged and said3 "Bou called the former one a yo$e and are again calling the present one a yo$e' #hy so manyL .ren*t you decei(ing meL" So saying3 he started 8uarrelling %ith the man' .@ ".ccording to another different source+ .A he %ould do the same3 till he lost the genuineness of his nature' Thereupon someone else as$ed him3 "#hy do you do thatL" "The ancient record saying so3 so must I do3" %as the reply' .

u$e P!ing respected him so much that during the inter(ie% he only turned his muscles around but dared not lea(e his seat'" In conse8uence3 men in the hin State %ho resigned from official posts and yearned after Shu Hsiang occupied one-third .did attain political order' But it %as not the gist of the letterG Thus3 scholars of the present %orld mostly resemble the Premier of Ben in interpreting the meaning of %ords' &nce a man of h?ng %anted to buy a pair of shoes for himself' He measured his feet first and left measurements on his seat' He arri(ed at the mar$et-place3 but had forgotten to ta$e the measurements along' Though he had already found the shoes for himself3 he said3 "I ha(e forgotten to ta$e the measurements along' -et me go home to get them here'" #hen he came bac$ again3 the mar$et %as closed3 ho%e(er' He could not get the shoes after all' "#hy didn*t you try the shoes %ith your o%n feetL" as$ed people' "I ha(e confidence in the measurements but not in my o%n feet3" %as the reply' &nnotations to Canon *V+< #ang T?ng3 Magistrate of hung-mou3 once in his proposition to -ord Hsiang of hao said+ " hung-mou has scholars named hung-chang and HsM-i3 %hose personal appearances are (ery refined and %hose learning is (ery erudite' #hy does Bour Highness not ta$e them into ser(iceL" In reply -ord Hsiang said+ "Bou go to find them' I %ill appoint them Middle &fficials'" Thereupon the Premier remonstrated %ith him3 saying3 "The post of the Middle &fficial is an important ran$ in hin' 7o%3 appointment of men of no merit to office is not in accordance %ith the constitution of hin' Bour Highness has only heard about them but not yet seen them3 isn*t it soL" "#hen I too$ T?ng into ser(ice3" replied the -ord3 "I sa% him after ha(ing heard about him' The men he has recommended I %ill see after I ha(e heard about them3 too' This is the %ay to use others as my o%n ears and eyes %ithout cease'" Thus3 #ang T?ng in one day recommended t%o Middle &fficials to inter(ie% the -ord3 %ho besto%ed upon them fields and residences' In conse8uence3 the people of hung-mou3 %ho stopped tilling fields and mo%ing grass3 sold their houses and farms3 and pursued literary studies3 numbered half the population of the fief' Shu Hsiang sat by .D the size of the country' .u$e P!ing became sore and the legs numb3 yet he only turned his muscles around but dared not lea(e his seat' Hearing about this3 e(erybody in the hin State said+ "Shu Hsiang is a %orthy' .E should die at their hands and also fear lest he himself should be captured ali(e by them' The Father So(ereign of hao sent -i Tz!ŭ to inspect entral Hills and see %hether or not the country could be attac$ed' 6pon his return Tz!ŭ reported that the country could be attac$ed and that if His MaFesty did not stri$e early enough3 he %ould lag behind h!i and Ben' "#hy can the country be attac$edL" as$ed the Father So(ereign' In reply -i Tz!ŭ said+ "It is because the 0uler is fond of celebrating retired scholars in roc$y ca(es' For tens of times3 he pulled do%n his carriage-co(er and offered seats in his carriage %hen meeting scholars from destitute (illage gates or narro% alleys' The .u$e P!ing and reported to him on different affairs' Though the cal(es of . man of h?ng3 named h!M )ung3 %hene(er he heard enemies %ere coming3 %ould fear lest he himself .

I Thenceforth3 %hene(er any attendant in purple clothes came in3 the .times that he paid such courtesies to scholars %earing hemp clothes as if they %ere his e8uals3 numbers hundreds'" ".= then farmers %ill rela5 their efforts in the fields' If the %arriors neglect their duties at the camps3 the army becomes %ea$+ if the farmers rela5 their efforts in the fields3 the state becomes poor' #ith the army %ea$ened by enemies and the state impo(erished at home3 no country e(er e(ades destruction' Isn*t it then practicable to attac$ such a countryL" "0ight'" So saying3 the Father So(ereign raised an army3 attac$ed entral Hills3 and finally destroyed the country' &nnotations to Canon V+< .ccording to a different source+ The )ing of h!i %as fond of %earing purple clothes' So %ere the people of h!i' .ll right3" said the .u$e Huan said to )uan hung3 "I am fond of %earing purple clothes3 but purple clothes are (ery e5pensi(e' The hundred surnames in the country li$e to %ear purple clothes continually' #hat should I do about thatL" "If Bour Highness %ants to stop them3" replied )uan hung3 "%hy doesn*t he for a time not %ear any purple clothes at all3 and tell the attendants3 !His Highness disli$es the bad odour of purple clothes*'" ".u$e Huan of h!i %as fond of %earing purple clothes3 till e(erybody in the country %ore purple clothes3 too' .t that time3 nobody could get one purple thread at the cost of fi(e plain %hite threads' #orried o(er this3 .u$e %ould say3 "4et a%ay a littleG I disli$e the bad odour of purple clothes'" .ccording to your description and estimation3" remar$ed the Father So(ereign3 "he is a %orthy ruler' #hy then can the country be attac$edL" "That is not so3" replied Tz!ŭ3 "because if the 0uler is fond of celebrating retired scholars from roc$y ca(es and employs them in the court3 then %arriors %ill neglect their duties at the campsH if the superior esteems learned men3 condescends to country scholars3 and employs them in the court3 .ccordingly3 that day no courtier %ore purple clothesH ne5t day nobody in the state capital %ore purple clothesH and by the third day nobody %ithin the state boundaries %ore purple clothes' .u$e hien had no %orry in his life' .h!an3 "and already made the inner defences firm' Though the country is small3 yet thy ser(ant does not thin$ it is in danger' May Bour Highness not %orry o(er itL" Therefore3 .s a result3 in the h!i State %ith the cost of fi(e plain %hite threads nobody could buy a purple one' &(er the e5pensi(eness of purple clothes3 the )ing of h!i %orried' Thereupon the 4rand Tutor said to the )ing+ "It is said in the 'ook of )oetry& !In him3 himself inert3 the people put no trust'* 7o%3 if Bour MaFesty %ants the people to %ear no purple clothes3 let Bour MaFesty ta$e off purple clothes himself and then go to the court3 and3 %hen any officials %earing purple clothes come in3 tell him3 !4et a%ay fartherG I disli$e the bad odourG" In conse8uence3 that day no courtier %ore purple clothesH in a month nobody in the state capital %ore purple clothesH and in a year nobody %ithin the state boundaries %ore purple clothes' .u$e' .u$e hien of h?ng once said to Tzŭ-ch!an+ "&ur country is small and pressed bet%een hing and hin' 7o% that the city-%alls of the capital are not in good repair and %eapons and armour are not %ell prepared3 %e cannot pro(ide against e(entualities'" "Thy ser(ant has already shut the outer foes far off3" said Tzŭ.

.u$e %as %ounded in the thigh and died in three days' <E This is the calamity of yearning <= after bene(olence and righteousness' Indeed3 to e5pect the lord of men to do e(erything himself as a good e5ample and the people to obey him and follo% his e5ample after%ards is to ma$e the lord of men till the land and thereby ac8uire his food supplies <I and bear arms and line up %ith the soldiers before the people are %illing to till and fight' If so3 is the so(ereign not facing too much danger and are the subFects not enFoying too much securityL &nce3 %hen .u$e hien said to him+ "If drin$ing %ine is no Foy3 sacrifical (essels ..ccording to another source .< are not large3 and bells3 drums3 BM <J instruments3 and s? <9 harps do not sound3 I must be responsible <@ therefor' If political <A affairs are not unified3 the state is not stabilized3 the hundred surnames do not $eep order3 and farmers and %arriors do not li(e in peace and harmony3 you must similarly be responsible therefor' Bou ha(e your official duties3 I ha(e my o%n3 too' -et each of us attend to his duties'" Tzŭ-ch!an %ithdre% and administered the state affairs for fi(e years3 till the country had neither thie(es nor robbers3 no one %ould pic$ up things dropped on the road3 peaches and dates hanging o(er the street %ere not pic$ed off3 and such tiny things as gimlets and $ni(es dropped on the road %ere promptly returned to their o%ners %ithin three days' The same continued for three years and the people ne(er suffered star(ation' .u$e hing of h!i tra(elled to the Small Sea3 a courier rushed from inside the capital to ha(e an audience %ith him3 and said3 "Premier Ben Bin is (ery ill and about to die3 and is afraid Bour Highness might arri(e after his death'" . and alighted from the carriage3 and ran on foot' Thus3 in spite of the speed of Fanchieh and the s$ill of oachman Han h!M . + Tzŭ-ch!an %as Premier of h?ng' &nce .u$e3 "I %ill enforce the martial la%'" The 0ight Minister returned to his line3 %hen the h!u troops had already formed in line and established their positions' Then the .u$e hing3 "and order oachman Han h!M to dri(e it'" .fter another fe% hundred steps3 he thought the horse %ould not go farther3 <.u$e hing thought it the best to get off the carriage and run on foot' .u$e beat the drum' The Sung forces suffered a crushing defeat' The .u$e3 saying+ ".fter setting out a fe% hundred steps3 he thought the coachman %as not fast enough3 too$ the reins a%ay from his hands3 and dro(e the carriage in his place' .u$e Hsiang of Sung fought %ith the h!us in the ho 0i(er 4orge' #hen the Sung forces had already formed in line3 the h!u troops had not yet finished their lines' Thereupon the 0ight Minister of #ar3 )ou h!iang3 ran for%ard and ad(ised the .u$e hing 8uic$ly rose from his seat3 %hen another courier came' "Ruic$ly prepare the carriage of the good horse3 Fan-chieh3" said .u$e Hsiang3 "the gentleman %ould not %ound the %ounded3 not capture men ha(ing t%o $inds of hair3 <D not push people into danger3 not dri(e people to bay3 and not beat the drum to%ards enemies not yet in line' 7o%3 the h!u troops ha(e not completed their lines' If %e attac$ them3 %e act against righteousness' -et them finish crossing the 0i(er and complete their lines' Then beat the drum and lead the army'" "Bour Highness does not lo(e the people of Sung in lea(ing the confidential supporters in precariousness solely for the sa$e of righteousness'" "If you do not return to your line3" said the .s the h!us are numerous and the Sungs are fe%3 let us attac$ them %hen they are half crossing the 0i(er and not yet in line' They %ill certainly be defeated'" "I ha(e heard3" said .

s he pac$ed ten days* food supplies3 he set the time limit at ten days to his High &fficers' #hen ten days had elapsed3 he arri(ed at BMan3 but in ten days BMan did not fall' Therefore3 he ordered them to cease hostilities and lea(e for home' Mean%hile3 some men coming out from the BMan capital said+ "In three more days BMan %ill fall'" .ll the ministers and attendants also remonstrated %ith him3 saying+ "The food of BMan is running lo% and her strength is e5hausted' May Bour Highness %ait longerG" In response the .)ing hao of #ey %anted to ha(e a hand in the official routine and said to the -ord of M?ng-ch!ang3 "I3 the )ing3 %ant to ha(e a hand in the official routine'" "If Bour MaFesty %ants to go through the official routine3" said the -ord3 "%hy does he not for trial learn and read the legal codeL" )ing hao3 accordingly3 started reading the code' .u$e said+ "I set the time limit to my men at ten days for the e5pedition' If I do not lea(e3 I %ill (iolate faith %ith my men' Ta$ing BMan and thereby brea$ing faith3 I can not bear'" So saying3 he stopped the campaign and left' Hearing about this3 the BMans said+ "Such a faithful ruler they ha(eG Ho% can %e refuse to turn to himL" So saying3 they surrendered themsel(es to .fter all3 if the ruler does not hold the august position and supreme handles firmly in hand but %ants to perform the duties %hich the ministers ought to perform3 is it not reasonable that he falls asleep in so doingL onfucius said+ "The ruler of men is li$e the basin3 the people li$e %ater' If the basin is s8uare3 the %ater is s8uareH if the basin is round3 the %ater is round'" The ruler of Tsou %as fond of %earing long fringes' So %ere all his attendants' In conse8uence3 fringes became (ery e5pensi(e' #orried o(er this3 he as$ed the attendants about it' In reply they said+ ".s Bour Highness is fond of %earing them3 most of the hundred surnames %ear them too' Therefore3 they are e5pensi(eG" .fter reading ten and some bamboo slips3 << he fell asleep' "I am unable to read this code3" said the )ing' .ccordingly3 the 0uler cut off his fringes himself and %ent out' .u$e #?n of hin attac$ed BMan' .s a result3 nobody in the country %ould %ear long fringes any more' Thus3 the 0uler3 unable to issue orders to regulate the style of the clothing of the hundred surnames and thereby prohibit them from %earing long fringes3 cut off his o%n fringes and %ent out to sho% his e5ample to the people' In this %ay he e5ercised his authority o(er the people through self-humiliation' Shu Hsiang in distributing emoluments besto%ed more for the more meritorious and less for the less meritorious' Mar8uis hao of Han once said to Sh?n Tzŭ3 "-a%s and rules are not easy to enforce'" "The la% is such a principle3" said Sh?n Tzŭ3 "that men of merit are gi(en re%ards and able personages are ta$en into office' 7o%3 Bour Highness establishes la%s and rules but grants the attendants* re8uests' This is the cause of the difficulty in enforcing la%s and rules'" "From no% on%ard3" said Mar8uis hao3 "I $no% ho% to enforce la%s3 and %ill not grant anybody any re8uest'" &ne day Sh?n Tzŭ begged the Mar8uis to appoint his elder cousin to an official post' In regard to his re8uest3 Mar8uis hao said+ "This is not %hat I learned from you' If I grant you such a re8uest3 I contradict your teaching' I had better not allo% your re8uest'" 9JJ Thereupon Sh?n Tzŭ %ithdre% to his residence and apologized for his fault' &nnotations to Canon V*+< .

u$e #?n attac$ed BMan at the beginning but e(en %on the submission of #ei in the end3 %as because of his faithfulness'" .u$e' The #eis3 hearing about the same3 said+ "Such a faithful ruler they ha(eG Ho% can %e refuse to obey himL" So saying3 they surrendered3 too' onfucius heard about this and recorded+ "That .u$e' ")eep titles of faith3 $eep affairs of faith3 and $eep righteousness of faithG 9J9 If you $eep titles of faith3 all officials %ill attend to their respecti(e dutiesH the good and the bad %ill not o(erride each otherH and e(ery $ind of %or$ %ill not be neglected' If you $eep affairs of faith3 you %ill not miss the times of hea(en and the hundred surnames %ill not ma$e mista$es in farming' If you $eep righteousness of faith3 the near and dear %ill be encouraged thereby and become diligent %hile the distant %ill turn to you for go(ernment'" &nce #u h!i %ent out3 met an old friend3 and in(ited him to dinner' ".the .ll right' #hen I come bac$3 I shall dine %ith you3" said the old friend' "I shall %ait for you to come3" said #u Tzŭ3 and "and then eat"' The old friend did not come %hen e(ening arri(ed' #u h!i did not eat all e(ening and %aited' 7e5t day he sent men out to in(ite his friend' #hen the friend came3 he then dined %ith him' Mar8uis #?n of #ey once made an appointment %ith the BMs to go hunting' &n the follo%ing day the %eather happened to be (ery %indy' The attendants stopped Mar8uis #?n3 but he %ould not listen' "7obody should brea$ faith3" said the Mar8uis3 "because it is (ery %indy' I %ill not brea$ faithG" Finally he dro(e the carriage himself3 %ent to the hunting ground against the %inds3 and told the BMs to stop the hunting' &ne day the %ife of Ts?ng Tzŭ %ent to the mar$et' His son %ent along %ith her and $ept crying' "Bou go home3" said the mother3 "and %hen Mother comes home from shopping3 Mother %ill $ill a pig for you'" #hen she came home from the mar$et3 Ts?ng Tzŭ %anted to catch a pig and $ill it' His %ife stopped him and said3 "That %as Fust a Fo$e %ith the child'" "Be sure3" said Ts?ng Tzŭ3 "children are not supposed to be Fo$ed %ith' They do not possess any inborn ideas' They depend upon their parents for learning3 and listen to their parents* teachings' 7o%3 if you decei(e him3 it means you teach him the %ay of deception' If the mother decei(es her son3 the son %ill ha(e no faith in his mother' This is not the %ay to gi(e teaching to children'" .u$e #?n as$ed hi h?ng ho% to rescue the star(elingsL "By $eeping faith3" %as the reply' "#hat shall I $eep of faithL" as$ed the .t last they $illed a pig and coo$ed the por$ for their son' )ing -i of h!u had an alarm drum' By beating the drum he ga(e the hundred surnames %arnings' &ne day he too$ %ine and %as (ery drun$ and beat the drum' The people %ere frightened (ery much' Thereupon the )ing sent men to stop their fright and said to them3 "I %as then drun$ and playing %ith the attendants %hen I struc$ the drum'" The people all ga(e up the fright' In the course of se(eral months3 there %as a real alarm' The drum %as beaten but the people made no mo(e' Therefore3 the )ing changed his orders and made the signal clear and of faith3 so that the people began to ha(e faith in him' -i )!uei %arned the guards of the right and left gates of the camp and said+ "Be prudent and alertG The enemies might come at da%n or at dus$ to attac$ you'" He .

說左上 @' Hiraza%a*s edition has ]J %hile #ang*s has 明J' The former suits the general sense better than the latter' A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ^æU´明i™J之Ë_šp should be ^æ÷´š者明J之‹Ë_š p' D' #ith )u )uang-ts*? ` should be a' E' #ith )u a÷åb refer to aci÷+iådibe' =' #ith )u f should be 8 referring to 8g' I' #ith )u h refers to h¾3 a philosopher mentioned by huang Tzŭ3 #or$ 11 has i in place of i' .ccording to a different source+ -i )!uei fought %ith the h!ins and said to the guards of the left gates3 "Scale the %alls 8uic$lyG The guards of the right gate ha(e already gone up'" Then he dro(e to the other flan$ and said to the guards of the right gate3 "The left ha(e already gone up'" The left and right guards3 9J@ accordingly3 struggled %ith each other to scale the %alls' In the follo%ing year3 %hen they fought %ith the h!ins3 the h!ins raided them and almost routed the %hole army' This %as a calamity of being faithless' &nce there %ere litigants' Tzŭ-ch!an separated them and ne(er allo%ed them to spea$ to each other' Then he in(erted 9JA their %ords and told each other*s argument and thereby found the (ital facts in(ol(ed in the case' .repeated the same o(er and o(er again' Bet the enemies ne(er came' Both groups of guards became tired and neglected their duties and had no faith in -i )!uei' In the course of se(eral months the h!ins came to raid them and almost put the %hole army to rout' This is the calamity of being faithless' .t a certain time there came certain tra(ellers to go through the pass' Since they ga(e you gold3 you sent them a%ay'" Thereby the officers %ere frightened (ery much and thought .u$e Ssŭ %as clear-minded' 9J= 'otes 9' ô.u$e Ssŭ of #ei 9JD once sent men out to go 9JE through the pass' There the officers made them serious troubles3 %herefore they bribed the officers %ith gold' The officers3 accordingly3 released them' -ater3 .u$e Ssŭ said to the officers+ ".' #ith )u 6 should be 處' <' #ith )u 7 should be ï %hich means j3 and 狀皆 belo% it should be k狀' 9J' #ith )u lmno refer to lpimsinqio:r' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-shen be is a mista$e for te' .

9@' #ith #ang p belo% s is superfluous' 9A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? t should be OOO' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen € seems to be a mista$e for }' 9E' #ith #ang u should be v' 9=' w means "an arro% %ith a string tied to it'" 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien x²者y %as left out belo% 而=z者 and so should be supplied' 9.' #ith )ao ) belo% 不õ means u' @<' #ith #ang 位ƒ means …ƒ' AJ' I propose –" for ë"' A9' .s the annotation of this last illustration %as lost3 the name of this ruler has remained un$no%n' A@' Hiraza%a proposed † for OOO' AA' #ith )u )uang-ts*? „ should be supplied abo(e •' AD' #ith )u „ abo(e Â王 is superfluous' AE' It runs+K The South #ind*s genial balm .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen hao Bung-hsien*s edition has 不ˆ in place of 不•' 9<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ƒ{ should be 不{' @J' #ith Ts!ui huan | should be } %hich means "one of t%o sides"' #ith )ao H?ng } in anti8uity meant one-third' @9' In short3 they are outla%s' @@' #ith -u #?n-shao Æ is a mista$e for Ý' @A' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien ~ means f' @D' #ith -u #?n-shao 王 should be J' @E' B$' I/3 (ii3 D3 -egge*s trans' @=' I propose • for €i • meaning •‚' @I' #ith )ao H?ng ƒ belo% „ should be Š' @.

' DD' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 之Œ should be supplied belo% 三乘' DE' 2moluments %ere measured by chariots during the hou .i3 B$' 1/II3 sec' ii3 i& f'3 -egge*s trans'> A=' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien ‡• should be •‡' AI' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the .s there is no article in hinese3 in 2nglish this can be rendered into se(eral 8ualitati(ely and 8uantitati(ely different propositions as follo%s+K 9' @' A' D' "The %hite horse is not the horse"Ktrue+ "% %hite horse is not a horse"Kfalse+ "The %hite horse is not a horse"Kfalse+ "% %hite horse is not the horse"Ktrue+ &f the abo(e-stated propositions3 the first and the last are true %hile the second and the third are false because it is self-e(ident that the number of horses3 ta$en as a %hole3 is far greater than the number of %hite horses only' The subFect-predicate relationships in these four propositions3 therefore3 is neither mutual identification nor mutual e5clusion3 but subFecti(e inclusion' .' #ith #ang the same edition has ˆ¯ in place of ¯ˆ' A<' The same edition has ‰Š in place of 4Š' DJ' #ith )u )uang-ts!? U should be supplied belo% 忘=' D9' &ne hinese foot is about the same as one 2nglish foot but is di(ided into ten instead of t%el(e inches' D@' 石' &ne shih consists of four chMn :â> and one chMn of thirty chin :‹> or catties3 and one chin is roughly e8ui(alent to one pound and one-third' DA' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n3 hang*s edition has no ¡ bet%een 不 and .4i(es to my people*s sorro%s easeH Its breath amidst the season*s calm3 Brings to their %ealth a large increase' :#i .' #ith )u º belo% 觀 is superfluous' D<' ’說 in this case should read “”' EJ' h馬Ô馬' .ynasty3 one chariot being supported by a locality of si5 s8uare li' D=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ´ abo(e 王 should be Œ' DI' #ith )u )uang-ts!? • belo% Ž should be •3 and •‘¾Ë should be supplied belo% "Ž•之' D.ccordingly3 the white horse is not the horse $ut is a horse& and a white horse is not the horse $ut is a horse+ 7i BMeh %as right if by h馬Ô馬 he meant the first or the last propositionH but his opponents could be e8ually right if by h馬 Ô馬 they meant the second or the third proposition' He al%ays %on because he seemed able to distinguish bet%een the subFect-predicate relationship of identification and that of inclusion %hile his .eadin(s has no \晉 abo(e "之' A.oyal .

abo(e ® should be ¯' > as ë and are sometimes synonyms' .is a piece of ground fifty mou in area' I@' #ith )u .opponents %ere apparently unable to do the same' #ere there .rticle and 7umber in hinese 4rammar3 no dispute as such could ta$e place' E9' • refers to the 4rain 4ate :•Ò> on the city-%alls of the capital of h!i' 7earby the 4ate there %as built by )ing HsMan a club house for literary men and itinerant scholars from . 4rain 4ate Scholar" :•ƒ 之}> and enFoyed practically the same prestige as the F' 0' S' of the present age' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 十步 should be –步' EA' #or$ 1-I has 中 in place of o' ED' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien p belo% fX should be belo% —´' EE' )u )uang-ts!? proposed the supply of 之 belo% ˜3 and 而 abo(e ™' E=' I propose the replacement of 7 bet%een 不 and š %ith Ë›ÿ"' EI' 十œ' E.' #ith )ao H?ng ¥ means ¦3 and § belo% £ should be abo(e ¨' =<' #ith )u ë should be supplied abo(e ©3 and ª belo% © should be «' IJ' #ith )u 者 belo% ¬ª is superfluous' I9' .•石 is superfluous' =9' #ith )u Ë abo(e ž is superfluous' =@' #ith )u )uang ts!e Ÿë refers to Fan hM :Ÿ =A' 三¡' =D' #ith )ao H?ng " abo(e 虛辭 should be ¢' =E' #ith )ao = abo(e RU should be 之' ==' #ith )ao = abo(e R£ should be 之' =I' #ith )u ¤s should be supplied abo(e 不Ý+' =.' In hinese to spea$ in the third person is regarded as polite' E<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¥ belo% 不½ is superfluous' =J' #ith )u )Š abo(e .ll-under-Hea(en' Therefore3 anybody in(ited to lecture and debate in the place %as called ".

ccording to the hinese eti8uette a youngster is not supposed to drin$ at the same time at the same table %ith elder people' .eadin(s has no A belo% #' II' 咎 reads ²3 and Fan %as an epithet of Hu Ben' I.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen K “B should be supplied abo(e :產¤Ï' .D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen | is a mista$e for }3 %hich %ith )ao H?ng means one-third' .IA' Bodde*s translation of this %hole paragraph :Fung3 op' cit'3 p' A@I> li$e those of many other citations from Han Fei Tzŭ in(ol(es inaccuracies on many points3 and3 %hat is %orse3 contains omissions' ID' °±3 namely3 thorny reeds triangular in shape used for filtering %ine on ceremonial occasions' IE' #ith #ang Hsien-shen j abo(e µ is superfluous' I=' #ith #ang the 6mperial .@' #ith #ang Õ should be µ and so throughout this annotation' .<' ¹º' ¹ is for ser(ing meatH º for (egetables' <J' ¹ is a $ind of musical instrument consisting of thirty-si5 reed pipes' <9' » is a $ind of harp or lute' <@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ) should be supplied belo% 寡人之' <A' Hiraza%a*s edition has ¼ abo(e Ø' <D' &ld people ha(ing blac$ and %hite hairs' <E' #ith -u #?n-shao .E' #ith #ang ¶ should be supplied abo(e ¢死' .eadin(s has ƒ(}而朝之 in place of ƒ}(朝' .9' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ô belo% Ó seems a mista$e for ÞÞ' .=' #ith #ang the 6mperial .J' .A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? B abo(e ð之 should be †' .I' I remo(e sBC here from abo(e ?˜†·中Žˆ¸' .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the .i(ests of Classics has Ç belo% i' I<' #ith )ao H?ng ¾³ means ¾-' ..u$e Hsiang died in the year :=AI $+c+> follo%ing the great humiliation' <=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ÃD abo(e ½š is superfluous' .

ayings.i as$ed about the one-legged creature' III' If the distinction bet%een ruler and minister is lost sight of3 the ruler %ill ha(e to do the same as )ing #?n3 %ho tied D his o%n soc$ strings and boasted of his (irtue' If no difference bet%een court ceremonies and pri(ate eti8uette is made3 one %ill ha(e to li(e in the same %ay as hi-sun %ho maintained his dignity all his life but met assassins in the end' .' œ and ^ in anti8uity had the same meaning' I regard one of the t%o characters in the te5t as superfluous' <<' Before the in(ention of paper bamboo slips %ere used as pages of boo$s' 9JJ' #ith )u )uang-ts!? there are histuses belo% this' 9J9' #ith BMeh BMeh •Ø•š should be supplied belo% •?' 9J@' #ith #ang Hsien-shNn †ÙA belo% !¿¿ is superfluous' 9JA' #ith #ang À should be Á3 and  belo% it is superfluous' 9JD' #ith #ang ÷ should be Ã' 9JE' #ith #ang Ä should be 過' 9J=' The last t%o annotations3 not mentioned in the canon3 are practically the same as the last t%o in #or$ 111' Chapter 222III.<I' #ith #ang Ù should be ¾' <. ()ter Congeries of .eries 9 I' ensured for a crime3 nobody feels bitter against the superior' For this reason3 the footless @ gate-$eeper sa(ed the life A of Tzŭ-$ao' 0e%arded for merit3 no subFect feels grateful to the so(ereign' For this reason hieh Huang held the right half of a tally in hand and rode in the coach of a feudal lord' )ing Hsiang did not $no% this principle3 %herefore hao Mao compared the re%ard of fi(e chariots for his meritorious ser(ices to the upstart*s %earing hemp sandals' If the principal ma$es no mista$e in appointing subordinates to office and the subordinates do not feign ability3 then e(ery subordinate %ill be as good as Shao Shih-chou' II' The so(ereign should depend upon his o%n position and not upon the faithfulness of the ministers' For this reason3 Tung-$uo Ba lodged a protest against the appointment of )uan hung to premiership' The so(ereign should count on his tact and not on the faithfulness of the ministers' For this reason3 Hun Hsien disappro(ed .u$e .u$e #?n*s policy' Therefore the tactful so(ereign %ould ma$e re%ard of faith so as to e5ert the abilities of the subFects and ma$e punishment definite so as to forbid %ic$edness' Though the ministers ha(e mi5ed deeds3 he %ould al%ays get the benefit out of them' For instance3 -ord hien appointed Bang Hu to premiershipH and . The Lo"er Left .

o about the former*s e5treme e5tra(agance and the latter*s e5treme frugalityH Bang Hu said his subordinates* attitude to him at his departure had become different from their attitude to him %hen he entered h!i and recommended them to the 0uler I H and -ord hien*s remar$ on the %ay of recommending officials missed the right tact of a so(ereign' If friends and partisans play into each other*s hands and ministers gi(e rein to their ambitions3 the lord of men %ill be left in isolation' If all the officials ma$e upright recommendations and do not play into each other*s hands then the lord of men %ill be clear-sighted and e(en Bang Hu %ill become as %orthy as hao #u and as Fust as hieh Hu' Ho%e(er3 -ord hien condemned those officials %ho %ere first recommended by their friends and later acted against them as hedge and bramble thorns3 %hich is not the right %ay to teach the people in the country to become public-spirited' /I' If the prestige of the royal house is lo%3 then ministers %ill refrain from uttering upright %ords' If self-see$ing deeds triumph3 then meritorious ser(ices for the public %ill become fe%' The saying is based on #?n-tzŭ*s spea$ing %ithout reser(e3 for %hich his father3 #u-tzŭ3 used a stic$ to %hip him3 and on Tzŭ-ch!an*s loyal remonstrations3 for %hich his father3 Tzŭ-$uo3 blamed him and %as angry at him' Furthermore3 -iang h!? enforced the la% but Mar8uis h!?ng recalled the official seal from him' )uan hung acted according to public Fustice3 but his countrymen spo$e ill of him and resented his action' So much for the anons' &nnotations to Canon *+< .u$e Huan had o(er the number of office-hunters and /iscount E HsMan had o(er the s$inniness of the horsesL /' If ministers regard humility and frugality as (irtues3 then ran$s are not sufficient to encourage and re%ard them' If fa(our and glory are not regulated3 ministers %ill (iolate and intimidate the ruler' The saying is based on Miao P?n-huang*s criticism of Hsien-pai and on onfucius*s estimate of Ben Bing' For further illustration3 hung-ni spo$e of )uan hung and Sun-shu = .I/' If the so(ereign e5pects profit from %hat ought to be prohibited and prohibits %hat is profitable3 be he superhuman3 he cannot enforce his policy' If he honours men held guilty and disgraces the re%arded3 be he as great as Bao3 he cannot attain any political order' Indeed3 to open a gate but not to ma$e people go through it3 or to promise profit but not to ma$e the people stri(e for it3 is the cause of disorder' If the 0uler of h!i granted his attendants no re8uest and the So(ereign of #ey listened to no honourable recommendation but obser(ed clearly and carefully the body of officials3 then hM could not spend money and h!uan could not use Fade as a bribe' Hsi-m?n Pao petitioned for reappointment to the Magistracy of Beh' Thereby he $ne% the harm caused by the courtiers of the country' The courtiers %ould honour or disgrace the people as improperly as the son of the petty thief boasted of his father*s fur coat and the son of the legless man prided himself upon his father*s specially made clothes' If the ruler listens to the courtiers3 he is doing %hat Tzŭ-ch!o called "dra%ing a circle %ith the left hand and a s8uare %ith the right hand simultaneously" and the same as a stupid man %ho tried to get rid of ants %ith meat and dri(e flies a%ay %ith fish' If so3 ho% can he a(oid the same %orry as .

nd for meritorious ser(ices Bour MaFesty granted thy ser(ant fi(e chariots' To re%ard for such meritorious ser(ices in this %ay is to do the same as an upstart in spite of his %ealth %earing hemp sandals' onfucius said+ "#ho $no%s ho% to be an official3 plants gratitude in the mind of the peopleH %ho does not $no% ho% to be an official plants resentment in the mind of the .ll-under-Hea(en said3 !Indeed3 in (ie% of the %orthiness of Po-i and his reputation for bene(olence3 to bury him %ith the dignity of a general is hardly sufficientKnot e(en enough to co(er his hands and feet underground'* 7o% thy ser(ant stopped the in(ading forces of four states' .onfucius %as Premier of #ei' His disciple3 Tzŭ-$ao3 %as the Fudge of a criminal court and once cut off the feet of a criminal' The footless man became their gate$eeper' Some people slandered onfucius before the 0uler of #ei3 saying that hung-ni %as plotting a disturbance' Therefore3 the 0uler of #ei %anted to arrest onfucius' onfucius ran a%ay' .ll his disciples escaped' Tzŭ-$ao %ent to the bac$ .fter the con8uest of entral Hills3 His Highness %orried o(er the go(ernorship of the country3 %hen thy ser(ant recommended -i )!o to him3 and as a result entral Hills became orderly' For this reason3 His Highness a%arded thy ser(ant this coach'" Thereupon Fang said+ "To such a merit the re%ard is still too small to be e8ui(alent'" #hen h!in and Han %ere attac$ing #ey3 hao Mao %ent %est%ard on an itinerant tour and h!in and Han stopped the campaign' #hen h!i and hing %ere attac$ing #ey3 Mao %ent east%ard on an itinerant tour and h!i and hing stopped the campaign' .t midnight3 Tzŭ-$ao as$ed the footless gate-$eeper3 "I could not bend the legal decree of the so(ereign and cut off your feet %ith my o%n hands' This is the time for you to ta$e re(enge' #hy are you %illing to shelter meL Ho% can I recei(e such a $indness from youL" In reply the footless man said+ "I had my feet cut off as my crime deser(ed such punishment' 7othing could be done about it' 7e(ertheless3 %hen Bour 25cellency %as about to decide on the case against thy ser(ant3 Bour 25cellency interpreted the ordinance in all possible %ays and supplied %ords either before or after thy ser(ant*s pleas3 being so an5ious to hold thy ser(ant innocent3 %hich thy ser(ant understood (ery %ell' #hen the case %as settled and the sentence %as passed3 Bour 25cellency in e5cess of pity felt unpleasant as e5pressed in the facial colour3 %hich thy ser(ant sa% and also understood' That %as not because of Bour 25cellency*s pri(ate fa(our to thy ser(ant but because of his inborn nature and bene(olent heart' This is the reason %hy I ha(e felt pleased and grateful to Bour 25cellency'" T!ien Tzŭ-fang %ent to #ey from h!i' He sa% from a distance hieh Huang riding in the coach of a feudal lord %ith ca(aliers around and marching out in full dignity' Fang at first thought Mar8uis #?n %as going out3 and therefore mo(ed his carriage to a side-trac$ in order to a(oid the procession' -ater3 he found hieh Huang alone < in the coach' "#hy are you riding in this coachL" as$ed Fang' In reply Huang said+ "#hen His Highness %as scheming to attac$ entral Hills3 thy ser(ant recommended hieh hioh to him and a proper scheme %as de(ised' #hen His Highness %as actually going to attac$ entral Hills3 thy ser(ant recommended Bo Bang to him and entral Hills %as ta$en' . gate' The footless gate-$eeper led the %ay and sheltered him in the basement beneath the gate' The officials sought for him but could not find him' .ccordingly3 )ing Hsiang of #ey supported him %ith the emolument 9J of fi(e chariots' omplaining of the meagreness of the emolument3 Mao said+ "Formerly3 %hen Po-i %as buried %ith the dignity of a general at the foot of the Shou-yang Mountain3 .

u$e Huan of h!i %as going to ma$e )uan hung 6ncle hung3 he ordered the officials to the effect that as His Highness %as going to ma$e hung )uan 6ncle hung3 those in fa(our of the measure3 after entering the gate3 $eep to the left3 and those against it3 after entering the gate3 $eep to the right' Tung-$ou Ba $ept standing in the centre of the gate' Thereupon .ll-underHea(en and his decisions dare to carry out any great plan %herefore Bour Highness trusts him %ith the grips of the state3 then ho% can the h!i State3 as go(erned by )uan hung %ith his o%n %isdom and the ad(antage of Bour Highness*s position3 be %ithout dangerL" "0ight3" said the .u$e' ".u$e Huan as$ed+ "I am ma$ing )uan hung 6ncle hung and ha(e ordered those in fa(our of the measure to $eep to the left and those against it to $eep to the right' 7o% %hy do you $eep standing in the centre of the gateL" ".oes Bour Highness thin$ his decisions daring to carry out great plansL" " ertainly daring'" "If his %isdom 9A is able to scheme for .u$e #?n said+ "#ho could easily endure the hardship of hunger and %ould by all means $eep the bo%ls of food perfect3 is certainly not going to rebel in BMan'" So saying he raised h?ng and appointed him 4o(ernor of BMan' Hearing about this3 High &fficer Hun Hsien disappro(ed the policy and said+ "Is it not tactless to e5pect h?ng not to rebel in BMan because he did not touch the bo%ls of foodL Thus the enlightened so(ereign %ould not count on people*s non-(iolation of him3 but on his .oes Bour Highness regard the %isdom of )uan hung as able 9@ to de(ise schemes for coping %ith .u$e' Hungry3 he %ept by the road' Sleeping off his star(ation3 he dared not eat the food' .u$e #?n returned to his country3 raised an army to attac$ BMan3 (an8uished it3 and too$ it3 .fter .people' The stric$le is for adFusting the measure' The official is for adFusting the la%' #ho go(erns a state should not lose sight of the means of adFustment'" Shao Shih-chou %as a faithful3 honest3 clean3 and earnest man of anti8uity' He ser(ed -ord Hsiang of hao as bodyguard' &nce he contested in strength %ith HsM Tzŭ from hung-mou and found himself not as strong as HsM Tzŭ' He then %ent into the court and told -ord Hsiang to replace himself %ith HsM Tzŭ' "Bour post3" said -ord Hsiang3 "is co(eted by e(erybody else' #hy do you %ant HsM Tzŭ to replace youL" "Thy ser(ant ser(es Bour Highness3" replied Shao Shih-chou3 "%ith his physical strength' 7o%3 HsM Tzŭ*s strength is greater than mine' 6nless thy ser(ant offers to be replaced by him3 thy ser(ant is afraid others might recommend him to Bour Highness and thy ser(ant might be guilty of suppressing an able man'" .ccording to a different source+ Shao Shih-chou ser(ed as aide-de-camp to -ord Hsiang' 6pon their arri(al at hin-yang3 a %restler named 7iu Tzŭ contested %ith him in strength3 but he could not %in' Thereupon hou spo$e to the -ord+ "Bour Highness made thy ser(ant an aide-decamp99 because Bour Highness thought thy ser(ant had great strength' 7o% that there is somebody ha(ing greater strength than thy ser(ant may thy ser(ant beg to present him to Bour HighnessL" &nnotations to Canon **+< #hen .u$e3 and3 accordingly3 ordered Hsi P!?ng to administer home affairs and )uan hung to administer foreign affairs so as to ma$e them %atch each other' #hen .ll-under-Hea(enL" as$ed Ba in return' " ertainly able3" replied the .u$e #?n %ent out into e5ile3 h!i h?ng carried bo%ls of food along and follo%ed him' &ne day he lost his %ay and %ent astray from the .

i' .u$e said+ "I ha(e heard3 !2(erybody around the superior is respected by himH e(erybody around the ordinary ruler is lo(ed by himH and e(erybody around the inferior ruler is despised by him'* .i as$ed onfucius3 "I ha(e heard that )uei %as one-legged' #as it trueL" In reply onfucius said+ ")uei %as a man' #hy %as he one-leggedL He %as not different from anybody else e5cept in his proficiency in music' Therefore3 Bao said3 !)uei has one talent and that is sufficient3* and made him Master of Music' Thenceforth3 gentlemen %ould say3 !)uei has one sufficiency'* He %as not one-legged'" &nnotations of Canon ***+< )ing #?n %as attac$ing h!ung' #hen he arri(ed at the Bello% Phoeni5 Mound3 9E the strings of his soc$s became loosened' .ccordingly3 he tied them up himself' " ould you not find anybody to do it for youL" as$ed the attendants' In reply the .u$e #?n %as at %ar %ith the hiu men' #hen he arri(ed at the Bello% Phoeni5 Hill3 his shoe strings became loosened' .i of -u once as$ed onfucius+ "I ha(e heard that there %as a one-legged 9D creature called )uei' #as it really one-leggedL" "7o3" replied onfucius3 ")uei %as not one-legged' )uei %as irritable and ill-tempered' Most people did not li$e him' Ho%e(er3 he %as not hurt by anybody because of his faithfulness' Therefore3 people used to say3 !&nly one good 8uality li$e this is sufficient*' Thus3 )uei %as not a onelegged creature3 but his only one good point %as sufficient'" " ertainly3 if he possessed such a good 8uality3 that %as sufficient3" said .ccording to a different source+ .u$e .s a result3 Bang Hu dared not do any %rong3 but ser(ed -ord hien %ell and promoted the strength of the -ord till he nearly became Hegemonic 0uler' .lthough Bour Highness is un%orthy3 the late ruler*s men are all here' So it is hard to ha(e anybody tie my shoe strings'" hi-sun %as fond of entertaining scholars' .ll his life he li(ed in a dignified manner' In his pri(ate d%elling and clothing he al%ays $ept the same formality as in the court' &nce he happened to neglect the formality and commit some faults3 and could not .o%n in(iolability by themH not on people*s nondeception of him3 but on his o%n undecei(ability by them'" Bang Hu3 in discussing the attitude of minister to%ards ruler said+ "If the so(ereign is %orthy and enlightened3 then e5ert all your mental energy to ser(e himH if he is un%orthy3 then de(ise croo$ed artifices to test him'" Banished by -u and suspected by h!i3 he came to hao3 %here -ord hien of hao %elcomed him and appointed him premier' #ith %onder the attendants as$ed+ "Hu is s$ilful in usurping the reins of go(ernment from the ruler' #hy did Bour Highness ma$e him premierL" In reply -ord hien said+ "Bang Hu stri(es to usurp the po%er' I stri(e to maintain the po%er'" So saying3 he held right tact in hand and thereby controlled him' .u$e .u$e .ccording to a different source+ .ccordingly3 he tied them up himself' "#hy did you do thatL" as$ed T!ai-$ung #ang' "&f the people %hom the ruler deals %ith3" replied the )ing3 "on the top 9= all are the ruler*s teachers3 in the middle all are his friends3 and on the bottom all are his employees' 7o%3 e(erybody here %as a minister to the late )ing' Therefore3 I found nobody to tie my strings'" .

u$e .ny minister @@ %ho does not ser(e his master %ith his %orthiness must be censured' Moreo(er3 being the ruler3 Bour MaFesty censures a guilty minister' Ho% can there be any fault in so doingL" "Indeed3 %ith bene(olence and righteousness the ruler encourages the subFects' 7o% that h!ang is fond of bene(olence and righteousness3 it is impracticable to censure him'" Though persuaded for three times3 he ne(er listened' Hence follo%ed the fall of Bin' .ccording to a different source 9I + 7an-$ung hing-tzŭ as$ed Ben ho-chM+ " hi-sun supported onfucius*s disciples' Those %ho %ore court costumes and sat %ith him in the court3 numbered tens' But he met assassins' #hyL" In reply Ben said+ "Formerly )ing h!?ng of hou $ept actors and clo%ns around in order to amuse himself as he %anted3 but consulted %ith gentlemen %hen he decided on state affairs' That %as the reason %hy he could realize his ambition in .ll-under-Hea(en' &n the contrary3 hisun supported onfucius*s disciples3 and those %ho %ore court costumes and sat %ith him in the court3 numbered tens3 but %hen deciding on state affairs3 he consulted %ith actors and clo%ns' That %as the reason %hy he met assassins' Hence the saying+ !Success or failure rests not %ith room-mates but %ith councillors'* " onfucius %as attending on .i of -u3 %hen .ll-underHea(en' .u$e .i' onfucius ate the millet first and then the peaches' Thereat the attendants all3 co(ered their mouths %ith their hands3 and laughed' "The grains are not for eating3" remar$ed .u$e .ynasty'" "Bou are spea$ing3" said ho%3 "of a righteous lord' #hy should he be censuredL" In reply Fei hung said+ "The cro%n3 ho%e(er %orn-out3 is al%ays put on the headH the shoes3 though decorated %ith fi(e colours3 are trodden upon the ground' 7o% the 2arl of the #est3 h!ang3 is subordinate to Bour MaFesty' He has practised righteousness3 %herefore people turn to him' Surely3 it must be h!ang %ho %ill e(entually become a trouble to .i3 "but for %iping off the s$in of the peaches'" In reply hung-ni said+ " h!iu $ne% it from the beginning' Indeed3 glutinous millet is the head of the fi(e 9.i ga(e him peaches and grains of glutinous millet' "Please help yourself3" said .u$e .$eep up the same dignity' In conse8uence his guests thought he disli$ed and despised them3 and altogether de(eloped resentment at him3 till they $illed him' Hence the saying+ "The gentleman shuns e5cess and shuns deficit'" . cereals' &n commemorating the early $ings it is used as the best offering' There are si5 9< $inds of tree and grass fruits3 @J among %hich the peach is the lo%est in ran$ and cannot enter the shrine on commemorating the early $ings' h!iu has heard3 !The gentlemen cleans the noble %ith the humble3* but ne(er heard that he cleans the humble %ith the noble' 7o%3 to clean the lo%est among fruits %ith the highest among the cereals is to clean the %orst %ith the best' h!iu regards such an act as contrary to righteousness and therefore dare not eat the peaches @9 before eating the best offering in the shrine of the royal ancestors'" /iscount hien of hao once said to the hamberlains+ "The sheet inside the carriage is too beautiful' Indeed3 the cro%n3 ho%e(er simple3 is al%ays put on the headH the shoes3 ho%e(er good3 are al%ays put on the feet' 7o%3 the sheet inside the carriage is (ery beautiful' #hat shoes shall I %earL Indeed3 to %ear beautiful things belo% and simple things abo(e is the origin of the (iolation of righteousness'" Fei hung spo$e to ho%+ "The 2arl of the #est3 h!ang3 is %orthy' The hundred surnames li$e him' The feudal lords turn to him' He must be censured' If not ousted3 he %ill be a menace to the Bin .

)ing HsMan of h!i as$ed )!uang hing+ ".o the literati gambleL" "7o3 they don*t'" "#hyL" as$ed the )ing' In reply )!uang hing said+ "The gamblers ma$e much of the o%l dice' @A The %inner of the o%l dice3 ho%e(er3 has to $ill @D it' Thus3 to $ill the o%l dice is to $ill the obFect of esteem' The literati3 regarding this as harmful to righteousness3 refrain from gambling'" ".o the literati shoot birds %ith stringed arro%sL" as$ed the )ing further' "7o3 they don*t' To shoot birds %ith stringed arro%s is to shoot abo(e from belo%' This is the same as the subFects %ho inFure the ruler' The literati3 regarding this as harmful to righteousness3 refrain from shooting %ith stringed arro%s'" ".o the literati play the instrument S?L" as$ed the )ing furthermore' "7o3 they don*t' Indeed3 that $ind of harp gets large sounds from small strings and small sounds from large strings' This is the same as the large and the small re(ersing their order and high and lo% e5changing status' The literati3 regarding this as harmful to righteousness3 refrain from playing the S? instrument'" "4ood3" said )ing HsMan' hung-ni said3 "Better let the people flatter the superior than let them flatter the inferior"' @E &nnotations to Canon *V+< hM %as a retired scholar in h!iH h!uan in #ey' The 0ulers of h!i and #ey %ere not enlightened and not able to penetrate into the actual conditions %ithin the boundaries3 and both follo%ed the %ords of the attendants' Therefore3 the t%o men used gold and Fade and sought to Foin go(ernmental ser(ice' Hsi-m?n3 %hile Magistrate of Beh3 %as clean and honest and had no self-interest e(en as small as the tip of an autumn spi$elet' He %as3 ho%e(er3 (ery indifferent to%ards the courtiers' Therefore the courtiers Foined one another and together did him an ill turn' ,fter one yeat of his term3 he handed in his report on local financeH then the 0uler too$ bac$ his official seal' Thereupon he presented to the 0uler his o%n petition saying+ "Formerly thy ser(ant did not $no% ho% to be Magistrate of Beh' 7o% that thy ser(ant has the right %ay3 may he petition for the seal in order to go(ern Beh againL If his %or$ is again not e8ual to the official duty3 may Bour Highness sentence him to capital punishment %ith a5e and an(il'" Mar8uis #?n3 unable to bear dismissing him3 ga(e him the post again' Pao3 accordingly3 imposed hea(y ta5es upon the hundred surnames and began to bribe the courtiers as promptly as possible' ,fter one year he handed in his report' This time Mar8uis #?n %ent out to %elcome him and e(en made bo%s to him' In response Pao said+ ".uring the preceding year thy ser(ant go(erned Beh for Bour Highness*s sa$e3 but Bour Highness too$ a%ay the official seal of thy ser(ant' This year thy ser(ant go(erned Beh for the courtiers* sa$e3 but Bour Highness ma$es bo%s to thy ser(ant' Thy ser(ant is no longer able to go(ern the place'" So saying he returned the seal and too$ his lea(e' Mar8uis #?n3 refusing to accept the seal3 said+ "Formerly I did not $no% you but no% $no% you %ell' Please do no% %ell go(ern the place for my sa$e'" So saying he did not accept the resignation' In h!i once the son of a dog-li$e thief @= and the son of a legless man played together and boasted before each other' The thief*s son said+ "My father*s fur-coat alone has a tail'" "My father alone ne(er falls short of trousers @I e(en in cold %inter3" said the other boy'

Tzŭ-ch!o said+ "7obody is able to dra% a s8uare %ith the left hand and a circle %ith the right hand at the same time'" 25pel ants %ith meatG Then ants %ill multiply' .ri(e flies a%ay %ith fishG Then flies %ill come nearer and nearer' &nce .u$e Huan said to )uan hung+ "&fficial posts are fe%3 but office-hunters are many' &(er this I am %orried'" "If Bour Highness grants the attendants no re8uest but a%ards men %ith emoluments only in accordance %ith their abilities and gi(es men official posts only in correspondence to their merits3 then nobody dare hunt any office' #hat %ill Bour Highness be %orried about thenL" /iscount HsMan of Han said+ "My horses ha(e had an abundance of madder @; and grain' But %hy are they so s$innyL I am %orried o(er it'" In reply hou Shih said+ "If the stableman feeds them %ith all the beans and grain3 then they are bound to become fat' But suppose he gi(e them much in the name but little in fact' Then they are bound to become s$inny' If Bour Highness does not in(estigate the causes of the fact but remains seated and %orried o(er it3 the horses ne(er %ill become fat'" .u$e Huan as$ed )uan hung about the appointment of officials to different posts' )uan hung said+ "#ith reference to elo8uence and penetration in %ording3 honesty and integrity in money3 and $no%ledge of human affairs3 thy ser(ant is not as good as Hsien Shang' May Bour Highness appoint him Supreme CudgeG #ith reference to the manners in ascending and descending steps and courtesies sho%n to guests3 thy ser(ant is not as good as Hsi P!?ng' May Bour Highness appoint him Supreme 6sher' In matters of culti(ating grass lands3 collecting ta5es from to%ns3 opening up %ildernesses3 and gro%ing grain3 thy ser(ant is not as good as 7ing #u' May Bour Highness appoint him Minister of ,griculture' 0egarding the ability to ma$e the %arriors loo$ upon death as going home %hen the three armies @< ha(e already formed in line3 thy ser(ant is not as good as Prince h!?ng-fu' May Bour Highness appoint him Minister of #ar' In mo(ing against the facial e5pression of the ruler and ma$ing utmost remonstrations3 I am not as good as Tung-$uo Ba' May Bour Highness appoint him Minister of ensorship' To go(ern the h!i State3 these fi(e gentlemen are sufficient' If our Highness %ants to become Hegemonic 0uler3 I-%u is here at his ser(ice'" AJ &nnotations to Canon V+< BM A9 Hsien-pai %as Premier of hin' A@ Beneath his reception hall there gre% beans and %eeds and outside his gate thorns and brambles' He ne(er had t%o courses at a meal nor t%o sheets on the chair' 7one of his concubines %ore sil$' ,t home he ga(e no grain to his horses' #hen out3 he ne(er too$ his carriage' Hearing this3 Shu Hsiang told Miao P?ng-huang about it' P?ng-huang3 disappro(ing such a life3 said+ "This is to %in the hearts of the subordinate people %ith the ran$ and emolument besto%ed by the so(ereign'" ,ccording to a different source+ BM AA Hsien-pai of hin %as ne%ly appointed High 7oble' Shu Hsiang %ent to congratulate him' By the gate there %ere a coachman and a carriage3 AD but the horse %as not eating fodder' Therefore3 Hsiang as$ed3 "#hy don*t you ha(e t%o horses and t%o carriagesL" In reply Hsien-pai said+ "&ur fello%

countrymen seem still hungry to me' Therefore3 I do not gi(e fodder to my horses' Most of the grey-haired men %al$ on foot' Therefore3 I do not ha(e t%o carriages'" ",t first I came3" said Hsiang3 "to congratulate you upon your appointment to High 7obility3 but no% I congratulate you upon your frugality'" Then Hsiang %ent out and told Miao P?ng-huang3 "Coin me in congratulating Hsien-pai on his frugality'" " ongratulations on %hatL" remar$ed Miao Tzŭ' "Indeed3 to besto% ran$s and emoluments3 flags and badges3 is to differentiate the (arious $inds of merits as %ell as to distinguish bet%een the %orthy and the un%orthy' Thus3 according to the la% of the hin State3 a Senior High &fficer is entitled to t%o carriages and t%o teams of horses3 AE a Middle High &fficer3 to t%o carriages and one team+ and a Cunior High &fficer3 to one team only' This is to ma$e grade and ran$s clear' Moreo(er3 e(ery noble must attend to military duties3 and therefore must $eep his carriages and horses in good condition3 A= form his soldiers and chariots in lines3 and thereby prepare for military action3 so that in case of emergency they can pro(ide against all e(entualities and in time of peace they can ser(e in the court affairs' 7o%3 he has been disturbing the state affairs of hin and loosening the pro(isions against e(entualities simply on purpose to perfect his pri(ate (irtue and e5alt his personal reputation' Is the frugality of Hsienpai commendable at allL If not3 then congratulations on %hatL" AI )uan hung3 on becoming Premier of h!i3 said to .u$e Huan3 "Thy ser(ant is noble but poor'" "Bou shall ha(e the same %ealth as the Building of Three 0eturns3" A; said .u$e Huan' "Then thy ser(ant is %ealthy but still lo% in ran$'" .u$e Huan3 accordingly3 raised him abo(e the )aos and the )uos' "Thy ser(ant is no% high in ran$ but (ery remote in relation from the ruling family'" Thereupon the .u$e made him 6ncle hung' Hearing this3 onfucius disappro(ed of him and said3 "Ha(ing become too e5tra(agant he came to embarrass his superior'" ,ccording to a different source+ 6ncle )uan hung on going out %ould put red co(ers on his carriages and blue costumes on his attendants3 and on coming home %ould ha(e drum music played' In his yard stood tripods' His household has as much %ealth as the Building of Three 0eturns' Therefore3 onfucius said+ ", good official3 indeedG But his e5tra(agance is sufficient to embarrass his superior' Sun-shu ,o3 Premier of h!u3 used a %ooden cart pulled by a mare and too$ coarse rice %ith (egetable soup and dried fish for his meal' In %inter he %ore a lamb-s$in coat and linen clothes in summer' His face al%ays had the loo$ of hunger' , good official3 indeed' But in this case his frugality is sufficient to oppress his inferiors'" A< Bang Hu left h!i and found shelter in hao' There -ord hien as$ed him3 "I ha(e heard that you are good in raising able men'" "#hile in -u3" said Hu3 "thy ser(ant raised three men3 all of %hom became magistrates' ,fter Hu %as found guilty in -u3 all of them searched after Hu' #hile li(ing in h!i3 thy ser(ant recommended three men+ &ne became an attendant on the )ingH one became a prefectH and the third became an official recei(er of public guests' ,fter I %as found guilty3 the attendant refused to see meH the prefect intended to arrest me on recei(ing meH and the official recei(er pursued me up to the frontier3 could not catch me3 and stopped' 0eally I am not good in raising men'" The -ord turned his face do%n%ards %ith a smile and said+ "Indeed3 the planter of mandarin orange and pomelo trees3 DJ on eating fruits3 gets the s%eet tasteH the planter of hedgero%s and brambles finds them pric$ly %hen they gro% up' Hence the gentleman is cautious in raising men'"

hung-mou had no magistrate' Therefore .u$e P!ing of hin D9 as$ed hao #u+ " hung-mou is a place strategically important to three countries' D@ It is the $ey to the city of Han-tan' I %ant a good magistrate for it' #ho %ill be the right manL" "Hsing Pai-tzŭ %ill be the right man3" replied #u' "Isn*t he your enemyL" as$ed the .u$e' "7o pri(ate feud should go through public gates3" %as the reply' Then the .u$e as$ed3 "For the magistracy of hung-fu3 %ho is the right manL" "My son is the right one3" %as the reply' Hence the saying+ "0ecommend the right man from outsiders e(en if your enemyH recommend the right man among your relati(es e(en if your son'" 6pon hao #u*s death3 all the forty-si5 men %hom he had recommended to the 0uler3 too$ their seats among the guests at his funeral ser(ice' To such an e5tent he had sho%n no personal fa(our to anybody all his lifeG .u$e P!ing once as$ed Shu Hsiang3 ",mong the ministers3 %ho is the %orthiestL" " hao #u3" %as the reply' "Bou side %ith your senior official3" remar$ed the .u$e' "7o3" said Hsiang3 " hao #u3 %hen standing up3 loo$s undignified e(en in his full dress3 and3 %hen spea$ing3 seems unable to utter his sentiments' 7e(ertheless3 the officials he recommended number se(eral tens3 all of %hom he enabled to e5ert their respecti(e abilities3 and in %hom the public authorities put great trust3 not to mention the fact that in his life #u ne(er utilized them to benefit his o%n family and upon his death ne(er committed orphans to their charge' Therefore3 thy ser(ant dares to consider him the %orthiest'" hieh Hu recommended his enemy to -ord hien for premiership' The enemy thought he had by good luc$ forgi(en him3 and so %ent purposely to than$ him' Thereupon Hu dre% his bo%3 and3 on recei(ing him3 aimed at him3 saying+ "To be sure3 I recommended you because I regarded your ability e8ual to the post' To ha(e hatred for you is my pri(ate feud %ith you' I ne(er on account of my feud %ith you $ept DA you from my master'" Hence the saying+ "7o pri(ate feud should go through public gates'" ,ccording to a different source+ hieh Hu recommended Hsing Pai-liu to the go(ernorship of Shang-tang' -iu %ent to than$ him and said+ "Bou ha(e forgi(en me my fault' Ho% dare I not repeat bo%s to youL" In reply Hu said+ "To raise you is a public matterH to hate you is a pri(ate affair' Bou had better go' My hatred for you remains the same as before'" &ne day a man from the Prefecture of h?ng %as selling pigs' #hen somebody as$ed him about the price3 he said3 "The %ay is still so long' The sun is setting' Ho% can I ha(e time to tal$ %ith youL" DD &nnotations to Canon V*+< Fan #?n-tzŭ %as fond of spea$ing %ithout reser(e' His father3 #u-tzŭ3 %hipped him %ith a stic$ and said DE + "#ho ma$es discussions %ithout reser(e is not tolerated by people' If tolerated by nobody3 he is in danger' He endangers not only himself but also his father'" Tzŭ-ch!an %as son of Tzŭ-$uo' Tzŭ-ch!an %as loyal to the 0uler of h?ng' Thereat Tzŭ-$uo %as angry and reprimanded him3 saying+ "To be sure3 %hen you act sharply different from the rest of the ministers and remain loyal to the so(ereign by yourself3

if the so(ereign is %orthy and enlightened3 he %ill listen to youH if he is not enlightened3 he %ill not listen to you' Bou cannot al%ays foretell %hether or not he is going to listen to you' Bet you ha(e estranged yourself from the rest of ministers' If estranged from them3 you certainly endanger yourselfKnot only yourself3 but your father too'" -iang h!? %as Magistrate of Beh' &ne day his elder sister %ent to see him' ,t dus$ she arri(ed too late for the office hour' The gate %as shut' D= So she %ent o(er the %all and entered the city' h!? cut off her feet3 accordingly' 0egarding this as not compassionate3 Mar8uis h!?ng of hao too$ the official seal a%ay from him and dismissed him from the magistracy' )uan hung %as arrested and brought from -u to h!i' &n the %ay he %as hungry and thirsty' #hen passing through I-%u3 he begged the frontier guard for food' The guard $nelt do%n and presented the food to him %ith great re(erence' Then in pri(ate the guard said to hung+ "If by any luc$y chance you are not $illed after you reach h!i but are ta$en into ser(ice instead3 %ith %hat are you going to re8uite meL" In reply )uan hung said+ "If my fate turns out as you ha(e Fust said3 I %ill ta$e the %orthy into ser(ice3 gi(e the able employment3 and commend the ser(iceable' #ith %hat shall I re8uite youL" ,ccordingly the guard resented such an ungrateful saying' 'otes
9' ô,說左下' @' -危' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n 危 should read L %hich means õ' A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? and #ang Hsien-ch!ien 6 should be K' D' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Å should be supplied bet%een à and Æ' E' 王 should be :' =' Ç孫 should be 孫Ç in accordance %ith the annotation' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!?3 Hiraza%a3 and the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press 而>7之T5 continues from e ÈÉde£孫ÇÊ )u thought the sentence in(ol(es mista$es' Hiraza%a and the #aseda 6ni(ersity Press both made a forced interpretation of its sense' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n it leads to 陽Ë之´º= Mp' The order of %ords3 #ang says3 is an ancient %ay of sentence construction' ;' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n >Ò should be ÌÒ' <' î means _' 9J' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ›軍 seems to be a mista$e for 之Œ' 99' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Í should be Î' 9@' #ith )u i should be g'

9A' #ith )u š should be ™' 9D' õ means "leg" as %ell as "sufficient"' Hence the e8ui(ocation of “õ' 9E' I read 黃鳳虛 for Ï黃虛' 9=' Ù should be supplied abo(e k=Ð' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n “B should be supplied abo(e &/Ñ:' 9;' 7amely3 glutinous millet3 millet3 %heat3 hemp seed3 and beans' 9<' 7amely3 plums3 apricots3 chestnuts3 melons3 peaches3 and mulberry' @J' Ò means the fruits of treesH Ó3 the fruits of grass' @9' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n @@' 人人 should be 人M' @A' The dice on %hich an o%l is engra(ed' @D' To $ill the die means to discard it throughout the rest of the game' @E' The last four annotations are ne(er referred to in the anon' @=' ÔÕ3 namely3 a sly thief %earing the dog*s fur on stealing into people*s houses as dogs do' @I' Poor people in particular fall short of trousers in %inter %hile a legless man does not need them all the year' @;' #ith )ao H?ng 8 should be Ö' @<' ,ccording to the system of hou one army consisted of fi(e di(isions3 each di(ision ha(ing t%o thousand fi(e hundred soldiers3 and three armies made the biggest unit for military operations' AJ' This last annotation is not referred to in the anon' A9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? × should be Ø' A@' #ith )u Ù should be 晉' AA' × should be Ø' AD' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 7 should be supplied belo% Ú' AE' 2ight horses altogether' A=' #ith #ang #ei Û abo(e 7馬 should be Ü' AI' The annotation of onfucius*s estimate of Ben Bing3 %hich ought to follo% this3 is missing' should be supplied abo(e Ñ'

A;' , famous to%er of anti8uity for $eeping money and treasures' A<' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien these passages beginning %ith 孫Çʤà are onfucius*s sayings and therefore should be included in the same 8uotation' DJ' ÝÞ abo(e ßà is superfluous' D9' Hiraza%a*s edition has 晉 in place of Ù' D@' hao3 h!i3 and Ben' DA' #ith -u #?n-shao 2 should be 3' DD' This annotation is not referred to in the anon' #ang Hsien-sh?n suspected that these passages %ere hiatuses from the end of #or$ 1/III3 "Facing the South" : + p' 9EE n' =>' DE' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n z abo(e •á should be B' D=' âÒ should be Òâ'

Chapter 222I0. ()ter ,ongeries of ,ayings, The 6pper 1ight ,eries

The %ays %hereby the so(ereign rules o(er the ministers are three+K

I' If the so(ereign finds his influence insufficient to transform the ministers3 then he should remo(e them' Musician )!uang in his reply and Ben Tzŭ in his persuasion both discarded @ the easy policy of position and ad(ocated the difficult measure of (irtue' This is the same as to run on foot after animals %hile not yet a%are ho% to remo(e an impending disaster' The possibility of remo(ing disasters is re(ealed in Tzŭ-hsia*s e5planation of the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals& "#ho is s$ilful in maintaining his position %ould nip an e(il in the bud early enough'" Thus3 e(en hisun reprimanded hung-ni for obstructing A his position' Ho% much more should a so(ereign blame rampant ministersL For the same reason3 T!ai-$ung #ang $illed )!uang-yMH and the bondmen and bond%omen refused to ride the noble steed' .u$e Ssŭ $ne% this reason3 %herefore he refused to yo$e any deer' HsMeh )ung $ne% this reason3 %herefore he gambled %ith the t%ins' Both these statesmen $ne% the opposition bet%een identity and difference' Thus3 the %ay the enlightened so(ereign raises ministers is illustrated by the story of domesticating cro%s' II' The lord of men is an attracti(e D target E of benefit and inFury3 %hich numerous persons %ould aim to shoot' Therefore3 the lord of men is surrounded in common by a number of people' For this reason3 if his li$e and hate are re(ealed3 the inferiors %ill find opportunity to ta$e3 till the lord of men falls into delusion' Should the so(ereign communicate the %ord and opinion of one minister to another3 then e(ery minister %ill hesitate to spea$ to him %hile he %ill lose his dignity' The saying is based on Sh?n Tzŭ*s enumeration of si5 prudences and on T!ang I-chM*s = discussion of the archer %ith stringed arro%s' The calamity of the ruler*s re(ealing li$e and hate is

u$e hing as$ed Musician )!uang about go(ernment3 "#hat %ill 4rand Tutor teach meL" "Bour Highness3 be sure only to confer fa(ours upon the people3" replied Musician )!uang' .u$e hing' They %on the hearts of the people of h!i (ery %ell' Their families %ere noble and %ealthy %hile the people li$ed them' Thus3 their influences ri(alled that of the royal house' "This must be endangering my throne3" thought .u$e hing $ept thin$ing about the meaning of the precept and comprehended the saying of Musician )!uang before he a%o$e fully from the into5ication' Prince #ei and Prince Hsia %ere t%o younger brothers of .t the height of the feast3 %hen half-seas-o(er and about to lea(e3 he again as$ed Musician )!uang about go(ernment' "#hat %ill 4rand Tutor teach meL" "Bour Highness3 be sure only to confer fa(ours upon the people3" replied )!uang' #hen .u$e hing' "7o% that he told me to confer fa(ours upon the people3 does it mean that I must fight %ith my t%o younger brothers for %inning the hearts of the peopleL" .ccordingly3 after his return to his country he opened the granary for distributing alms among all the poor and too$ money 9J out of the treasury for gi(ing help to orphans and %ido%s3 till the granary had no old grain and the treasury had no money left' Those court ladies %ho did not %ait on his bed %ere gi(en out in marriage' People abo(e the age of se(enty %ere granted pensions of rice' Thus3 .instanced by )uo Bang*s petition for self-reformation and )ing HsMan*s hea(ing deep sighs' The attempt to detect the opinion of the ruler is instanced by -ord hing-$uo*s I presenting ten ear-beads and )an Mu*s o(erhearing Hsi-shou*s . affairs' T!ang-ch!i )ung $ne% the tact3 %herefore he as$ed about the Fade cups' Mar8uis hao %as s$ilful in applying the tact3 %herefore after listening to any ad(ice3 he %ould sleep by himself' The %ay of the enlightened so(ereign lies in ma$ing decisions by himself as encouraged by Sh?n Tzŭ' III' If tact does not %or$3 there are al%ays reasons for it' If the %ine merchant does not $ill his fierce dog3 his %ine %ill become sour' Similarly3 the state has dogs' Moreo(er3 all the attendants are li$e the rats gna%ing the shrine' 7o%3 the lords of men are not as decisi(e as Bao in punishing both the first and the second remonstrants or as )ing huang in responding to the ro%n Prince3 but all are li$e the mother of Po Bi %ho %ould al%ays as$ the old %oman of Ts!ai to gi(e a decision' They may be an5ious to $no% < ho% to rule o(er the state3 but unable to ma$e rules beforehand in the %ay the teachers of singing ha(e melodies composed beforehand' #u h!i %ho di(orced his belo(ed %ife and .u$e hing %as lea(ing for his lodge and Musician )!uang %as seeing him off3 he again as$ed Musician )!uang about go(ernment' "Bour Highness3 be sure only to confer fa(ours upon the people3" %as again the reply' 6pon his return .u$e hing of h!i %ent to hin and %as in(ited by .t the opening of the feast3 .u$e P!ing to a carousal' Musician )!uang %as in company %ith them' .u$e #?n %ho e5ecuted Tien hieh3 both acted contrary to personal feelings' Thus3 %ho can cut open the boils of people must be able to endure the same pain himself' So much abo(e for the canons' &nnotations to Canon *+< 7ot encouraged after being re%arded and honoured and not afraid after being punished and disgracedKin other %ords3 not transformed after the four methods are appliedK then such ministers must be remo(ed' .

by displaying beneficence and distributing fa(ours3 99 he fought %ith his t%o younger brothers for the people' In the course of t%o years3 the t%o younger brothers ran out of the country3 Prince Hsia finding shelter in h!u and Prince #ei running to hin' &nce .u$e said3 "Isn*t it sadL I ha(e the country no%3 but the family of T!ien h!?ng %ill ha(e it in the future' 7o%3 %hat can be done about itL" In reply Ben Tzŭ said+ "#hat does Bour Highness ha(e to %orry aboutL If Bour Highness %ants to rob him of the reins of go(ernment3 the best is to $eep the %orthy near by and the un%orthy far off3 put the chaos in order3 loosen penalties3 relie(e the poor and destitute3 gi(e alms to orphans and %ido%s3 distribute fa(ours among the masses and support the needy %ith supplies' Then the people %ill turn to Bour Highness3 and e(en ten T!ien h!?ngs %ill not be able to do anything against Bour Highness'" Somebody said+ ".u$e hing and Ben Tzŭ tra(elled to the district of Small Sea' They %ent up the ypress-Bed Terrace' Turning home%ard to sur(ey his country3 .ll the year round he ta$es only thirty-si5 feet 9D of cloth for his o%n use and gi(es the rest to scholars and %arriors for clothing' #oods at the mar$et-place are not more e5pensi(e than in the mountains' Fish3 salt3 tortoises3 turtles3 conches3 and mussels3 from s%amps are not more e5pensi(e than from the sea' #hile the 0uler is increasing ta5es3 T!ien h!?ng enlarges his alms' &nce there %as a famine in h!i' Those %ho star(ed to death by the %ayside %ere innumerable' It %as ne(er heard that father and son %ho led each other and turned to T!ien h!?ng for help %ere not sa(ed from death' Therefore3 e(en the peoples of hou and h!in ha(e been in groups singing the song+K Shall %e sing his praises3 no%3 &r shall %e stop for fearL 9E Shall %e star(e to deathL &r turn to T!ien h!?ng3 the dearL It is said in The 'ook of )oetry& .u$e hing e5claimed3 "#hat a beautiful countryG #o(en %ith blue %inding and deep rolling ri(ers and dotted %ith stately and dignified mountainsG #ho %ill possess it in the futureL" "#ill that be the family of T!ien h!?ngL" said Ben Tzŭ' "I am in possession of this country' #hy do you say3 !The family of T!ien h!?ng %ill ha(e it*L" as$ed the .u$e hing did not $no% ho% to ma$e use of his position %hile Musician )!uang and Ben Tzŭ did not $no% ho% to get rid of troubles' To be sure if the hunter relies on the security of the carriage3 utilizes the legs of the si5 horses3 and ma$es #ang -iang hold their reins3 then he %ill not tire himself and %ill find it easy to o(erta$e s%ift animals' 7o% supposing he discarded the ad(antage of the carriage3 ga(e up the useful legs of the horses and the s$ill of #ang -iang3 and alighted to run .nd though to you no (irtue I can add3 Bet %e %ill sing and dance3 in spirit glad' 9= 7o% that for the (irtue of T!ien h!?ng the people sing and dance3 9I they consider it a (irtuous act to turn to him for go(ernment' Therefore3 thy ser(ant has said3 !#ill that be the family of T!ien h!?ngL* " Melting bitterly into tears3 the .u$e' In reply Ben Tzŭ said+ "Indeed3 the family of T!ien h!?ng ha(e %on the hearts of the people of h!i (ery %ell' &n the one hand3 he as$s for ran$s and emoluments3 %hich he distributes among the chief (assals' &n the other3 he enlarges the measures on lending grain out to poor people and contracts the measures 9@ on ta$ing the grain bac$ from them' #hene(er he $ills an ox& he ta$es only one plate of the beef and %ith the rest feeds scholars and %arriors' 9A .

uring the period of time Tzŭ-lu made rice gruel %ith the grain out of his pri(ate emolument and fed the %or$men at the 8uarters of #u-fu' Hearing about this3 onfucius sent Tzŭ-$ung there to o(erturn the food3 brea$ the (essels3 and tell him3 "The 0uler of -u rules o(er the people' #hy should you feed themL" Thereby3 Tzŭlu3 changing his colour from anger bared his arms3 %ent in3 and said3 "Master3 do you disli$e Bu 9< practising bene(olence and righteousnessL #hat Bu has learned from the Master is bene(olence and righteousness' To be bene(olent and righteous is to gi(e . + !.ll-under-Hea(en one*s o%n possessions and let them share one*s o%n profits' #hy do you consider it %rong for Bu to feed the people %ith the grain out of his pri(ate emolumentL" In reply onfucius said+ "Ho% crude Bu isG I thought you %ould $no% as much as this' Bet really you ha(e not come to that' Thus you do not $no% the rules of propriety' 7o%3 by feeding them you thin$ you lo(e them' To be sure3 according to the rules of propriety3 the Son of Hea(en lo(es .ren*t you absurdL" Before onfucius had finished his speech3 the messenger of hi-sun arri(ed3 blamed onfucius3 and said3 "Fei @J re8uisitioned the men and set them to %or$3 %hereas Master sent a disciple to stop them and feed them' #ould you mean to rob Fei of the peopleL" Thereupon onfucius too$ his carriage and left -u' Thus3 despite the %orthiness of onfucius3 e(en hi-sun3 not being the 0uler of -u but merely applying .ll-under-Hea(en3 the feudal lords lo(e people %ithin their respecti(e domains3 High &fficials lo(e their official duties3 and scholars and %arriors lo(e their families' #ho goes beyond the sphere of his lo(e is called !offensi(e*' 7o% that the 0uler of -u rules o(er the people %hile you attempt to lo(e them at your pleasure3 it means you are offensi(e' .u$e hing %as a so(ereign not $no%ing ho% to utilize his position %hile Musician )!uang and Ben Tzŭ %ere ministers not $no%ing ho% to get rid of troubles'* " Tzŭ-hsia said+ "0egicides and parricides as recorded in the Sprin( and %utumn %nnals number tens' 7ine of them %as an outcome of one day*s fermentation' It al%ays gre% from a bud and de(eloped into maturity' &n the %hole the %ic$ed deeds3 repeatedly committed3 become a pile' #hen the pile is mature3 the urge to commit further (illainy becomes strong' #hen the urge is strong3 it is liable to e5tend to murder' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign uproots them early' 7o% the attempt of T!ien h!?ng to launch a rebellion could be seen budding3 but the ruler ne(er censured him' Ben Tzŭ ne(er made his ruler suppress offensi(e ministers but ad(ised him to confer fa(ours' In conse8uence3 .u$e hien suffered the calamity in posterity' Therefore3 Tzŭ-hsia says3 !#ho is s$ilful in maintaining his position %ould nip an e(il in the bud'* " hi-sun %as Premier of -u' Tzŭ-lu %as Magistrate of Hou' In the fifth month of the year the -u State re8uisitioned a number of able-bodied men to dig a long ditch' .after the animals3 then e(en though his legs %ere as 8uic$ as -ou hi*s3 he %ould not be in time to o(erta$e the animals' In fact3 if good horses and strong carriages are ta$en into use3 then mere bondmen and bond%omen %ill be good enough to catch the animals' 7o%3 the state is the ruler*s carriage %hile position is his horse' Indeed3 not to utilize the position and thereby interdict fa(our-selling ministers3 but to ma$e fa(ours and $indnesses definite and confer them upon .ll-under-Hea(en and do the same as croo$ed ministers %ould do in order thereby to fight %ith them for %inning the hearts of the people3 is al%ays the same as not to ride the ruler*s carriage and not to ta$e ad(antage of the speed of horses3 but to lea(e the carriage and alight to run after the animals' Hence the saying 9.

u$e Tan of hou3 sent out an urgent message from -u and as$ed+ "Indeed3 the t%o gentlemen %ere %orthies' #hy did you $ill %orthies on recei(ing the rule o(er the countryL" In reply T!ai-$ung #ang said+ "These t%o brothers had set up the principle+ !7either of us %ould minister to the Son of Hea(en and ma$e friends %ith the feudal lords' #e %ould till and %or$ and li(e on the crops and dig a %ell and drin$ the %ater' #e %ould not as$ anybody for help and recei(e neither title from any superior nor emolument from any ruler' #e attend not to any official post but to our o%n physical strength'* Their refusal to minister to the Son of Hea(en forecast #ang*s inability to rule them as subFects' Their refusal to ma$e friends %ith the feudal lords forecast #ang*s inability to set them to %or$' Their pledge to till and %or$ and li(e on the crops and dig a %ell and drin$ the %ater and thereby as$ nobody for help forecast #ang*s inability to encourage them %ith re%ard and prohibit them %ith punishment' Moreo(er3 their decision to accept no title from any superior implied their refusal to %or$ for #ang ho%e(er intelligent they might be' Their e5pectation of no emolument from the ruler implied their refusal to render #ang any meritorious ser(ice ho%e(er %orthy they might be' Should they refuse any appointment to office3 they %ould choose anarchyH should they attend to no official duties3 they %ould be disloyal' Furthermore3 the means %hereby the early $ings employed their ministers and subFects %ere either ran$ and emolument or censure and punishment' 7o%3 if these four means be not sufficient to employ them3 o(er %hom shall #ang ruleL To let them become celebrated %ithout bearing arms and %earing armour and become famous %ithout tilling the land and %eeding the farm is not @9 the %ay to gi(e teaching to the country' 7o% suppose there is a horse here %hich loo$s li$e a noble steed and is the best in .ll-under-Hea(en' Ho%e(er3 if it %ould not ad(ance %hen dri(en for%ard nor %ould it stop %hen pulled bac$+ and3 if pulled to the left3 it %ould not go to the left3 and3 pulled to the right3 it %ould not go to the rightH then e(en bondmen and bond%omen3 humble as they are3 %ould not rely on its legs' Bondmen and bond%omen %ant to rely on the legs of the steed because thereby they can see$ gain and a(oid harm' 7o% that it %ould not %or$ for anybody3 the sla(es3 humble as they are3 %ould not rely on its legs' Similarly3 the t%o brothers proclaimed themsel(es %orthy personages of the %orld but %ould not %or$ for any so(ereign' Ho%e(er %orthy their deeds might be3 if they %ould not %or$ for the ruler3 they %ere not %hat the enlightened so(ereign ought to ta$e as subFects' They %ere li$e the steed that cannot be pulled to the left or right' This %as the reason %hy they %ere e5ecuted'" .u$e hing3 there %ould be no calamity of intimidation and regicide' T!ai-$ung #ang %as enfeoffed east%ard in h!i' By the eastern sea of h!i there %ere retired scholars named )!uangyM and Hua-shih' Being t%o brothers3 both set up the principle+ "7either of us %ould minister to the Son of Hea(en and ma$e friends %ith the feudal lords3 but %ould till and %or$ and li(e on the crops and dig a %ell and drin$ the %ater' #e %ould not as$ anybody for help and accept neither title from any superior nor emolument from any ruler' #e attend not to any official post but to our o%n physical strength'" #hen T!ai-$ung #ang arri(ed at amp Hill3 he sent men to arrest them and $ill them at the first e5ecution' Hearing about this3 .the tact of the lord of men from the position of a minister3 %ould nip an e(il in the bud3 sho%s that Tzŭ-lu %as not allo%ed to confer pri(ate fa(ours and no calamity could gro%' Ho% much more should the lord of menL Should the offensi(eness of T!ien h!?ng ha(e been stopped %ith the position of .

u$e Tan of hou3 "of .u$e Tan of hou %as in -u and %ent on horsebac$ to stop the e5ecution' 6pon his arri(al the e5ecution had already been accomplished' ")!uang-yM %as a %orthy man3" said .ccordingly3 the t%in brothers said to each other+ "#ho does )ung good3 al%ays gains e(erythingH %ho does not do him good3 al%ays loses e(erything' #hy should %e choose not to do him goodL" Thenceforth they personally encouraged each other to do him good' Thus3 e(en HsMeh )ung from the position of a minister3 by applying the tact of the lord of men3 could pre(ent an e(il gro%ing' Ho% much more could the lord of men by doing the sameL .fter they had gambled for a %hile3 the usher came in and said3 "The son of hang hi is %aiting at the gate'" hanging colour from anger3 )ung too$ a %eapon and passed it to the usher and said3 ")ill him %ith thisG I ha(e heard hi %ould ne(er do #?n @I any good'" The usher $ept standing for a %hile' Then hi BM by the side of them said3 "That is not so' In secret I ha(e heard hi has been doing Bour 25cellency much good' It seems that nobody else has let Bour 25cellency $no%'" Thereupon he reFected $illing the (isitor3 and %elcomed him as a guest3 paid him great courtesies3 and said+ "Formerly I heard hi %ould not do me any good' So I thought of $illing him' 7o% I $no% he has been sincerely doing me good' Ho% can I forget his $indnessL" So saying3 he told the granary-$eeper to prepare one thousand piculs of grain3 the treasurer to prepare fi(e hundred pieces of gold3 the stableman to prepare t%o teams of good horses and strong carriages out of his o%n stable3 and besides ordered the eunuch to get ready t%enty beautiful maids from among the court ladies' &f all these he made hi a present' .u$e3 "can be 8uoted at one thousand pieces of gold' Ho%e(er3 there are horses each %orth one thousand @E pieces of gold but no deer %orth one thousand pieces of gold' #hyL It is because horses %ould %or$ for men but no deer %ould %or$ for men' 7o%3 Cu-?rh deser(es the premiership in a state of ten thousand chariots3 and3 besides3 has an intention to ser(e a big state' His mind is not in #ei' Though elo8uent and intelligent3 he %ill not %or$ for me' That is the reason %hy I do not appoint him premier'" #hen HsMeh )ung %as premier to Mar8uis hao of #ey3 there %ere t%in brothers among the chamberlains3 named Bang-hu and Pan-ch!i' Both %ere highly regarded by the so(ereign @= but %ould not do HsMeh )ung any good' &(er this HsMeh )ung %as %orried' Therefore3 he in(ited them to a gambling party' He ga(e each one hundred pieces of gold and let the brothers gamble' &f a sudden3 he ga(e each t%o hundred pieces more' ..t that time3 .u$e Ssŭ %as pleased %ith his persuasion but hea(ed deep sighs' "#hy does Bour Highness not appoint him prime ministerL" as$ed the chamberlains' "Indeed3 any horse that loo$s li$e a deer3" replied the .u$e Ssŭ of #ei of the %ay of go(ernment' .ccording to a different source+ T!ai-$ung #ang %as enfeoffed east%ard in h!i' By the sea there %as a %orthy named )!uang-yM' Hearing of him3 T!ai-$ung #ang %ent to as$ for an inter(ie% %ith him' Thrice in front of the gate he left his horse and %al$ed on foot3 but )!uang-yM ne(er granted him an inter(ie%' Therefore3 T!ai-$ung #ang censured him' .llunder-Hea(en' #hy did you punish him3 indeedL" In reply T!ai-$ung #ang said+ ")!uang-yM @@ considered it righteous @A not to minister to the Son of Hea(en nor to ma$e friends %ith the feudal lords' I %as afraid he might disturb the la% and alter the morals' Therefore3 I too$ him for the first e5ecution' 7o% suppose there is a horse here %hich loo$s li$e a noble steed' Ho%e(er3 if it %ould not ad(ance %hen dri(en for%ard3 then e(en bondmen and bond%omen %ould not rely on its legs for turning the %heels @D of their carriage'" Cu-?rh once persuaded .

n elder of h?ng had the saying3 !Indeed3 the ruler3 being empty and tran8uil and doing nothing3 is in(isible'* Is this the %ay to ma$e the hiding-placeL" )uo Bang %as highly regarded by the ruler of h?ng' #hen he heard the 0uler disli$ed him3 he accompanied him at a carousal and purposely said beforehand to the 0uler+ "If thy ser(ant happens to be so unluc$y as to ha(e committed certain faults3 may Bour Highness $indly permit thy ser(ant to $no% them' Then thy ser(ant %ill as$ permission to reform himself in hope that he may e(ade capital punishment'" .ccording to a different source+ )ing HsMan of h!i as$ed T!ang I Tzŭ about the art of shooting %ith stringed arro%s3 "#hat is most essential to the art of shooting %ith stringed arro%sL" " arefulness about the hiding-place3" replied T!ang I Tzŭ' "#hat do you mean by !carefulness about the hiding-place*L" as$ed the )ing' In reply I Tzŭ said+ "The bird sees man %ith tens of eyes3 %hereas man sees it %ith t%o eyes' Ho% can man not be careful about his hiding-placeL Therefore3 I say3 !The essence of the art lies in carefulness about the hiding place'* " "Ho% is the rule o(er . themsel(esH if his ignorance is (isible3 people %ill hide their faultsH if his freedom from a(arice is (isible3 people %ill %atch for unguarded momentsH if his possession of a(arice is (isible3 people %ill allure him' Hence the saying+ !I find no %ay to $no% them' &nly by not doing anything I can %atch @< them'* " .To be sure the cro%-tamer cuts off the lo%er feathers' Then the bird must depend upon him for food' Ho% can it go %ildL Indeed3 the same is true %hen the enlightened so(ereign %ants to $eep ministers under control' He must ma$e the ministers al%ays profit by the emoluments besto%ed by the ruler and submit to the titles conferred by the superior' If they profit by the emoluments besto%ed by the ruler and submit to the titles conferred by the superior3 ho% can they remain disobedientL &nnotations to Canon **+< Sh?n Tzŭ said+ "If the superior*s cle(erness is (isible3 people %ill guard against itH if his stupidity is (isible3 people %ill be%ilder himH if his $no%ledge is (isible3 people %ill disguise @.ll-underHea(en3" remar$ed the )ing3 "different from thisL 7o%3 %ith t%o eyes the lord of men sees the %hole country3 %hereas the country sees the lord of men %ith a myriad eyes' Then ho% can he ma$e himself a hiding-placeL" In reply I Tzŭ said+ ".ccording to a different source+ Sh?n Tzŭ said+ "Be prudent in your speech3 or people %ill accord AJ %ith you' Be prudent in your action3 or people %ill follo% after you' #hen you can see3 A9 people %ill hide their defects from you' #hen your ignorance is (isible3 people %ill decei(e you' #hen you ha(e $no%ledge3 people %ill $eep you off' #hen you ha(e no $no%ledge3 people %ill trespass against you' Hence the saying !&nly by not doing anything the ruler can %atch the ministers'* " T!ien Tzŭ-fang as$ed T!ang I-chM3 "&f %hat must the archer %ith stringed arro%s be cautiousL" In reply I-chM said+ "The bird sees you %ith se(eral hundred eyes3 %hereas you aim at it %ith t%o eyes' Bou had better be careful about your hiding-place'" "4ood3" said T!ien Tzŭ-fang3 "Bou apply this principle to shooting %ith stringed arro%sH I %ill apply it to the state'" Hearing this3 an elder of h?ng said+ "T!ien Tzŭfang $no%s the need of ma$ing a hiding-place but has not yet found ho% to ma$e it' To be sure3 nihilism and in(isibility ma$e the hiding-place'" .

ngry at Hsi-shou*s letting out the ne%s3 the )ing banished him' .s Bour MaFesty has found a %orthy premier3 thy ser(ant dares to repeat bo%s and offer his congratulations'" "I ha(e committed the state3" said the )ing3 "to your hands' #hy should I find another %orthy premierL" "Bour MaFesty is going to ma$e Hsi-shou premier3" %as the reply' "#here did you hear thatL" as$ed the )ing' "Hsishou told thy ser(ant'" .s nobody had yet $no%n %ho %ould be installed as the ne% Rueen3 he presented ear-beads to the )ing and thereby $ne% it' .mong these HsMeh )ung %anted to $no% the one %hom the )ing %anted in particular3 so that he %ould as$ the )ing to install that one as the ne% consort' Ho%e(er3 should the )ing listen to him3 then his suggestion %ould pre(ail upon the )ing and he %ould be highly regarded by the ne% consortH should the )ing not listen to him3 his persuasion must ha(e been ineffecti(e and he %ould be slighted by the ne% consort' Thus3 he %anted to $no% beforehand the one %hom the )ing %anted in order to encourage the )ing to install that one' Thereupon he ordered ten ear-beads and specially beautified one of them' Then he presented them to the )ing' The )ing distributed them among the ten ladies' 7e5t day3 %hen he %ent to court3 he sa% the lady %ho had the most beautiful bead and so encouraged the )ing to install her as the ne% consort' #hen )an Mu %as premier to )ing Hui of h!in3 )ing Hui li$ed )ung-sun Ben' &ne day he spo$e in pri(ate to him3 "I am going to appoint you prime minister'" This %as o(erheard through a hole in the %all by a subordinate official of )an Mu3 and %as reported to him' Mean%hile3 )an Mu %ent in to ha(e audience %ith the )ing and said3 ".ll-under-Hea(en ser(ing under the )ing of -iang-#ey' The )ing of h!in %anted to get him and entrust him %ith the rule o(er .ccording to a different source+ HsMeh )ung %as Premier under )ing #ei of h!i3 %hen the royal consort died' There %ere then ten ladies admired by the )ing' .ll-under-Hea(en' "Ben is a minister3" replied Hsishou3 "and therefore dare not lea(e the country of his ruler at any time'" In the course of one year Hsi-shou displeased the )ing of -iang-#ey and sought refuge in h!in' The )ing of h!in accorded him a (ery cordial reception' hu -i-chi3 the then ommander of h!in*s forces3 fearing lest Hsi-shou should replace him3 bored a hole through the %all of the room %here the )ing %ould ha(e confidential con(ersations' Suddenly3 the )ing actually consulted %ith Hsi-shou and said3 "I %ant to attac$ Han' #hat %ill be the best %ayL" "The coming autumn %ill be the right time3" replied Hsishou' "I %ant to entrust you3" said the )ing3 "%ith the state affairs then' Bou must not let out this secret'" 0unning bac$%ard and repeating his bo%s3 Hsi-shou said3 ".&nce an itinerant spo$e to )ing HsMan of Han about the %ay of go(ernment' )ing HsMan %as pleased %ith his theory and hea(ed deep sighs' &n the same day A@ the courtiers reported the )ing*s pleasure promptly to the itinerant in order to place him under an obligation' #hen -ord hing-$uo AA %as Premier of h!i3 the Rueen died' .n army %ill be raised in autumn to attac$ Han %ith Hsi-shou as ommander'" Thus3 in a day all the courtiers $ne% this' In a month e(erybody %ithin the boundary $ne% it' The )ing3 accordingly3 summoned hu -i-chi and said3 "#hy is e(erybody panic-stric$enL #hence did the rumour come outL" "It seems3" .t your ser(ice'" By that time hu -i-chi had already heard the con(ersation' He told e(ery courtier he met3 ".ccording to a different source+ Hsi-shou %as a good general in .

ll-underHea(en3 he %ould al%ays sleep by himself for fear lest he should tal$ in his sleep and let anybody else $no% his scheme' .ccording to a different source+ T!ang-chi )ung had an inter(ie% %ith Mar8uis hao and said+ "Suppose there are a %hite Fade cup %ith no bottom and a pottery one %ith a bottom' #hen thirsty3 %hich %ill Bour Highness use for drin$ingL" "The pottery one of course3" replied the Mar8uis' "The %hite Fade cup is beautiful3" said T!ang chi$ung3 "but Bour Highness %ill not drin$ from it' Is it because it has no bottomL" "Bes3" replied the 0uler' Then T!ang hi-$ung said+ "The lord of men %ho di(ulges the %ords of ministers3 is comparable to the Fade cup %ith no bottom'" Thenceforth3 e(ery time after T!ang hi-$ung had an audience and %ent out3 Mar8uis hao %ould al%ays lie by himself simply for fear lest he should tal$ in his sleep and di(ulge the con(ersation to his consorts' Sh?n Tzŭ said+ "#ho sees things by himself3 is called clear-sightedH %ho hears things by himself is called acuteH and %ho can ma$e decision by himself3 is fit to rule AD o(er .ll-under-Hea(en' &nnotations to Canon ***+< &nce there %as a Sung man selling %ine' His measures %ere (ery fair' His reception of customers %as (ery courteous' The %ine he made %as e5cellent' He hoisted his banner AE in an imposing manner' Bet he had no business and the %ine %ould become sour' #ondering at the cause3 he as$ed his ac8uaintance3 an elder of the (illage3 named Bang hing' "It is because your dog is fierce3" replied hing' "If my dog is fierce3 %hy does my %ine not sell %ellL" "Because customers are afraid of it' #hen people send out children %ith money and pots or Fars to buy %ine from you3 your dog %ould Fump at them and sometimes bite them' This is the reason %hy your %ine does not sell %ell and becomes sour'" Indeed3 the state has dogs3 too' Thus e5perts in statecraft3 bearing the right tact in mind3 %ant to enlighten the so(ereign of ten .s he trespassed against his former ruler recently3 he is still feeling helpless in a ne% place' Therefore3 he has created such a rumour in order to e5ercise his influence among the masses of people'" "0ight3" the )ing said and sent men to summon Hsi-shou3 but Hsi-shou had already made his escape to some other feudal lord' T!ang-ch!i )ung said to Mar8uis hao3 "Suppose there is a Fade cup %orth one thousand pieces of gold3 but it has no bottom' an it be used in ser(ing %aterL" "7o3" replied Mar8uis hao' "Then suppose there is an earthen pot %hich does not lea$' an it be used in ser(ing %ineL" "Bes3" replied Mar8uis hao' Thereupon hi )ung said+ "Indeed3 the earthen pot is the cheapest (essel3 but3 not lea$ing3 can be used in ser(ing %ine' The Fade cup3 %orth one thousand pieces of gold3 is the most e5pensi(e (essel3 but %ithout a bottom it lea$s and cannot be used in ser(ing %ater' If so3 %ho %ill e(er pour any $ind of li8uid into itL 7o%3 the lord of men %ho lets out the %ords of ministers is similar to the Fade cup %ithout a bottom' Though possessed of holiness and intelligence3 he cannot e5ercise his tact to the utmost3 for he di(ulges secrets'" "0ight3" said the Mar8uis' 2(er after Mar8uis hao had heard these %ords from T!ang-chi )ung3 %hene(er he %anted to launch any drastic measure in .replied hu -i-chi3 "that Hsi-shou declared the ne%s'" "I ne(er spo$e to Hsi-shou3" said the )ing3 "about the e5pedition' #hy did he create such a rumourL" In reply hu -i-chi said+ "Hsi-shou is a refugee finding shelter in this country' .

u$e' Then )uan hung replied+ "Bour Highness must ha(e seen people building a shrine' They set up the beams and then plaster them' Bet rats gna% holes through the plaster and shelter themsel(es inside' Then3 if you smo$e them out3 you are afraid you might burn the %oodH if you pour %ater o(er them3 you are afraid the plaster might crumble' This is the reason %hy the shrine rats cannot be caught' 7o% the courtiers of the ruler of men3 %hen out3 are influential in position and thereby e5ploit the peopleH %hen in3 they Foin one another in hiding their faults from the ruler' From inside they spy out the ruler*s secrets and report them to foreign authorities3 till they become influential both at home and abroad and all ministers and magistrates regard them as helpful' A= If the authorities do not censure them3 they continue disturbing la%sH if they censure them3 then the ruler %ill shield AI them from blame3 shelter them from punishment3 A.ccording to another different source+ .u$e Huan as$ed )uan hung3 "#hat %as the chief menace to the go(ernment of a stateL" "The greatest distress is caused by the shrine rats3" %as the reply' "Indeed3 after the shrine had its beams A< set up and had them plastered3 rats %ould hide themsel(es inside' If you attempt to smo$e them out3 the %ood %ill be burnedH if you pour %ater o(er them3 the plaster %ill crumble' This is the %ay you are distressed by the shrine rats' 7o%3 the courtiers of the ruler of men3 %hen out3 are influential in position and thereby e5ploit the peopleH %hen in3 they Foin one another in slandering their enemies and in co(ering their o%n faults3 and thereby decei(e the ruler' If not censured3 they $eep disturbing la%sH if censured the lord of men %ill shield DJ them from blame3 shelter them from punishment3 and still $eep them around' They are shrine rats3 too'" Similarly3 ministers %ho ha(e the grip on state affairs and issue prohibitions at their pleasure3 al%ays gi(ing ad(antages to those doing them good and causing inFuries to .u$e Huan as$ed )uan hung %hat %as the greatest menace to the go(ernment of a state' "The greatest menace is the shrine rats3" %as the reply' "#hy should %e %orry so much about the shrine ratsL" as$ed the .mong the %ine merchants in Sung there %as a certain huang family' Their %ine %as al%ays e5cellent' &ne day somebody sent a ser(ant to buy the %ine of the huangs' .thousand chariots3 %hereas ministers li$e the fierce dog of the %ine merchant %ould Fump at them and bite them' This is the reason %hy the lord of men is deluded and e5perts in statecraft are not ta$en into ser(ice' Similarly3 .ccording to a different source+ .s their dog %ould bite customers3 the ser(ant dared not go to them and bought %ine from another family' #hen he %as as$ed %hy he did not buy the %ine of the huangs3 he replied3 "The %ine of the huangs is to-day sour'" Hence the saying+ "If the %ine merchant does not $ill his dog3 his %ine %ill become sour'" . and still $eep them around' They are the shrine rats in the state' Similarly3 ministers %ho ha(e the grip on state affairs and issue prohibitions at their pleasure3 al%ays gi(ing ad(antages to those doing them good and causing inFuries to those not doing them any good3 are the same as fierce dogs' Indeed3 %hen chief (assals ha(e become fierce dogs and %ould bite upholders of the true path3 and %hen the courtiers ha(e turned into shrine rats and %ould spy out the ruler*s secrets3 if the lord of men ta$es no notice of the impending danger3 ho% can he a(oid delusion and ho% can the state e(ade ruinL .

ll-under-Hea(en to Shun3 against such a measure )!un remonstrated %ith him saying+ "Ho% inauspiciousG #ho %ould transfer the rule of .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain not safeguarded %hat can I be8ueath to my descendantsL" Thereupon the ro%n Prince ran bac$%ard3 $ept a%ay from his residence3 stayed outdoors for three days3 faced the north3 repeated his bo%s3 and apologized for the capital crime' .ll-under-Hea(en dared not disappro(e the transfer of the rule o(er .ll-under-Hea(en to a commoner'" Bao ne(er listened to him but also raised an army and banished the Minister of Public #or$s to the city of Bu-chou' Thenceforth3 .ccording to a different source+ &nce upon a time the )ing of h!u sent urgently for the ro%n Prince' The la% of the h!u State allo%ed no carriage to reach the inner gate of the palace' It %as raining' There %ere puddles in the courtyard' Therefore3 the ro%n Prince had to ta$e his carriage as far as the inner gate' "7o carriage is allo%ed3" shouted the court guard3 "to reach the inner gate' To ta$e any carriage as far as the inner gate DA is against the la%'" "His maFesty*s summon is so urgent3" said the ro%n Prince3 "that I cannot %ait till the puddles dry up'" So saying3 he dro(e on%ard' 0aising his halberd3 the guard hit the horse and bro$e the yo$e' The ro%n Prince then %ent in to see the )ing and %ith tears in his eyes said+ "There %ere in the courtyard so many puddles that I had to ta$e the carriage as far as the inner gate' The .llunder-Hea(en to Shun' Hearing this3 hung-ni said+ "It is not difficult for Bao to $no% the %orthiness of Shun' Indeed3 to punish the remonstrants and thereby effect the transfer of the throne to Shun %as his difficulty'" .s soon as his horse trod on the "ea(esdrops"3 the guard cut do%n the shaft of his carriage and e5ecuted his coachman' .ngry at this3 the ro%n Prince %ent in to see the )ing and %ith tears in his eyes said3 "May Bour MaFesty punish the guard for meG" In response the )ing said+ "The la% is the means %hereby the ancestral shrine and the .ll-under-Hea(en to a commonerL" Bao ne(er listened to him but raised an army and $illed him in the (icinity of the Feather Mountains' -i$e%ise3 the Minister of Public #or$s remonstrated %ith him3 saying3 "7obody should transfer the rule o(er .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain are re(ered' Therefore3 %ho can li(e up to the la%3 carry out orders3 and thereby re(ere the Shrine of the Spirits of -and and 4rain3 is a loyal subFect to the community' #hy should such a man be punished thenL To be sure3 %ho (iolates the la%3 discards orders3 and thereby sho%s no respect to the Shrine of the Spirits of -and and 4rain3 is a subFect offending his ruler and an inferior disobeying his superior' D@ If the subFect offends his ruler3 then the so(ereign %ill lose his authorityH if the inferior disobeys his superior3 then the superior*s status %ill be endangered' #ith my authority lost and my status endangered and the .those not doing them any good3 are fierce dogs3 too' Therefore3 if the courtiers become shrine rats and the administrators of state affairs turn into fierce dogs3 the right type of statecraft %ill not function' #hen Bao %anted to transfer the rule o(er .ccording to a different source+ hung-ni said3 "7ot to ruin the result of obser(ation %ith the obFect of suspicion is difficult'" )ing huang of hing once issued the la% of the inner gate D9 to the effect that "#hen any Ministers3 High &fficers3 and Princes enter the court3 if the hoofs of anybody*s horse %al$ upon the !ea(esdrops*3 the court guard should cut do%n the shaft of his carriage and e5ecute his coachman'" In the meantime3 the ro%n Prince entered the court' .

ccording to a different source+ The 0uler of #ei %as going to hin and said to Po Bi+ "I %ant you to go along %ith me'" "Mother is at home' May I go home and consult %ith her about the matterL" Thereupon the 0uler of #ei %ent himself to as$ permission' "Bi is a subFect3" said Mother Po3 "to Bour Highness' It is (ery $ind of you to ta$e him along'" Then the 0uler said to Po Bi+ "I already DI as$ed Mother' She ga(e me permission'" #hen Po Bi %ent home3 he as$ed his mother3 "#ho lo(es Bi better3 His Highness or MotherL" "He does not lo(e my son so much as I do3" replied the mother' "#ho recognizes Bi*s %orthiness more3 His Highness or MotherL" "He does not recognize my son*s %orthiness so much as I do'" Finally Bi said+ "2(ery time after Mother and Bi discussed domestic affairs and decided on a certain plan3 she %ould refer it to the &ld #oman of Ts!ai3 a fortune-teller3 for the second decision' 7o% the ruler of #ei is going to ta$e Bi along' Though he %ill decide %ith Bi on his plans3 yet he %ill certainly consult some other &ld #oman Ts!ai and brea$ the plans' If such be the case3 Bi %ill not be able to ser(e him long as Minister'" Indeed3 the teacher of singing first teaches the pupil (ocal gestures and different pitches' .s regards the relationship3 it lies bet%een mother and son' 7e(ertheless3 she could not help consulting &ld #oman Ts!ai' 7o%3 the relationship bet%een Bi and the lord of men is not as intimate as that bet%een mother and son %hile the lord of men al%ays has %itches li$e &ld #oman Ts!ai' The %itches of the lord of men are3 no doubt3 his po%erful (assals3 %ho are able to practise selfishness' Indeed3 to practise selfishness is contrary to the in$ed string3 %hereas %hat Bi spea$s about is al%ays in accordance %ith the la%' #ho acts contrary to the in$ed string and %ho stands in accordance %ith the la% are enemies and ne(er tolerate each other'" . able to e5press the clear lingual sounds3 then the teacher begins to teach him real singing' .u$e Ssŭ DD of #ei said to Po Bi+ "Bou regard my state as small and therefore not %orth ser(ing' Bet I ha(e ability to ta$e you into ser(ice' Shall I raise your ran$ and appoint you High 7obleL" So saying3 he added one million mou DE of fields to his emolument' In response to this Po Tzŭ said+ "Bi*s mother lo(es Bi and thin$s Bi is e(en able to ser(e as prime minister to a ruler of ten thousand chariots %ith no insufficiency' Ho%e(er3 Bi*s family %itch3 &ld #oman Ts!ai3 is (ery much li$ed and belie(ed by Bi*s mother and is entrusted %ith all domestic affairs' 7o%3 Bi is intelligent enough to be told D= about the domestic affairs and his mother should al%ays listen to him' Ho%e(er3 %hate(er she had agreed %ith Bi3 she %ould al%ays refer to &ld #oman Ts!ai for decision' Thus3 for instance3 after discussing Bi*s %isdom and ability %ith the old %oman3 she came to consider Bi able to ser(e as prime minister to a ruler of ten thousand chariots' .fter the pupil becomes D.ccording to a different source+ The teacher of singing3 first of all3 conforms the pupil*s (oice to certain rules' #hen singing staccato&D< the pupil must set his tone %ith .guard3 ho%e(er3 said it %as against the la%3 raised his halberd3 hit thy ser(ant*s horse and bro$e the yo$e of thy ser(ant*s carriage' May Bour MaFesty be sure to punish himG" "#ith the aged so(ereign in the front3" remar$ed the )ing3 "he ne(er neglected the la%H %ith the future ruler in the rear he ne(er sho%ed any fa(our' Ho% %orthy he must beG He is truly my la%-abiding subFect'" Thereupon the )ing raised the ran$ of the guard by t%o grades3 sent out the ro%n Prince through the bac$ gate3 and pre(ented him from going through the inner gate again' .

u$e' "By ma$ing re%ard of faith and punishment definite3" replied Hu Tzŭ' "This %ill be sufficient to ma$e them go to %ar'" "Ho% far must the e5tremity of censure and punishment e5tendL" as$ed the .u$e' .ll right3" said his %ife' #hen finished3 it %as measured as before but fell short of the regular %idth3 too' .u$e3 "%hat %ill be sufficient to ma$e the people go to %arL" "Ma$e them unable to do anything but fighting3" %as the reply' "Ho% to ma$e them unable to do anything but fightingL" as$ed the .fter I had set in the %arp3 I could not change the %idth any more'" #u h!i di(orced her' Then his %ife as$ed her elder brother to send her bac$' Her elder brother said+ "#u h!i is a la%-abiding man' In abiding by the la%3 he %ants to apply legalism to his %ife first and then to his son in order that some day he %ill be in a position to render a ruler of ten thousand chariots meritorious ser(ices' 4i(e up your hope for reinstatement as his %ife'" Her younger brother had E@ influence on the 0uler of #ei' Therefore3 through the influence of the 0uler of #ei he as$ed #u h!i to ta$e her bac$3 but #u h!i ne(er listened to him and finally left #ei for hing' .guttural soundsH %hen singing le(ato&EJ he must set his tone %ith lingual sounds' If his staccato is not set %ith guttural sounds and his le(ato not %ith lingual sounds3 then he is not teachable' E9 #u h!i %as a nati(e of Tso-shih in #ei' &nce he as$ed his %ife to %ea(e a sil$ band' #hen finished3 the band %as too narro% for the regular %idth' So he as$ed her to %ea(e a ne% one' ".u$e' ".ll these methods are %ays of earning one*s li(elihood' To ma$e the people go to %ar3 ho%e(er3 is to put them to death' 7o% that the people obey Bour Highness on purpose to earn their li(elihood3 if Bour Highness thereby dri(es them to their death3 then they %ill lose the cause to obey Bour Highness'" "If so3" as$ed the .ccording to a different source+ #u h*i sho%ed his %ife a sil$ band and said to her+ "#ill you %ea(e for me a sil$ band e5actly li$e this oneL" #hen the band %as %o(en3 he tried EA it and found it e5traordinarily %ell done' "I told you3" said #u h!i3 "to %ea(e for me a sil$ band e5actly li$e this one3 but no% it is e5traordinarily %ell done' #hyL" In reply his %ife said+ "The material %as the same3 but I added a great deal of effort to ma$e it better than the sample'" "That %as not %hat I told you to do'" So saying3 #u h!i let his %ife %ear it and sent her home' Her father %ent to as$ him to ta$e her bac$' Ho%e(er3 #u h!i said3 " h!i*s house admits no empty %ord'" .t this #u h!i %as (ery angry' In response his %ife said+ ".s far as any relati(e or noble held guilty' The la% must pre(ail among the most belo(ed3" replied Hu Tzŭ' "4ood3" remar$ed the .u$e #?n of hin once as$ed Hu Ben+ "If your Highness fills the reception hall %ith s%eet tastes and fat meat3 lea(es a fe% cups of %ine and a fe% plates of meat in the inner court3 and lets the %ine in the Far ha(e no time to become clear and the ra% meat ha(e no time to be laid out3 and if on $illing an o5 he %ould distribute the beef among the people in the country and clothe the officers and soldiers %ith the %hole year*s products of the %ea(ers3 %ill this be sufficient to ma$e the people go to %arL" "Insufficient3" replied Hu Tzŭ' "Suppose I reduce the custom duties and business ta5es and loosen censure and punishment3 %ill that be sufficient to ma$e the people go to %arL" "Insufficient3" replied Hu Tzŭ' "Suppose I personally send a courtier to loo$ after the matter %hen anybody needs money for a funeral rite3 gi(e pardons to criminals and besto% fa(ours upon the poor and the needy' #ill this be sufficient to ma$e the people go to %arL" In reply Hu Tzŭ said+ ".

u$e %orried o(er it' But the Fudge said3 "May Bour Highness carry out the orderG" Finally he cut Tien hieh in t%o at the bac$ in order to %arn the hundred surnames and to pro(e the faith of the la%' Thenceforth all the hundred surnames %ere afraid of punishment and said+ "His Highness made so much of Tien hieh' Still he applied the la% to the case' Ho% much less can %e hope for pardonL" Percei(ing his ability to ma$e the people go to %ar3 .&n the follo%ing day .ttac$ing #ei3 he made their field-ridges run east%ard and thereby facilitate his military operations' He too$ Fi(e .s to %hy he %as so successful3 there %as no other reason than this3 that he follo%ed the counsel of Hu Ben and made use of the bac$ of Tien hieh' Indeed the pain of the boil3 unless the bone and marro% are pierced3 the %orried mind %ill no longer be able to bear' If the bone and marro% are not pierced3 nobody can use the half-inch stone-needle to cut the boil open' The same is true %ith the lord of men in go(ernment' 6nless he $no%s hardship3 he cannot ha(e peace' If he %ants to go(ern his country3 unless he e5periences the pain3 he %ill not be able to listen to the holy and the intelligent and remo(e the rebellious ministers' 0ebellious ministers are al%ays po%erful men' Po%erful men are al%ays (ery near and dear to the lord of men' The relationship bet%een the so(ereign and his fa(ourites is as inseparable as that bet%een "Hard and #hite"' ED Indeed3 if any %earer of hemp clothes attempts from such a humble position to remo(e the fa(ourites of the lord of men %ho are as inseparable from him as hard from %hite3 it %ill be as dangerous as to cut off the left thigh and spea$ to the right one' This is the reason %hy his body %ill be put to death and his theory ne(er %ill pre(ail' 'otes 9' ô.u$e #?n raised an army3 attac$ed BMan3 and too$ it' .eer3 attac$ed Bang3 and defeated )uo' Then he attac$ed Ts!ao and marched south%ard to besiege h?ng and upset the city %alls' Then he raised the siege of Sung and fought %ith the hings at h!?ng-p!u and put them to rout' Turning home%ard3 he too$ an oath at Foot-2arth3 and finally accomplished at H?ng-yung the righteousness of honouring the House of hou' Thus3 in an e5pedition he completed eight achie(ements' .說右上' @' #ith )u )uang-ts!? È abo(e § should be Ð' A' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n 3 abo(e § should be ã' D' #ith )ao H?ng ä reads å' E' #ith )ao æ reads ç' =' è should be supplied belo% £ in accordance %ith the annotation' I' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n À should be i' . field-hunt is to be held at the 4ardening -andH the time is fi5ed at noon sharpH %hoe(er arri(es late shall be courtmartialled' There arri(ed late a fa(ourite of .u$e to pass a sentence on him' Shedding tears3 the .u$e #?n issued an order+ .u$e #?n3 named Tien hieh' The criminal Fudge as$ed the .

' Both Hiraza%a*s and #aseda*s editions ha(e —B in place of üB' 9<' The personal name of Tzŭ-lu' @J' The personal name of hi-sun' @9' Ô should be supplied abo(e ‹Ë"?產' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen p belo% ðñ is superfluous' @A' á means š' @D' ð really means "the bar behind a carriage"' #hen it turns3 the %heels of the carriage turn3 too' Therefore3 to turn the bar is the same as to turn the %heels' @E' #ith )ao H?ng – abo(e 金 should be á as found in #ang h!ung*s "0efutation of Han Fei Tzŭ"' @=' I propose J for 王' @I' The personal name of HsMeh )ung3 i'e' -ord M?ng-ch!ang' @.' Fw %as originally name of an official post in #ey3 %hich post )ung-sun Ben held so long3 till it became his style' <' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n šö seems to be a mista$e for •š' 9J' #ith BM BMeh P abo(e a is superfluous' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ÷+ should be +÷' 9@' éêëì refer to different measures for grain' 9A' } or "gentry" in this case connotes both scholars and %arriors' 9D' 二í' &ne chih is about eighteen feet' 9E' They feared they might be held under suspicion by the ruling authorities if they $ept singing his praises' 9=' The 'ook of )oatry& Pt' II' B$' /II3 I/3 A3 trans' by -egge' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 之îï should be îï之' 9.' Hiraza%a*s edition has 9 in place of Q belo% 人' @<' #ith )ao H?ng E in both cases means ò' AJ' #ith BM BMeh š is a mista$e for ¿' A9' #ith )ao H?ng š abo(e º is superfluous' ..

' #ith )u õ should be supplied belo% ö' A<' #ith )ao H?ng ã should be supplied abo(e ÷' DJ' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 危 abo(e ö should be G' D9' #ith Sun I-Fang ±Ò should be øÒ' D@' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ƒùú should be ƒúù %hich means ƒûÙ' DA' #ith #ang ÂüÒ should be repeated' DD' \i should be \s and so throughout the annotation' DE' ýþ' &ne ch/in( is one hundred mou' &ne mou is a hinese acreH one 2nglish acre is about ='= mou' D=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? • abo(e ´ is superfluous' DI' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n Ë belo% µ should be ó' D. similar analysis %as made t%o thousand years later in the #est3 first by .istinguishing bet%een the primary and the secondary 8ualities3 .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 反 should be ÿ' D<' f呼' EJ' Ô呼' E9' Œ abo(e " means "' E@' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n • reads Ó' EA' #ith #ang Þ should be 較 but %ith )ao H?ng Þ means 考 or 驗' ED' )ung-sun -ung made a epistemological analysis of the 8ualities of physical obFects %ith special reference to the tactile and the (isible 8ualities3 for e5ample3 hardness and %hiteness' .escartes and .escartes and -oc$e and then by Ber$eley and Hume' .A@' #ith BM BMeh B should be † and • abo(e 王 should be Ë' AA' T!ien Bing %as his real name' AD' #ith )u )uang-ts!? J should be 王' AE' In addition to the sign-board he hangs up3 the hinese store$eeper fre8uently hoists his banner for ad(ertising purposes' A=' #ith #ang Hslen-sh?n @ is a mista$e for Û' AI' #ith )u )uang-ts!? G abo(e ó means ô3 and 不 abo(e it should be ‹' A.

ccording to them3 the primary 8ualities of physical obFects ha(e obFecti(e e5istence %hile the secondary 8ualities are due to mental acti(ities of the percei(er' Thus3 both of them %ere subFectified by Ber$eley3 and Hume e(en %ent so far as to dispro(e the substantiality of the percei(ing mind' The attention of our hinese philosopher3 )ung-sun -ung3 %as attracted to the relationship bet%een hardness and %hiteness3 namely3 bet%een a primary 8uality and a secondary one3 %hich has e(idently interested no thin$er in the #est' .re hardness and %hiteness t%o distinct 8ualities in obFecti(e e5istence or are they the same thing percei(ed by different sensesL If neither the hands nor the eyes can sol(e this problem3 %ho can sol(e itL These %ere some of the puzzling problems )ung-sun -ung raised and attempted to sol(e' Chapter 2220.-oc$e considered solidity or hardness as primary and %hiteness as secondary' . The Lo"er 1ight .ayings.u$e hien %ere murdered' The calamity of its practice is also illustrated by #ang -iang and Tsao-fu dri(ing the same chariot and T!ien -ien and h!?ng hiao playing the same lute' II' &rder and strength are due to the la%H %ea$ness and disorder3 to its croo$edness' If the ruler understands this principle3 he must rectify re%ard and punishment but ne(er assume humanity to%ards his inferiors' 0an$ and emolument are due to meritorious ser(icesH censure and punishment3 to criminal offences' If the minister understands this3 he must e5ert his strength e(en at the ris$ of his life but ne(er assume loyalty to the ruler' Thus3 %ith the ruler %ell (ersed in the practice of inhumanity and the minister in that of disloyalty3 it is possible to rule o(er .eries 9 I' If the 0uler enforces re%ard and punishment %ith the minister3 then prohibitions and ordinances %ill ta$e no effect' Ho% can I ma$e this clearL #ith the cases of Tsao-fu and BM-ch!i as illustration' Tzŭ-han acted li$e the Fumping pigH T!ien H?ng made bene(olence and $indness as attracti(e as the garden pool' In conse8uence3 the 0uler of Sung and .ll-under-Hea(en' For illustration3 )ing hao-hsiang3 $no%ing the gist of the so(ereign3 stopped gi(ing the star(elings fruits and (egetables from the Fi(e Par$sH and T!ien Bu3 $no%ing the gist of the minister3 ga(e instructions to his son3 T!ien hang' )ung Bi refused the present of fish' III' If the lord of men ta$es no interest in foreign affairs3 then itinerants from abroad are bound to be successful' For instance3 Su Tai repro(ed the )ing of h!i before the )ing of Ben' If the lord of men ta$es interest @ in ancient precepts3 then pri(ate scholars are certain to become celebrated' For instance3 P!an Shou e5tolled the acts of )ing BM' It %as because the lord of men in so doing percei(ed no fault of his o%n' )no%ing this principle3 Fang #u %as afraid of sharing anything %ith any $in' Ho% much more should the ruler of men be afraid of letting any minister e5ercise his authorityL )no%ing this principle3 #u hang spo$e about the futility of anybody sho%ing pretentious lo(e or hatred' Ho% much more futile must it be to sho% true lo(e or true hatredL The )ing of hao disli$ed the tiger*s eyes and thereby incurred delusion' The %ay of the enlightened so(ereign is (ery often li$e the %ay of the official usher of the court of hou refusing the 0uler of #ei admission' I/' The lord of men abides by the la% and calls actual results to account in order thereby to perform his great achie(ement' #e hear about people %ho beha(e %ell by themsel(es despite the dissipation of the magistrateH but %e ne(er hear about any magistrate %ho go(erns himself %ell but has rebellious people' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign go(erns the magistrates but ne(er directly go(erns the people' . ()ter Congeries of .ccording to )ung-sun -ung3 %hiteness is percei(ed by the eyes but ne(er by the hand' Bet both inhere e8ually in the same obFect' .

llunder-Hea(en3 if you let #ang -iang hold the left rein and thunder the horse on%ard and let Tsai-fu hold the right rein and %hip it on3 the horse %ill not be able to go e(en ten li3 because they held the reins of the same horse together' -i$e%ise3 though T!ien -ien and h!?ng hiao %ere s$ilful players of the lute in .h!i harnessed e5tra horses alongside his chariot3 and3 %ithout holding the reins and any %hip3 managed the horses at his pleasure' This %as on account of the attracti(eness of the fodder and %ater he %as gi(ing them' Ho%e(er3 %hen the horses passed by the garden pool3 the e5tra horses bro$e a%ay3 not because the benefit of his fodder and %ater became insufficient3 but because his $indness %as sha$en by the garden pool' For the same reason3 though #ang -iang and Tsao-fu %ere s$ilful dri(ers in .ction contrary to the principle is instanced by ho Tzŭ of Ben-ling %ho could not ad(ance his carriage %hile dri(ing the horses and by %hom Tsao-fu passed and for %hom he %ept' So much abo(e for the canons' &nnotations to Canon *+< Tsao-fu managed four horses3 dro(e them as fast as possible3 turned them around e(ery%here3 and thus mo(ed in any direction as he pleased' He could manage the horses in the %ay he pleased3 because he handled the reins and the %hip at his %ill' Ho%e(er3 %hen horses %ere frightened by the Fumping pig3 Tsao-fu lost control of them3 not because the se(erity of the reins and the %hip became insufficient3 but because his authority o(er the horses %as sha$en by the Fumping pig' Prince BM.ction contrary to the principle is A instanced by ho h!ih ser(ing h!i and murdering )ing Min and in the case of -i Tai ser(ing hao and star(ing the Father So(ereign to death' /' If you follo% the right course of a tas$3 you %ill accomplish it %ithout hard %or$' For this reason3 Tzŭ h?ng sat on the shaft and sang and thereby %ent across the arch of a bridge' The contrary is instanced by the ta5 collector as$ing -ord hien of hao about the increase and decrease in ta5ation and by Po Bi spea$ing about the satiation of the stomach of the country' In this remar$ -ord hien reFoiced3 but the public treasury %as running emptyH the hundred surnames %ere star(ing3 but the officials %ere %ealthy' For further illustration3 .The basis of this argument is found in sha$ing the tree by its root and dra%ing the net by its rope' Therefor3 ta$e for further illustration the fire brigade' &n suppressing the fire3 if the captain ta$es one Far of %ater and runs to the fire %ith it3 it means that he performs the function of only one manH %hereas if he ta$es a %hip in hand and dri(es other men to %or$ then he can ma$e a myriad men %or$' Therefore3 upholders of tact can accomplish the result as easily as Tsao-fu handling a frightened horse' #hen Tsao-fu led the horse and pulled the carriage3 he could not ad(ance them' #hen he replaced the coachman3 held the reins in hand and too$ the %hip along3 then the horses %ould all start galloping' Therefore3 the principle can be illustrated %ith the iron hammer flattening metallic plates and the %ooden stand straightening bo%s' .ll-under-Hea(en3 yet if T!ien -ien played the upper notes and h!?ng hiao played the lo%er notes3 the result could not be any tune at all3 because they handled the same lute' Indeed3 e(en #ang -iang and Tsao-fu3 despite their s$ill could not put the horse to use %hen they held .u$e Huan inspected the real situation of the people3 so that )uan hung used up the surplus money in the treasury and sent a%ay the resentful girls from the court' .

u$e hien from his supreme status inflicted hea(y punishment3 carried se(ere censure3 increased ta5es3 and e5ecuted culprits' &n the contrary3 T!ien H?ng D al%ays created compassion and fa(our and displayed generosity and $indness' Thus3 .s$ Tzŭ-han to gi(e a decisionG" Thereupon3 chief (assals became afraid of Tzŭ-han %hile the masses of people turned to him' In the course of one year3 Tzŭ-han murdered the 0uler of Sung and usurped the reins of go(ernment' Thus3 Tzŭ-han acted li$e a Fumping pig and thereby usurped the state from his ruler' .s he got the reins and the %hip ready and began to ma$e a rush for the goal3 the pig all of a sudden Fumped out from the ditch' Thereby the horse %as frightened3 and the harness %as bro$en to pieces' Tzŭ-han3 4arrison ommander of the apital3 said to the 0uler of Sung+ "0e%ard and besto%al are %elcomed by the people' May Bour Highness confer themG 25ecution and punishment are disli$ed by the people' May thy ser(ant beg to perform themL" ".ccording to a different source+ Tsao-fu ser(ed as assistant charioteer to the )ing of h!i' &nce3 %hen he thought his %or$ in training the horses to bear thirst %as complete he dro(e the chariot to the garden' .s regards Prince BM-ch!i3 he on behalf of -ord hien of hao shaped his course to race for a goal one thousand li a%ay' #hen he started3 a pig hid itself in a ditch' .ccording to a different source+ Prince BM-ch!i on behalf of the 0uler of Sung %as running a race of one thousand li' .the reins and the horse together' Ho% much less could the lord of men succeed in go(ernment by sharing his po%er %ith his ministersL 2(en T!ien -ien and h!?ng hiao3 despite their s$ill3 could not ma$e a tune %hen they played the same lute together' Ho% much less could the lord of men accomplish any achie(ement by sharing his august position %ith his ministersL .u$e hien turned the people into thirsty horses and conferred no fa(our upon themH %hereas T!ien H?ng made bene(olence and $indness as attracti(e to the people as the garden pool to the thirsty horses' .u$e hien restrained the peopleH %hereas T!ien H?ng ga(e all $inds of profits to them' In other %ords3 T!ien H?ng emptied the %ater of the garden pool and sho%ed it to the thirsty people' .ccording to a different source+ Tsao-fu ser(ed as assistant charioteer to the )ing of h!i and trained the horses to bear thirst' In one hundred days the training %as complete' E Then he as$ed the )ing of h!i to try harnessing the team' "Try them in the garden3" ordered the )ing' #hen Tsao-fu dro(e the chariot into the garden3 the horses3 seeing the garden pool ran %ild3 and Tsao-fu could not stop them' For a long time Tsao-fu trained the horses to bear thirst' Bet in the presence of a pool the horses all at once ran %ild3 %hen e(en Tsao-fu could not restrain them' 7o%3 for a long period the la% of .fter he had harnessed the horses to the chariot3 he rubbed the mane = and touched the line of the bridle-bit' Then he started3 dro(e on3 and ad(anced the horses' The rings of the yo$es hit the leather-ropes3 %hich he .s soon as the thirsty horses sa% the garden pool they bro$e a%ay from the chariot and ran to the pool3 so that the harness %as bro$en to pieces' .ll right3" replied the 0uler of Sung' Thenceforth3 on issuing important ordinances and on censuring chief (assals3 he al%ays said+ ".

ccording to a different source+ Ssŭ-ch!?ng Tzŭ-han said to the 0uler of Sung+ "0e%ard and besto%al are %elcomed by the people' May Bour Highness confer them personallyG Punishment and e5ecution are disli$ed by them' May thy ser(ant beg to ta$e charge of themL" Thenceforth3 on e5ecuting croo$ed people or on censuring chief (assals3 the 0uler al%ays said3 ". of the (illage gate' Then the harness %ould brea$3 and the destination %ould ne(er be reached' Suppose T!ien -ien and h!?ng hiao had the same lute3 each handling one string3 and started playing it' Then the notes %ould become disharmonious and no tune could be performed' &nnotations to Canon **+< )ing hao of h!in %as ill' The hundred surnames in e(ery hamlet bought an o5 and e(ery family prayed for the )ing*s earliest reco(ery' #hen )ung-sun Shu %ent out3 he sa% it' Therefore3 he %ent in to congratulate the )ing and said3 "The hundred surnames in e(ery (illage bought an o5 to pray for Bour MaFesty*s earliest reco(ery'" The )ing3 accordingly3 sent men out to in8uire into the matter3 and found it true' Therefore3 the )ing said+ "Ma$e the people of e(ery (illage pay a fine < of t%o suits of armour' To be sure3 %ho %ith no order offers prayers at his pleasure3 lo(es me3 the )ing' Indeed3 %hen the people lo(e me3 I %ill ha(e to alter the la% and bend my %ill to comply %ith their re8uests' In this manner the la% %ill not stand' If the la% does not stand3 it leads to chaos and ruin' Thus3 the best measure is to fine the people of e(ery (illage t%o suits of armour and restore them to order'" .ll of a sudden a pig Fumped out from a ditch' The horses mo(ed bac$ and retreated' 2(en by %hipping them he could not dri(e them for%ard' They ran %ild' He could not stop them by holding the reins' .uring the reigns of Bao and Shun the people ne(er came to pray for the ruler*s reco(ery from his illness' 7o%3 %hen Bour MaFesty %as ill3 the people in the prayers for his earliest reco(ery promised the gods o5en sacrifices' #hen Bour MaFesty had perfectly reco(ered from the illness3 they $illed the o5en to fulfil their promise' Therefore3 thy ser(ants personally thin$ that Bour MaFesty surpasses Bao and Shun'" The )ing3 accordingly3 sent men out to in8uire into the matter3 found out those (illages %hich .ccording to a different source+ )ing Hsiang of h!in %as ill' The hundred surnames prayed for his earliest reco(ery' #hen he %as perfectly reco(ered from illness3 they $illed o5en as sacrifices to than$ the gods' #hen courtier Ben & and )ung-sun Ben %ent out3 they sa% it and said3 "This is not the time of any festi(al' 9J #hy do the people $ill o5en and sacrifice them at the shrinesL" &ut of curiosity they put the 8uestion to the people' In reply they said+ "#hen His MaFesty %as ill3 %e prayed for his reco(ery' .s he is perfectly reco(ered from the illness3 %e $ill o5en as sacrifice to than$ the gods'" 4lad to hear this3 Ben & and )ung-sun Ben inter(ie%ed the )ing and offered bo%s and congratulations3 saying3 "Bour MaFesty has surpassed Bao and ShunG" "#hat do you meanL" as$ed the )ing in %onder' In reply they said+ ".immediately stretched and pulled' The horses then bent their $nees3 straightened their bodies3 and started galloping' .s$ Tzŭ-han to gi(e decisionG" In the course of one year3 the people $ne% the order to $ill %as issued by Tzŭ-han' In conse8uence3 the %hole country turned to him' In the long run3 Tzŭ-han intimidated the 0uler of Sung and usurped his reins of go(ernment' Hence the saying+ "Tzŭ-han acted li$e the Fumping pigH T!ien H?ng I made bene(olence and $indness as attracti(e as the garden pool'" Suppose #ang -iang and Tsao-fu dro(e the same chariot3 each holding the rein on one side3 and %ent out .

ccording to a different source+ T!ien Bu taught his son3 T!ien hang3 and said+ "The so(ereign offers ran$s and officesH the minister offers %isdom and strength' Hence the saying !0ely on nobody but yourselfG* " )ung-yi Hsiu3 Premier of -u3 %as fond of fish' Therefore3 people in the %hole country contentiously bought fish3 %hich they presented to him' Ho%e(er3 )ung-yi Tzŭ %ould not accept the presents' .t such a measure thy ser(ants ha(e been %ondering personally'" In response the )ing said+ "#hy don*t you gentlemen $no% such a reason as thisL .fter being dismissed from the premiership3 I might not be able to supply myself %ith fish' &n the .had held prayers3 and fined e(ery (illage headman and e(ery leader of fi(e families t%o suits of armour 99 each' .shamed of their thoughtlessness3 Ben & and )ung-sun Ben dared not spea$ about it' Se(eral months after%ards3 one day3 %hen the )ing %as half-seas-o(er and happy at a carousal3 they both said to the )ing+ "Formerly thy ser(ants said Bour MaFesty surpassed Bao and Shun3 and thereby dared not mean to flatter you' #hen Bao and Shun %ere ill3 the people ne(er came to pray for the ruler*s reco(ery' 7o%3 %hen Bour MaFesty %as ill3 the people in their prayers for his earliest reco(ery pledged themsel(es to sacrifice o5en' #hen Bour MaFesty %as perfectly reco(ered from the illness3 they $illed the o5en to fulfil their pledge' 6ne5pectedly3 ho%e(er3 Bour MaFesty fined e(ery (illage headman and e(ery leader of fi(e families t%o suits of armour each' .s to %hy the people %or$ for me3 it is not because of my lo(e that they %or$ for me3 it is because of my position' Suppose I discard my position and attempt to %in the hearts of the people %ith lo(e' Then3 as soon as I happen to slac$en my lo(e3 they %ill no longer %or$ for me' Therefore3 I e5tirpate the policy of lo(e'" &nce3 %hen h!in had a great famine3 Mar8uis Bing petitioned His MaFesty and said+ "The grass3 9@ (egetables3 acorns3 dates3 and chestnuts in the Fi(e Par$s are sufficient to sa(e the people' May Bour MaFesty gi(e them outL" In reply )ing hao-hsien said+ "In accordance %ith the la% of our country the people shall be re%arded for merits and punished for crimes' 7o%3 if I gi(e out the (egetables and fruits of the Fi(e Par$s3 I %ill in so doing re%ard men of merit and no merit e8ually' To be sure3 to re%ard men of merit and no merit e8ually3 leads to disorder' Indeed3 instead of gi(ing out the products of the Fi(e Par$s and thereby in(iting confusion3 %e may as %ell discard the fruits and (egetables and thereby maintain order'" .gainst such a step his younger brother remonstrated %ith him and said+ "Bou li$e fish3 indeed' #hy don*t you accept the present of fishL" In reply he said+ "It is solely because I li$e fish that I %ould not accept the fish they ga(e me' Indeed3 if I accept the fish3 I %ill be placed under an obligation to them' &nce placed under an obligation to them3 I %ill sometime ha(e to bend the la%' If I bend the la%3 I %ill be dismissed from the premiership' .ccording to a different source3 the )ing said+ "If I order the fruits of grass3 (egetables3 dates3 and chestnuts in the Fi(e Par$s to be gi(en out to the people3 these may be sufficient to sa(e them' The measure3 ho%e(er3 is to ma$e men of merit and no merit struggle %ith each other for my gifts' To be sure3 instead of gi(ing life to them and thereby in(iting confusion3 %e may as %ell let them die and thereby $eep order' High &fficer3 lea(e the matter outG" T!ien Bu taught his son3 T!ien hang3 and said+ "If you %ant to benefit yourself3 benefit your ruler firstH if you %ant to benefit your family3 benefit your country first'" .

ccording to a different source+ Su Tai %ent to Ben as en(oy from h!in' Percei(ing that unless he could benefit Tzŭ-chih3 he %ould ha(e to go home%ard %ithout accomplishing his mission and %ould be gi(en no besto%al upon his return to h!in3 therefore3 %hen he %as ha(ing an audience %ith the )ing of Ben3 he purposely praised the )ing of h!i' "If the )ing of h!i is so %orthy3" as$ed the )ing of Ben3 "%ill he become ruler o(er .u$e Huan %as Hegemonic 0uler3" replied Tai3 "he entrusted Pao Shu %ith home affairs and )uan hung %ith foreign affairs %hile he himself left his hair uncombed3 enFoyed dri(es %ith %omen3 and e(ery day strolled do%n-to%n' The present )ing of h!i3 ho%e(er3 put no trust in his chief (assals'" Thereafter3 the )ing of Ben increased his confidence in Tzu-chih accordingly' Hearing about this3 Tzu-chih sent men to present Su Tai one hundred ih of gold and let him use it at his pleasure' .ccording to a different source+ P!an Shou %as a retired 9A scholar' Ben sent out men to engage him in public ser(ice' #hen P!an Shou had an audience %ith the )ing of Ben3 he said' "Thy ser(ant is afraid Tzŭ-chih %ill be li$e Ih'" "#hy %ill he be li$e .ll-underHea(en to HsM Bu' .ll-under-Hea(enL" "If he is hardly able to sa(e his country from ruin3" replied Tai3 "ho% can he become ruler o(er .contrary3 if I do not accept the fish from them and am not dismissed the premiership3 ho%e(er fond of fish3 I can al%ays supply myself %ith fish'" Thus3 he understood the principle that self-reliance is better than reliance on others and also the principle that self-help is better than help by others' &nnotations to Canon ***+< Tzŭ-chih3 Premier of Ben3 %as influential and in charge of all go(ernmental decisions' &nce Su Tai representing h!i %ent to Ben3 %here the )ing as$ed him3 "#hat $ind of a ruler is the )ing of h!iL" "He %ill ne(er attain Hegemony3" %as the reply' "For %hat reasonL" as$ed the )ing of Ben' "#hen .u$e Huan brought .ll-under-Hea(enL" "#hyL" as$ed the )ing of Ben' "Because he does not put his %hole confidence in his belo(ed ministers3" replied Tai' "#hy %ill the country go to ruinL" as$ed the )ing of Ben' In reply Tai said+ "Formerly .s HsM Bu ne(er %ould accept the throne3 Bao gained the fame for abdicating in fa(our of HsM Bu %hile in fact he ne(er lost his rule o(er .ll-underHea(en' 7o%3 if Bour MaFesty alienate the state to Tzŭ-chih3 Tzŭ-chih ne(er %ill accept it' Bet in that case Bour MaFesty %ill gain fame for abdicating in fa(our of Tzŭ-chih and do the same as Bao'" The )ing of Ben3 accordingly3 committed the %hole state affairs to the hands of Tzŭ-chih3 %herefore Tzŭ-chih became (ery po%erful' .llunder-Hea(en under one rule and called nine conferences of the feudal lords' The present )ing of h!i3 ho%e(er3 does not put his %hole confidence in his belo(ed ministers' Therefore3 thy ser(ant $no%s his country %ill go to ruin'" ".u$e Huan of h!i lo(ed )uan hung3 made him 6ncle3 and let him administer home affairs and gi(e decision on foreign affairs3 till the %hole country turned to him for go(ernment' .ll-underHea(en ha(e not yet heard3" said the )ing of Ben3 "that I ha(e put my %hole confidence in Tzŭ-chih'" &n the follo%ing day3 he3 accordingly3 called an assembly of officials in the court and entrusted Tzŭ-chih %ith all state affairs' P!an Shou said to the )ing of Ben+ "Bour MaFesty had better transfer the state to Tzŭchih' People ha(e called Bao %orthy because he transferred the rule o(er .s a result3 .

IhL" as$ed the )ing' In reply Shou said+ "In anti8uity3 %hen BM %as dying and about to transfer the rule o(er .ll-under-Hea(en' Thus3 in name BM transferred the rule o(er .gain3 the means %hereby the lord of men spreads his o%n po%ers are scholars from roc$y ca(es3 but no% all those en(oys are henchmen of pri(ate families' #hat is the reason for thisL This is because the po%er of life and death is held by such influential men as Tzŭchih' Therefore3 #u hang said+ "The lord of men should not pretentiously hate or lo(e anybody' Should he pretentiously lo(e anybody3 he %ould be unable to hate the person againH should he pretentiously hate anybody3 he %ould not be able to lo(e the person again'" .ll-under-Hea(en to Ih3 the follo%ers of h!i Foined one another in attac$ing Ih and set up h!i on the throne' 7o%3 Bour MaFesty trusts and lo(es Tzŭ-chih and is going to alienate the state to him' Bet all the follo%ers of the ro%n Prince are holding official seals3 %hereas there is none of Tzŭ-chih*s men in the court' Should by any unluc$y chance Bour MaFesty pass a%ay from the body of officials3 Tzŭ-chih %ould suffer li$e Ih'" .ccording to another different source+ #hen the )ing of Ben %anted to alienate the state to Tzŭ-chih3 he as$ed P!an Shou about the measure' In reply P!an Shou said+ "BM lo(ed Ih and entrusted him %ith .ccordingly3 the )ing recalled all the seals from the officials %hose bounties %ere abo(e three hundred piculs3 and left them in the hands of Tzŭ-chih3 %hereupon Tzŭ-chih became (ery po%erful' Indeed3 the means %hereby the lord of men loo$s at himself as in a mirror3 are en(oys from other feudal lords3 but no% all those en(oys are partisans of pri(ate families' .ll-under-Hea(en to Ih3 but in fact he let h!i ta$e the throne' learly enough from this (ie%point3 BM %as not as great as Bao and Shun' 7o%3 Bour MaFesty %ants to abdicate in fa(our of Tzŭ-chih %hile e(ery official is a follo%er of the ro%n Prince' This is to abdicate in fa(our of him in name but let the ro%n Prince ta$e the throne in fact'" Thereupon the )ing of Ben recalled all seals from the officials %hose bounties %ere abo(e three hundred piculs3 and left all of them in the hands of Tzŭchih' .fter all3 Tzŭ-chih became po%erful' Fang #u Tzŭ said+ "I ha(e heard that according to the eti8uette of anti8uity no ruler should ta$e the same carriage %ith any %earer of the same $ind of clothes or share the same house %ith any $in' Ho% much less should he allo% any minister to e5ercise his ruling authority and dislocate his august positionL" #u hang said to )ing HsMan of Han+ "The lord of men should not pretentiously lo(e anybodyH for3 if he does one day3 he %ill not be able to hate him again' 7or should he pretentiously hate anybodyH or3 if he does one day3 he %ill not be able to lo(e him again' Therefore3 if the signs of pretentious hatred and pretentious lo(e 9D are (isible3 then flatterers %ill ta$e ad(antage of the opportunities either to disgrace their enemies or to honour their friends' 2(en then the enlightened so(ereign cannot sa(e the situation' Ho% much less could he restore the status of affairs if he sho%ed anybody true lo(e or true hatredL" &ne day the )ing of hao too$ a %al$ in the 0oyal 4arden' #hen the attendants %ere going to gi(e rabbits to the tiger3 he stopped to loo$ at the tiger' The tiger .ll-under-Hea(en' -ater3 he appointed follo%ers of h!i officials' In his old age3 he considered h!i unfit to rule o(er .ll-under-Hea(en from IhH %hile all posts and po%ers %ere held in the hands of h!i' -ater3 h!i and his partisans attac$ed Ih and robbed him of the rule o(er .ll-underHea(en and therefore alienated .

%or$ing3 and left them on the carriage' Then he helped the son get into the carriage' Finally3 he held the reins in hand and too$ the %hip along' Before he started mo(ing the reins and the %hip3 the horses all began galloping 9< of a sudden' #ere Tsao-fu unable to dri(e the carriage3 then e(en though he e5erted his strength and e5hausted his body to help them mo(e the carriage3 the horses %ould still be un%illing to go for%ard' Because he $ne% ho% to dri(e3 he too$ his ease3 had a ride3 and placed strangers under an obligation' -i$e%ise3 the state is the carriage of the 0ulerH the august position is his horse' If the 0uler does not $no% ho% to dri(e the carriage3 then e(en though he e5hausts himself3 he cannot a(oid chaos' If he $no%s ho% to dri(e3 he %ill remain in the place of ease and Foy and accomplish the achie(ement of the emperor and the $ing' .angrily strained its eyes round and round' "Ho% a%ful the tiger*s eyes areG" remar$ed the )ing' "The eyes of -ord P!ingyang3" said some attendant3 "are e(en more a%ful than these' #hen people see the tiger*s eyes3 they do not al%ays get hurtH but %hen they see the eyes of -ord P!ing-yang strained in this %ay3 they are sure to die'" &n the follo%ing day3 -ord P!ing-yang heard about this remar$ and sent men to $ill the spea$er3 but the )ing ne(er censured them' &nce the 0uler of #ei %as paying a (isit to the court of hou' The official usher of hou as$ed his pen-name' "The Feudal -ord of #ei3 9E -and-25tender3" 9= %as the reply' The usher3 refusing him admission3 said3 "7o feudal lord is supposed to ha(e the same name as the Son of Hea(en'" Thereupon the 0uler of #ei changed his penname and said3 "The Feudal -ord of #ei3 Hui'" Thereafter he %as ushered into the court' Hearing about this3 hung-ni said+ "Ho% e5tensi(e the prohibition of intimidation isG 2(en an empty name %ould not be lent to others3 to say nothing of a real fact'" &nnotations to Canon *V+< If someone %ants to mo(e a tree and pulls each leaf3 he %or$s hard but cannot sha$e the %hole tree' If he holds the root from the right and the left3 then all the lea(es %ill be sha$en' If you sha$e the tree by the pool3 then the birds %ill be scared and fly up and the fish %ill be frightened and s%im do%n' #ho is s$ilful in hauling in a net3 dra%s in the rope and ne(er pulls the $nots3 one after another3 till he gets the %hole net' If he pulls the $nots3 one after another3 so as to get the %hole net3 he %or$s hard and meets difficulties' If he dra%s in the net by the rope3 the fish %ill ha(e been trapped' For the same reason3 magistrates are the roots and ropes of the people' Therefore3 the sage go(erns the magistrates but ne(er directly go(erns the people' In the case of the fire brigade3 if the captain carries %ater in Fars and pots and runs to the fire3 he %ill perform the function of only one manH %hereas if he ta$es a %hip in hand and thereby gi(es directions to the %or$men3 then he %ill rule o(er a myriad of men' For this reason3 the sage does not loo$ after the trifles of the people and the enlightened so(ereign does not attend to small affairs' &ne day3 %hen Tsao-fu %as pic$ing %eeds in the field3 there passed by him father and son riding in a carriage' The horses %ere frightened and refused to go any farther' The son alighted from the carriage and pulled the horses' The father 9I pushed the carriage' Then they as$ed Tsao-fu3 "#ill you help us mo(e the carriageL" Tsao-fu3 accordingly put the implements together3 stopped 9.

ll right3" said the )ing' .fter his lunch3 @J he sat do%n again' .ll-under-Hea(en' .Iron hammers are for flattening metallic plates' #ooden stands are for collecting croo$ed arro%s' The sage ma$es la%s in order thereby to flatten the indented and correct the croo$ed' #hen ho h!ih %as ser(ing h!i he pulled the sine%s out of )ing Min*s body' #hen -i Tai %as ser(ing hao3 he star(ed the Father So(ereign to death' These t%o rulers %ere both unable to use their iron hammers and %ooden stands %ith the result that they %ere put to death and became the laughing-stoc$ of .fter entering h!i one %ould hear of ho h!ih only and ne(er hear of the )ing of h!iH after entering hao one %ould hear of -i Tai only and ne(er hear of the )ing of hao' Hence the saying+ "If the lord of men does not apply tact3 his prestige and position %ill become insignificant and ministers %ill celebrate themsel(es at leisure'" .ll of a sudden the )ing fell asleep' In the meantime the officials pulled $ni(es out and %hittled the remaining documents and accounts of measures' @9 Thus3 as the )ing listened to the reports personally3 disorder began' .ccording to a different source+ .t dus$ he had no more time left for his supper' Then T!ien Bing said+ "These reports in(ol(e such duties as the officials night and day all year around dare not neglect' If Bour MaFesty spends an e(ening in listening to them3 the officials %ill be encouraged'" ".s )ing #u-ling did not hold the po%er of life and death o(er the people himself3 he %as e(entually intimidated by -i Tai' &nnotations to Canon V+< Tzŭ h?ng %as pulling a push-cart to go across the arch of a bridge3 but %as unable to bear the %eight' So he sat on the shaft and started singing' Mean%hile the passers-by from the front stopped and those from the rear ran for%ard to help him3 till the pushcart %ent up the arch' Suppose Tzŭ h?ng had no techni8ue to attract people' Then e(en though he e5hausted himself to death3 the cart %ould not be able to go across the bridge' 7o% that he did not e5haust himself %hile the cart %ent up the arch of the bridge3 %as because he had the techni8ue to ma$e use of people' #hen -ord hien of hao %as sending ta5-collectors out3 they as$ed him about the rate of ta5ation' Thereupon -ord hien said+ "7either too high nor too lo%' If too high3 it %ill profit the superior' If too lo%3 it %ill profit the people' The magistrates %ho see$ no pri(ate profit3 are honest ' ' '" @@ .ccording to another different source+ #hen T!ien Bing %as Premier of h!i3 somebody said to the )ing of h!i+ "If Bour MaFesty does not spend a fe% days in listening to the annual financial reports personally3 then Bour MaFesty %ill ha(e no other %ay to $no% the officials* %ic$ednesses and corruptions'" "0ight3" said the )ing' Hearing about this T!ien Bing immediately %ent to as$ the )ing to listen to his reports' #hen the )ing %as about to listen to the reports3 T!ien Bing ordered his subordinate officials to get ready the officially signed documents and the accounts of measures of grain' To these the )ing listened personally3 till he could no longer listen to any more reports' .ccording to a different source+ )ing #u-ling entrusted )ing Hui-%?n %ith the state affairs3 and appointed -i Tai premier' .

u$e said3 and then instructed the court to gi(e %omen in marriage and issued an order among the people to the effect that "men must start house$eeping at t%enty3 and %omen must get married at fifteen'" .u$e Huan as$ed )uan hung3 "Is there anyone among the people %ho has li(ed up to old age and had no %ifeL" "There is a man3" replied )uan hung3 "named -u M?n-chi %ho has li(ed se(enty years and had no %ife'" "Then ho% can %e ma$e e(ery man ha(e a %ifeL" as$ed .u$e Huan' "Thy ser(ant has heard3" replied )uan hung3 "if the so(ereign has money sa(ed3 the subFects must be suffering destitution' If the court has discontented girls3 there must be men %ho li(e up to old age and ha(e no %i(es'" "0ight3" said .&nce Po Bi said to -ord hien of hao+ "The stomach of the country of your Highness is %ell satiated'" 0eFoicing in such a remar$3 -ord hien gladly as$ed3 "In %hat %ayL" In reply Bi said+ "&n the top the treasury and the granary are empty and running lo%H at the bottom the hundred surnames are poor and star(ingH %hereas in the centre the croo$ed officials are %ealthy'" &nce .u$e Huan %ent out in disguise among the people' There %as an old man named -u M?n-chi' He had li(ed se(enty years and had no %ife' Therefore3 .u$e Huan related this situation to )uan hung' )uan hung said+ "If the public treasury has a surplus amount of money3 the people must be suffering hunger and star(ation' If the court has discontented girls3 many men must be ha(ing no %i(es'" "0ight3" the .u$e Huan as$ed him %hy he %as left alone' In reply the man said+ "Thy ser(ant has three sons' The %hole family being poor3 I ha(e been unable to find %i(es for them' They are in the employ of other people and ha(e not yet come bac$'" 6pon his return to the court3 .ccording to a different source+ &nce .u$e Huan' Then he ordered the court to gi(e in marriage those girls %ho had ne(er attended on the 0uler3 and also ordered men to start house$eeping at t%enty and %omen to get married at fifteen' In conse8uence3 there %ere no discontented girls inside the court and no %ifeless men outside' ho Tzŭ of Ben-ling rode in a carriage pulled by a team of blue-haired horses %ith the herring-bone design' @A The horses %ere e8uipped %ith spur-reins @D in the front and %ith hoes plated %ith gold in the bac$' Thus3 on going for%ard3 they %ere stopped by the spur-ornamentsH on going bac$%ard3 the plated hoes struc$ them' Finally the horses began to Fump side%ays' Thereby Tsao-fu passed and %ith tears running do%n said+ "25actly in the same %ay the ancients go(erned the people' Indeed3 re%ard is for encouraging people3 but disgrace goes %ith it' Punishment is for prohibiting people3 but to it is added honour' The people3 then standing on the middle line3 do not $no% %hich %ay to follo%' For this reason the sage %ept for them'" .ccording to a different source+ ho Tzŭ of Ben-ling rode in a carriage pulled by a team of blue-haired horses %ith the herring-bone design' They %ere e8uipped %ith spurornaments in the front and sharp hoes at the bac$' &n going for%ard3 he pulled the spursH on going bac$%ard3 he mo(ed the hoes' The horses could not go either for%ard or bac$%ard3 till they a(oided either %ay and Fumped side%ays' Therefore3 he pulled his $nife and cut off the horses* legs' Seeing this3 Tsao-fu shed tears and stopped eating all day long' -oo$ing up to hea(en3 he sighed and said+ "By %hipping the horses he %anted to ad(ance them3 but the spur-ornaments %ere in the front' By .u$e Huan %ent out in disguise and inspected the domestic conditions of the people' There %as an aged man in a house supporting himself' So .

說右下' @' 明J should be 人J inasmuch as 明J here ma$es no sense3 and so throughout this canon' A' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n 敗 belo% 不然 should be l' D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen u abo(e 恆 is superfluous as it %as a posthumously gi(en name3 and so throughout this annotation' E' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien 服u abo(e 請Þ is superfluous' =' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 手 should be 毛' I' I propose t恆 for tu¯ inasmuch as u %as posthumously gi(en and %as altered into ¯ by scholars during the Han .' #ith #ang [而 belo% 收³ should be 而[' 9<' I propose 咸騖 for 轡驚 in accordance %ith the anon' .pulling them he %anted to %ithdra% them3 but the sharp hoes %ere in the bac$' 7o%3 the lord of men promotes men on account of their purity and honesty3 but degrades them because they do not suit the courtiers' He honours men on account of their Fustice and fairness3 but remo(es them because they do not blindly obey him' In conse8uence3 the people3 feeling uneasy3 $eep standing on the middle line and do not $no% %hich %ay to follo%' For this reason3 the sage %eeps for them'" 'otes 9' ô.' #ith #ang Hsien-shSng 7 should be >' <' #ith )ao H?ng 訾 stands for 貲 %hich means "a fine paid to escape punishment'" 9J' 社臘' 社 refers to the festi(als in spring and autumn and 臘 refers to those follo%ing the %inter solstice' 99' #ith )ao H?ng 屯 abo(e 二( should be >' 9@' #ith BM BMeh and #ang Hsien-shen 著 belo% 9 is superfluous' 9A' 闞 should be 隱' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 1ã人 and 1'人 should be repeated respecti(ely' 9E' #ith #ang 諸H both abo(e 辟疆 and abo(e 燬 should be ÃH' 9=' 辟疆' The Son of Hea(en alone %as entitled to such a pen-name as they thought the Son of Hea(en alone deser(ed to open land and e5tend territory' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shTn : belo% 父 is superfluous' 9.ynasty to a(oid the sacred name of an emperor' .

u$e #?n became Hegemonic 0ulerG He $ne% both the temporary e5pediency and the e(erlasting ad(antage'" Some critic A says+ Bung hi*s reply did not suit .@J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? r belo% 罷¾ is superfluous' @9' Made of bamboo slips3 they could be easily %hittled %ith $ni(es' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n there must be hiatuses belo% this passage' @A' #ith BM BMeh 挑¯ should read e¯' @D' #ith )ao H?ng 9 belo% 鉤 should stand for ' Chapter 2220I.fter his (ictorious return3 %hen he conferred ran$s3 he ran$ed Bung hi first and 6ncle Fan ne5t' Thereupon the body of officials said+ "The (ictory at h!?ng-po %as due to 6ncle Fan*s stratagem' Is it right to ta$e his ad(ice and put him in the second placeL" In response . Criticis&s of The Ancients.u$e #?n summoned Bung hi and as$ed him+ "#e are about to fight the h!us' They are many' #e are fe%' #hat shall %e doL" In reply Bung hi said+ "If you burn the forest and go hunting3 you %ill temporarily ha(e much game3 but there %ill be no more animals left after%ards' If you adopt the measure of deception in dealing %ith people3 you may ha(e the ad(antage for a time3 but the same measure can ne(er be repeated after%ards'" "0ight3" said . .u$e #?n of hin %as about to fight the h!u forces3 he summoned 6ncle Fan @ and as$ed him+ "#e are about to fight the h!us' They are many' #e are fe%' #hat shall %e doL" In reply 6ncle Fan said+ "Thy ser(ant has heard3 in obser(ing the rules of strict eti8uette3 gentlemen ne(er become %eary of loyalty and faithfulnessH in engaging enemies at the battlefield3 they ne(er disappro(e the measures of deception and falsification' May Bour Highness decei(e them by all meansG" .u$e #?n as$ed Bung hi ho% to face the many %ith the fe%3 but Bung hi replied3 "The same measure can ne(er be repeated after%ards'" Thereby the reply %as not to the point of the 8uestion' &n the other hand3 .s a rule3 %ho replies to a 8uestion must ma$e out the obFecti(e3 and gi(e his reply according to %hether the obFect of the 8uestion is either big or small3 urgent or lenient' If the obFecti(e of the 8uestion is high and big but the reply is lo% and narro%3 the enlightened so(ereign %ill not accept it' 7o% .u$e #?n' Then he sent Bung hi out' Ho%e(er3 by applying 6ncle Fan*s stratagem3 he engaged the h!us and defeated them' .fter sending out 6ncle Fan3 .u$e #?n said+ "This is not %hat you3 gentlemen3 understand' To be sure3 %hat 6ncle Fan suggested %as a temporary e5pediencyH %hereas %hat Bung hi ad(ised %as an e(erlasting ad(antage'" Hearing about this3 hung-ni said+ "Ho% reasonable it must be that .u$e #?n*s 8uestion' .u$e #?n himself did not understand either a temporary e5pediency or an e(erlasting ad(antage' If he %on the %ar at all3 he could safeguard his country and stabilize his position %hile his army %ould become strong and his prestige %ould be enhanced' Therefore3 e(en though there might be another %ar much greater than this3 %hy should he %orry that he %ould not gain another e(erlasting ad(antageL If he lost the %ar3 the country %ould decline and the army %ould become %ea$ %hile he %ould die bro$en-hearted and lose his fame' Thus3 if he could hardly e(ade the impending .eries (ne 9 When .

id he do that for Bung hi*s (irtuous ad(iceL Bung hi only said3 "The same measure could ne(er be repeated3" %hich in(ol(ed no (irtuous %ord at all' .ll-underHea(en from %ic$edness3 ma$e E the tillers and fishermen stop disputing3 and allo% no poor earthen%are to be made' In that case3 ho% could Shun e5ercise his moral influence at allL If Shun had to sa(e the fallen3 Bao must ha(e had faults' Therefore3 if one considers Shun %orthy3 he dispro(es the clear-sightedness of BaoH if he considers Bao saintly3 he dispro(es the moral influence of Shun' He can not praise both of them'" .id .fter all3 enemies belonged to the country they %ere attac$ing' 2(en though the same could not be repeated3 %hat harm %ould there be in adopting the measure of deceptionL .ccordingly3 he had t%o merits3 but %as ran$ed second' Bung hi had none but %as re%arded first' "Ho% reasonable it must be that .u$e #?n ran$ Bung hi first for Bung hi*s meritorious ser(iceL The (ictory o(er h!u and the defeat of the enemies %ere due to 6ncle Fan*s stratagem3 ho%e(er' .nother time fishermen li(ing by the Bello% 0i(er disputed about small shoals' Thereupon Shun %ent there and fished among them' In the course of one year they came to ma$e concessions to elders' The potters in the 2astern Barbaric -and made (ery poor earthen%are' Thereupon Shun %ent there and made earthen%are among them' In the course of one year3 the earthen%are they made became substantial' #ith admiration hung-ni said+ "7either tillage nor fishing nor earthen industry %as Shun*s official duty' Bet he %ent to pursue such $inds of %or$ in order thereby to sa(e the fallen' Ho% bene(olent a man Shun %asG He e5perienced all hardships himself3 till the people follo%ed his e5ample' Hence the saying !4reat is3 indeed3 the moral influence of the sageG*" Somebody as$ed the literati3 ".s regards 6ncle Fan*s saying3 it in(ol(ed both a merit and a (irtue' 6ncle Fan said+ "In obser(ing the rules of strict eti8uette3 gentlemen ne(er become %eary of loyalty and faithfulness'" By remaining loyal they lo(e their subordinatesH by remaining faithful they do not decei(e their people' Thus3 he ad(ocated the measure of lo(e and nondeception' #hat saying could be more (irtuous than thisL Ho%e(er3 he had to suggest the measure of deception and falsification because it %as based on strategical consideration' Thus3 6ncle Fan uttered a (irtuous saying at the beginning and %aged a (ictorious %ar in the end' .u$e #?n*s 8uestion'" Furthermore3 .death of the present3 ho% could he ha(e time to %ait for an e(erlasting ad(antageL The e(erlasting ad(antage rested %ith the present (ictory' The present (ictory depended upon deception D of the enemies' In short3 the deception of enemies implied an e(erlasting ad(antage' Hence the saying+ "Bung hi*s reply did not suit .u$e #?n did not understand 6ncle Fan*s suggestion' By saying3 "4entlemen ne(er disappro(e the measure of deception and falsification3" 6ncle Fan did not mean that they appro(ed the deception of their o%n people3 but meant that they appro(ed the deception of their enemies' .u$e #?n became Hegemonic 0ulerG" hung-ni3 %hen ma$ing such a remar$3 did not $no% the right %ay to re%ard people' &nce upon a time3 farmers of the -i Mountains trespassed on each other*s fields' Thereupon Shun %ent there and tilled among them' In the course of one year3 all the boundary ridges of the fields became correct' .t that time %here %as BaoL" "Bao %as then the Son of Hea(en3" they replied' "If so3 %hy did hung-ni regard Bao as saintlyL The saintly man3 being clear-sighted and seated on the throne3 %as supposed to purge .

gain3 in praising his halberds3 he said3 "My halberds are so sharp that they can penetrate anything'" In response to his %ords somebody as$ed3 "Ho% about using your halberds to pierce through your shieldsL" To this the man could not gi(e any reply' Indeed3 impenetrable shields and absolutely penetrati(e halberds cannot stand together at the same time' 7o% both Bao and Shun cannot be praised at the same time Fust as the halberds and the shields are mutually incompatible' = Moreo(er3 in sa(ing the fallen3 Shun stopped one fault in a year and three faults in three years' The length of Shun*s I life %as limited3 but the faults in .ll-underHea(en' Suppose there is issued an order to the effect that %ho conforms to the la% shall be re%arded and %ho does not conform to the la% shall be punished' Then3 if the order arri(es in the morning3 the people %ill change by the e(eningH if it arri(es in the e(ening3 they %ill change by the morning' In the course of ten days e(erybody %ithin the seas %ill change' #hy should the ruler %ait a year thenL Ho%e(er3 Shun3 instead of persuading Bao of this idea to ma$e the people follo% his orders3 e5perienced all hardships himself' #as he not tactlessL Furthermore3 to e5perience hardships personally and thereby transform the people after%ards %as difficult e(en for Bao and ShunH %hereas to ma$e use of one*s august position and thereby correct .&nce there %as a man of h!u selling shields and halberds' In praising his shields he said3 "My shields are so solid that nothing can penetrate them'" . the people is easy e(en for an a(erage so(ereign' #hen about to go(ern .u$e Huan died3 he %as left unburied3 till %orms cra%led outdoors' 9@ .fter the death 99 of )uan hung3 .ll-under-Hea(en3 if the ruler discards %hat is easy to the a(erage so(ereign and e5tols %hat %as difficult to Bao and Shun3 it is still practicable to assist him in political administration' #hen )uan hung %as ill3 .u$e Huan called on him and as$ed3 "6ncle hung is no% ill' Should he unfortunately pass a%ay by the decree of fate3 %hat ad(ice %ill he be8ueath to meL" In reply )uan hung said+ "#ithout Bour Highness*s as$ing3 thy ser(ant intended to address a memorial' #ill Bour Highness dismiss Shu Tiao3 remo(e Bi Ba3 and alienate the #ei Prince )!ai-fang' #hen Bi Ba %as the chef of Bour Highness3 because Bour Highness had ne(er tasted human flesh3 he purposely steamed his son*s head and ser(ed it' < Indeed3 it is human nature that e(erybody lo(es his o%n son' 7o% that he did not lo(e his son3 ho% could he lo(e his masterL Similarly3 as Bour Highness %as Fealous and fond of %omen3 Shu Tiao castrated himself in order thereby to manage the harem' It is human nature that e(eryone lo(es his body' If he did not lo(e his body3 ho% could he lo(e his masterL )!ai-fang has ser(ed Bour Highness for fifteen years' The distance bet%een h!i and #ei ta$es only a fe% days* %al$' Bet he left his mother at home and has ne(er been home to see her during his long-term ser(ice' If he does not lo(e his mother3 ho% can he lo(e his masterL Thy ser(ant has heard3 !Forced hypocrisy 9J ne(er lasts longH co(ered falsehood is soon unco(ered'* May Bour Highness remo(e these three menG" .ll-under-Hea(en %ere unlimited in number3 If he attempted to remo(e the unlimited number of faults in the limited length of his life3 %hat he could stop in his life %ould be (ery little' ontrary to this3 re%ard and punishment ma$e la%s enforcible throughout .u$e Huan ne(er carried his ad(ice into practice' In conse8uence3 %hen .

u$e Huan died and %orms cra%led outdoors %hile the corpse lay unburied3 %as because his ministers %ere too po%erful' The ministers being o(erpo%erful resulted in their manipulation of the so(ereign' #ere there so(ereignmanipulating ministers3 then the ruler*s decrees could not ta$e effect do%n%ard among the inferiors and the true information about the ministers %ould not tra(el up%ard to the superior' Thus3 one man*s po%er could bloc$ the communication bet%een ruler and minister3 and ma$e success and failure un$no%n to the ruler and good and bad ne%s not transmitted to him' Hence follo%ed the calamity of lea(ing the corpse unburied' .u$e Huan from his inability to die for the sa$e of Prince hiu' This means that )uan hung himself also fell under the rule of remo(al' The %ay of the enlightened so(ereign is not the same3 ho%e(er' He establishes %hat the people %ant and thereby gets meritorious ser(ices from them3 %herefore he besto%s ran$s and emoluments to encourage them' Similarly3 he establishes %hat the people disli$e and thereby prohibits them from committing (illainy3 %herefore he inflicts censure and punishment to o(era%e them' .u$e Huan %as not %hat an upholder of legal standards ought to ha(e said' His reason for suggesting the remo(al of Shu Tiao and Bi Ba %as that in order to meet the demands of their master they stopped lo(ing themsel(es' "If they did not lo(e themsel(es3" said he3 "ho% could they lo(e their masterL" If so3 then ministers %ho e5ert their strength to death for the sa$e of their so(ereign3 )uan hung %ould ne(er ta$e into ser(ice3 saying3 "If they did not lo(e their li(es and physical forces3 ho% could they lo(e their masterL" This means that he %anted the ruler to remo(e loyal ministers' Moreo(er3 if you infer their not lo(ing their master from their not lo(ing themsel(es3 you %ill also infer )uan hung*s inability to die for the sa$e of .ccording to the %ay of the enlightened so(ereign3 nobody can hold any additional officeH no office in(ol(es any e5tra dutyH the lo% and humble do not ha(e to depend upon the fa(our of the high and noble for distinction 9E H chief (assals do not ha(e to count on the courtiers in order to inter(ie% the so(ereignH all officials can communicate their ideas to the throneH all ministers concentrate upon the interest of the countryH the ruler sees the meritorious ser(ice rendered by the re%arded and $no%s the criminal offence committed by the punishedH in seeing and $no%ing he is not mista$enH and in matters of re%ard and punishment he is not unFust' #ere this the case3 ho% could there arise the calamity of lea(ing his corpse unburiedL Instead of .s besto%al and re%ard are sure and censure and punishment are definite3 the ruler can raise ministers of merit and no croo$ can Foin go(ernmental ser(ice' Then3 e(en though there are croo$s li$e Shu Tiao and Bi Ba3 %hat can they do against the rulerL Moreo(er3 ministers e5ert their strength to death to comply %ith the ruler*s needH the ruler confers ran$s and emoluments to comply %ith the minister*s %ant' Thus3 the relationship of ruler and minister is not as intimate as the bond of father and sonH It is an outcome of mutual calculations' 9A If the ruler follo%s the right %ay3 ministers %ill e5ert their strength and no croo$ %ill appear' If he misses the right %ay3 ministers %ill delude the so(ereign on the one hand and accomplish their selfish designs on the other' 7o%3 )uan hung did not e5plain these rules 9D to .Some critic says+ #hat )uan hung suggested to .u$e Huan' Supposing he successfully made him remo(e one Shu Tiao3 another Shu Tiao %ould certainly appear' It %as not the %ay to e5terminate croo$s' Furthermore3 that .

e5plaining this principle to .uring the crisis at hin-yang my country and family %ere in peril and the .u$e said3 "#hom did the 4rand Tutor intend to stri$eL" "Cust no%3" replied the Musician )!uang3 "some small man by my side played upon %ords' Therefore3 I thre% the harp at him'" "It %as I3" said the .ll my officials sho%ed a contemptuous attitude to me3 but Ho alone ne(er bro$e the eti8uette bet%een ruler and minister' This is the reason %hy I ran$ him at the top'" Hearing about this3 hung-ni said+ "Ho% %ell he re%arded peopleG Because /iscount Hsiang conferred the first re%ard upon one man3 all ministers in .lasG" e5claimed Musician )!uang' "It %as not %hat the ruler of men should ha(e said'" The attendants as$ed permission to plaster 9= the bro$en %all' The .u$e spread out the lapel in front of his coat and a(oided it' The harp made a hole in the %all' Then the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain %as Feopardized' .u$e said3 "-ea(e it there as a constant admonition to me'" 9I .uring the siege at hin-yang3 Ho rendered no great meritorious ser(ice' #hy does Bour Highness no% confer the first re%ard upon himL" In reply /iscount Hsiang said+ ".u$e Huan3 ho%e(er3 )uan hung ad(ised him to remo(e the three men' Hence the saying+ ")uan hung upheld no legal standard'" /iscount Hsiang stood a long siege in hin-yang' .u$e' ".fter the siege %as raised he re%arded fi(e men for their distinguished ser(ices3 among %hom )ao Ho %as ran$ed at the top' Thereupon hang M?ng-t!an said+ ".ll-under-Hea(en dared not brea$ eti8uette'" Some critic says+ hung-ni did not $no% the right %ay of re%arding people' Indeed3 if the superior $no%s the right %ay of re%arding and punishing people3 all officials dare not o(erride their commissionsH no minister dares to brea$ eti8uetteH the superior enacts the la%H and the subFects ha(e no croo$ed mind' #ere this the case3 he could be considered s$ilful in re%arding and punishing people' Suppose %hile /iscount Hsiang %as in hin-yang his orders too$ no effect and his prohibitions stopped nothing' This %ould mean that /iscount Hsiang had no country and hin-yang had no ruler' Then %ith %hom could he defend the cityL 7o%3 %hile /iscount Hsiang %as besieged in hin-yang3 though the hih lan inundated the city till frogs made their nests inside the mortars and o(ens3 yet the people had no rebellious mind' Thus %ere ruler and minister attached to each other' 7ot%ithstanding that /iscount Hsiang enFoyed the intimate relationship bet%een ruler and minister and that he had the legal authority of issuing effecti(e orders and enforcible prohibitions3 if there still remained arrogant ministers3 it must ha(e been because he missed the right %ay of punishing people' If ministers render meritorious ser(ices in the hour of need3 they deser(e re%ard' 7o% that solely because Ho had ne(er been arrogant3 /iscount Hsiang re%arded him3 he certainly missed the right %ay of re%arding people' The enlightened so(ereign neither besto%s re%ard upon men of no merit nor inflicts punishment upon innocent people' 7o% that /iscount Hsiang did not punish arrogant ministers but re%arded Ho for no meritorious ser(ice3 %here could be found his right %ay of re%arding peopleL Hence the saying+ " hung-ni did not $no% the right %ay of re%arding people'" &nce .u$e' Immediately the .u$e P!ing of hin held a carousal %ith the body of officials' #hen half-seaso(er3 he hea(ed a sigh and said3 "7othing is more pleasant to the ruler of men than the obedience of his lords'" In response to this3 Musician )!uang3 seated in the front3 raised the harp and thre% it at the .

t the time of .u$e Mu' Both %orried about the e(il of .u$e Huan did not $no% bene(olence and righteousness' Indeed3 %ho is bene(olent and righteous %orries about the e(il of .u$e P!ing missed the %ay of the rulerH Musician )u!ang bro$e the ministerial eti8uette'" .u$e Huan from the position of a ruler of ten thousand chariots condescended to associate %ith a commoner and thereby intended to eradicate the %orry of the h!i state3 but Hsiao-ch!?n refused him an inter(ie%' @A This @D meant that Hsiao-ch!?n too$ no notice of the %elfare of the people' #ho ta$es no notice of the %elfare of the masses3 cannot be called bene(olent and righteous' .u$e P!ing missed the %ay of the ruler+ Musician )!uang bro$e the ministerial eti8uette' Indeed3 to censure the person %hen disappro(ing his action is the ruler*s measure against the minister' To address a memorial %hen disappro(ing the ruler*s action and %ithdra% from the go(ernment if the remonstration is not follo%ed3 is the minister*s attitude to the ruler' 7o% that Musician )!uang disappro(ed .u$e*s body3 he re(ersed high and lo% positions and bro$e the ministerial eti8uette' Indeed3 %ho is minister3 if the ruler has any fault3 should remonstrate against it3 and3 if the remonstration is not follo%ed3 should ma$e light of his title and emolument and lea(e 9.ll-under-Hea(en and rushed at the calamity of the %hole country regardless of their personal humility and disgrace' Hence they ha(e been called bene(olent and righteous' 7o%3 .u$e Huan paid him three (isits but could not see him' Then . bene(olent and righteous person %ould neither brea$ the ministerial eti8uette nor confuse the positions of ruler and minister' For this reason3 %ithin the four boundaries those %ho bring birds @E to (isit the court are called (assals'" #hen (assals and officials differentiate their duties and attend to their respecti(e posts3 then they are called "subFects'" 7o%3 Hsiao-ch!?n3 mingling among the mass of subFects3 acted contrary to the %ish of the ruler and therefore could not be called bene(olent and .u$e P!ing %as unFustifiable3 for it %ould ma$e the lord of men listen too much to ministers but ne(er realize their faults' -i$e%ise the action ta$en by Musician )!uang %as unFustifiable3 for it %ould ma$e %ic$ed ministers abuse e5orbitant remonstration and Fustify the art of regicide' They cannot both be @J reasonable' They constitute t%o faults' Hence the saying+ ".u$e P!ing*s action but did not address any ministerial remonstration against it3 and3 instead3 performed the censure as the lord of men %ould do by raising the harp to stri$e the .u$e P!ing %as glad to listen to him' Thereby he missed the %ay of the ruler' Thus the step ta$en by . him' This is the ministerial eti8uette' 9< 7o%3 Musician )!uang3 on disappro(ing .u$e P!ing*s fault3 raised the harp to stri$e his body' 2(en a se(ere father %ould not inflict such punishment upon his son3 but Musician )!uang inflicted it upon his master' This %as an act of high treason' #hen the minister committed high treason3 .Some critic says+ .ll-under-Hea(en and rushes at the calamity of the %hole country regardless of his personal humility and disgrace3 is called bene(olent and righteous' For e5ample Bi Bin regarded the entral States as disorderly and therefore became a coo$ in order thereby to ingratiate @9 himself %ith )ing T!angH and Pai-li Hsi regarded h!in as disorderly and therefore became a capti(e in order thereby to ingratiate @@ himself %ith .u$e Huan said+ "I ha(e heard3 !The commoner3 unless he ma$es light of ran$ and emolument3 has no %ay to $eep off the so(ereign of ten thousand chariotsH the so(ereign of ten thousand chariots3 unless he is fond of bene(olence and righteousness3 has no %ay to condescend to associate %ith the commoner'* " .u$e Huan of h!i there %as a pri(ate scholar named Hsiao-ch!?n hi' .ccordingly3 he %ent fi(e times and %as finally able to see him' Some critic says+ .

t the battle of Mt' Mi-chi3 %hen Han Hsien-Tzŭ %as about to e5ecute a man3 h!i Hsien-tzŭ %ent in a carriage to sa(e the man' 6pon his arri(al the man had already been e5ecuted' h!i Tzŭ3 accordingly3 said3 "#hy is the e5ecution not used as a %arning to the massesL" Then his ser(ants said3 ".u$e Huan' Then his action meant retirement from useful life3 %herefore he ought to be punished' If he had neither %isdom nor talent but made all $inds of pretences and beha(ed arrogantly to%ard .u$e Huan had untied the bonds of )uan hung and appointed him premier3 )uan hung said+ "Thy ser(ant has enough fa(our3 but is lo% in ran$'" "I %ill raise .idn*t you intend to sa(e the manL" In response h!i Tzŭ said3 "Ho% dare I not share the fault for e5ecuting an innocent manL" Some critic says+ h!i Tzŭ*s saying must be carefully scrutinized' #ere the man e5ecuted by Han Tzŭ guilty3 then he could not be sa(ed' Sa(ing the criminal %ould brea$ the la%' Should the la% be bro$en3 the country %ould fall into confusion' If the (ictim %as not guilty3 then h!i Tzŭ should not ha(e ad(ised @= Han Tzŭ to use the unFust e5ecution as a %arning to the masses' To use the unFust e5ecution as a %arning %ould double the inFustice' .u$e Huan3 unable to grasp the principle go(erning the relations bet%een so(ereign and subFect3 paid his repects to a man deser(ing penalty and e5ecution' Thereby .u$e Huan3 it meant fraud3 for %hich he should be e5ecuted' Thus3 Hsiao-ch!?n for his action should ha(e been either penalized or e5ecuted' Ho%e(er3 .u$e Huan condescended to pay him his respects' Suppose Hsiao-ch!?n had %isdom and talent and purposely a(oided .oubling the inFustice %ould arouse popular resentment' Should the people become resentful3 the country %ould be endangered' Thus the saying of Han Tzŭ %ould cause the country either danger or confusion' It must be carefully scrutinized' Moreo(er3 %ere the man e5ecuted by Han Tzŭ not guilty3 then %hat blame could h!i Tzŭ shareL Suppose the (ictim %as not guilty' Then since h!i Tzŭ arri(ed after the e5ecution3 it meant that after the fault of Han Tzŭ had been completed3 h!i Tzŭ arri(ed on the scene' Indeed3 h!i Tzŭ said3 "6se the e5ecution as a popular %arningG" Because he could not share the fault of e5ecuting an innocent man3 he brought about the fault of using the unFust e5ecution as a popular %arning' In this %ay the saying of h!i Tzŭ %as not to share the original fault but to bring about a ne% fault' @I &f old3 %hen ho% inflicted the punishment of climbing a roasting pillar3 hung Hou and #u -ai said3 " ut the shins of %adersG" Ho% could these t%o men share the fault of ho% thenL Moreo(er3 the hope of the masses for Fustice from the authorities %as (ery urgent' If they could not get it from Han Tzŭ3 they %ould hope to get it from h!i Tzŭ' 7o% that they could not get it from h!i Tzŭ3 either3 they %ould gi(e up their hope in the authorities' Hence the saying+ "The saying of h!i Tzŭ %as not to share the original fault but to bring about a ne% fault'" Furthermore3 h!i Tzŭ %ent to sa(e the man because he thought Han Tzŭ %as not right' Bet instead of telling Han Tzŭ that he %as %rong3 he ad(ised him to use the unFust e5ecution as a popular %arning3 %hereby he made Han Tzŭ not realize his fault' /erily he made the people gi(e up hope in the authorities and3 besides3 made Han Tzŭ not realize his fault' Thus3 I ha(e not yet found the %ay h!i Tzŭ could share the fault of Han Tzŭ' .fter .righteous' #hile bene(olence and righteousness %ere not found in him3 .u$e Huan did not $no% bene(olence and righteousness'" .u$e Huan inculcated upon the people in the h!i State the habit of slighting the superior and insulting the ruler' It is not the %ay to political order' Hence the saying+ ".

u$e' "Thy ser(ant is no% %ealthy3" said )uan hung3 "but still (ery distant in relation to the ruling family'" Thereupon the .u$e Huan of h!i employed both )uan hung and Pao Shu %hile )ing T!ang3 the successful3 employed both Bi Bin and hung Hui' If the simultaneous employment of t%o able men %ould cause the state %orries at all3 then .u$e Huan*s authority' Then it %ould ha(e no so(ereign' #ithout a so(ereign3 no country could by any means be go(erned' If he acted under . ommenting on this3 Hsiao -Meh said+ ")ung hung3 considering a humble man unable to go(ern the noble @< as$ed the ruler to raise him abo(e the )aos and )uos' onsidering a poor man unable to go(ern the %ealthy3 he as$ed for the %ealth of the Building of Three 0eturns' Finally3 considering a man distant in relation to the ruling family unable to go(ern the close relati(es of the ruler3 he as$ed for the title of 6ncle hung' In so doing3 )uan hung %as not greedy3 but %anted to pro(ide his go(ernment %ith facilities'" Some critic says+ 7o% suppose bondmen and bond%omen by the ruler*s order summon nobles and ministers' Then nobody dares to disobey them' 7ot that the nobles and ministers are lo% in ran$ and the bondmen and bond%omen are high3 but that nobody dares to disobey the so(ereign*s decree' 7o%3 suppose )uan hung*s go(ernment did not rely on .u$e Huan could not become Hegemonic 0uler and T!ang3 the Successful3 could not become )ing' ontrary to this3 )ing Min entrusted ho h!ih alone %ith all state affairs and3 in conse8uence3 had himself murdered in the 2aster Shrine' -i$e%ise3 the Father So(ereign entrusted -i Tai %ith all state affairs and3 in conse8uence3 had his food reduced till he star(ed to death' If the so(ereign is tactful at all3 the simultaneous employment of t%o able men %ill beget no %orry' If he is tactless3 the simultaneous employment of t%o able men %ill create disputes about affairs and pri(ate frienships .u$e made him 6ncle hung' @.s long as the enforcement is legal3 e(en business eunuchs in the court %ould be trusted by nobles and ministers' If the enforcement is illegal3 e(en high officials %ould ha(e to gi(e %ay to ignorant people' 7o% that )uan hung3 instead of stri(ing to ele(ate the prestige of the so(ereign and clarify the la%3 simply attended to the increase of personal fa(our and the promotion of his ran$3 if he %as not co(etous of %ealth and nobility he must ha(e been stupid and ignorant of the right tact' Hence the saying+ ")uan hung had misbeha(ed himselfH Hsiao -Meh o(erestimated him'" )ing HsMan of Han as$ed hiu -iu3 "I %ant to employ both )ung-chung and )ungshu simultaneously' Is it practicableL" In reply hiu -iu said+ "Formerly #ey employed both -ou BMan and hieh Huang and3 as a result3 lost the #estern 0i(er' -i$e%ise3 h!u employed both the haos and the hings and3 as a result3 lost the districts of Ben and Bing' 7o%3 if Bour MaFesty employs both )ung-chung and )ung-shu3 both %ill certainly dispute about affairs and culti(ate pri(ate friendships %ith foreign countries' Then the state %ill3 doubtless3 ha(e %orries'" Some critic says+ &f old3 .you abo(e the )aos and )uos3" said the .u$e Huan*s authority and issued decrees in his name3 he could be trusted as the bondmen and bond%omen %ere' #hy %as it necessary for him to ha(e the ran$ of the )aos and the )uos and the title of 6ncle hung before he enforced his rule o(er the countryL The petty officials and local magistrates of the present age3 on enforcing the orders of their superiors3 neither e5cept the high and noble nor apply them to the lo% and humble only' .u$e' Mean%hile3 )uan hung said3 "Thy ser(ant is noble but poor'" "Bou shall ha(e the %ealth of the Building of Three 0eturns3" said the .

' #ith )u " should be #' <' + #or$ /II3 p' EJ3 and #or$ 13 p' .<' 9J' #ith BM BMeh ]Ä should be lÄ' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-shen $ abo(e 死 is superfluous' 9@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? % should be 戶 and so throughout the criticism' 9A' The ruler calculates the strength e5erted by the ministerH the minister calculates the emolument besto%ed by the ruler' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien Ò belo% ˜ is superfluous' 9E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? œ abo(e É is superfluous' 9=' #ith -u #?n-shao & should be '' 9I' #ang Hsien-shen suspected that there %ere hiatuses belo% this passage' 9.u$e #?n' Therefore3 Hu Ben %as fre8uently called 6ncle Fan' A' By "some critic" Han Fei Tzŭ apparently meant himself' D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen !? should be ?!' E' #ith #ang #ei j should be \' =' + infra& #or$ 1-3 p' @JA' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ó^ belo% ï is superfluous' .s a result if the so(ereign had no %orry about territorial losses such as the losses of the #estern 0i(er and the Ben and Bing districts3 he %ould certainly suffer such disasters as regicide and star(ation to death' Thus3 -iu %as A9 not yet s$ilful in gi(ing ad(ice to his master' 'otes 9' ð“' @' Tzŭ-fan %as the pen-name of Hu Ben %ho %as a maternal uncle of .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ( should be 去' 9<' #ith #ang š belo% q is superfluous' @J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Œ belo% 不½ is superfluous' .%ith foreign countries and the employment AJ of only one man %ill result in autocracy3 intimidation3 and regicide' 7o%3 -iu had no tact to rectify the policy of the so(ereign' Instead3 he ad(ised him not to employ t%o men at the same time but to entrust one alone %ith the state affairs' .

in #or$ -' : + infra& p' AJ=3 f'A>' @=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? l abo(e â should be 不½' @I' #ith BM BMeh ˜:´Š.piü. in place of •' The #aseda 6ni(ersity Press edition regarded • as a mista$e for .stonished thereat3 .m I as cruel as thatL" Mean%hile he abolished fi(e articles under the criminal la%' Some critic says+ Ben Tzŭ*s ma$ing dear the shoes of footless men %as not sincere' He simply %anted to utilize the %ords to eliminate the number of punishments' This %as the calamity of his ignorance of the bases of political order' Indeed3 punishments e8ui(alent to crimes are ne(er too manyH punishments not e8ui(alent to crimes are ne(er too fe%' A Instead of informing the ruler about the punishments that %ere not e8ui(alent to crimes3 Ben Tzŭ persuaded him that the punishments %ere too many' This %as the calamity of his tactlessness' #hen defeated troops are censured3 though the punishments number hundreds and thousands3 yet they still $eep running a%ay' #hen penalties for settling order out of confusion are inflicted3 though the .p should be ˜/:之´3 ÔŠ. for +.u$e hing %as busy inflicting many punishments' Therefore3 Ben Tzŭ replied3 "The shoes of the footless men are dearH the ordinary shoes cheap'" "#hyL" as$ed the .p @. .' + supra& #or$ 111III3 p' .u$e' "Because there are many punishments of footcutting3" replied Ben Tzŭ' . Criticis&s of the Ancients.@9' #ith )u H abo(e ) should be +' @@' #ith )u H abo(e *s should be +' @A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen [ abo(e º should be Ý' @D' #ang proposed the supply of ˜ abo(e *M' @E' +•' Hiraza%a*s edition has .uke hing passed by the house of Ben Tzŭ and said3 "Bour residence is small and close by the mar$et' Pray mo(e your home to the 4arden of BM-chang'" 0epeating his bo%s3 Ben Tzŭ declined the offer3 saying3 "The home of thy ser(ant @ 3 Bing3 is poor and dependent on the mar$et for daily supplies' .t that time .u$e hing changed his colour and said3 ".lfred For$e mistoo$ +.u$e hing laughed and said3 "If your family is used to shopping at the mar$et3 do you $no% the prices of goodsL" .eries T"o 9 .J' @<' #ith #ang #ei n should be ö' AJ' )u )uang-ts!? proposed the supply of U belo% K' A9' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n Ó belo% ) should be "' Chapter 2220II.s e(ery morning and e(ening %e ha(e to run to the mar$et3 %e cannot li(e too far a%ay from the place'" .' .

punishments seem innumerable3 yet the culprits are still not e5terminated' 7o% that Ben Tzŭ ne(er considered %hether or not the punishments %ere e8ui(alent to the crimes but too$ their e5traordinary number as the basis of his remar$3 %as his counsel not absurdL /erily3 %ho spares %eeds and reeds3 hurts the ears of the rice-plantsH %ho tolerates thie(es and robbers3 inFures good citizens' Similarly3 to loosen censure and punishment and gi(e pardons and fa(ours3 is to benefit the croo$s and inFure the good' It is not the %ay to attain political order' &nce .u$e Huan of h!i %as drun$ and dropped his cro%n' Feeling disgraced thereby3 he did not hold court for three days' )uan hung said3 "This is not %hat the ruler of a state should feel disgraced by' #hy does Bour Highness not %ipe a%ay such disgrace by means of good go(ernmentL" "0ight3" replied the .u$e3 .u$e Huan open the granaries3 gi(e aid to the poor3 in(estigate the con(icts3 and let out the misdemeanants3 %as not righteous and not able to %ipe a%ay the disgrace' 4ranting it to be a righteous act3 .u$e3 and3 accordingly3 opened the granaries and ga(e aid to the poor3 and made a thorough in(estigation of the con(icts and let out the misdemeanants' In the course of three days3 the people began to sing his praises3 saying+ .u$e3 .ll-under-Hea(en'" Some critic says+ hung-ni thought )ing #?n %as %ise' #as he not mista$enL Indeed3 the %ise man $no%s the unluc$y and dangerous zone and can a(oid it3 so that he ne(er suffers the calamity himself' Suppose the reason %hy )ing #?n %as disli$ed by ho% %as his inability to %in the hearts of the people' Then though he might see$ .u$e Huan and neglected such righteousness that he dropped his cro%n3 and then began to act righteously' If so3 the righteous act %as done because .fter he had %aged these three campaigns3 )ing ho% came to disli$e him' .fraid thereof3 he offered to present the )ing %ith the land to the %est of the -o 0i(er and the country of the 0ed Soil3 altogether one thousand li s8uare in area3 and as$ed him to abolish the punishment of climbing the roasting pillar' Thereat .u$e Huan*s disgrace among small men but displayed his disgrace before superior men' D To ma$e .u$eG #e ha(e as$ed in (ain3 #hy doesn*t he drop his cro%n againL Some critic says+ )uan hung %iped a%ay .ll-under-Hea(en %ere delighted' Hearing about this3 hung-ni said+ "Ho% bene(olent )ing #?n %asG By ma$ing light of a country of one thousand li s8uare3 he as$ed for the abolishment of the punishment of climbing the roasting pillar' Ho% %ise )ing #?n %asG By offering the land of one thousand li s8uare3 he %on the hearts of .u$e Huan had neglected Erighteousness rather than because he had dropped his cro%n' Thus3 though he might ha(e %iped a%ay the disgrace of dropping the cro%n among small men3 yet he had already left the disgrace of neglecting = righteousness before gentlemen' Moreo(er3 to open the granaries and gi(e aid to the poor %as to re%ard men of no meritH to in(estigate the con(icts and let out the misdemeanants %as to inflict no punishment upon offenders' Indeed3 if men of no merit are re%arded3 then the people %ill enFoy the godsends and hope for the same from the so(ereignH if offenders are not punished3 then the people %ill ta$e no %arning and become liable to misconduct' This is the root of confusion' Ho% could it %ipe a%ay any disgrace at allL In bygone days3 )ing #?n in(aded BM3 defeated hM3 and too$ F?ng' .

u$e #?n %as so much in lo(e %ith his h!i %ife that he forgot the necessity to return to his nati(e country' Therefore3 6ncle 9A Fan made a forceful remonstration %ith him and thereby enabled him to go bac$ to the hin State' Thus3 .u$e Huan %as due to the ruler*s ability' #hat abilities did the ministers ha(eL" Some critic says+ The replies of both Shu Hsiang and Musician )!uang %ere e8ually eccentric (ie%s' /erily3 to bring .ll-under-Hea(en under one rule' #as that due to the abilities of the ministers or the ability of the rulerL" In reply Shu Hsiang said3 ")uan hung %as s$ilful in cutting the shape of the dressH Pin HsM-%u %as s$ilful in se%ing I the seams of the dressH and Hsi P?ng %as s$ilful in decorating the dress %ith plaits and bindings' #hen the dress %as ready3 the ruler too$ it and %ore it' The dress-ma$ing %as thus due to the minister*s abilities' #hat ability did the 0uler ha(eL" Thereat Musician )!uang lay do%n upon the harp and laughed' "4rand Tutor3 %hy are you laughingL" as$ed the .u$e' "Thy ser(ant3" replied the Musician )!uang3 "is laughing at the reply Shu Hsiang has gi(en to Bour Highness' .u$e Huan of h!i called nine conferences of the feudal lords and brought .u$e Huan built t%o mar$ets inside the palace and t%o hundred gates of harems bet%een them' 2(eryday he %ore no hat and too$ dri(es %ith %omen' .u$e Huan %ould not ha(e attained Hegemony because of )uan hung' #ere it entirely due to the ability of the ruler3 he %ould not ha(e suffered any disturbance because of Shu Tiao' Formerly3 .u$e #?n attained Hegemony because of 6ncle Fan' .u$e P!ing of hin as$ed Shu Hsiang3 saying+ "Formerly .fter he lost )uan hung3 he got Shu Tiao %ith the result that follo%ing his death %orms cra%led outdoors9@ %hile the corpse still lay unburied' If success %as not due to the ability of the minister3 . ser(ed BM3 < but BM %ent to ruinH then he ser(ed h!in3 %hich attained Hegemony' 7ot that h!ien Shu %as stupid in BM and %ise in h!in3 but that ser(ing under an able ruler %as different from ser(ing under an unable ruler' 9J Therefore3 Hsiang*s saying that the success %as due to the abilities of the ministers %as not true' Formerly3 .ll-under-Hea(en under one rule and call nine conferences of the feudal lords %as a brilliant achie(ement' Ho%e(er3 it %as neither entirely due to the ability of the ruler nor entirely due to the abilities of the ministers' Formerly3 )ung hi-ch!i ser(ed BM3 Hsi Fu-ch!i ser(ed Ts!ao' Both ministers %ere so %ise that their %ords al%ays hit the truth of affairs and the e5ecution of the counsels could al%ays har(est successful results' Bet %hy did BM and Ts!ao go to ruinL It %as because they had able ministers but no able rulers' -i$e%ise3 h!ien Shu .fter he got )uan hung3 he became the first of the Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers' 99 .u$e Huan brought .s a rule3 %ho ministers to a ruler is li$e a coo$ synthesizing the fi(e tastes and ser(ing the food to the master' If the master refuses to eat it3 %ho dare force himL May thy ser(ant compare the ruler to farming soil and ministers to grass and trees' The soil must be fertile before grass and trees gro% big' Similarly3 the Hegemony of .ll-under-Hea(en under one rule because of )uan hung %hile .to %in the hearts of the people in order thereby to dispel ho%*s disli$e3 yet ho% %ould disli$e him the more because he made a great success in %inning the hearts of the people' Besides3 he made light of his territory and thereby %on the hearts of the people3 %hich %ould double ho%*s suspicion of him' 7o %onder3 he %as fettered in Fail at Bu-li' The saying of the elder of h?ng3 "Ha(e personal e5perience of the #ay of 7ature3 do not do anything3 and re(eal nothing3" %ould be the most suitable %arning to )ing #?n' It is the %ay to incur nobody*s suspicion' Thus3 hung-ni in regarding )ing #?n as %ise fell short of this saying' .

u$e Huan of h!i3 once an en(oy from hin arri(ed' #hen the chief usher as$ed about the $ind of treatment he should be accorded3 .u$e T!an of hou' .s$ 6ncle hungG* and ne5t also says3 !.s$ 6ncle hungG* " In response .ll-under-Hea(en because in e(ery case both ruler and minister had abilities' Hence the saying+ "The replies of both Shu Hsiang and Musician )!uang %ere e8ually eccentric (ie%s'" .u$e Huan*s finding )uan hung %as not any hardship at all' .t the time of .u$e Huan*s saying3 "The ruler has a hard time to find men but has an easy time %hen using them3" %as not true' Moreo(er3 .s$ 6ncle hung about it'" Therefore the clo%n laughed3 saying3 "Ho% easy it is to be a rulerG First Bour Highness says3 !.u$e Huan' Besides3 Pao Shu made light of his o%n official position3 ga(e %ay to the able man3 and recommended him for the post of premiership' learly enough3 .u$e Huan thought the ruler of men must undergo the hardship of finding right men for office' #hy should finding men be a hardship at allL Bi Bin became a coo$ and thereby 9D ingratiated himself %ith )ing T!angH Pai-li Hsi became a %ar prisoner and thereby ingratiated himself %ith .u$e Huan to the clo%n %as not %hat the ruler of men ought to ha(e made' .u$e Huan %ent through no hardship to find )uan hung' )uan hung did not die in the cause of loyalty to his first master3 but surrendered himself to .u$e T!an of hou acted for the Son of Hea(en for se(en years till )ing h!?ng reached full age3 %hen he returned the reins of go(ernment to him' This %as not because he thought of the %elfare of .fter ha(ing found )uan hung3 ho% could he ha(e an easy time all at onceL )uan hung %as not li$e .u$e Huan thrice said3 ".ll-under- .u$e Huan said+ "I ha(e heard that the ruler of men has a hard time to find right men for office but has an easy time %hen ma$ing use of them' I already had a hard time to find 6ncle hung' .Therefore3 Musician )!uang*s saying that the success %as due to the ability of the ruler %as also not true' &n the %hole3 the Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers could accomplish their achie(ements and reputations in .u$e Mu' To become a %ar prisoner is a humiliationH to become a coo$ is a disgrace' Bet because the %orthy*s %orry about the %orld is urgent3 he %ould go through humiliation and disgrace and thereby approach the ruler' If so3 the rulers of men should cause only the %orthies no obstacle' /erily3 to find right men for office does not constitute any difficulty to the lord of men' Moreo(er3 to offices and commissions %orthies are appointedH %ith titles and bounties men of merit are re%arded' &nce offices and commissions are established and titles and bounties are paraded3 talented men %ill appear of themsel(es' Then %hy should the ruler of men ha(e any hardship at allL -i$e%ise3 personnel administration is not an easy thing' The lord of men3 %hile using men3 must regulate them %ith rules and measures3 and compare their deeds %ith their %ords in the %ay forms are compared %ith names' If any proFect is la%ful3 it should be carried outH if unla%ful3 it should be stopped' If the result is e8ui(alent to the proposal3 the proposer should be re%ardedH if not3 he should be punished' 0ectify the ministers %ith forms and names3 regulate the subordinates %ith rules and measures' This principle should not be neglected' Then %hat ease does the ruler of men ha(eL Thus finding men is not a hardshipH using men is not easy' onse8uently3 .fter ha(ing found him3 %hy should I not ha(e an easy timeL" Some critic says+ The reply of .

u$e Huan %as a stupid so(ereign'" -i )!o 9< go(erned entral Hills' The magistrate of Hard Paths presented his fiscal report3 in %hich the annual re(enue appeared enormous in amount' Therefore3 -i )!o said+ "Speeches3 elo8uent and delightful to the ear but in discord %ith the cause of righteousness3 are called !entrancing %ords'* The re(enue3 enormous in amount but not due to the products from mountains3 forests3 s%amps3 and (alleys3 is called !an attracti(e income'* The gentleman ne(er listens to attracti(e %ords nor accepts any attracti(e income' Bou had better lea(e your office'" Some critic says+ -i Tzŭ proclaimed the theory3 "Speeches3 elo8uent and delightful to the ear but in discord %ith the cause of righteousness3 are called !attracti(e %ords*'" To be sure3 the elo8uence of speeches depends upon the spea$er %hile their delight rests %ith the listener' Thus3 the spea$er is not the listener' #hat he called "discord %ith the cause of righteousness" is not concerned %ith the listener' It must be concerned %ith %hat is heard' The listener must be either a rascal or a gentleman' The .ll-under-Hea(enH and %ho does not hesitate to usurp the orphan*s throne and thereby rule o(er .u$e Huan easily stood abo(e )uan hung3 he %as doing the same as hieh and ho% did standing abo(e T!ang and #u' .u$e Huan stood easily abo(e )uan hung3 he %as doing the same as .u$e T!an of hou' Ho%e(er3 nobody could tell %hether he %ould do the same as T!ang and #u or as T!ieh h!ang' Should he do the same as T!ang and #u3 there %ould be the danger of hieh and ho%H should he do the same as T!ien h!ang3 there %ould be the catastrophe of .ll-under-Hea(en3 ne(er %ill desert the dead ruler and ser(e the enemyH %ho deserts the dead ruler and ser(es the enemy3 %ill not al%ays hesitate to usurp the orphan*s throne and thereby rule o(er .Hea(en3 but because he %anted to perform his duty' Indeed3 %ho does not usurp the orphan*s throne and thereby rule o(er .gain . %hile his corpse lay unburied3 it goes %ithout saying that .u$e Huan' learly enough3 in matters of submission and desertion )uan hung %as not as great as .u$e hien' .u$e Huan %as in danger' Thus clearly 9I enough3 )uan hung %as not as great as .fter ha(ing found 6ncle hung3 ho% could he ha(e an easy time all at onceL Supposing .u$e T!an of hou' 9E 7obody could tell %hether or not he %ould remain %orthy' 9= Supposing he %ould remain %orthy3 then he might do the same as )ing T!ang and )ing #u' T!ang and #u %ere originally ministers under hieh and ho% respecti(ely' hieh and ho% caused confusion3 %herefore T!ang and #u depri(ed them of the throne' 7o% that .u$e Huan3 but in (ain' Follo%ing the death of his old master3 he ser(ed .u$e Huan could not tell bet%een ministers %ho %ould decei(e the ruler and those %ho %ould not decei(e the ruler' 7e(ertheless3 so e5clusi(ely he put his trust in ministers %hen he too$ them into ser(iceG Hence the saying+ ".llunder-Hea(en3 %ill not hesitate to usurp the ruler*s state' 7o% )uan hung %as originally a minister under Prince hiu' &nce he e(en schemed to assassinate .u$e Huan too$ )uan hung into ser(ice because he %as sure he %ould ne(er decei(e him3 then he could direct ministers %ho %ere not deceitful' Ho%e(er3 though at one time he could direct ministers %ho %ere not deceitful3 yet as he later entrusted Shu Tiao and I Ba %ith the same affairs %hich he had committed to the hands of )uan hung %ith the result that %orms cra%led outdoors 9.u$e Huan %as in danger then' Supposing )uan hung should become an un%orthy man3 then he might do the same as T!ien h!ang' T!ien h!ang %as a minister to .u$e hien standing easily abo(e T!ien h!ang' .u$e hien but murdered his master' 7o% that .

u$e #?n .u$e Hsien3 anne5ed se(enteen states3 subdued thirty-eight states3 and %on t%el(e %ars3 %hich altogether %as due to his %ay of ma$ing use of the people' Follo%ing the death of .u$e Hui ascended the throne' .u$e hien said3 ".s he continued le%d3 flighty3 cruel3 and (iolent3 and pleasured himself in beautiful %omen3 the h!ins in(aded the country at their pleasure and came %ithin the distance of se(enteen li from the city of hiang3 %hich also %as due to his %ay of using the people' Follo%ing the death of .u$e Hui3 .lasG My men are already e5hausted'" In response a herald named hu )uo too$ off his helmet and said+ "Thy ser(ant has heard3 !The ruler may be incapable3 but no %arrior is e(er e5hausted'* In bygone days3 @A our former ruler3 .u$e Hsien3 .rascal3 ha(ing no cause of righteousness3 must be unable to estimate the speeches from the standpoint of righteousnessH %hereas the gentleman3 estimating them from the standpoint of righteousness3 is certainly not delighted at them' /erily3 the argument that speeches3 elo8uent and delightful to the ear3 are in discord %ith the cause of righteousness must be an absurd saying' The argument that a re(enue enormous in amount is an attracti(e income is not applicable to many cases' -i Tzŭ did not stop corruptions early enough and let them creep into the fiscal report' In this %ay he allo%ed criminal offences to be accomplished' He had no %ay of $no%ing %hy the re(enue %as enormous' If the enormous re(enue %as due to a bountiful har(est3 then though the amount %as doubled3 %hat could be done about itL If in doing any $ind of %or$ people loo$ after the harmony of the positi(e and negati(e factors @J H if in planting trees they follo% the suitable periods of the four seasonsH and if at da%n and at dus$ there is no suffering from cold or heatH then re(enue %ill be enormous' If important duties are not obstructed by small profitsH if public %elfare is not inFured by pri(ate interestH if men e5ert their strength to tillageH and if %omen de(ote their energies to %ea(ingH then re(enue %ill be enormous' If the methods of animal husbandry are impro(ed3 the 8ualities of the soil are e5amined3 the si5 animals @9 flourish3 and the fi(e cereals abound3 then re(enue %ill be enormous' If %eights and measures are made clearH if topographical features are carefully sur(eyedH and if through the utilization of boats3 carts3 and other mechanical de(ices3 the minimum amount of energy is used to produce the ma5imum amount of efficiencyH then re(enue %ill be enormous' If traffic on mar$ets3 cities3 passes3 and bridges is facilitated3 so that needy places are supplied %ith sufficient commoditiesH if merchants from abroad floc$ to the country and foreign goods and money come inH if any unnecessary e5penditure is cut do%n3 e5tra(agant clothing and food are sa(ed3 houses and furniture are all limited to necessities3 and amusements and recreations are ne(er o(er-emphasizedH then re(enue %ill be enormous' In these cases3 the increase in re(enue is due to human effort' 4ranted that natural e(ents3 %inds3 rain3 seasons3 cold3 and heat are normal and the territory remains the same3 then if the people can reap the fruits of the abundant year3 then re(enue %ill be enormous too' Thus3 human effort and hea(enly support both are the main factors of increases in re(enue3 but the products from mountains3 forests3 s%amps3 and (alleys are not' /erily3 to call the enormous re(enue not due to the products from mountains3 forests3 s%amps3 and (alleys "an attracti(e income3" is a tactless saying' #hen /iscount hien of hao %as laying siege to the outer %alls @@ of the capital of #ei3 he co(ered himself %ith a shield and a turret both made of rhinoceros-hide and stood at a spot beyond the reach of arro%-heads' Therefrom he beat the drum3 but the %arriors made no progress' Thro%ing do%n the drumstic$s3 .

u$e hien said3 "&ne thousand armoured chariots gi(en to me %ould not be as effecti(e as one counsel heard from hu )uo'" Some critic says+ The herald did not spea$ to the point' He simply reminded his master that .ccordingly3 .u$e #?n on account of his personnel administration attained hegemony3 but did not yet e5plain to him the right techni8ue of personnel administration' Therefore3 .' .mong one hundred men there is not e(en one %ho %ould practise high (irtue and die in the cause of loyalty to the superior3 yet e(erybody is e8ually fond of profit and afraid of punishment' Therefore3 in ad(ising the leader of the masses not to go on the %ay %hich they %ould follo% by necessity but to count on such (irtue as none out of a hundred %ould practise3 the herald %as certainly not yet a%are of the right method of ma$ing use of the people' 'otes 9' ð二' @' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ë abo(e 0 should be M ch!?n3 minister' A' 6nFust punishments3 ho%e(er fe% in number3 are still unFust' D' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n3 small men regard dropping the cro%n as a disgrace %hile gentlemen regard dropping righteousness as a disgrace' E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? [ should be 1' =' 宿 should be supplied belo% 1' I' #ith )ao H?ng • bo(e 2 means 23 too' .accepted the reins of go(ernment3 besieged #ei3 too$ Beh3 and at the battle of h!?ng-p!u defeated the hings fi(e times3 till he attained the highest fame in .u$e hien should not ha(e discarded the shield and the turret so soon' #hen the father is besieged3 to slight personal safety and (enture the arro%heads is the %ay the dutiful son lo(es his father' Ho%e(er3 among one hundred there may be one dutiful son lo(ing his father to such an e5tent' 7o% that the herald thought the people could fight e(en in the face of personal dangers3 he presumed that all the sons of the hundred clans @D %ould ser(e the superior in the same %ay as the dutiful son lo(es his father' Such %as the absurd idea of the herald' To lo(e profit and disli$e inFury is the tendency e(erybody has' Therefore3 if re%ard is big and trusted3 e(erybody %ill rush at enemies %ith ease' If punishment is hea(y and definite3 nobody @E %ill run @= a%ay from enemies' .u$e Hui on account of his personnel administration failed %hile .s a matter of fact3 it %as Pai Hsi %ho first ser(ed BM and later %ent to h!in' hien Shu %as brought in by Pai-li Hsi3 but he ne(er ser(ed BM' <' #ith BM BMeh + should be 33 and so throughout the criticism' .llunder-Hea(en3 %hich also %as due to his %ay of using men' Thus3 the ruler may be incapable3 but no %arrior is e(er e5hausted'" .u$e hien discarded the shield and the turret and stood on a spot %ithin the reach of arro%-heads' Therefrom he beat the drum3 under %hose influence the %arriors fought and %on a great (ictory' Thereupon .

uke Mu of -u once as$ed Tzŭ-ssŭ3 saying3 "I ha(e heard that the son of the hien family in the (illage of P!ang @ is not dutiful' Ho% is his conductL" In reply Tzŭ-ssŭ said3 "The superior man esteems the %orthy and thereby e5alts the (irtuous' He promotes the good and thereby encourages A the people' In the case of misconduct3 it is recognized by small men' Thy ser(ant does not $no% anything about his conduct at all'" .fter Tzŭ-ssŭ had gone out3 Tzŭ-fu and -i-pai %ent in to inter(ie% the .' #ith #ang % should be 戶' 9<' 7 should be 克 : + supra& #or$ 111III3 p' =. . Criticis& of the Ancients. li$e –< "the hundred surnames" means the masses of people @E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? X abo(e 人 should be z' @=' #ith #ang Hsien-shTn3 hao Bung-hsien*s edition has = in place of >' Chapter 2220III.9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? M should be i' 99' B– should be B4 %hich means B5' 9@' #ith #ang Haien-shen % should be 戶' 9A' 咎 should be ² ' 9D' #ith BM BMeh à in both cases should be 由' 9E' #ith hang P!ang and #ang Hsien-shen ïË明A should be supplied belo% ÔÆs6' 9=' #ith hang and #ang 然=V£不V should be supplied abo(e )½šp' 9I' #ith #ang Ë abo(e 明 should be ó' 9.eries Three 9 .u$e Mu again as$ed about the conduct of the son of the hien family in the (illage of P!ang' In reply Tzŭ-fu and -i-pai said3 "He has three defects3 all of %hich your Highness has ne(er heard about'" Thenceforth3 the ruler respected Tzŭ-ssŭ but despised Tzŭ-fu and -i-pai' .u$e' Then .>' @J' T陽' @9' 7amely3 horses3 o5en3 sheep3 chic$ens3 dogs3 and pigs' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 80 should be 90' @A' Hiraza%a*s edition has M:之 abo(e 昔者3 %hich is %rong' @D' –.

u$e said3 "Before the assault at 0ush ity3 His Highness had ordered you to stay one night on the %ay3 but you %ent straight there' Before the catastrophe by the side of the #ei 0i(er3 His Highness had ordered you to stay three nights on the %ay3 but you spent one night only' #hy %ere you so 8uic$L" In reply P!i said3 "The ruler*s order must not be disobeyed' To eliminate the ruler*s enemy I %as afraid of my inability' .u$e Mu respected him' -i-pai reported of the %ic$edness of the son3 %hereas .u$e Mu despised him' It is human nature3 ho%e(er3 that e(erybody lo(es respect and disli$es being despised' 7aturally3 e(en %hen the rebellious plot of the hi lan %as mature3 nobody reported of it to the superior' This %as the reason for %hich the 0uler of -u %as e(entually molested' /erily3 it is the beaten trac$ of the so(ereigns D of declining states3 %hich %as appreciated by the men of Tsou and -u' E #as it absurd that .u$es Huan and #?n could tolerate the t%o men' 0ulers of subse8uent generations3 ho%e(er3 %ere not as enlightened as these t%o .u$e granted him an audience' Some critic says+ That festi(als to the memory of the ancestors of the h!is and the hins %ere finally stopped3 %as perfectly reasonable' .u$e #?n fled into e5ile3 .fter the return of .u$e #?n escaped to hieh' #hen .u$e Hsien sent eunuch3 P!i3 to assault him at 0ush ity' P!i only succeeded in cutting a slee(e off his coat' Then .u$e #?n to his nati(e country3 P!i petitioned for an audience %ith the .u$e Mu esteemed it in particularL #hen .u$es %hile ministers of subse8uent generations %ere not as %orthy as these t%o men' #hen disloyal ministers %ere ser(ing unintelligent rulers3 if the rulers did not notice their disloyalty3 then there %ould appear such traitors as Ts!ao I of Ben3 Tzŭ-han3 and T!ien h!angH if they noticed their disloyalty3 then the ministers %ould Fustify their misconduct %ith the actions of )uan hung and the eunuch as precedents3 so that the rulers %ould not censure them and assumed themsel(es to be as (irtuous as .u$es Huan and #?n' In this manner3 the ministers o%ed the rulers .Some critic says+ #as it unreasonable that the ruling family of -u %as menaced by the hi lan successi(ely for three generationsL The enlightened ruler searches for good men and re%ards them' He searches for %ic$ed men and punishes them' He search is one' Therefore3 %ho reports of good men agrees %ith the superior on the appro(al of good deedsH %ho reports of %ic$ed men agrees %ith the superior on the disli$e of bad deeds' Both e8ually deser(e re%ard and honour' #ho does not report of %ic$ed men3 is an opponent of the superior and a partisan of the %ic$ed men' He deser(es disgrace and punishment' 7o%3 Tzŭ-ssŭ did not report of any defect of the son3 %hereas .u$e Hui ascended the throne3 he also sent P!i to assault .u$e Huan could ma$e use of )uan hung*s meritorious ser(ices and forgot the grudge against the shooting of the ribbon-hoo$' .u$e #?n by the side of the #ei 0i(er' = But he could not get at the .u$e #?n could listen to the eunuch*s saying and ignored the crime of cutting off his slee(e' Thus3 .u$e' Thereupon3 the .u$e Huan e(en forgot the shooting of the ribbon-hoo$ of his cro%n and appointed )uan hung premier'" Hearing this3 the . grudges in secret3 but the rulers %ere not intelligent enough to eliminate the dar$ matters' If the rulers (ested the ministers %ith more po%ers %hile pretending to %orthiness themsel(es and ta$ing no precaution against any e(entuality3 %as it not reasonable that their posterity %as e5terminatedL Moreo(er3 the saying of the eunuch %as too ostentatious' #ho does not disobey the ruler*s order3 is said to be faithful to the ruler' Ho%e(er3 unless .t that time Bour Highness %as merely a man of 0ush or a man of hieh3 %ith %hom I had no relationship %hate(er' 7o% that Bour Highness has ascended the throne3 %ould there be no memory of the e(ents at 0ush and in hiehL Indeed3 .u$e' .

gain3 %ho is in the position and not able to ma$e the best use of his authorities but counts on his constant presence at the state capital3 means to suppress %ic$edness throughout the %hole country %ith one person*s strength' If the ruler attempts to suppress %ic$edness throughout the %hole country %ith his o%n strength only3 then he can hardly succeed' If his intelligence is able to illuminate distant croo$s and disclose (icious secrets3 and if he is certain to apply decrees to such cases3 then though he tra(els far a%ay to the seaside3 there %ill be no disorder at home' If so3 then to lea(e the state capital for the seaside and thereby in(ite neither menace nor murder3 %ould constitute no difficulty at all' .u$e .s regards the third difficulty3 )ing h!?ng of h!u first made Shang-ch!?ng ro%n Prince3 and later thought of ma$ing Prince hih ro%n Prince3 %herefore Shang-ch!?ng caused a disturbance and finally murdered )ing h!?ng' Similarly3 Prince Tsai < %as the ro%n Prince of hou3 but Prince )?n %on the ruler*s fa(our3 caused a rebellion in the eastern part of hou3 9J and split the country into t%o' In these cases the calamity %as not due to the late installation of the cro%n prince' If the ruler is not double-dealing in matters of distinction and position3 $eeps bastards in lo% status3 and grants his fa(ourites no special re8uest3 then though he %aits till an old age3 the late installation of the cro%n prince is practicable' If so3 then to install the cro%n prince late and thereby incur no turmoil from bastards3 %ould constitute no difficulty at all' The so-called difficulties are+ to let people accumulate their influences and not to let them trespass against the ruler3 %hich constitutes the first difficultyH to fa(our concubines but not let them ri(al the %ife3 %hich constitutes the second difficultyH and3 to lo(e bastards but not to let them Feopardize the heir apparent3 and to trust one minister e5clusi(ely and see that he dare not ran$ %ith the ruler himself3 %hich can be called the third difficulty' #hen the .u$e Huan as$ed )uan hung to do it' In reply )uan hung said3 "The first difficulty is due to the ruler*s intimacy %ith actors and remoteness from scholars and %arriorsH the second3 due to his absence from the state capital and fre8uent (isit to the seasideH and the third3 due to the choice of the ro%n Prince late in the ruler*s old age'" "0ight3" remar$ed .the minister ne(er feels ashamed of his conduct e(en %hen the dead ruler comes to life again3 he is not truly faithful' 7o% that .u$e Huan3 saying3 "The first difficulty3 the second difficulty3 and the third difficulty' #hat are theyL" 6nable to sol(e the riddle3 .u$es about go(ernment %as the same one3 but %hy did .u$e of Sheh3 Tzŭ-$ao3 as$ed hung-ni about go(ernment3 hung-ni said3 "The %ay of good go(ernment is to content the near and attract the distant'" 99 #hen .u$e Huan' #ithout choosing a luc$y day3 he celebrated in the ancestral shrine the installation of the ro%n Prince' Some critic says+ )uan hung*s solution of the riddle %as not to the point' The ser(iceability of the scholars and %arriors does not rest %ith their distance from the ruler' .u$e hing of h!i as$ed hungni about go(ernment3 hung-ni said3 "The %ay of good go(ernment is to economize e5penditure'" .u$e Hui died at da%n3 the eunuch turned to ser(e .ctors and clo%ns are from the beginning supposed to accompany the lord of men at e(ery feast' If so3 then to $eep actors near and the scholars and %arriors far and thereby maintain political order %ould not be any difficulty at all' .u$es had gone out3 Tzŭ-$ung as$ed3 "The 8uestion raised to Master by the three .fter the three .u$e #?n at dus$3 ho% about his principle of nondisobedienceL &nce somebody put a riddle to .i as$ed hung-ni about go(ernment3 hung-ni said3 "The %ay of good go(ernment is to select %orthies for office'" #hen .

ll-under-Hea(en' Suppose there is a ruler %ho has no %ay of pre(enting his subordinates from misbeha(ing but counts on their imitation of Shun and e5pects not to lose the hearts of the people' Is he not tactlessL The enlightened ruler sees an e(il in the bud3 %herefore the people cannot plot any large-scale rebellion' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain' Therefore I said3 !The %ay of good go(ernment is to select %orthy men for office'* .u$e hing of h!i constructed the Bung 4ate3 built the 0oadbed To%er3 and in one morning re%arded three officials each %ith a fief of one hundred chariots' Therefore3 I said3 !The %ay of good go(ernment is to economize e5penditure'* " Some critic says+ The reply of hung-ni %as a state-ruining saying' 7ot%ithstanding that the Sheh people had the rebellious mind3 he ad(ised the ruler to content the near and attract the distant3 %hereby he encouraged the people to cherish gratitude to the ruler for his fa(ours' To be sure3 the go(ernment by fa(our re%ards men of no merit and absol(es criminals of guilt' This is the reason %hy the la% is bro$en' If the la% is bro$en3 go(ernment %ill fall into confusion' To go(ern a spoilt people %ith confused regulations is ne(er practicable' Moreo(er3 if the people ha(e the rebellious mind3 it is because the ruler*s insight has fallen short of certain obFects' 7o%3 instead of persuading 9@ the .u$e .u$e .u$e .i had ministers %ho spurned (isitors from outside and formed Funtas at home in decei(ing the ruler3 hung-ni persuaded him to select %orthies for office' By %orthies he meant not men %ho %ould e5ert their strength and render meritorious ser(ices3 but those %hom the ruler Fudged to be %orthy' 7o%3 supposing .i of -u has three chief (assals3 %ho spurn en(oys from other feudal lords and the neighbouring countries and Foin one another in befooling their master' It must be these three ministers %ho %ill stop the festi(als of the ancestral shrine and remo(e the sacrifices from the .s the people understand that both punishment and re%ard 9I are due to their o%n deeds3 they %ill stri(e to har(est merits and profits in their daily %or$ and %ill not hope for undue gifts from the ruler' "&f the greatest ruler3 the people simply $no% the e5istence'" 9.Master reply to them differentlyL" hung-ni said3 "In Sheh the capital is too big for the country %hile the people ha(e the rebellious mind' Therefore3 I said3 !The %ay of good go(ernment is to content the near and attract the distant*' .i $ne% that the three ministers spurned (isitors from outside and formed Funtas at home3 then the three men could not continue misbeha(ing one day longer' It %as .s he inflicts small punishments for minor offences3 the people cannot cause any serious disturbance' This means "to contemplate a difficulty %hen it is easy and manage a great thing %hen it is small'" 9E 7o%3 if men of merit are al%ays re%arded3 the re%arded do not feel grateful 9= to the ruler3 because the re%ard is due to their effort' If men guilty of offences are al%ays punished3 the punished bear no grudge against the authorities3 because the punishment is due to their misconduct' .s . This means that under the greatest ruler the people ha(e no undue Foy' Then %here can be found people bearing gratitude to the rulerL The subFects of the greatest ruler recei(e neither undue profit nor undue inFury' Therefore3 the persuasion to content the near and attract the distant should be set at nought' .u$e of Sheh to e5tend his insight3 hung-ni ad(ised him to content the near and attract the distant' In this %ay he ad(ised the ruler to discard %hat his position is able to prohibit and struggle %ith his subordinates 9A to %in the hearts of the people by conferring fa(ours' Thereby he %ill not be able to maintain his influence' Indeed3 in %orthiness Bao %as the first one of the si5 rulers3 9D but %here(er Shun %ent3 people floc$ed around him3 till Bao had no more influence in .

u$e hing' Indeed3 a single reply to the three .u$e hing re%arded officials each %ith a fief of one hundred chariots3 hung-ni persuaded him to economize e5penditure3 %hereby he ad(ised him to ha(e no %ay of enFoying pleasures and lu5uries but remain personally frugal' In conse8uence3 the country %ould fall into po(erty' Suppose there is a ruler %ho supports himself %ith the income from the area of one thousand li s8uare' Then e(en hieh and ho% could not be more e5tra(agant than he' 7o%3 the h!i State co(ers an area of three thousand li s8uare' #ith half of its income .s .u$e Huan supported himself' In this manner he %as more e5tra(agant than hieh and ho%' Bet he could become the first one of the Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers because he $ne% the respecti(e spheres of frugality and e5tra(agance' To be a ruler of men %ho cannot @@ restrain his subFects but has to restrain himself instead3 is called "suffering"H to be unable to reform his subFects and ha(e to reform himself instead3 is called "confusion"H and3 not to economize in the e5penditure of his subFects but to economize in his o%n e5penditure3 is called "po(erty"' The enlightened ruler ma$es people public-spirited3 stops men %ho earn their li(elihood by means of deception3 and al%ays hears about those %ho e5ert their strength in public enterprises and contribute profits to the authorities' #hene(er heard about3 the men of merit are re%arded' -i$e%ise3 he al%ays $no%s those %ho are corrupt and self-see$ing' #hene(er $no%n3 the %ic$ed men are punished' If so3 @A then loyal ministers %ill e5ert their spirits of loyalty for public causes3 gentry and commoners %ill apply their strength to the %elfare of their families3 and all officials %ill be assiduous and deny themsel(es in ser(ing the superior' Therefore3 the e5tra(agance of the enlightened ruler3 be it t%ice as much as that of .u$e .u$es that %ould enable them to get rid of all %orries should be ")no% your inferiors"' If the ruler $no%s the inferiors %ell3 then he can nip an e(il in the bud' If e(ils are nipped in the bud3 no (illainy %ill be accumulated' If no (illainy is accumulated3 no Funta %ill be formed' If no Funta is formed3 public %elfare and pri(ate interest %ill be distinguished from each other' If public %elfare and pri(ate interest are distinguished from each other3 all partisans %ill disperse' If the partisans disperse3 there %ill be no trouble-ma$ers spurning (isitors from outside and forming %ic$ed Funtas inside' Moreo(er3 %hen the ruler $no%s his inferiors %ell3 he %ill disco(er all their minute details' @D #hen all their minute details .because .u$e hing3 %ill constitute no menace to the state' If so3 the persuasion to economize e5penditure %as not an urgent need of .i did not $no% ho% to select %orthies for office but simply selected those men he Fudged to be %orthy that the three men could ha(e charge of state affairs' Ho%e(er3 Tzŭ-$!uai of Ben considered Tzŭ-chih %orthy and disappro(ed the character of Sun h!ing %ith the result that he %as murdered and became a laughingstoc$ of the %orld' -i$e%ise3 Fu-ch!a regarded hancellor P!i as %ise and Tzŭ-hsM as stupid %ith the result that he %as e5tinguished by BMeh' Thus3 the 0uler of -u did not necessarily $no% %orthy men3 but hung-ni persuaded him to select %orthy men3 %hereby he %ould dri(e him to the disaster of Fu-ch!a and )!uai of Ben' /erily3 the enlightened ruler does not ha(e to promote ministers himself3 for they ad(ance according to their meritorious ser(ices' 9< He does not ha(e to select @J %orthies himself3 for they ma$e their appearances @9 according to their meritorious ser(ices' He appoints them to (arious posts3 e5amines them in their %or$s3 and Fudges them according to their results' Therefore3 all officials ha(e to be fair and Fust and ne(er self-see$ing' 7either obscuring the %orthy nor promoting the un%orthy3 %hat %orry does the lord of men ha(e about the selection of %orthy menL .

fter e5amining her3 he found out that she had strangled her husband %ith her o%n hands' .s a rule3 people react to their belo(ed in the follo%ing %ays+ #hen the belo(ed has Fust fallen ill3 they are %orried about the illnessH %hen he or she is dying3 they feel fearfulH after the death3 they feel sad' 7o% that the %oman crying o(er her dead husband %as not sad but fearful3 I could tell there %as (illainy behind it'" Some critic says+ #as Tzŭ-ch!an*s %ay of go(ernment not burdensomeL The culprit %as found out only after she had fallen %ithin the reaches of the premier*s ears and eyes' If so3 (ery fe% culprits could be found out in the h?ng State' 7ot employing Fudicial officials3 not carefully obser(ing the system of three units and basic fi(es3 @E and not clarifying rules and measures3 but solely depending on the e5ertion of his auditory and (isual sagacity and the e5haustion of his %isdom and reason for detecting culprits3 %as he not tactlessL /erily3 things are manyH %ise men3 fe%' .u$es to get rid of all %orries should be !)no% your inferiors*'" &ne morning %hen Tzŭ-ch!an of h?ng %ent out and passed through the 8uarters of eastern craftsmen3 he heard a %oman crying' Therefore3 he held the coachman*s hand still and listened to the crying' Mean%hile3 he sent out an official to arrest her' .ll-under-Hea(en became a net3 then no sparro% %ould be missed"' To comb the culprits3 the ruler must ha(e a large net3 so that none of them %ill be missed' 7ot studying these principles but using his o%n guess-%or$ as bo%s and arro%s3 Tzŭ-ch!an %as unreasonable' Thus3 -ao Tzŭ said3 "#ho attempts to go(ern the state %ith %isdom3 %ill e(entually betray the country'" @= Ho% applicable this %as to Tzŭ-ch!an*s caseG )ing hao of h!in as$ed the chamberlains3 saying3 "Ho% is the present strength of Han and #ey compared %ith their former strengthL" In reply they said3 "They are no% %ea$er than before'" "Ho% are Cu ?rh and #ey h!i at present compared %ith M?ng h!ang @I and Mang Mao in the pastL" "The former are not as great as the latter3" replied the chamberlains' Then the )ing said3 "M?ng h!ang and Mang Mao led the strong forces of Han and #ey3 but could do nothing against me' 7o%3 they put such unable men as Cu ?rh and #ey h!i in command of the %ea$ forces of Han and #ey to attac$ h*in' learly enough3 they %ill not be able to do anything against me'" @.s the fe% are no match for the many3 the ruler alone is not sufficient to $no% all the officials' Therefore3 go(ern men %ith men' In this %ay3 %ithout damaging his features and his body3 the ruler administers state affairs successfullyH %ithout ma$ing use of his %isdom and reason3 he can find out culprits' Hence follo%s the proberb of the Sungs3 saying "Bi %ould be unreasonable if he claimed his ability to shoot do%n e(ery sparro% passing by him' Supposing .fter destroying the Fan and the hung-hang lans3 they too$ the troops of Han and #ey along to attac$ hao' They inundated the capital of hao %ith the %ater from the hin 0i(er3 till only si5 feet @< s8uare of land inside the city . single reply that %ould enable the three .are disclosed3 censure and re%ard %ill be clarified' #hen censure and re%ard are clarified3 the country %ill not be poor' Hence the saying+ ". In response they said3 "That is (ery true'" Ho%e(er3 Musician hung h!i put his lute aside and said in reply+ "Bour MaFesty is mista$en in estimating the situation of .nother day the coachman as$ed3 "Master3 ho% could you tell that she had $illed her husbandL" "Her (oice %as fearful3" said Tzŭ-ch!an' ".ll-under-Hea(en' Indeed3 at the time of the Si5 hins3 the hih lan %as the strongest among all' .s the fe% are no match for the many3 the %ise are not sufficient to $no% all the things' Therefore3 regulate things %ith things' The inferior are manyH the superior3 fe%' .

s a rule3 the enlightened so(ereign in go(erning the state holds fast to his position' .ll-underHea(en push their elbo%s and step on their feet' May Bour MaFesty3 therefore3 not loo$ do%n upon themG" Some critic says+ )ing hao*s 8uestion %as mista$enH the replies by the chamberlains and hung-ch!i %ere %rong' .o not loo$ do%n upon themG" This %as an empty saying' Moreo(er3 %hat hung-ch!i too$ charge of %as harps and lutes' #ere the strings not harmonious and the notes not clear3 it %ould be his duty to fi5 them' In this post hung-ch!i AA ser(ed )ing hao' He %as %illing to enter upon the duties of that post' Bet before he as yet pro(ed satisfactory in his official capacity to )ing hao3 he spo$e on %hat he did not $no%' #as he not thoughtlessL The chamberlains* replies3 "Both are %ea$er no% than before3" and3 "The former are not as great as the latter3" %ere fair3 but their last reply3 "That is (ery true3" %as certainly flattery' Sh?n Tzŭ said3 "The %ay to order is not to o(erstep the duties of one*s post and not to spea$ about people*s business though a%are of it'" 7o%3 hung-ch!i did not $no% politics but spo$e on it' Hence the saying+ ")ing hao*s 8uestion %as mista$en+ the replies by the chamberlains and hung-ch!i %ere %rong'" .%as not flooded' &ne day3 2arl hih %ent out %ith /iscount HsMan of #ey as the charioteer and /iscount )!ang of Han in charge of the e5tra team' &n the %ay3 2arl hih said3 !7e(er before ha(e I $no%n that %ater can destroy enemies* states' I ha(e Fust come to $no% it' The %ater of the F?ng 0i(er can inundate the city of .n-i AJ H and the %ater of the hiang 0i(er can inundate the city of P*ing-yang' A9 Hearing this remar$3 /iscount HsMan of #ey pushed the elbo% of /iscount )!ang of Han %hile /iscount )!ang stepped on /iscount HsMan*s foot' Soon after the elbo% %as pushed and the foot %as stepped on in the carriage3 the possessions of the hih lan %ere di(ided beneath the %alls of hin-yang' 7o%3 Bour MaFesty3 though strong3 is not yet as po%erful as the hih lan' Han and #ey3 though %ea$3 are not yet as helpless as the people besieged at hin-yang' A@ To-day is the (ery moment %hen .ll-under-Hea(en combine against him3 they could do nothing against him' Then ho% much less could M?ng h!ang3 Mang Mao3 Han3 and #ey do against h!inL Ho%e(er3 if the position can be inFured3 then e(en un%orthy men li$e Cu ?rh and #ey h!i and the %ea$ forces of Han and #ey can be detrimental to it' Such being the case3 (iolability and in(iolability both rest on nothing but the reliability of one*s o%n position' #hy did he raise the 8uestion thenL If the so(ereign relies on the in(iolability of his o%n position3 he minds no enemy %hether strong or %ea$' If he cannot rely on his o%n position but $eeps as$ing about the strength of his enemies3 suffering no in(asion %ill be a godsend to him' Sh?n Tzŭ said3 "#ho loses sight of calculations and loo$s to people*s %ords for bases of belief3 %ill for e(er be in doubt3" %hich %as applicable to )ing hao*s case' 2arl hih had no rules of self-restraint' Thus3 %hile ta$ing /iscounts )!ang of Han and HsMan of #ey along3 he thought of flooding and ruining their countries %ith %ater' This %as the reason %hy 2arl hih had his country destroyed3 himself $illed3 and his s$ull made into a drin$ing cup' 7o%3 %hen )ing hao as$ed if enemies %ere stronger than they had been before3 there %as no %orry about his flooding lands' Though he had the chamberlains around3 they %ere not the same as the /iscounts of Han and #ey' Then ho% could there be any elbo%-pushing and foot-stepping intriguesL 7e(ertheless3 hung-ch!i said3 ".s long as his position is not inFured3 e(en though the forces of .

ll-under-Hea(en'" AE Some critic says+ #hat )uan hung meant by the so-called %ords %hich %ere said inside the room and pre(ailed upon e(erybody in the room and those %hich %ere said inside the hall and pre(ailed upon e(erybody in the hall3 %as not restricted to tal$s gi(en in sport and play or after drin$ing and eating3 but inclusi(e of serious discussions of important business' The important business of the lord of men is either la% or tact' The la% is codified in boo$s3 $ept in go(ernmental offices3 and promulgated among the hundred surnames' The tact is hidden in the bosom and useful in comparing di(erse moti(ating factors of human conduct and in manipulating the body of officials secretly' Therefore3 la% %ants nothing more than publicityH tact abhors (isibility' For this reason3 %hen the enlightened so(ereign spea$s on la%3 high and lo% %ithin the boundaries %ill hear and $no% it' Thus3 the speech pre(ails not only upon e(erybody in the hall' #hen he applies his tact3 none of his fa(ourites and courtiers %ill notice it at all' Thus3 it cannot display itself all o(er the room' 7e(ertheless3 )uan Tzŭ insisted on saying3 "The %ords said in the pri(ate room pre(ail upon e(erybody in the roomH the %ords said in the public hall pre(ail upon e(erybody in the hall3" %hich is not an utterance of the spirit of la% and tact at all' 'otes 9' ð三' @' ?OOÀ' #ith )u )uang-ts!? #ang h!ung*s "0efutation of Han Fei Tzŭ" has @ in place of OOO' A' 觀 should be â' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 王 should be J' .)uan Tzŭ said3 "#hen the ruler appro(es the minister*s conduct3 he manifests e(idences AD of li$ing himH %hen he disappro(es the minister*s conduct3 he produces facts of disli$ing him' If re%ard and punishment accord %ith %hat is seen3 the minister %ill dare do no %rong e(en in unseen places' Suppose %hen the ruler sees the minister*s conduct appro(able3 of li$ing him he manifests no e(idenceH %hen he sees the minister*s conduct not appro(able3 of disli$ing him he produces no fact' Then if re%ard and punishment do not accord %ith %hat is seen3 it is impossible to e5pect the minister to do good at unseen places'" Some critic says+ Public grounds and sublime shrines are places %here all beha(e %ith respectH dar$ rooms and solitary 8uarters are places %here e(en Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!in become undisciplined' To obser(e people %hen they beha(e respectfully is not to be able to get at the realities of them' Moreo(er3 in the presence of the ruler and superior e(ery minister and inferior is forced to polish his manners' If both appro(al and disappro(al rest on %hat is seen3 it is certain that ministers and inferiors %ill disguise %ic$ed things and thereby befool their masters' If the ruler*s o%n insight cannot illuminate distant croo$s and discern hidden secrets and thereby guard against them3 to fi5 re%ard and punishment by obser(ing disguised deeds is certainly harmful' )uan Tzŭ said3 "#hose %ords said inside the pri(ate room pre(ail upon e(erybody in the room3 and %hose %ords said inside the public hall pre(ail upon e(erybody in the hall3 he can be called ruler of .

P8qiQÆ韓8iË=?i =RR寡人¾iï明A belo% the preceding sentence' I deem it necessary to supply this sentence belo% the preceding one' .E' ÏÙ之N' #ith Hiraza%a Ï should read A' By the men of Tsou and -u the author e(idently meant onfucius and his immediate descendants and follo%ers %ho %ere nati(es of the t%o countries' =' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ÷B should be CD throughout this criticism' I' 7amely3 )ung-sum Ts!ao3 Tzŭ-chih being his pen-name' .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? The 'ook of Warrin( States has jËRˆ之.' @J' #ith )u L should be supplied abo(e V' @9' #ith )u à abo(e à should be ¤' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ˆ should be supplied belo% 不' @A' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n 然— means3 然l' @D' #ith Sun I-Fang žM seemingly should be žN' @E' + supra& p' @=E' @=' Cf+ Tao9Teh9Chin(& h' -1/3 @3 trans' by arus' @I' ¯ should be O and so throughout this criticism' @.' + -ao Tzŭ*s Tao9Teh9Chin(& h' 1/II3 93 trans' by arus' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ™ reads š' 9<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? K abo(e ¤œ should be .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? i should be supplied belo% E <' #or$ 111I has 朝 in place of F : + supra& p' 9<>' 9J' #or$ 111I has Æ in place of G : + supra& p' D>' 99' Cf+ Confucian %nalects& B$' 1III3 h' 1/I3 @3 -egge*s trans' 9@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? H should be I' 9A' #ith )u 不 should be ƒ' 9D' 7amely3 Bao3 Shun3 BM3 T!ang3 #?n3 and #u' 9E' + -ao Tzŭ*s Tao9Teh9Chin(& h' -1III3 A3 trans' by arus' 9=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ý should be í' 9I' #ith )u J belo% N should be -' 9.

eries o)r 9 5nce Sun #?n-tzŭ of #ei (isited the court of -u' #hen the .u$e %as going up a flight of steps3 he also %ent up at the same time' Thereupon Shu-sun Mu-tzŭ rushed for%ard and said3 ". Criticis&s of the Ancients.t e(ery conference of the feudal lords3 His Highness ne(er %al$s behind the 0uler of #ei' 7o%3 you are not %al$ing one step behind our 0uler %hile our 0uler does not notice the fault' #ill you go a little bit more slo%lyL" Bet Sun Tzŭ neither had any %ord to say nor sho%ed any sign of reform' #hen Mu-tzŭ %ithdre% from the party3 he said to people3 "Sun Tzŭ %ill go to ruin' Being a failing minister3 he %ould not %al$ behind a ruler' ommitting a fault3 he %ould not reform himself' This is the basic factor of ruin'" Some critic says+ #hen Sons of Hea(en lost the %ay of go(ernment3 feudal lords replaced @ them' For e5ample3 T!ang and #u replaced hieh and ho%' #hen feudal lords lost the %ay of go(ernment3 high officers replaced them' For e5ample3 high officers in h!i and hin replaced their rulers' #ere the minister replacing the ruler doomed to ruin3 then T!ang and #u could not become rulers and the ne% ruling dynasties in h!i and hin A could not be established' 7o%3 Sun Tzŭ in #ei ri(alled his ruler in po%er but ne(er became a minister in -u' If any minister turns ruler3 it is because the original ruler has lost the reins of go(ernment' Therefore3 not%ithstanding that Sun Tzŭ had gained the reins of go(ernment3 Mu-tzŭ %arned the minister ha(ing the gain3 of ruin instead of %arning the ruler suffering the loss3 of ruin' Thus3 Mu-tzŭ %as not clear-sighted at all' Indeed3 -u could not punish the en(oy from #ei %hile the 0uler of #ei %as not enlightened enough to $no% the unreformable minister' Though Mu-tzŭ had found these t%o faults3 ho% D could he foretell Sun Tzŭ*s ruinL The %ay he ruined his status as minister E %as the %ay he bro$e the ministerial eti8uette and thereby ac8uired the po%er of the ruler' = Some other critic says+ Minister and ruler ha(e their respecti(e duties' If the minister can rob the ruler of the throne3 it is because they ha(e o(er-ridden each other*s duties' Therefore3 if the ruler ta$es %hat is not his due3 the masses %ill ta$e it a%ay from him' If the minister declines his due and ta$es it after%ards3 the people %ill gi(e it bac$ to him' For this reason3 hieh sought after the girls of Min-shan and ho% made re8uest for Pi )an*s heart %ith the immediate result that . .ll-under-Hea(en %ere thereby estranged from them' -i$e%ise3 T!ang had to change his personal name and #u recei(ed punishment I 3 %herefore e(erybody %ithin the seas obeyed them' .@<' 三S' AJ' The then capital of #ey' A9' The then capital of Han' A@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen = abo(e 晉陽 is superfluous' AA' T reads *' AD' )uan Tzŭ*s " ulti(ating Po%ers" has 徵 in place of ‚' AE' )uan Tzŭ3 "&n the Shepherd of the People'" Chapter 222I2.

u$e hing to censure 9J the astute ministers of h!i3 Pao #?n-tzŭ ad(ised him to censure clumsy Hu' Thus3 his persuasion %as unreasonable' #hether the ministers are loyal or deceitful3 it all depends upon the ruler*s action' If the ruler is enlightened and strict3 all the ministers %ill be loyal to him' If the ruler is %ea$ and stupid3 then all ministers %ill be deceitful' To be %ell informed of secrets is called "enlightened"H to grant no pardon is called "strict"' Pao #?n-tzŭ did not $no% the astute ministers of h!i but %anted to censure the plotter of a disturbance in -u' #as this not absurdL Some other critic says+ Bene(olence and co(etousness do not inhere in the same mind' For instance3 Prince Mu-i declined the throne of Sung offered by his brother3 %hereas Shang-ch!?n of h!u murdered his royal father in order to get the throne' h!M-chih of h?ng passed the reins of go(ernment o(er to his younger brother3 %hereas .gainst such a measure Pao #?ntzŭ remonstrated %ith him3 saying3 "It is not practicable' Bang Hu had been in fa(our %ith the hi lan but attempted to attac$ < hi-sun because he %as co(etous of their %ealth' 7o% that Bour Highness is %ealthier than hi-sun and h!i is larger than -u3 Bang Hu %ill e5ert all his deceitful tric$s'" .u$e hing paid him great respects' .u$e Huan3 99 as e5ample' If so3 all of them obser(ed no code of fidelity and integrity' Moreo(er3 if the ruler is enlightened3 all the officials %ill be loyal' 7o%3 Bang Hu plotted a disturbance in -u3 failed3 and fled to h!i' If the authorities of h!i did not censure him3 they %ould be doing the same as ta$ing o(er an unsuccessful trouble-ma$er from .u$e Bin' The Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers practised the policy of anne5ing %ea$er states %ith .Similarly3 /iscount HsMan .u$e hing3 accordingly3 imprisoned Bang Hu' Some critic says+ If the millionaire*s son is not bene(olent3 it is because e(erybody is by nature an5ious to gain profit' .ll-under-Hea(en and schemed to attac$ his superior3 %herefore his plan must ha(e been crude and clumsy' Instead of ad(ising .u$e Huan %as the first of the Fi(e Hegemonic 0ulers3 but in struggling for the throne3 he $illed his elder brother because the profit %as great' The relationship bet%een minister and ruler is not e(en as intimate as that bet%een brothers' If through the accomplishment of intimidation and murder one can rule o(er the state of ten thousand chariots and enFoy the great profit3 then %ho among the body of officials %ill not do the same as Bang HuL To be sure3 e(ery plan3 if delicately and s$ilfully carried out3 %ill succeed3 and3 if crudely and clumsily carried out3 is bound to fail' The ministers do not cause any disturbance because they are not yet %ell prepared' If the ministers all ha(e the mind of Bang Hu %hich the ruler does not notice3 their plan must be delicate and s$ilful' ontrasted %ith them3 Bang Hu %as $no%n to be co(etous of the rule o(er .u$e Huan of -u murdered his elder brother3 . of hao fled to the mountains and /iscount T!ien h!?ng too$ refuge abroad' In conse8uence3 ho%e(er3 the peoples of h!i and hin follo%ed them' Such being the case3 T!ang and #u could become $ings and the ne% ruling dynasties of h!i and hin could be established3 not because they usurped the throne first and then too$ %hat %as their due3 but because they first too$ %hat %as their due and later proceeded to the throne' 7o% that Sun #?n-tzŭ ne(er too$ %hat %as his due but beha(ed himself li$e a ruler3 he opposed the principle of Fustice and (iolated the doctrine of propriety' To oppose the principle of Fustice causes the failure of affairsH to (iolate the doctrine of propriety causes the accumulation of the people*s grudge' #hy did the critic ta$e no notice of the impending calamity of failure and destructionL Bang Hu of -u schemed to attac$ the Three Huans3 failed in the campaign3 and fled to h!i' There .

u$e hao3 then the heir apparent3 disli$ed him and remonstrated firmly %ith his father' His father3 ho%e(er3 %ould not listen' .%herefore the -uans and the hung-hangs caused a disturbanceH Tzŭ-tu of h?ng e5ecuted Pai- .fter .-u' If the ruler %ere enlightened3 he %ould $no% 9@ that by censuring Bang Hu an impending ci(il disturbance could be pre(ented' This is the right %ay of disclosing an e(il in the bud' .u$e hao on the day of the 4olden 0abbit 9A and established his younger brother3 Prince #ei3 9D on the throne' 4entlemen of that time ga(e comment on the e(ents3 saying3 ".u$e hao*s $no%ledge of the right man to disli$e did not mean that the disli$e %as too serious3 but that in spite of his clear $no%ledge as such he ne(er inflicted punishment upon the man till finally he died at the hands of the man' Therefore3 the saying3 "He $ne% the right man to disli$e3" e5posed the po%erlessness of .u$e hao' .u$e hao displayed his disli$e for )ao hM-mi but suspended the con(iction of his crime and did not censure him' Thereby he made hM-mi bear him a grudge3 fear capital punishment3 and ris$ his o%n fortune' In conse8uence3 the .u$e -i of hin destroyed three h!is3 9.ccording to an old saying3 "2(ery feudal lord must consider his friendship %ith other states as more important than %ith any pri(ate indi(idual'" If the 0uler of h!i %as strict at all3 he %ould ne(er o(erloo$ the guilt of Bang Hu' This is the practice of gi(ing no pardon' If so3 to censure Bang Hu %ould be the %ay to ma$e the body of officials loyal' #ho too$ no notice of the astute ministers of h!i but neglected the punishment of a culprit already guilty of treason in -u3 blamed a person before he as yet committed any offence but refused to censure a man e(idently con(icted of felony3 %as thoughtless3 indeed' Therefore3 to punish the criminal guilty of treason in -u and thereby both o(er-a%e the croo$ed-minded ministers of h!i and culti(ate terms of friendship %ith the lans of hi-sun3 M?ng-sun3 and Shu-sun3 Pao #?n*s persuasion %as by no means absurd as alleged by the preceding critic' #hen h?ng Pai %as about to appoint )ao hM-mi high officer3 .u$e hao met the disaster because he %as too late in re(enging himself on his enemy' If so3 )ao Pai died late because his re(enge for a disli$e %as too serious' Indeed3 the enlightened ruler does not manifest his indignation' For3 if he manifests his indignation at any minister3 then the guilty minister 9E %ill rashly scheme to carry out his plot' If so3 the lord of men %ill fall into danger' For instance3 during the carousal at the Spiritual To%er3 the 0uler of #ei %as angry at h!u Shih but did not censure him' In conse8uence3 h!u Shih caused a disturbance' .s a ruler of men3 he not only failed to foresee an impending danger3 but also failed to pre(ent and suppress it' 7o%3 .u$e hao $ne% the right man to disli$e'" Prince BM said3 "Ho% murderous )ao Pai must beG His re(enge for a disli$e %as too much'" Some critic says+ Prince BM*s remar$ %as absurd' .gain3 %hen Prince Tzŭ-$ung tasted the turtle soup3 the 0uler of h?ng %as angry at him but did not punish him' In conse8uence3 Tzŭ-$ung murdered him' The gentleman*s remar$ on .u$e hao*s accession to the throne3 )ao hM-mi3 afraid of being $illed by the ne% ruler3 murdered .u$e could not e(ade murder' Thus3 )ao Pai*s 9= re(enge for disli$e %as natural and ne(er too serious' Some other critic says+ #ho o(er-compensates for an e(il3 %ould inflict a big punishment for a small offence' To inflict a big punishment for a small offence is an eccentric action by the criminal court' It constitutes a %orry to the court' The menace arises not from the criminals already 9I punished but from the number of enemies thereby made' For instance3 .

u$e @9 -ing of hin li$ed Shan #u-hsM3 )!uai of Ben regarded Tzŭ-chih as %orthy' The t%o rulers did esteem them3 though neither %as an honest man' Thus3 %ho is regarded by the ruler as %orthy3 is not necessarily %orthy' To regard an un%orthy man as %orthy and ta$e him into ser(ice3 is the same as to employ a fa(ourite' Ho%e(er3 to regard a real %orthy as %orthy and raise him3 is not the same @@ as to employ a fa(ourite' For this reason3 )ing huang of .ll-underHea(en' If so3 %as it unreasonable that he %as murderedL .u$e3 said3 "The dream of thy ser(ant has materialized3 indeed'" "#hat did you dreamL" as$ed the .u$e Hu of h!i %as destroyed by Tsou Ma-hsM' Thus3 e(en the ruler*s manifestation of his anger at the minister has e(il after-conse8uencesH ho% much more so should be the minister*s manifestation of his anger at the rulerL If it %as not right to censure the minister3 then to stri(e to realize his %ish %ould be the same as to ma$e enemies %ith .hsMan3 %herefore Shih-ting started a troubleH and the )ing of #u chastised Tzŭ-hsM3 %herefore )ou-chien of BMeh became Hegemonic 0uler' Such being the case3 that the 0uler of #ei %as banished and the .u$e in anger3 "%ho sees the lord of men in dreaming3 dreams of the sun' #hy did you see a coo$ing sto(e in your dream of meL" The clo%n then said3 "Indeed3 the sun shines upon e(erything under hea(en %hile nothing can co(er it' .ccordingly3 %ho sees the lord of men in dreaming3 dreams the sun' In the case of a coo$ing sto(e3 ho%e(er3 if one person stands before it3 then nobody from behind can see' Supposing someone %ere standing before Bour Highness3 %ould it not be possible for thy ser(ant to dream of a coo$ing sto(eL" "0ight" said the .u$e and3 accordingly3 remo(ed Bung h!u3 dismissed Mi Tzŭ-hsia3 and employed Ssŭ-$!ung )ou' Some critic says+ The clo%n did (ery %ell in ma$ing a prete5t of dreaming of a coo$ing sto(e and thereby rectifying the %ay of the so(ereign3 %hereas .s I understand3" said the .u$e of h?ng %as murdered3 %as not because h!u Shih had not been e5ecuted and Tzŭ-$ung had not been punished3 but because the rulers had the angry colour %hen they should not ha(e e5pressed their indignation3 and they had the mind to punish them %hen they %ere not in the position to punish them' In fact3 %hen they %ere angry at the t%o croo$s3 if the punishment of them %ould not go against public opinion3 there %ould be no harm in manifesting their indignation' Indeed3 to blame a minister before the accession and %ait to punish him for the pre(ious offence after the accession %as the reason %hy .u$e -ing of #ei3 Mi Tzŭ-hsia %as in fa(our %ith him in the #ei State' &ne day3 a certain clo%n3 %hen seeing the .u$e in no %ise increased his %isdom @J but allo%ed an astute man to stand before him3 he %ould certainly endanger himself' Some other critic says+ h!M Tao tasted %ater-chestnuts3 )ing #?n tasted calamus pic$les' The t%o %orthies did taste them3 though both %ere not delicious tastes' Thus3 %hat man tastes is not necessarily delicious' .u$e -ing did not fully understand the clo%n*s saying' For to remo(e Bung h!u3 dismiss Mi Tzŭhsia3 and employ Ssŭ-$!ung )ou3 %as to remo(e his fa(ourites and employ a man he regarded as %orthy' For the same reason3 Tzŭ-tu of h?ng regarded h!in hien as %orthy3 he %as deludedH Tzŭ-$!uai regarded Tzŭ-chih as %orthy3 he %as deluded' Indeed3 %ho dismisses his fa(ourites and employs men he considers %orthy3 cannot help allo%ing the "%orthies" to stand before him' If an un%orthy man stands before the so(ereign3 he is not sufficient to hurt the so(ereign*s sight' 7o%3 if the .t the time of .u$e' "Thy ser(ant dreamt of a coo$ing sto(e3" replied 9< the clo%n3 "on seeing your Highness'" "#hatL .

u$e Huan inasmuch as he3 being the first Hegemonic 0uler3 %as guilty of fratricide and could ma$e no good e5ample' 9@' #ith #ang š belo% N should be abo(e it' 9A' XY' X is the eighth one among the ten hea(enly stems3 and Y3 the fourth one among the t%el(e earthly branches according to the accepted cosmology of classic anti8uity in hina' By framing the ten stems %ith the t%el(e branches ancient hinese in(ented the cosmic cycle %ith si5ty steps3 each representing one type of the chance combination of hea(enly and earthly factors' .h!u raised Sun-shu @A . and so in the follo%ing sentence' A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 晉q should be q晉' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? M should be K %hich means U' E' #ith #ang Hsien-shen =‹Ëm means m="M' =' #ith #ang =X‹ËÝi means X="M之q3 —Ý"=i' I' #ith )ao H?ng this referred to #u*s being enchained at the Cade 4ate :Cf+ supra& 11I3 p' @9.u$e -ing3 the .u$e3 though deluded3 did not $no% he %as being deluded' It %as only after the clo%n had inter(ie%ed him that he came to $no% the deception' Therefore3 to dismiss the deluding ministers %as to increase his %isdom' @E The preceding critic said @= + "If the ruler3 %ithout increasing his %isdom3 allo%s any astute man to stand before him3 he %ill fall into danger'" 7o% that the .fter this cycle they ha(e named from time immemorial the years3 the months3 the days3 and the hours3 the hinese ha(ing di(ided one day into t%el(e instead of t%enty-four hours' 9D' -u #?n-shao suspected Z %as a mista$e for [' .u$e had increased his %isdom by dismissing t%o deceitful men3 though the ne% man he employed might stand before him3 he ne(er %ould be Feopardized' 'otes 9' ðg' In this #or$ each criticism is follo%ed by a counter-criticism' @' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 伐 should be .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? V should be 9' <' #ith #ang ? belo% 伐 is superfluous' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? belo% 不/rsWN? should be supplied q之·Mi而/WN?' 99' #ang Hsien-shen thought Ê referred to the Three Huans and so proposed the supply of 三 abo(e it' I disagree %ith him' Ê must refer to .>' .o3 %herefore he became Hegemonic 0ulerH Hsing @D of Bing employed Fei hung3 %herefore he %ent to ruin' Both these )ings employed men they considered %orthy but har(ested entirely opposite results' )!uai of Ben3 though he raised a man he considered %orthy3 did the same as employing a fa(ourite' #hether or not the 0uler of #ei %as ma$ing the same mista$e3 %ho could be sureL Before the clo%n sa% .

octrine of Position 9 ShHn Tzŭ said+K "The flying dragon rides on the clouds and the rising serpent strolls through the mistsH but as soon as the clouds disperse and the mists clear up3 the dragon and the serpent become the same as the earth%orm and the large-%inged blac$ ant3 because they ha(e then lost %hat they rested on' If %orthies are subFected by un%orthy men3 it is because their po%er is %ea$ and their status is lo%H %hereas if the un%orthy men can be subFected by the %orthies3 it is because the po%er of the latter is strong and their status is high' Bao3 %hile a commoner3 could not go(ern three people3 %hereas hieh3 being the Son of Hea(en3 could thro% .ll-under-Hea(en3 %hate(er he ordered too$ effect and %hate(er he forbade stopped' From such a (ie%point I see that (irtue and %isdom are not sufficient to subdue the masses3 and that position and status may %ell subFect @ e(en %orthies'" .' h!i hih3 h!i Bi3 and h!i h!iu' 9<' #or$ 111 has \B abo(e ]º' @J' Both Hiraza%a*s and the #aseda edition ha(e š in place of N' The follo%ing counter-criticism has š in its 8uotation from the present critic' I belie(e N should be š' @9' Both Hiraza%a*s and the #aseda edition ha(e s in place of ^' @@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 狀 belo% _ is superfluous' @A' #ith #ang #ei Ç孫 should be 孫Ç' @D' 7amely3 )ing ho%' @E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 之 belo% š is superfluous' @=' I regard † as a mista$e for B' The Palace -ibrary edition has B in place of †3 too' )u considered it %rong3 ho%e(er' Chapter 2L.ll-under-Hea(en into chaos' "From this I $no% that position and status are sufficient to rely on3 and that (irtue and %isdom are not %orth yearning after' Indeed3 if the bo% is %ea$ and the arro% flies high3 it is because it is dri(en up by the %indH if the orders of an un%orthy man ta$e effect3 it is because he is supported by the masses' #hen Bao %as teaching in an inferior status3 the people did not listen to himH but3 as soon as he faced the south3 and became 0uler of . A Criti>)e of the .9E' #ith )u M» should be »M' 9=' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 4s should be ^4' 9I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Ë abo(e N should be ó' 9.

In response to Sh?n Tzŭ some critic says+K "True3 the flying dragon rides on the clouds and the rising serpent strolls through the mists' The dependence of the dragon and the serpent on the circumstances of the clouds and the mists I ne(er deny' Ho%e(er3 if you cast %orthiness aside and trust to position entirely3 is it sufficient to attain political orderL 7o such instance ha(e I e(er been able to %itness' Indeed3 if the dragon and the serpent3 %hen ha(ing the circumstances of clouds and mists3 can ride on and stroll through them3 it is because their talents are e5cellent' A 7o%3 though the clouds are thic$3 the earth%orm cannot ride on themH though the mists are deep3 the ant cannot stroll through them' Indeed3 if the earth%orm and the ant3 %hen ha(ing the circumstances of thic$ clouds and deep mists3 cannot ride on and stroll through them3 it is because their talents are feeble' 7o%3 %hile hieh and ho% %ere facing the south and ruling .ll-underHea(en into chaosL .ll-under-Hea(en %as go(erned by Bao %ith his position3 then ho% could that position differ from hieh*s position %ith D %hich he thre% .gain3 if .o not add %ings to tigers' &ther%ise3 they %ill fly into the (illage3 catch people3 and de(our them'* "Indeed3 to place un%orthy men in ad(antageous positions is the same as to add %ings to tigers' Thus3 hieh and ho% built high terraces and deep pools to e5haust people*s strength and made roasting pillars to inFure people*s li(es' I hieh and ho% could abuse their position and gi(e themsel(es o(er to all (ices . because the south-facing authority < %or$ed as their %ings' #ere hieh and ho% commoners3 then before they as yet committed a single (ice3 their bodies %ould ha(e suffered the death penalty' Thus3 position can rear in man the heart of the tiger and the %olf and thereby foster outrageous and (iolent e(ents' In this respect it is a great menace to .fter all3 position cannot al%ays ma$e %orthies realize their E good-%ill and un%orthy persons realize their = malice' If %orthies use it3 the %orld becomes orderlyH if un%orthy persons use it3 the %orld becomes chaotic' ".s regards human nature3 %orthies are fe% and %orthless persons many' Because the un%orthy men %ho disturb the %orld are supplied %ith the ad(antage of authority and position3 those %ho by means of their position disturb the %orld are many and those %ho by means of their position go(ern the %orld %ell are fe%' Indeed3 position is both an ad(antage to order and a facility to chaos' Hence the History of Chou says+ !.ll-under-Hea(en %ould fall into chaos' It is because the %orthy .ll-under-Hea(en3 the limits of his %isdom must be (ery narro%' "For instance3 a s%ift horse and a solid carriage3 if you ma$e bondmen and bond%omen dri(e them3 %ill be ridiculed by people3 but3 if dri(en by #ang -iang3 %ill ma$e one thousand li a day' The horse and the carriage are not different' Bet3 if they sometimes ma$e one thousand li a day and are sometimes ridiculed by people3 it is because the s$ilful coachman is so different from the uns$ilful ones' 7o%3 compare the state 99 to the carriage3 position to the horse3 commands and orders to the reins and the bridle3 9@ and punishments to the %hip and the cord3 and then let Bao and Shun dri(e them' Be sure .llunder-Hea(en could not e(ade chaos3 although the talents of hieh and ho% %ere feeble' .ll-underHea(en' Thus3 concerning the relation of position to order and chaos3 there is from the outset no 9J settled (ie%' 7e(ertheless3 if anyone de(otes his %hole discourse to the sufficiency of the doctrine of position to go(ern .ll-under-Hea(en %ith the authority of the Son of Hea(en as the circumstances of clouds and mists3 .

fter all3 Bao and Shun are the #ang -iangs in go(erning the people'" 9A In response to the foregoing criticism some other critic says+K "The philosopher considered position sufficiently reliable for go(erning officials and people' The critic said that you had to depend on %orthies for political order' .s a matter of truth3 neither side is reasonable enough' Indeed3 the term shih 勢 is a generic name' Its species co(er innumerable (arieties' If the term shih is al%ays restricted to that (ariety entirely due to nature3 then there %ill be no use in disputing on the subFect' #hat is meant by shih on %hich I am tal$ing is the shih created by man' 7o%3 the critic said3 !#hen Bao and Shun had shih& order obtainedH %hen hieh and ho% had shih& chaos pre(ailed'* Though I do not deny the success of Bao and Shun3 yet I do assert that shih is not %hat one man alone can create' "Indeed3 if Bao and Shun %ere born in the superior status and e(en ten hiehs and ho%s could not create any commotion3 the political order %ould then be due to the force of circumstances' If hieh and ho% %ere born in the superior status and e(en ten Baos and Shuns could not attain order3 the political chaos %ould then be due to the force of circumstances' Hence the saying+ !#here there is order by force of circumstances3 there can be no chaosH %here there is chaos by force of circumstances3 there can be no order'* Such is the shih due to natureH it cannot be created by man' "By shih the critic 9D meant %hat man can create' By shih I mean only the $ind of shih as ac8uired by man' #orthiness has nothing to do %ith it' Ho% to clarify this pointL "Somebody said+ &nce there %as a man selling halberds and shields' He praised his shields for their solidity as such that nothing could penetrate them' .ll at once he also praised his halberds3 saying3 !My halberds are so sharp that they can penetrate anything'* In response to his %ords people as$ed3 !Ho% about using your halberds to pierce through your shieldsL* To this the man could not gi(e any reply' "In fact3 the shields ad(ertised to be !impenetrable* and the halberds ad(ertised to be !absolutely penetrati(e* cannot stand together' Similarly3 %orthiness employed as a form of shih cannot forbid anything3 but shih employed as a %ay of go(ernment forbids e(erything' 7o%3 to bring together %orthiness that cannot forbid anything and shih that forbids e(erything 9E is a !halberd-and-shield* fallacy' 9= learly enough3 %orthiness and circumstances are incompatible %ith each other' "Moreo(er3 Bao and Shun as %ell as hieh and ho% appear once in a thousand generationsH %hereas the opposite 9I types of men are born shoulder to shoulder and on the heels of one another' .s a matter of fact3 most rulers in the %orld form a continuous line of a(erage men' It is for the a(erage rulers that I spea$ about shih+ The a(erage rulers neither come up to the %orthiness of Bao and Shun nor reach do%n to the %ic$edness of hieh and ho%' If they uphold the la% and ma$e use of their august position3 order obtainsH if they discard the la% and desert their august position3 chaos pre(ails' 7o% suppose you discard the position and act contrary to the .and the un%orthy are (ery different from each other' Indeed3 if anybody %ants to dri(e fast and far but does not $no% to employ #ang -iang3 or if one %ants to increase ad(antages and remo(e dangers but does not $no% to employ %orthy and talented men3 it is the calamity of the ignorance of analogy' .

from BMeh to rescue a dro%ning man in a entral State3 9< ho%e(er %ell the BMeh s%immer may do3 the dro%ning person %ill not be rescued' In the same %ay3 %aiting for the #ang -iang of old to dri(e the horse of to-day is as fallacious as %aiting for the man from BMeh to rescue that dro%ning person' The impracticability is e(ident enough' But3 if teams of s%ift horses and solid carriages are placed in readiness in relays fifty li apart and then you ma$e an a(erage coachman dri(e them3 he %ill be able to dri(e them fast and far and co(er one thousand li a day' #hy should it then be necessary to %ait for the #ang -iang of oldL "Further3 in matters of dri(ing3 the critic chose #ang -iang for a case of success and too$ bondmen and bond%omen for a case of failureH in matters of go(ernment3 he selected Bao and Shun for attaining order and hieh and ho% for creating chaos' To run from one e5treme to another is as fallacious as to consider taste as s%eet as %heatgluten and honey or else as bitter as parti-coloured lettuce and bitter parsley' "In short3 the criticism3 composed of flippant contentions and %ordy repetitions3 is absurd and tactless' It is a dilemma in(ol(ing t%o e5tremes @J as the only alternati(es' If so3 ho% can it be used to criticize a reasonable and consistent doctrineL The argument of the critic3 ho%e(er3 is not as sound as the doctrine under consideration'" 'otes .la% and %ait for Bao and Shun to appear and suppose order obtains after the arri(al of Bao and Shun3 then order %ill obtain in one out of one thousand generations of continuous chaos' Suppose you uphold the la% and ma$e use of the august position and %ait for hieh and ho% to appear and suppose chaos pre(ails after the arri(al of hieh and ho%3 then chaos %ill pre(ail in one out of one thousand generations of continuous order' To be sure3 one generation of chaos out of one thousand generations of order and one generation of order out of one thousand generations of chaos are as different from each other as steed-riders dri(ing in opposite directions are far apart from each other' "Indeed3 %hen you abandon the tools of stretching and bending and gi(e up the scales of %eights and measures3 then though you try to ma$e Hsi hung construct a carriage3 he %ould not be able to finish e(en a single %heel' Similarly3 %ithout the promise of re%ard and the threat of penalty3 and casting the position out of use and gi(ing up the la%3 then e(en if Bao and Shun preached from door to door and e5plained to e(erybody the gospel of political order3 they could not e(en go(ern three families' /erily3 that shih is %orth employing3 is e(ident' To say that it is necessary to depend upon %orthiness is not true' "Besides3 if you let anyone eat nothing for one hundred days %hile %aiting for good rice and meat to come3 the star(eling %ill not li(e' 7o%3 to depend upon the %orthiness of Bao and Shun for go(erning the people of the present %orld is as fallacious as to %ait for good rice and meat to sa(e the star(eling*s life' "Indeed3 I do not consider it right to say that a s%ift horse and a solid carriage3 %hen dri(en by bondmen and bond%omen3 %ill be ridiculed by people3 but3 %hen dri(en by #ang -iang3 %ill ma$e a thousand li a day' For illustration3 if you %ait for a good s%immer 9.

ff'>3 %hich is inaccurate' For shih& a special term employed by the ancient hinese legalists3 I ha(e chosen "position" in 2nglish inasmuch as it implies "circumstance" obFecti(ely and "influence" subFecti(ely and3 moreo(er3 is intimately related to wei :位> for %hich I ha(e used "status"' @' #ith BM BMeh and #ang Hsien-shen 缶 is a mista$e for 詘' A' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien a belo% 美 is superfluous' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¼ belo% 勢 should be %' E' #ith BM BMeh 已 in both cases should be =' #ith BM BMeh 已 in both cases should be I' I read n for !' .er$ Bodde rendered shih :勢> as "po%er" or "authority" :Fung3 History of Chinese )hilosophy0 The )eriod of the )hilosophers& p' A9.' #ith -u #?n-shao 9 abo(e : is superfluous' 9<' Places hundreds of miles apart' @J' #ith )ao H?ng # belo% 2 should be %' ' ' ./0a說也' 9=' /0a說3 logically spea$ing3 is a (iolation of the -a% of ontradiction3 the same preducats cannot $e $oth affirmed and denied of precisely the same su$Gect+ 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 8 should be supplied abo(e 45678Kn¼' 9.a勢-.a勢23-./0a說也 in(ol(es both mista$es and hiatuses' #ith )u )uangts!? it should be %不+.9' (勢' Its 2nglish rendering by -' T' hen is "Misgi(ings on ircumstances" :-iang3 History of Chinese )olitical Thou(ht durin( the 3arly Tsin )eriod& p' 99I3 f'I>3 %hich is a great mista$e' .a17Ó不.i(est of Classics has no 位 belo% •' 9@' #ith #ang the same boo$ has & belo% '' 9A' So much for the critical analysis of Sh?n Tzŭ*s doctrine of position' In the follo%ing passages Han Fei Tzŭ attempted a critical estimate of the t%o foregoing systems' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ( bet%een ) and ¶l is a mista$e for *' 9E' The passage %不+.' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 勢 should be supplied belo% S and 4 abo(e ¥ should be "' <' 7amely3 the circumstance and influence of the throne' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts!? # belo% $ should be %' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the .

In>)iring into the (rigin of .ialectic 9 Some$ody as$ed+ "Ho% does dialectic originateL" The reply %as+ "It originates from the superior*s lac$ of enlightenment'" The in8uirer as$ed+ "Ho% can the superior*s lac$ of enlightenment produce dialecticL" The reply %as+ "In the state of an enlightened so(ereign3 his orders are the most precious among the %ords of men and his la%s are the most appropriate rules to affairs' T%o different %ords cannot be e8ually precious nor can t%o different la%s be e8ually appropriate' Therefore3 %ords and deeds not conforming to la%s and decrees must be forbidden' If anybody3 not authorized by la%s and orders3 attempts to cope %ith foreign intrigues3 guard against ci(il disturbances3 produce public benefit3 or manage state affairs3 his superior should heed his %ord and hold it accountable for an e8ui(alent fact' If the %ord turns out true3 he should recei(e a big re%ard+ if not true3 he should suffer a hea(y penalty' Therefore3 stupid persons fear punishment and dare not spea$3 and intelligent persons find nothing to dispute' Such is the reason %hy in the state of an enlightened so(ereign there is neither dispute nor contro(ersy' @ "The same is not true in a chaotic age' The so(ereign issues orders3 but the subFects by means of their cultural learning derogate themH official bureau5 promulgate la%s3 but A the people through their conduct alter them' The lord of men3 %hile seeing the (iolation D of his la%s and orders3 honours the %isdom and conduct of the learned men' Such is the reason %hy the %orld has so many men of letters' "Indeed3 %ords and deeds should ta$e function and utility as mar$ and target' To be sure3 if someone sharpens an arro% and shoots it at random3 then though its pointed head may by chance hit the tip of an autumn spi$elet3 he cannot be called a s$ilful archer' For he has no constant aim and mar$' 7o%3 if the target %ere fi(e inches in diameter and the arro% %ere shot from a distance of one hundred steps3 E then nobody other than Hou Bi and P!ang M?ng could %ith certainty hit the mar$ e(ery time' For there %ould then be a constant aim and mar$' Therefore3 in the presence of a constant aim and mar$ the straight hit by Hou Bi and P!ang M?ng at a target fi(e inches in diameter is regarded as s$ilfulH %hereas in the absence of a constant aim and mar$ the %ild hit at the tip of an autumn spi$elet is regarded as a%$%ard' 7o%3 %hen adopting %ords and obser(ing deeds3 if someone does not ta$e function and utility for mar$ and target3 he %ill be doing the same as %ild shooting3 ho%e(er profound the %ords may be and ho%e(er thorough the deeds may be' "For this reason3 in a chaotic age3 people3 %hen listening to speeches3 regard unintelligible %ordings as profound and far-fetched discussions as elo8uentH and3 %hen obser(ing deeds3 regard de(iations from group creeds as %orthy and offences against superiors as noble' 2(en the lord of men li$es elo8uent and profound speeches3 and honours %orthy and noble deeds' In conse8uence3 though upholders of la% and craft establish the standards of acceptance and reFection and differentiate bet%een the principles of diction and contention3 neither ruler nor people are thereby rectified' For this reason3 men %earing the robes of the literati and girding the s%ords of the ca(aliers are many3 but men de(oted to tilling and fighting are fe%H discussions on "Hard and #hite" = and "The Merciless" I pre(ail3 but mandates and decrees come .Chapter 2LI.

ialog)es7 Hs8 Ch8 once as$ed T!ien hiu3 saying+ "Thy ser(ant has heard that %ise men do not ha(e to start from a lo% post before they %in the ruler*s confidence3 nor do sages ha(e to manifest their merits before they approach the superior' 7o% Bang-ch!?ng Ih-chM %as a famous general3 but he rose from a mere camp A masterH )ung-sun T!an-hui %as a great minister3 but he started as a district-magistrate' #hyL" In reply T!ien hiu said+ "It is for no other reason than this+ The so(ereign has rules and the superior has tacts' Moreo(er3 ha(e you ne(er heard that Sung )u3 a general of h!u3 disordered the go(ernment3 and F?ng -i3 Premier of #ey3 ruined that stateL It %as because both their rulers3 as misled by their high-sounding phrases and be%ildered by their elo8uent speeches3 ne(er tested their abilities as camp master and district-magistrate that the miseries of misgo(ernment and state-ruin ensued' From this (ie%point it is clear that %ithout ma$ing the trial at the camp and the test in the district the intelligent so(ereign cannot pro(ide against e(entualities'" .<' The hinese %ord pien < connotes both "dispute" and "contro(ersy" in 2nglish' Therefore in the translation of this %or$ sometimes both are simultaneously used for difference in emphasis' @' Most probably because of his methodological differences3 .to a standstill' Hence the saying+ !#here(er the so(ereign lac$s enlightenment3 there originates dialectic'* " 'otes 9' .er$ Bodde made a (ery different rendering of this paragraph : + Fung3 op' cit'3 p' A@A>' A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen K should be supplied abo(e }' D' #ith )ao H?ng ´ abo(e ‘§) means ý' E' #ang Hsien-shen proposed 百步 for 十步' =' By )ung-sun -ung' See supra& p' 99=' I' By T?ng Hsi Tzŭ' In place of T?ng Hsi3 Bodde put Hui Shih :Fung3 op' cit'3 p' A@A3 f'9>3 %hich is %rong' In his essay on "The Merciless" T?ng Hsi enumerated certain challenging ideas as follo%s+K Hea(en cannot pre(ent the causes of malignancy and ad(ersity and thereby ma$e short-li(ed people to li(e on and good citizens to li(e long' To man$ind this is merciless' .s a rule3 people ma$e holes through %alls and steal things3 because they %ere born amidst needy circumstances and brought up in po(erty and destitution' 7e(ertheless3 the ruler %ould stic$ to the la% and censure them' To the people this is merciless' Bao and Shun attained the status of the Son of Hea(en3 but Tan hu and Shang hMn remained hemp clothed commoners' To sons this is merciless' The . As/ing T#ien1$ T"o .u$e of hou censured )uan and Ts!ai' To brothers this is merciless ' ' ' ' Chapter 2LII.

has the $ind intention to ma$e thy ser(ant happy3 yet in fact it %ill be detrimental to thy ser(ant'" 'otes 9' .@D>' E' #ith )ao H?ng @ belo% A% means B' =' #ang #ei proposed Cn for C王' I' #ith )u )uang-ts!? D belo% ¤ should be E' .T!ang-ch!i )ung once said to Han Tzŭ D + "Thy ser(ant has heard that obser(ing rules of propriety and performing deeds of humility is the art of safeguarding one*s o%n life and that impro(ing one*s conduct and concealing one*s %isdom is the %ay to accomplish one*s o%n career' 7o%3 you3 my (enerable master3 propounded principles of la% and tact and established standards of regulations and statistics3 thy ser(ant in pri(ate presumes that this %ill Feopardize your life and endanger your body' Ho% can thy ser(ant pro(e E thisL .-.s I ha(e heard3 Master in his discussion on tact says+ ! h!u3 not employing #u h!i3 %as dismembered and disturbedH h!in3 practising the -a% of -ord Shang3 became rich and strong'* The %ords of the t%o philosophers %ere e8ually true3 yet #u h!i %as dismembered and -ord Shang %as torn to pieces by chariots because they had the misfortune to miss both the right age and the right master' 7obody can be certain of meeting the right age and the right master3 nor can anybody repulse misery and disaster' Indeed3 to discard the %ay of security and accomplishment and indulge in a precarious li(ing thy ser(ant personally does not consider it %orth Master*s %hile'" In response to the remar$ Han Tzŭ said+ "Thy ser(ant understands your honourable counsels (ery %ell' Indeed3 the e5ercise of the ruling authority of .=' @' The t%o dialogues are not directly related either in structure or in subFect-matter' )no%n as famous sayings3 ho%e(er3 they %ere apparently %ritten posthumously by follo%ers of the author to e5plain the untimely death of the master' The basic ideas set forth in both dialogues by no means betray his confidence in them' A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? > should be ?' D' Han Fei had been called Han Tzŭ up to the time of Han BM :a+d+ I=.ll-under-Hea(en and the unification of the regulation of the masses is not an easy tas$' 7e(ertheless3 the reason %hy thy ser(ant has gi(en up your honourable = teachings and is practising his o%n creeds is that thy ser(ant personally regards the formulation of the principles of la% and tact and the establishment of the standards of regulations and measures as the right %ay to benefit the masses of people' Therefore3 not to fear the threat and outrage of the (iolent so(ereign and stupid superior but to scheme definitely for the ad(antages of unifying the people3 is an act of bene(olence and %isdomH %hereas to fear the threat and outrage of the (iolent so(ereign and stupid superior and thereby e(ade the calamity of death3 is a clear understanding of personal ad(antages3 I and to ignore the public benefit of the masses3 is an act of greed and meanness' Since thy ser(ant cannot bear entertaining the act of greed and meanness and dare not destroy the act of bene(olence and %isdom3 though Master .

s Sh?n Pu-hai neither enforced the la%s nor unified the mandates and ordinances3 there %ere many culprits' Thus3 %hene(er old la%s and earlier orders produced ad(antages3 they %ere follo%edH %hene(er ne% la%s and later orders produced ad(antages3 they %ere follo%ed3 too' So long as old and ne% @ counteracted each other and the earlier and later orders contradicted each other3 e(en though Sh?n Pu-hai ad(ised Mar8uis hao ten times to use tact3 yet the %ic$ed ministers still had e5cuses to t%ist their %ords' Therefore3 though he counted on Han*s strength of ten thousand chariots3 Han failed to attain Hegemony in the course of se(enteen years3 A %hich %as the calamity of the neglect of la% by the officials despite the use of tact by the superior' ")ung-sun Bang3 %hile go(erning h!in3 established the system D of denunciation and implication and called the real culprit to accountH he organized groups of ten and fi(e families and made members of the same group share one another*s crime' 0e%ards %ere made liberal and certainH punishments %ere made se(ere and definite' onse8uently3 the people e5erted their forces laboriously but ne(er stopped3 pursued the enemy perilously but ne(er retreated' Therefore3 the state became rich and the army strong' Ho%e(er3 if he had no tact %hereby to detect (illainy3 by enriching the state and strengthening the army he benefited nobody other than the subse8uent .eci+ing *et"een T"o Legalistic .s to %hich is more urgently needful to man3 clothing or eating3 it goes %ithout saying that neither can be dispensed %ith3 for both are means to nourish life' 7o% Sh?n Pu-hai spo$e about the need of tact and )ung-sun Bang insisted on the use of la%' Tact is the means %hereby to create posts according to responsibilities3 hold actual ser(ices accountable according to official titles3 e5ercise the po%er o(er life and death3 and e5amine the officials* abilities' It is %hat the lord of men has in his grip' -a% includes mandates and ordinances that are manifest in the official bureau53 penalties that are definite in the mind of the people3 re%ards that are due to the careful obser(ers of la%s3 and punishments that are inflicted on the offenders against orders' It is %hat the subFects and ministers ta$e as model' If the ruler is tactless3 delusion %ill come to the superiorH if the subFects and ministers are la%less3 disorder %ill appear among the inferiors' Thus3 neither can be dispensed %ith+ both are implements of emperors and $ings'" The in8uirer ne5t as$ed+ "#hy is it that tact %ithout la% or la% %ithout tact is uselessL" In reply I said+ "Sh?n Pu-hai %as assistant to Mar8uis hao of Han' Han %as one of the states into %hich hin had been di(ided' Before the old la%s of hin had been repealed3 the ne% la%s of Han appearedH before the orders of the earlier rulers had been remo(ed3 the orders of the later rulers %ere issued' . .octrines1 Some in8uirer as$ed+ "&f the teachings of the t%o authorities3 Sh?n Pu-hai and )ungsun Bang3 %hich is more urgently needful to the stateL" In reply I said+ "It is impossible to compare them' Man3 not eating for ten days3 %ould die3 and3 %earing no clothes in the midst of great cold3 %ould also die' .' #ith BM BMeh C王 should be Cn' Chapter 2LIII..

ministers' Follo%ing the death of .u$e Hsiao and -ord Shang and the accession of )ing Hui to the throne3 the la% of h!in had as yet fallen to the ground3 %hen hang Bi at the cost of h!in*s interest complied %ith the demands of Han and #ey' Follo%ing the death of )ing Hui and the accession of )ing #u to the throne3 )an Mu at the cost of h!in*s interest complied %ith the re8uest of hou' Follo%ing the death of )ing #u and the accession of )ing hao Hsiang to the throne3 Mar8uis Cang crossed Han and #ey and marched east%ard to attac$ h!i3 %hereas the fi(e years* campaign gained h!in not e(en one foot of territory but merely secured for him the Fief of T!ao' ,gain3 Mar8uis Bing attac$ed Han for eight years only to secure for himself the Fief of Cu-nan' Thencefor%ard3 those %ho ha(e ser(ed h!in3 ha(e been the same types of men as Bing and Cang' Therefore3 %hene(er the army %ins a %ar3 chief (assals are honouredH %hene(er the state e5pands its territory3 pri(ate feuds are created' So long as the so(ereign had no tact %hereby to detect (illainy3 e(en though -ord Shang impro(ed his la%s ten times3 the ministers in turn utilized the ad(antages' Therefore3 though he made use of the resources of strong h!in3 h!in failed to attain the status of an empire in the course of se(eral decades3 E %hich %as the calamity of the so(ereign*s tactlessness despite = the officials* strict obser(ance of la%'" The in8uirer again as$ed+ "Suppose the ruler applies the tact of Sh?n Tzŭ and the officials obser(e the la% of -ord Shang' #ould e(erything %or$ out rightL" In reply I said+ "Sh?n Tzŭ %as not thorough in the doctrine of tact3 -ord Shang %as not thorough in the doctrine of la%'" ",ccording to Sh?n Tzŭ3 no official should o(erride his commission and utter uncalled-for sentiments despite his e5tra $no%ledge' 7ot to o(erride one*s commission means to $eep to his duty' To utter uncalled-for sentiments despite one*s e5tra $no%ledge3 is called a fault' ,fter all3 it is only %hen the lord of men sees things %ith the aid of e(erybody*s eyes in the country that in (isual po%er he is surpassed by noneH it is only %hen he hears things %ith the aid of e(erybody*s ears in the country that in auditory po%er he is surpassed by none' 7o% that those %ho $no% do not spea$3 %here is the lord of men going to find aidL ",ccording to the -a% of -ord Shang3 !%ho cuts off one head in %ar is promoted by one grade in ran$3 and3 if he %ants to become an official3 is gi(en an office %orth fifty piculsH %ho cuts off t%o heads in %ar is promoted by t%o grades in ran$3 and3 if he %ants to become an official3 is gi(en an office %orth one hundred piculs*' Thus3 promotion in office and ran$ is e8ui(alent to the merit in head-cutting' 7o% supposing there %ere a la% re8uesting those %ho cut off heads in %ar to become physicians and carpenters3 then neither houses %ould be built nor %ould diseases be cured' Indeed3 carpenters ha(e manual s$illH physicians $no% ho% to prepare drugsH but3 if men are ordered to ta$e up these professions on account of their merits in beheading3 then they do not ha(e the re8uired abilities' 7o%3 go(ernmental ser(ice re8uires %isdom and talent in particularH beheading in %ar is a matter or courage and strength' To fill go(ernmental offices %hich re8uire %isdom and talent %ith possessors of courage and strength3 is the same as to order men of merit in beheading to become physicians and carpenters'" Hence my saying+ "The t%o philosophers in the doctrines of la% and tact %ere not thoroughly perfect'"

9' Ù§' Its 2nglish rendering by -' T' h?n is "The odification of -a%" :-iang3 op' cit'3 p' 99D3 f'A>3 %hich is a serious mista$e' @' #ith -u #?n-shao Eÿ abo(e FG is superfluous' A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 5十 should be 十5' Sh?n Pu-hai %as Premier of Han from AE9 to AAI $+c+ D' &ne failing to denounce anybody else*s crime %as punished as if he had committed the crime oneself' E' )ung-sun Bang %ent to h!in in A=9 $+c+& the first year of the reign of .u$e Hsiao' His petition for radical changes in the la% %as accepted in AE< $+c+ %hen .u$e Hsiao trusted him %ith all state affairs' 6pon the death of .u$e Hsiao in AAE $+c+ -ord Shang had already go(erned h!in for o(er t%enty years3 %hich period of time %as thereby referred to in the te5t' =' #ith -u #?n-shao and )u )uang-ts!? 不 abo(e HI should be J'

Chapter 2LI0. (n Ass)&ers1
6n general3 the principal %ay of go(ernment does not solely mean the Fustice of re%ard and punishment' Much less does it mean @ to re%ard men of no merit and punish innocent people' Ho%e(er3 to re%ard men of merit3 punish men of demerit3 and ma$e no mista$e in so doing but affect such persons only3 A can neither increase men of merit nor eliminate men of demerit' For this reason3 among the methods of suppressing (illainy the best is to curb the mind3 the ne5t3 the %ord3 and the last3 the %or$' Modern people all say3 "#ho honours the so(ereign and safeguards the country3 al%ays resorts to bene(olence3 righteousness3 %isdom3 and ability"H %hile they ignore the fact that those %ho actually humble the so(ereign and endanger the country3 al%ays appeal to bene(olence3 righteousness3 %isdom3 and ability' Therefore3 the so(ereign pursuing the true path %ould estrange upholders of bene(olence and righteousness3 discard possessors of %isdom and ability3 and subdue the people by means of la%' That being so3 his fame spreads far and %ide3 his name becomes a%einspiring3 his subFects are orderly3 and his country is safe3 because he $no%s ho% to employ the people' ,s a rule3 tact is %hat the so(ereign holds in handH la% is %hat the officials ta$e as models' D If so3 it %ill not be difficult to ma$e the courtiers get ne%s e(eryday from outside and see the la% pre(ail from the neighbourhood of the court E to the state-frontiers' In bygone days3 the Bu-hu lan had Shih TuH the Huan-tou lan had )u 7anH the Three Miaos had h!?ng hMH hieh had Hu h!iH ho% had Mar8uis h!ungH and hin had ,ctor Shih' These si5 men %ere "state-ruining ministers"' = They spo$e of right as if it %ere %rong3 and of %rong as if it %ere right' Being crafty in mind3 they acted contrary to their out%ard loo$sH pretending to a little prudence3 they testified to their goodness' They praised remote ancients to hinder present enterprises' S$ilful in manipulating I their so(ereigns3 they gathered detailed secrets and perturbed them

%ith their li$es and disli$es' They %ere the same types of men as most courtiers and attendants' &f the former so(ereigns3 some got men through %hom they became safe and their states %ere preser(ed3 and some got men through %hom they %ere Feopardized and their states %ent to ruin' The getting of men %as one and the same but the differences bet%een gains and losses are hundreds of thousands' Therefore3 the lord of men must not fail to ta$e precautions against his attendants' If the lord of men clearly understands the %ords of the ministers3 he can differentiate the %orthy from the un%orthy as blac$ from %hite' HsM Bu3 Shu Ba3 Pai Bang3 ; Tien hieh of h!in3 < h!iao Cu of -u3 9J Hu Pu-chi3 hung Ming3 Tung Pu-shih3 Pien Sui3 #u )uang3 Po-i3 and Shu-ch!i3 all t%el(e men %ere neither delighted at e(ident profits nor afraid of impending disasters' Some of them3 %hen gi(en the rule o(er ,ll-under-Hea(en3 ne(er too$ it' Some of them3 afraid of incurring humility and disgrace3 ne(er %elcomed the pri(ilege of recei(ing bounties' 99 Indeed3 not delighted at e(ident profits3 they could ne(er be encouraged3 though the superior made re%ards bigH not afraid of impending disasters3 they could ne(er be terrified3 though the superior made penalties se(ere' They %ere the so-called "disobedient people"' 9@ &f these t%el(e men3 some be dead in ca(es and holes3 some died of e5haustion among grass and trees3 some star(ed to death in mountains and ra(ines3 and some dro%ned themsel(es in streams and fountains' If there %ere people li$e these3 e(en sage-$ings of anti8uity could not subFect them' Ho% much less %ould rulers of the present age be able to employ themL )uan -ung-p!?ng3 Prince Pi )an3 hi -iang of Sui3 Hsieh Beh of h!?n3 Pao Sh?n 9A of h!u3 and Tzŭ-hsM of #u3 these si5 men disputed straightly and e5postulated bitterly %ith their masters in order to o(ercome them' #hen their %ords %ere listened to and their proFects %ere carried out3 then they %ould assume the attitude of tutor to%ards pupilH %hen e(en a %ord %as not listened to and but one proFect %as not carried out3 then they %ould humiliate their so(ereigns %ith offensi(e phraseology and threatening gestures' 2(en in the face of death3 the brea$-up of their families3 the se(ering of their %aists and nec$s3 and the separation of their hands and feet3 they had no hesitation in so doing' If ministers li$e these could not be tolerated by the sage$ings of anti8uity3 ho% could they be employed by rulers of the present ageL ,s regards T!ien H?ng of h!i3 Tzŭ-han of Sung3 hi-sun I-Fu3 h!iao Cu 9D of -u3 Tzŭ 7an hing of #ei3 hancellor Hsin of h?ng3 .u$e #hite of h!u3 San Tu of hou3 and Tzŭ-chih of Ben3 these nine men3 %hile ministers3 all formed Funtas for selfsee$ing purposes in ser(ing their rulers' In obscuring the right %ay and thereby practising pri(ate croo$edness3 in intimidating the rulers abo(e and thereby disturbing the go(ernment belo%3 in securing foreign support to bend the policy of internal administration3 and in ma$ing friends %ith the inferiors so as to plot against the superiors3 they had no hesitation' Ministers li$e these could be suppressed only by sage-$ings and %ise so(ereigns' #ould it be possible for stupid and outrageous rulers 9E to disco(er themL Hou hi3 )ao Bao3 Bi Bin3 .u$e Tan of hou3 T!ai-$ung #ang3 )uan hung3 Hsi P!?ng3 Pai -i-hsi3 hien Shu3 6ncle Fan3 hao Shuai3 Fan -i3 High &fficial hung3 F?ng Tung3 Hua T?ng3 these fifteen men3 %hile ministers3 all got up early in the

morning and %ent to bed late at night3 humbled themsel(es and debased their bodiesH they %ere3 cautious in mind and fran$ in intention3 and clarified penal actions and attended to official duties in ser(ing their rulers' #hen they presented good counsels to the Throne and con(inced their masters thoroughly of right la%s3 they dared not boast of their o%n goodness' #hen they had achie(ed merits and accomplished tas$s3 they dared not sho% off their ser(ices' They made no hesitation in sacrificing their family interests to benefit their countries and no hesitation in sacrificing their li(es to safeguard the so(ereigns3 holding their so(ereigns in as high esteem as high hea(en and the T!ai Mountain and regarding themsel(es as lo% as the deep ra(ines and the Fu-yu 9= Stream' Though their so(ereigns had a distinguished name and a %idespread fame in the states3 they had no hesitation in $eeping themsel(es as lo% as the deep ra(ines and the Fu-yu Stream' Ministers li$e these3 e(en under stupid and outrageous masters3 could still achie(e meritorious ser(ice' Ho% much more could they do under brilliant so(ereignsL Such are called ",ssistants to Hegemonic 0ulers"' 9I Hua hih of hou3 )ung-sun 9; Sh?n of h?ng3 )ung-sun 7ing and Bi Hsing-fu of h!?n3 BM Bin Sh?n Hai of hing3 Shao Shih of Sui3 hung )an of BMeh3 #ang-sun & of #u3 Bang-ch!?ng Hsieh of hin3 Shu Tiao and Bi Ba of h!i3 these t%el(e 9< man3 %hile ministers3 all thought about small profits and forgot legal Fustice' In public they $ept %orthy and good personages in obscurity in order to delude and befool their so(ereignsH in pri(ate they disturbed all the officials and caused them disasters and difficulties' #hen ser(ing their masters3 they partoo$ of the same tastes %ith them to such an e5tent that if they could gi(e one pleasure to the so(ereigns3 they %ould ha(e no hesitation in plunging the states into ruin and putting the masses to death' #ere there ministers li$e these3 e(en sage-$ings %ould fear lest they should be dismayed' Ho% much less could stupid and outrageous rulers a(oid lossesL #hoe(er had ministers li$e these men3 al%ays %as put to death and his state dri(en to ruin3 and has been ridiculed by ,ll-under-Hea(en' Thus3 .u$e #ei of hou %as $illed and his state di(ided into t%oH Tzŭ-yang of h?ng %as $illed and his state di(ided into threeH .u$e -ing of h!?n %as $illed by Hsia h?ng-shuH )ing -ing of hing died by the .ry Broo$H Sui %as ruined by hingH #u %as anne5ed by BMehH 2arl hih %as e5tinguished in the (icinity of hin-yangH %hile .u$e Huan lay dead and unburied for si5ty-se(en@J days' Hence the saying+ ",dulatory ministers are $no%n only by sage-$ings'" &utrageous so(ereigns %elcome them' In conse8uence3 they are $illed and their states go to ruin' The same is not true of sage-$ings and enlightened rulers' #hen selecting able men for office3 they mind neither relati(es nor enemies' #hoe(er is right is raised3 %hoe(er is %rong is punished' Therefore3 the %orthy and good are ad(ancedH the (icious and %ic$ed are dismissed' 7aturally they can at one effort bring all the feudal lords under submission' Thus in ancient ,ecords there is the saying+ "Bao had Tanchu3 Shun had Shang-chMn3 h!i had Fi(e Princes3 Shang had T!ai-chia3 and )ing #u had )uan and Ts!ai'" 7o%3 all these men censured by the fi(e rulers %ere related to them as father and son3 uncle and nephe%3 cousins3 or brothers' But %hy %ere their bodies bro$en and their families ruinedL It %as because they %ere state-ruining3 people-harming3 and la%brea$ing men' Suppose %e loo$ at the personages the fi(e rulers appointed to office' They %ere found amidst mountains3 forests3 Fungles3 s%amps3 roc$s3 and ca(es3 or in Fails3 chains3 and bonds3 or in the status of a coo$3 a cattle-breeder3 and a co%herd' 7e(ertheless3 the intelligent so(ereigns3 not ashamed

of their lo% and humble origins3 considered them able to illustrate the la%3 benefit the state3 and prosper the people3 and3 accordingly3 appointed them to office' In conse8uence3 they gained personal safety and honourable reputation' The ignoble so(ereigns %ould act differently' 7ot a%are of the moti(es and actions of their ministers3 they entrusted them %ith state affairs' In conse8uence3 their names are debased and their territories dismemberedH or3 %hat is %orse3 their states are ruined and they themsel(es are $illed' For they do not $no% ho% to employ ministers' 0ulers %ho ha(e no measures to estimate their ministers3 al%ays Fudge them on the basis of the sayings of the masses' #hoe(er is praised by the masses3 is li$ed' Therefore3 those %ho minister to rulers %ould e(en disrupt their families and ruin their property to form factions inside and $eep contact %ith influential clans and thereby become $no%n' #hen they form secret promises and alliances and thereby strengthen their positions3 and %hen they decepti(ely re%ard @9 people %ith ran$s and bounties as encouragements3 each of them %ould say+ "#hoe(er sides %ith me shall be benefited and %hoe(er does not side %ith me shall be damaged'" The masses3 greedy of the gain and afraid of the threat3 belie(e that %hen really happy3 they %ill benefit them3 and %hen really @@ angry3 they %ill damage them3 %herefore all turn and stic$ to them' ,s a result3 their fame spreads all o(er the country and reaches the ear of the so(ereigns' 6nable to understand the real situation3 the so(ereigns regard them as %orthies' They also disguise deceitful men as fa(ourite en(oys from the feudal lords and e8uip them %ith coaches and horses3 pro(ide them %ith Fade and bamboo tablets3 @A dignify them %ith %rits of appointment3 and supply them %ith money and sil$' Thus3 they ma$e the false en(oys from the feudal lords beguile their so(ereigns' #ith selfsee$ing moti(es in mind the false en(oys discuss public affairs' They pretend to represent the so(ereigns of other states3 but in reality they spea$ for the men around the so(ereigns they are (isiting' .elighted at their %ords and con(inced by their phraseology3 they regard these men as %orthies in ,ll-under-Hea(en3 the more so as e(erybody3 %hether in or out3 right or left3 @D ma$es only one $ind of reputation for them and repeats the same con(ersation about them' In conse8uence3 the so(ereigns ha(e no hesitation in lo%ering themsel(es and their supreme status and thereby condescending to them or at least benefiting them %ith high ran$ and big bounties' Indeed3 if the ran$s and bounties of %ic$ed men are influential and their partisans and adherents are many3 and if besides3 they ha(e (icious and %ic$ed moti(es3 their %ic$ed subordinates %ill persuade them time and time again3 saying+ "The so-called sage-rulers and enlightened $ings of anti8uity succeeded their predecessors not as Funiors succeeding seniors in the natural order3 @E but because they had formed parties and gathered influential clans and then molested their superiors3 murdered the rulers3 and thereby sought after ad(antage'" "Ho% do you $no% thatL" they as$' In reply the subordinates say+ "Shun intimidated Bao3 BM intimidated Shun3 T!ang banished hieh3 and )ing #u censured ho%' These four rulers %ere ministers %ho murdered their rulers3 but ,ll-under-Hea(en ha(e e5tolled them' The inner hearts of these four rulers3 if obser(ed carefully3 displayed nothing but the moti(e of greediness and gain @= H their actions3 if estimated closely3 %ere simply %eapons of (iolence and outrage' 7e(ertheless3 %hile the four rulers %ere e5tending their po%ers at their pleasure3 ,llunder-Hea(en made much of themH %hile they %ere noising their names abroad3 ,ll-

under-Hea(en regarded them as intelligent' In conse8uence3 their authority became sufficient to face ,ll-under-Hea(en and their ad(antages became sufficient to challenge their age' 7aturally ,ll-under-Hea(en follo%ed them'" ",s %itnessed by recent times3" continue the croo$s further3 "/iscount T!ien h?ng too$ h!i3 Ssŭ-ch!?ng Tzŭ-han too$ Sung3 hancellor Hsin too$ h?ng3 the San lan too$ hou3 Bi Ba @I too$ #ei3 and the three /iscounts of Han3 hao3 and #ey partitioned hin' These eight men @; %ere ministers %ho murdered their rulers'" Hearing this3 the %ic$ed ministers %ould spring to their feet3 pric$ up their ears3 and regard it as right' ,ccordingly3 they %ill form parties at home3 de(elop friendly contact @< %ith influential clans outside3 %atch for the right moment to launch the turn of affairs3 and ta$e the state at one stro$e' ,gain3 those %ho intimidate and murder the rulers %ith partisans and adherents at home and reform or alter their states through the influences of the feudal lords outside3 thus concealing the right %ay and upholding pri(ate croo$edness so as to restrain the ruler abo(e and obstruct the go(ernment belo%3 are innumerable' #hyL It is because the ruler does not $no% ho% to select ministers' The ancient ,ecords says+ "Since the time of )ing HsMan of hou ruined states number se(eral tens and ministers %ho murdered their rulers and too$ their states are many'" If so3 the calamities %hich originated inside and those %hich de(eloped from outside %ere half and half' Those %ho had e5erted the forces of the masses3 bro$e up the states3 and sacrificed their li(es3 %ere all %orthy so(ereignsH %hereas those %ho o(ere5erted themsel(es3 AJ changed their positions3 sa(ed the masses but estranged A9 the states3 %ere the most pitiful so(ereigns' If the lord of men A@ really penetrates the ministers* speeches3 then e(en though he spends all his time in hunting %ith nets and stringed arro%s3 dri(ing and riding around3 playing bell music3 and3 seeing girl dancers3 his state %ill remain in e5istenceH %hereas3 if he does not penetrate the ministers* speeches3 then e(en though he is frugal and industrious3 %ears hemp clothes3 and eats poor food3 the state %ill go to ruin of itself' For e5ample3 Mar8uis hing3 an early 0uler of hao3 ne(er culti(ated his (irtuous conduct3 but %ould gi(e rein to the satisfaction of desires and enFoy physical comforts and auditory and (isual pleasures' He spent %inter days in hunting %ith nets and stringed arro%s and summer time in boating and fishing' He %ould sometimes drin$ all night long3 sometimes e(en hold his %ine cup for se(eral days3 pour %ine %ith bamboo ladles into the mouths of those %ho could not drin$3 and behead anybody not prudent in ad(ance and retreat or not re(erent in response and reply' Though his %ay of li(ing3 acting3 drin$ing3 and eating3 %as so unscrupulous and his %ay of censure and e5ecution %as so rec$less3 yet he enFoyed ruling his state for more than ten years3 AA during %hich period of time his soldiers %ere ne(er crushed by enemy states3 nor %as his land e(er in(aded by any surrounding neighbour3 nor %as there any disorder bet%een ruler and minister or among the officials at home3 nor %as there any %orry about the feudal lords and the neighbouring states3 for he $ne% ho% to appoint ministers to office' ontrary to this3 Tzŭ-$!uai3 0uler of Ben3 a descendant of .u$e Shih of hao3 ruled AD o(er a territory se(eral thousand li s8uare and had spear-carriers se(eral hundred

thousands in number3 and neither indulged in the pleasures of pretty girls3 nor listened to the music of bells and stones3 nor cared for the reflecting pool and the raised $ios$ inside the palace3 nor %ent hunting %ith nets and stringed arro%s in the fields outside' Furthermore3 he personally handled ploughs and hoes to rectify the di$es and tracts of farms and fields' So e5tremely did Tzŭ-$!uai distress himself in grie(ing at the people*s sorro%s that e(en the so-called sage-$ings and enlightened rulers of anti8uity %ho had themsel(es %or$ed and grie(ed at the sorro%s of the %orld could not be compared %ith him' Ho%e(er3 Tzŭ-$!uai %as $illedH his state %as lost to and usurped by Tzŭ-chihH and he has become a laughing-stoc$ of ,ll-under-Hea(en' #hat %as the reason AE for thisL It %as because he did not $no% ho% to appoint ministers to office' Hence the saying+ "Ministers ha(e fi(e %ic$ednesses3 %hich the so(ereign does not $no%'" Some %ould ma$e e5tra(agant use of cash and goods as bribes for ac8uiring honoursH some %ould endea(our to besto% re%ards and fa(ours for %inning the hearts of the massesH some %ould endea(our to form cli8ues3 e5ert their %isdom3 and honour scholars3 and thereby abuse their authorityH some %ould endea(our to pardon criminals and thereby increase their influenceH and some %ould follo% the inferiors in praising the straight and blaming the croo$ed and be%ilder the people*s ears and eyes by (irtue of strange phraseology3 8ueer clothing3 and no(el action' These fi(e $inds of action are %hat the intelligent rulers punish A= and the sage-so(ereigns forbid' #ith these fi(e $inds of action forbidden3 deceitful men dare not face the north and stand AI and tal$H and tal$ati(e but impractical and la%-brea$ing men dare not falsify facts and thereby embellish their discussions' For this reason3 the officials in daily life %ill culti(ate their personalities and in action %ill e5ert their abilities' But for the superior*s orders3 they %ill not dare to do anything as they please3 utter irresponsible %ords3 and fabricate affairs' That is the %ay the sage-$ings superintend the ministers and the inferiors' Indeed3 if the sage-so(ereigns and enlightened rulers do not ma$e A; use of camouflage to %atch their ministers3 most of their ministers %ill become double-faced at the sight of camouflage' Hence the saying+ ",mong bastards some children presume to be legitimate sonsH among consorts some concubines presume to be %i(esH in the court some officials presume to be premiersH and among ministers the fa(ourites presume to be so(ereigns'" These four are dangers to the state' Hence the saying+ "The inner fa(ourites compatible %ith the 8ueen3 the outer fa(ourites di(iding the ruling prerogati(e3 the bastards ri(alling the legitimate son3 and the chief (assals assuming the air of the so(ereign3 all lead to confusion'" Hence the ,ecord of Chou says+ ".o not e5alt the concubine and humble the %ife' .o not debase the legitimate son and e5alt the bastard' .o not e5alt any fa(ourite subordinate as ri(al to high officials' .o not e5alt any chief (assal to assume the maFesty of his so(ereign'" If the four assumers collapse3 the superior %ill ha(e no %orry and the inferiors %ill ha(e no surprise' A< If the four assumers do not collapse3 the so(ereign %ill lose his life and ruin his state' 'otes
9' 說疑' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ! reads K' The 2nglish rendering of 說疑 by -' T' h?n is "Misgi(ings" :-iang3 op' cit'3 p' 99=3 f' 9>3 %hich is a serious mista$e' @' #ith )u L belo% M is superfluous'

is superfluous' h!iao Cu %as Shu-sun HsMan-pai of -u' 9E' #ith #ang gz abo(e f¡之i should be remo(ed' 9=' #ith #ang -g refers to ìh3 %hich traces its source to the Bang-ch!?ng Mountains' 9I' 5王之i' 9.Ó»之人P ' D' I propose the supply of l belo% 然' E' #ith )ao H?ng ? abo(e ·Ò之ô is superfluous' =' mn之M means "ministers %ho caused the states to go to ruin"' I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen b means Õ' .A' #ith )ao H?ng `(?人 means aÿ?Ó.ecords F十 should be supplied abo(e X†' @9' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ¤ abo(e £ is superfluous' @@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen E should be )' @A' jk' In ancient hina credentials carried by en(oys and messengers %ere made of j "Fade tablets" or k "bamboo tablets"' @D' #ith -u #?n-shao 之? abo(e !¿ is superfluous' @E' #ith )u )uang-ts!? Æ belo% ²l is superfluous and p abo(e ÿ should be 世' .' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 王孫 should be s孫' 9<' The men enumerated number ele(en instead of t%el(e' #ith )u )uangts!? there must be some hiatus among them' @J' #ith the Historical .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 晉 abo(e 4陽 is superfluous' <' #ith BM BMeh ? is a mista$e for 晉' 9J' #ith BM BMeh à is a mista$e for Ù' 99' ¾穀 literally means "eating grains"' 9@' 不\之N' 9A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ‚c should be d‚ %ho %as a minister to )ing #?n of h!u and %as famous for his bitter e5postulation' 9D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen 晉 abo(e e.

' #ith #ang Hsien-shen F人 should be Ê人' @<' #ith #ang m should be n' AJ' #ith BM BMeh ì belo% o‡ is superfluous' A9' #ith BM p should be q' A@' #ith #ang Hsien-shen the h!ien-tao edition has J in place of M' AA' I propose 十Ò年 for Ò十年 because according to the Historical .' #ang Hsien-shen proposed j for €' A<' ÙR\ƒRw means3 according to #ang Hsien-shen3 that the ruler does not ha(e to ma$e use of camouflage to %atch his ministers %hile the ministers do not ha(e to fabricate facts to embellish their discussions' Chapter 2L0. Abs)r+ 3nco)rage&ents1 -eans the sage employs to lead to political order are three' The first is said to be profitH the second3 authorityH and the third3 fame' Profit is the means %hereby the people*s hearts are %onH authority is the means %hereby to enforce ordersH fame is the common %ay lin$ing superior and inferior' 7othing other than these three is so needful to go(ernment' In these days3 there is no lac$ of profit3 but the people are not %on o(er to the superior*s %ishesH there is no absence of authority3 but the inferiors do not obey decreesH and there is no absence of la%s among the officials3 but go(ernment does not correspond to fame' In short3 though the three means are not out of e5istence3 yet order and chaos in the %orld follo% on each other*s heels' #hy is thisL Indeed3 %hat the superior (alues is often contrary to the purpose of go(ernment' For instance3 to institute names and titles is to embody honoursH but those %ho loo$ do%n upon fame and ma$e light of facts3 the %orld calls ad(anced' .ecords Mar8uis hing %as on the throne only for t%el(e years' AD' #ith )ao H?ng r reads s %hich means ë' AE' #ith #ang Hsien-shen =¾— should be =—¾' A=' #ith )u )uang-ts!? t reads u' To me u here refers to u»' AI' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien 1v should be v1' A.@=' #ith )u 人 belo% Ý is superfluous' @I' Ho% Bi Ba too$ #ei3 is not $no%n' @.gain3 to institute ran$s .

gain3 office and ran$ are means to encourage peopleH but those %ho li$e fame but %ant no office3 the %orld calls heroic patriots' Finally3 punishments are means to solidify authorityH but those %ho ma$e light of la%3 and a%ard neither penalty nor slaughter3 the %orld calls fearless' If the people see$ fame more urgently than they loo$ for profit3 small %onder scholars %ho are star(ing and destitute %ould e(en d%ell in roc$y ca(es and torture themsel(es purposely to fight for a name in the %orld' Therefore3 the cause of disorder in the %orld is not the inferior*s fault but the superior*s loss of Tao' .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain can stand because of national safety and tran8uillity3 but deceitful3 crafty3 slanderous3 and flattering people are appointed to office' 2(erybody under the Furisdiction of the state obeys orders because of trust and Fustice3 but people e5erting their %isdom to upset the .gain3 la%s and decrees are means to attain political orderH but those %ho obey neither la%s nor decrees but pursue their o%n good3 the %orld calls loyal' .ll-under-Hea(en3 are called sagesH those %ho spea$ on big subFects and tal$ about fundamental but impracticable principles3 and act contrary to the beaten trac$ of the %orld3 are called great menH and those %ho despise ran$s and bounties and do not yield to the superior*s opinions are called e5cellent' The inferiors3 acting in such %ic$ed E %ays3 %ould disturb the people in pri(ate and do no good %hen in office' The superior3 %ho ought to suppress their desires and constantly uproot their moti(es3 lets them go and honours their deeds' This is to attain political order by teaching the inferiors ho% to (iolate the superior' In general3 %hat the superior administers3 is penal infliction3 but people doing fa(ours in pri(ate are honoured' The .and grades is to establish the basal scale of high and lo%H but those %ho slight the superior and ne(er petition for audience3 the %orld calls %orthy' .s the superior al%ays (alues the %ay to chaos and despises the %ay to order3 the ideal of the inferiors is al%ays contrary to the purpose of the superior*s go(ernment' 7o%3 the inferiors* obedience to the superior is %hat the superior urgently needs' Ho%e(er3 those %ho are generous3 sincere3 genuine3 and faithful3 and acti(e in mind but timid in speech3 are called spiritlessH those %ho follo% la%s firmly and obey orders fully3 are called stupidH those %ho re(ere the superior and fear punishment3 are called co%ardlyH those %ho spea$ on the right occasions and act in the proper manner are called un%orthyH and those %ho are not double-faced and engaged in pri(ate studies @ but listen to magistrates and conform to public instructions3 are called (ulgar' Those %ho are hard to employ3 are called righteousH those %ho are hard to re%ard3 are called clean-handedH and those %ho are hard to rule3 are called heroicH those %ho do not obey decrees3 are called courageousH those %ho render no profit to the superior3 are called straightfor%ardH and those %ho e5tend $indnesses and besto% fa(ours3 are called bene(olent' Those %ho are self-asserti(e and arrogant3 are called eldersH those %ho pursue pri(ate studies and form Funtas3 are called tutors and pupilsH those %ho lead a tran8uil and complacent life3 are called considerateH those %ho betray their fello% men and grab ad(antages3 are called smartH those %ho are crafty3 deceitful3 A and fic$le3 D are called %iseH those %ho act for others first and for themsel(es later3 coin terms and in(ent %ords3 and assume to lo(e .gain3 authority and profit are means to enforce ordersH but those %ho desire no profit and disregard all authority3 the %orld calls dignified' .

present regime are employed' &rders pre(ail %idely and authority stands %ell because of the inferiors* prudence and alertness to obey the superior3 but men li(ing in roc$y ca(es and cursing the %orld are celebrated' Public storehouses and granaries are full because of the people*s de(otion to the primary duties of tilling and farming3 but men engaged in such secondary callings as %ea(ing t%illed cloth3 embroidering and $nitting clothes in gold and sil(er3 and engra(ing and dra%ing3 are enriched' 0eputation is accomplished and territory = is e5tended because of the %arrior*s ser(ices3 but in these days %ar orphans go hungry3 star(ing3 and begging in the streets3 %hile relati(es of actors3 harlots3 and drin$ers3 ride in carriages and %ear sil$' 0e%ards and bounties are meant to e5ert the people*s forces and ris$ their li(es3 but in these days %arriors %inning in %arfare and ta$ing in attac$3 %or$ hard but are not properly re%arded3 %hile di(iners3 palmists3 and s%indlers3 I playing %ith compliant %ords before the Throne3 recei(e gifts e(ery day' The superior holds scales and measures in his hands in order to ha(e the po%er o(er e(erybody*s life in his grip3 but no%adays men %ho obey scales and obser(e measures3 though an5ious to e5ert the spirit of loyalty to ser(e the superior3 cannot ha(e an audience3 %hile those %ho utter artful %ords and flattering phrases3 play (illainous tric$s3 and by luc$y chance rise in the %orld3 fre8uently attend on the Throne' To abide by la%3 tal$ straight3 $eep fame e8ual to norm3 and censure the culprit according to the in$ed string3 is to promote order on behalf of the superior3 but people so doing are estranged %hile adulatory and heretical . men3 obeying the opinions and follo%ing the desires of the superior and thereby endangering the %orld3 become courtiers' To e5act ta5es and re(enues and concentrate the people*s forces is to pro(ide against e(entualities and fill up the public storehouses and the state treasury3 but officers and soldiers %ho desert their posts3 hide themsel(es3 find shelter in the residences of po%erful men3 and thereby e(ade ta5ation and military ser(ice3 but %hom the superior fails to catch3 number tens of thousands' Indeed3 to parade good fields and pretty residences is to encourage %arriors to fight3 but men resol(ed to ha(e their heads cut off3 abdomens torn open3 and bones e5posed in %ildernesses3 < though they may lose their li(es this %ay3 ha(e neither shelter nor estates 9J 3 %hile persons %hose daughters and sisters are attracti(e and chief (assals and attendants %ho render the country no distinguished ser(ices3 recei(e residences of their o%n choice and li(e on fields selected by themsel(es' 0e%ards and profits issue solely from the superior purposely to control the inferiors %ith success3 but %arriors and armed officers get no post %hile men idling their time a%ay are honoured and celebrated' 7o% that the superior ta$es these practices for the %ays of ci(ic education3 ho% can his name escape degradation and ho% can his position escape dangersL Indeed3 %hen the superior*s name is degraded and his position endangered3 it is al%ays because the inferiors are not obedient to la%s and orders3 double-faced3 pursuing pri(ate studies3 99 and acting against the %orld' Bet if their actions are not forbidden3 their gangs are not dissol(ed3 and their partisans are not thereby dispersed3 but they are honoured instead3 it is the fault of the authorities in charge of state affairs' The superior sets up the principles of integrity and bashfulness for the purpose of encouraging 9@ the inferiors3 %hereas gentry and officials of to-day are not ashamed of dirty mud and ugly insults3 but under the influence of daughters and sisters married to .

po%erful men and of pri(ate friends they ta$e up office %ith no need of follo%ing the proper order' Prizes and gifts are meant to e5alt men of merit3 but men ha(ing gi(en distinguished ser(ice in %arfare remain poor and humble %hile flatterers and actors rise abo(e their due grades3 names3 and titles' Sincerity and faith are meant to manifest authority3 but the so(ereign is deluded by courtiersH ladies and inter(ie%ers proceed in parallelH officials administer the besto%al of ran$s and change the personnel as they please' This is the fault of the authorities in charge of state affairs' If chief (assals appoint people to office by intriguing %ith the subordinates beforehand and then play into each other*s hands3 and3 though against the la%3 they e5tend their influence and benefits among their subordinates3 then the so(ereign %ill become po%erless and the chief (assals %ill become influential' Indeed3 the purpose of enacting la%s and decrees is to abolish selfishness' &nce la%s and decrees pre(ail3 the %ay of selfishness collapses' Selfishness disturbs the la%' 7e(ertheless3 scholars3 %ho3 being double-faced3 pursue pri(ate studies3 d%ell in roc$y ca(es3 hide themsel(es by the roadside3 and pretend to profound thought3 denounce the %orld in general and beguile the inferiors in particular' Instead of suppressing them3 the superior honours them %ith titles and pro(ides them %ith actual support' Thereby men of no merit are celebrated and men doing no ser(ice are enriched' If so3 scholars %ho are double-faced and are pursuing pri(ate studies3 %ill pretend to profound thought3 endea(our to learn intrigues3 denounce la%s and decrees3 and thereby elaborate opposite (ie%s to the course of the age' In general3 %hoe(er disturbs the superior and acts contrary to the age3 is al%ays a scholar ha(ing a double-face and pursuing pri(ate studies' Therefore3 in my main discourse I say+ "The cause of order is la%3 the cause of chaos is selfishness' &nce la% is enacted3 no selfish act can be done'" Hence the saying+ "#hoe(er tolerates selfishness finds chaos3 %hoe(er upholds la% finds order'" If the superior misses the right %ay3 astute men %ill use selfish phraseology and %orthies %ill cherish selfish moti(es3 principals %ill besto% selfish fa(ours3 and subordinates %ill pursue selfish desires' #hen %orthy and astute men form Funtas3 coin terms3 manipulate phrases3 and thereby denounce la%s and decrees 9A before the superior3 if the superior3 instead of stopping and debarring them3 honours them3 it is to teach the inferiors neither to follo% the superior nor to obey the la%' For this reason3 %orthies culti(ate their fame and li(e comfortably and %ic$ed men count on re%ards and accumulate %ealth' Because the %orthies li(e comfortably by culti(ating their fame and %ic$ed men accumulate %ealth by counting on re%ards3 the superior is unable to subdue the inferiors' 'otes 9' x/' @' çy' By "pri(ate studies" Han Fei Tzŭ means studies in any subFect not directly allied %ith Politics and Curisprudence' A' #ith )ao H?ng z belo% { reads t %hich means !' .

should be 地3 and %ith BM BMeh • abo(e it is superfluous' I' #ith BM €• should be ‡‚' .D' #ith #ang Hsien-shen | abo(e 反} is superfluous' E' #ith )ao H?ng ~ abo(e [ means Ì¡' =' #ith )u )uang-ts!? . .i= Contrarieties1 Who fears death and shuns difficulty3 is the type of citizen %ho %ould surrender or retreat3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "a life-(aluing gentleman"' #ho studies the %ays of the early $ings and propounds theories of his o%n3 is the type of citizen that %ould neglect the la%3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "a cultured and learned gentleman"' #ho idles his time a%ay and obtains big a%ards3 is the type of citizen %ho %ould li(e on charities3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "a talented gentleman"' #ho t%ists his speeches and pretends to erudition3 is the fraudulent and deceitful type of citizen3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "an elo8uent and intelligent gentleman"' #ho brandishes his s%ord and attac$s and $ills3 is the (iolent and sa(age type of citizen3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "a hardy and courageous gentleman"' #ho sa(es thie(es and hides culprits3 is the type of citizen that deser(es the death penalty3 but the %orld re(eres him by calling him "a chi(alrous and honourable gentleman"' These si5 types of citizens are %hat the %orld praises' #ho %ould (enture ris$s and die in the cause of loyalty3 is the type of citizen that chooses death before infidelity3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a planless subFect"' #ho learns little but obeys orders3 is the la%-abiding type of citizen3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a nai(e and rustic subFect"' #ho %or$s hard and earns his li(elihood3 is the producti(e type of citizen3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a small-talented subFect"' #ho is fran$3 generous3 pure3 and genuine3 is the right and good type of citizen3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a foolish and silly subFect"' #ho esteems commands and re(eres public affairs3 is the superior-respecting type of citizen3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a co%ardly and fainthearted subFect"' #ho suppresses thie(es and oppresses culprits3 is .' #ith )ao H?ng + belo% ƒ stands for „ %hich means "to %al$ out of the straight path"' <' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 平 before …† is superfluous' 9J' #ith )ao H?ng R‡T‡死tˆ should be ‡死R‡Ðtˆ ' 99' #ith -u #?n-shao R abo(e çy is superfluous' 9@' #ith #ang 7ien-sun ‰ is a mista$e for Â' 9A' > belo% ì should be \' Chapter 2L0I.

the superior-obeying type of citizen3 but the %orld despises him by calling him "a flattering and slanderous subFect"' These si5 types of citizens are %hat the %orld blames' Thus3 the %ic$ed3 fraudulent3 and useless citizens include si5 types3 but the %orld praises them in those mannersH so do the tilling3 fighting3 and useful citizens include si5 types3 but the %orld blames them in these manners' These are called "si5 contrarieties"' If the hemp-clothed commoners in accordance %ith their pri(ate interests praise people3 and if the lord of this age belie(ing in bubble reputations respects them3 then %hoe(er is respected3 %ill be accorded profits' If the hundred surnames on account of pri(ate feud %ith them slander them3 and if the lord of this age3 as misled by the beaten trac$ of men3 despises them3 then %hoe(er is despised3 %ill suffer damage' Therefore3 fame and re%ards %ill go to selfish3 (icious citizens deser(ing punishmentH %hile blame and damages %ill befall public-spirited3 upright gentlemen deser(ing re%ard' If so3 then to stri(e for the %ealth and strength of the state is impossible' The ancients had a pro(erb saying+ "To go(ern the people is li$e %ashing one*s head' Though there are falling hairs3 the %ashing must needs be done'" #hoe(er regrets the %aste of the falling hairs and forgets the gain of the gro%ing hairs3 does not $no% the doctrine of e5pediency' @ Indeed3 opening boils causes painH ta$ing drugs causes bitter taste' Bet3 if boils are not opened on account of pain and drugs not ta$en on account of bitterness3 the person %ill not li(e and the disease %ill not stop' 7o% the relationship bet%een superior and inferior in(ol(es no affection of father and son3 if anyone %ishes to rule the inferiors by practising righteousness3 the relationship %ill certainly ha(e crac$s' Besides3 parents in relation to children3 %hen males are born3 congratulate each other3 and3 %hen females are born3 lessen A the care of them' 28ually coming out from the bosoms and lapels of the parents3 %hy should boys recei(e congratulations %hile girls are ill-treatedL Because parents consider their future con(eniences and calculate their permanent benefits' Thus3 e(en parents in relation to children use the calculating mind in treating them3 ho% much more should those %ho ha(e no affection of parent and childL The learned men of to-day3 on counselling the lord of men3 all persuade him to discard the profit-see$ing mind and follo% the %ay of mutual lo(e' Thereby they demand more from the lord of men than from parents' Such is an immature (ie% of human relationships+ it is both deceitful and fallacious' 7aturally the enlightened so(ereign %ould not accept it' The sage3 in go(erning the people3 deliberates upon la%s and prohibitions' #hen la%s and prohibitions are clear and manifest3 all officials %ill be in good order' D He ma$es re%ard and punishment definite' #hen re%ard and punishment are ne(er unFust3 the people %ill attend to public duties' If the people attend to public duties and officials are in good order3 E then the state %ill become richH if the state is rich3 then the army %ill become strong' In conse8uence3 hegemony %ill be attained' The enterprise of the Hegemonic 0uler is the highest goal of the lord of men' #ith this highest goal in (ie% the lord of men attends to go(ernmental affairs' Therefore3 the officials he appoints to office must ha(e the re8uired abilities3 .

s the enlightened so(ereign $no%s this principle3 he does not culti(ate the feeling of fa(our and lo(e3 but e5tends his influence of authority and se(erity' Mothers lo(e sons %ith deep lo(e3 but most of the sons are spoilt3 for their lo(e is o(er-e5tendedH fathers sho% their sons less lo(e and teach them %ith light bamboos3 I but most of the sons turn out %ell3 for se(erity is applied' If any family of to-day3 in ma$ing property3 share hunger and cold together and endure toil and pain %ith one another3 it %ould be such a family that can enFoy %arm clothes and nice food in time of %arfare and famine' &n the contrary3 those %ho help one another %ith clothing and food and amuse one another %ith entertainments3 %ould become such families that gi(e %i(es in marriage and set children for sale in time of famine and during the year of drought' Thus3 la% as the %ay to order may cause gain at first3 but %ill gi(e gain in the long runH %hereas bene(olence as the %ay to order may gi(e pleasure for the moment3 but %ill become fruitless in the end' Measuring their relati(e %eights and choosing the one for the greatest good3 the sage .and the re%ards and punishments he enforces must in(ol(e no selfishness but manifest public Fustice to gentry and commoners' #hoe(er e5erts his strength and ris$s his life3 %ill be able to accomplish merits and attain ran$ and bounty' #hen ran$ and bounty ha(e been attained3 the enterprise of %ealth and nobility %ill be accomplished' 7o%3 %ealth and nobility constitute the highest goal of the ministers' #ith this highest goal in (ie% the ministers attend to their official duties' Therefore3 they %ill %or$ hard at the peril of their li(es and ne(er resent e(en the e5haustion of their energy' This amounts to the saying that if the ruler is not bene(olent and the ministers are not loyal3 hegemony cannot be attained' Indeed3 the culprits3 if infallibly detected3 %ould ta$e precautionsH if definitely censured3 they %ould stop' If not detected3 they %ould become dissoluteH if not censured3 they %ould become acti(e' For illustration3 %hen cheap articles are left at a deserted spot3 e(en Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!in can be suspected of stealing themH %hereas %hen a hundred pieces of gold hang at the mar$et-place3 e(en the greatest robber dare not ta$e them' 2(en Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!in are liable to suspicion at a deserted spot if detection is unli$elyH if sure to be found out3 the greatest robber dare not touch the gold hanging at the mar$et-place' Therefore3 the enlightened so(ereign in go(erning the state %ould increase custodians and intensify penalties and ma$e the people stop (ices according to la% but not o%ing to their o%n sense of integrity' For illustration3 mothers lo(e children t%ice as much as fathers do3 but a father enforces orders among children ten times better than a mother does' Similarly3 officials ha(e no lo(e for the people3 but they enforce orders among the people ten thousand times better than their parents do' Parents heap up their lo(e but their orders come to naughtH %hereas officials e5ercise force and the people obey them' Thus3 you can easily ma$e the choice bet%een se(erity and affection' Furthermore3 %hat parents desire of children is safety and prosperity in li(elihood and innocence in conduct' #hat the ruler re8uires of his subFects3 ho%e(er3 is to demand their li(es in case of emergency and e5haust their energy in time of peace' 7o%3 parents3 %ho lo(e their children and %ish = them safety and prosperity3 are not listened toH %hereas the ruler3 %ho neither lo(es nor benefits his subFects but demands their death and toil3 can enforce his orders' .

s the people long for the profit and ignore the slight punishment3 malefactions ne(er %ill disappear' Thus3 the early sages had a pro(erb3 saying+ "7obody stumbles against a mountain3 but e(erybody trips o(er an ant-hill'" The mountain being large3 e(eryone ta$es notice 9@ of itH the ant-hill being small3 e(eryone disregards it' 7o% supposing penalties %ere light3 people %ould disregard them' To let criminals go unpunished is to dri(e the %hole state to the neglect of all penaltiesH .s the people ne(er (enture a big penalty for the sa$e of a small gain3 malefactions %ill e(entually disappear' In the face of the socalled "light penalties"3 ho%e(er3 %hat the culprits gain3 is great3 but %hat the superior inflicts3 is slight' .%ould adopt the legal %ay of mutual perse(erance and discard the bene(olent . %ay of mutual pity' The teachings of the learned men all say3 "Mitigate penalties"' This is the means of in(iting turmoil and ruin' In general3 the definiteness of re%ard and punishment is based on encouragement and prohibition' If re%ards are liberal3 it is easy to get %hat the superior %antsH if punishments are hea(y3 it is easy to forbid %hat the superior hates' Indeed3 %hoe(er %ants benefit3 hates inFury3 %hich is the opposite of benefit' Then ho% can there be no hatred for the opposite of the %antedL Similarly3 %hoe(er %ants order3 hates chaos3 %hich is the opposite of order' For this reason3 %ho %ants order urgently3 his re%ards must be liberalH %ho hates chaos badly3 his punishments must be hea(y' 7o%3 those %ho apply light penalties are neither serious in hating chaos nor serious in %anting order' Such people are both tactless and helpless' Therefore3 the distinction < bet%een the %orthy and the un%orthy3 bet%een the stupid and the intelligent3 9J depends on %hether re%ard and punishment are light or hea(y' Moreo(er3 hea(y penalties are not for the sole purpose of punishing criminals' The la% of the intelligent so(ereign3 in suppressing rebels3 is not disciplining only those %ho are being suppressed3 for to discipline only the suppressed is the same as to discipline dead men only 99 H in penalizing robbers3 it is not disciplining only those %ho are being penalized3 for to discipline only the penalized is the same as to discipline con(icts only' Hence the saying+ "Ta$e seriously one culprit*s crime and suppress all %ic$ednesses %ithin the boundaries'" This is the %ay to attain order' For the hea(ily punished are robbers3 but the terrified and trembling are good people' Therefore3 %hy should those %ho %ant order doubt the efficacy of hea(y penaltiesL Indeed3 liberal re%ards are meant not only to re%ard men of merit but also to encourage the %hole state' The re%arded enFoy the benefitsH those not as yet re%arded loo$ for%ard to their future accomplishment' This is to re8uite one man for his merit and to encourage the %hole populace %ithin the boundaries' Therefore3 %hy should those %ho %ant order doubt the efficacy of liberal re%ardsL 7o%3 those %ho do not $no% the right %ay to order all say+ "Hea(y penalties inFure the people' -ight penalties can suppress (illainy' Then %hy should hea(y penalties be necessaryL" Such spea$ers are really not %ell (ersed in the principles of order' To be sure3 %hat is stopped by hea(y penalties is not necessarily stopped by light penaltiesH but %hat is stopped by light penalties is al%ays stopped by hea(y penalties' For this reason3 %here the superior sets up hea(y penalties3 there all culprits disappear' If all culprits disappear3 ho% can the application of hea(y penalties be detrimental to the peopleL In the light of the so-called "hea(y penalties"3 %hat the culprits can gain3 is slight3 but %hat the superior inflicts3 is great' .

to censure criminals properly is to set traps for the people' Thus3 light punishment is an ant-hill to the people' For this reason3 the policy 9A of light punishment %ould either plunge the state into confusion or set traps for the people' Such a policy may thus be said to be detrimental to the people' The learned men of to-day3 one and all3 cite the panegyrics in the classics3 and3 %ithout obser(ing closely the real facts3 of the present age3 say+ "If the superior does not lo(e the people and al%ays le(ies e5actions and ta5ations3 then li(ing e5penses %ill become insufficient and the inferiors %ill hate 9D the superior' Hence the chaos in the %orld'" This means that if the superior lets the people ha(e enough money to spend and lo(es them besides3 then not%ithstanding light punishment order can be attained' Such a saying is not true' 4enerally spea$ing3 men incur hea(y punishment 9E only after they ha(e had enough money' Therefore3 though you let them ha(e enough money to spend and lo(e them dearly3 yet light penalties cannot get them out of disorder' Ta$e3 for e5ample3 the belo(ed sons of %ealthy families3 %ho are gi(en sufficient money to spend' Ha(ing sufficient money to spend3 they spend it freely' Spending money freely3 they indulge in e5tra(agance' The parents3 lo(ing them so much3 cannot bear to restrict them' 7ot restricted3 they become self-%illed' Being e5tra(agant3 they impo(erish their families' Being self-%illed3 they practise (iolence' Such is the calamity of deep lo(e and light penalty3 e(en though there is enough money to spend' Men as a %hole3 %hile li(ing3 if they ha(e enough money to spend3 do not use energyH if the superior*s rule is %ea$3 they indulge in doing %rong' He %ho has enough money to spend and yet still e5erts himself strenuously3 can be nobody but Sh?n-nung' Those %ho culti(ate their conduct though the superior*s rule is %ea$3 can be nobody but Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!iu' learly enough3 indeed3 the masses of people cannot li(e up to the le(els of Sh?n-nung3 Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!iu' -ao Tan 9= said+ "#ho $no%s ho% to be content3 gets no humiliation3 %ho $no%s %here to stop3 ris$s no (itiation'" 9I Indeed3 %ho on account of (itiation and humiliation see$s nothing other than contentment3 can be nobody but -ao Tan' 7o%3 to thin$ that by contenting the people order can be attained is to assume e(erybody to be li$e -ao Tan' For illustration3 hieh3 ha(ing the dignity of the Son of Hea(en3 %as not content %ith the honourH and3 ha(ing the riches %ithin the four seas3 %as not content %ith the treasures' The ruler of men3 though able to content the people3 cannot content all of them %ith the dignity of the Son of Hea(en %hile men li$e hieh %ould not necessarily be content %ith the dignity of the Son of Hea(en' If so3 e(en though the ruler might attempt to content the people3 ho% could order be attainedL Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign3 %hen go(erning the state3 suits his policy to the time and the affairs so as to increase his financial resources3 calculates ta5es and tributes so as to e8ualize the poor and the rich3 e5tends ran$s and bounties for the people so as to e5ert their %isdom and ability3 enlarges penal implements so as to forbid (illainy and %ic$edness3 and ma$es the people secure riches by (irtue of their o%n efforts3 recei(e punishments o%ing to their criminal offences3 get re%ards by performing meritorious ser(ices3 and ne(er thin$ of any gift by beneficence and fa(our' Such is the course of imperial and $ingly go(ernment' .

If all men are asleep3 no blind man %ill be noticedH if all men remain silent3 no mute %ill be detected' .s a result3 the tactless %ill not be usedH the un%orthy %ill not be appointed to office' 7o%adays3 those %ho find their %ords not adopted3 pretend to elo8uence by t%isting their sentencesH those %ho are not appointed to office3 pretend to refinement by disguising themsel(es' Beguiled by their elo8uence and decei(ed by their refinement3 the so(ereigns of this age honour and esteem them' This is to tell the bright %ithout finding their sight and to tell the elo8uent %ithout finding their replies3 %herefore the blind and the mute ne(er %ill be detected' ontrary to this3 the intelligent so(ereign3 %hene(er he listens to any speech3 %ould hold it accountable for its utility3 and %hen he obser(es any deed3 %ould see$ for its merit' If so3 empty and obsolete learning cannot be discussed and praised and fraudulent action cannot be disguised' 'otes 9' F反' Its 2nglish rendering by -' T' hen is "Si5 ontradictions" :-iang3 op+ cit+& p' 9@=3 f' 9>' @' %' The doctrine of e5pediency is peculiarly utilitarian+ The end Fustifies any means' It is %hat the onfucians abhorred most and the -egalists practised best' A' #ith Hiraza%a Î here does not mean "$ill" but Š "lessen" or "subtract'" D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? ì should be ‹' E' #ith )u llë should be NUlë' =' #ith )ao H?ng š abo(e : means Œ or >' I' 6sed in punishing criminals and mischie(ous children' .%a$e them and as$ each one to see3 or 8uestion them and as$ each one to reply' Then both the blind and the mute %ill be at a loss' -i$e%ise3 unless their speeches be heeded3 the tactless %ill not be $no%nH unless appointed to office3 the un%orthy %ill not be $no%n' Heed their speeches and see$ their truthH appoint them to office and hold them responsible for the results of their %or$' Then both the tactless and the un%orthy %ould be at a loss' Indeed3 %hen you %ant to get %restlers but merely listen to their o%n %ords3 then you cannot distinguish bet%een a mediocre man and #u Huo' 4i(en tripods and bo%ls3 then both the %ea$ and the strong come to the fore' Similarly3 official posts are the tripods and bo%ls to able men' 2ntrusted %ith affairs3 the stupid and the intelligent %ill be differentiated' .' #ith )u )uang-ts!? 人 belo% ½ is superfluous' <' #ith )u ß should be Š' 9J' #ith )u š should be ™' 99' .ccording to BM BMeh the original of this passage should be 明J之ìp•ŽÔë‹•pë‹• p者˜ë死人p• 9@' #ith )u )uang-ts!? • should read º' .

should be ú' 9=' -ao Tzŭ*s appellation' 9I' + -ao Tzŭ*s Tao Tah Chin(& hap' 1-I/' Chapter 2L0II. 3ight allacies1 #ho does pri(ate fa(ours to old ac8uaintances3 is called a $ind-hearted alter e(o+ #ho distributes alms %ith public money3 is called a bene(olent man' #ho ma$es light of bounties but thin$s much of himself3 is called a superior man' #ho strains the la% to shield his relati(es3 is called a (irtuous man' #ho deserts official posts for culti(ating personal friendships3 is called a chi(alrous man' #ho $eeps aloof from the %orld and a(oids all superiors3 is called lofty' #ho 8uarrels %ith people and disobeys orders3 is called an unyielding hero' #ho besto%s fa(ours and attracts the masses of people3 is called a popular idol' Ho%e(er3 the presence of $ind-hearted men implies the e5istence of culprits among the magistratesH the presence of bene(olent men3 the losses of public fundsH the presence of superior men3 the difficulty in employing the peopleH the presence of (irtuous men3 the (iolation of la%s and statutesH the appearance of chi(alrous men3 (acancies of official postsH the appearance of lofty men3 the people*s neglect of their proper dutiesH the emergence of unyielding heroes3 the inefficacy of ordersH and the appearance of popular idols3 the isolation of the so(ereign from the subFects' These eight in(ol(e pri(ate honours to ruffians but great damage to the lord of men' The opposite of these eight in(ol(e pri(ate damage to ruffians but public benefits to the lord of men' If the lord of men does not consider the benefits and damage to the .ltar of the Spirits of -and and 4rain but promotes the pri(ate honours of ruffians3 to find neither danger nor chaos in the state %ill be impossible' To entrust men %ith state affairs is the pi(ot bet%een life and death3 bet%een order and chaos' If the superior has no tact to appoint men to office3 e(ery appointment to office %ill end in failure' 7o%3 those %ho are ta$en into office by the ruler of men are either elo8uent and astute or refined and polished' To entrust men is to let them ha(e influence' Bet astute men are not necessarily trust%orthy' Inasmuch as the ruler ma$es much of their %isdom3 he is thereby misled to trust them' If such astute men3 %ith their calculating mind3 ta$e ad(antage of their official influence and %or$ after their o%n pri(ate needs3 the ruler %ill3 no doubt3 be decei(ed' For astute men are not trust%orthy' For the same reason3 to appoint refined gentlemen to office is to let them decide on state affairs' Bet the refined gentlemen are not necessarily %ise' Inasmuch as the ruler ma$es much of their polished manners3 he is thereby misled to regard them as %ise' If such stupid men3 @ despite their mental confusion3 ta$e ad(antage of .9A' #ith #ang Hsien-shen N abo(e j is superfluous' 9D' #ith )u and #ang 恐 is a mista$e for Y' 9E' #ith #ang #ei .

ll-underHea(en' Bet Pao hiao dried up to death li$e a tree %hile Hua hioh dro%ned himself in a ri(er' Ho%e(er %ise3 they could not be turned into farmers and %arriors' Therefore3 %hoe(er is regarded by the lord of men as clear-sighted3 must be a %ise man %ho %ould e5ert his elo8uenceH %hoe(er is regarded by the lord of men as honourable3 must be an able man %ho %ould do his best' 7o% that so(ereigns of this age gi(e ear to useless elo8uence and uphold fruitless conduct3 to stri(e after the %ealth and strength of the state is impossible' 2rudite3 learned3 elo8uent3 and %ise3 as onfucius and Mo Tzŭ %ere3 if onfucius and Mo Tzŭ %ould ne(er till and %eed farming land3 %hat could they contribute to the stateL ulti(ating the spirit of filial piety and eliminating desires as Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!iu did3 if Ts?ng Shan and Shih h!iu %ould ne(er fight and attac$3 ho% could they benefit the stateL The ruffians ha(e their pri(ate ad(antages3 the lord of men has his public benefits' .ll-under-Hea(en' Though their teachings ha(e alle(iated the chaos of the %orld3 yet they ha(e not brought the %orld into order' Ho%e(er enlightened3 the creeds should not be promulgated as decrees by any go(ernmental organ' Pao hiao and Hua hioh %ere regarded as %ise by .ccording to the Tao of the enlightened ruler3 the humble can D criticize the faults of the nobleH the inferiors must denounce the crimes of the superiorsH sincerity is Fudged by the comparison of di(erse opinionsH and information has no biased channel' onse8uently3 %ise men can not practise fraud and deceitH re%ards are besto%ed according to meritorious ser(icesH men are assigned different duties according to their respecti(e talentsH and failures are determined in the light of original purposes' #hoe(er commits an offence3 is con(ictedH %hoe(er has a special talent3 is gi(en a post' Therefore3 stupid men can not be entrusted %ith state affairs' If astute men dare not decei(e the superior and stupid men can not decide on any state affair3 then nothing %ill fail' #hat can be understood only by clear-sighted scholars should not be made an order3 because the people are not all clear-sighted' #hat can be practised only by %ise men should not be made a la%3 because the people are not all %ise' Bang hu and Mo Ti %ere regarded as clear-sighted by .c8uiring enough pro(isions %ithout hard %or$ and culti(ating fame %ithout holding office3 are pri(ate ad(antages' larifying la%s and statutes by forbidding literary learning and concentrating on meritorious ser(ices by suppressing pri(ate ad(antages3 are public benefits' To enact the la% is to lead the people3 %hereas if the superior esteems literary learning3 the people %ill become sceptical in follo%ing E the la%' To re%ard for merit is to encourage the people3 %hereas if the superior honours the culti(ation of (irtuous conduct3 the people %ill become lazy in producing profits' If the superior holds literary learning in high esteem and thereby causes doubt in the la%3 and if he honours the culti(ation of (irtuous conduct and thereby causes disbelief in meritorious %or$3 to stri(e after the %ealth and strength of the state is impossible' 7either the official tablet inserted in the girdle nor the dancer*s shield and small a5e can ri(al = the real halberd I and the iron harpoon' The manners of ascending and .their administrati(e posts and do as they please3 the state affairs %ill fall into turmoil' Thus3 if the ruler has no tact to use men3 %hen astute men are ta$en into ser(ice3 he %ill be decei(edH %hen refined men are appointed to office3 the state affairs A %ill fall into turmoil' Such is the calamity of tactlessness' .

descending the steps and standing and turning in the court can not be compared %ith the march ; of one hundred li a day' Shooting the feigned badger*s head < is not e8ui(alent to discharging s%ift arro%s from the %ide-dra%n cross-bo%' Shield and %alls as %ell as huge %ar chariots 9J are not as good defence %or$s as earthen forts3 trenches3 and under-ground bello%s' Men of anti8uity stro(e to be $no%n as (irtuousH those of the middle age struggled to be $no%n as %iseH and no% men fight for the reputation of being po%erful' In anti8uity3 e(ents %ere fe%H measures %ere simple3 naP(e3 crude3 and incomplete' Therefore there %ere men using spears made of mother-of-pearl3 and those pushing carts' In anti8uity3 again people %ere fe% and therefore $ind to one anotherH things being fe%3 they made light of profits and made alienations easy' Hence follo%ed alienations of the throne by courtesy and transfer of the rule o(er ,ll-under-Hea(en' That being so3 to do courteous alienations3 promote compassion and beneficence3 and follo% bene(olence and fa(our3 %as to run the go(ernment in the primiti(e %ay' In the age of numerous affairs3 to employ the instruments of the management of affairs that %ere fe%3 is not the %ise man*s measure' ,gain3 in the age of great struggles3 to follo% the trac$ of courteous alienations3 is not the sage*s policy' For this reason3 %ise men do not personally push carts and sages do not run any go(ernment in the primiti(e %ay' -a%s are means of controlling affairs' ,ffairs are means of celebrating merits' #hen la%s are made and found to in(ol(e difficulties3 then the ruler must estimate the difficulties' If he finds the tas$s can be accomplished3 then he must enact them' If he finds the accomplishment of the tas$s in(ol(es losses3 then he must estimate the losses' If he finds gains %ill e5ceed losses3 then he must transact them' For there are in ,ll-under-Hea(en neither la%s %ithout difficulties nor gains %ithout losses' For this reason3 %hoe(er ta$es a city %hose %alls are ten thousand feet long and defeats any army of one hundred thousand troops3 though he has to lose at least one third 99 of his men and see his arms and %eapons either crushed or bro$en and his officers and soldiers either $illed or inFured3 yet he celebrates his (ictory in the %ar and his gain of ne% territory because by calculation he has har(ested great gains at the cost of small losses' Indeed3 the %asher of the head has falling hair3 the curer of boils hurts blood and flesh' #ho go(erns men3 encounters difficulties in the %ay3 and therefore gi(es up the %or$3 is a tactless man' The early sages said+ "#hen compasses ha(e aberrations3 or %hen %ater has %a(es3 though I %ant to correct them3 nothing can be done'" This is a dictum %ell used in the doctrine of e5pediency' For this reason3 there are theories that are plausible but far from practical and there are speeches that ha(e poor %ording but are urgently useful' The sages3 accordingly3 ne(er loo$ed for any harmless %ord but attended to difficult tas$s' Men ma$e no fuss about balance and %eight' This is not because they are upright and honest and %ould %ard off profits3 but because the %eight can not change the 8uantities of things according to human %ants nor can the balance ma$e things lighter or hea(ier according to human %ishes' ,c8uiescing in the inability to get %hat they %ant3 people ma$e no fuss' In the state of an intelligent so(ereign3 officials dare not bend the la%3 magistrates dare not practise selfishness3 and bribery does not pre(ail' It is because all tas$s %ithin the boundary %or$ li$e %eight and balance3 %herefore any %ic$ed minister is al%ays found out and anybody $no%n for %ic$edness is al%ays

censured' For this reason3 the so(ereign upholding the true path3 instead of see$ing magistrates %ho are pure and honest3 stri(es after omniscience' The compassionate mother3 in lo(ing her little child3 is surpassed by none' Bet3 %hen the child has mischie(ous actions3 she sends him to follo% the teacherH %hen he is badly ill3 she sends him to see the physician' For %ithout follo%ing the teacher he is liable to penaltyH %ithout seeing the physician he is susceptible to death' Thus3 though the compassionate mother lo(es the child3 she is helpless in sa(ing him from penalty and from death' If so3 %hat preser(es the child is not lo(e' The bond of mother and child is lo(e3 the relationship of ruler and minister is e5pediency' If the mother can not preser(e the family by (irtue of lo(e3 ho% can the ruler maintain order in the state by means of lo(eL The intelligent so(ereign3 if %ell (ersed in the principles of %ealth and strength3 can get %hat he %ants' Thus3 prudence in heeding memorials and managing affairs is the royal road to %ealth and strength' He ma$es his la%s and prohibitions clear and considers his schemes and plans carefully' If la%s are clear3 at home there %ill be no %orry about any emergency or disturbanceH if plans are right3 there %ill be no disaster of either death or capti(ity abroad' Therefore3 %hat preser(es the state is not bene(olence and righteousness' #ho is bene(olent3 is tender-hearted and beneficent and ma$es light of moneyH %ho is (iolent3 has a stubborn mind and censures people easily' If tender-hearted and beneficent3 he %ill be unable to bear e5ecutionsH if easy in money3 he %ill li$e to besto% fa(ours' If he has a stubborn mind3 he %ill re(eal his ill %ill to the inferiorsH if he censures people easily3 he %ill inflict the death penalty upon anybody' 6nable to bear e5ecutions3 one %ould remit most punishmentsH fond of besto%ing fa(ours3 one %ould mostly re%ard men of no merit' #hen ill %ill is re(ealed3 the inferiors %ill hate the superiorsH %hen arbitrary censure pre(ails3 the people %ill rebel' Therefore3 %hen a bene(olent man is on the throne3 the inferiors are %ild3 easily (iolate la%s and prohibitions3 e5pect undue gifts3 and hope for personal fa(ours from the superior' #hen a (iolent man is on the throne3 la%s and decrees are arbitraryH ruler and minister oppose each otherH the people grumble and beget the spirit of disorder' Hence the saying+ "Both bene(olence and (iolence dri(e the state to ruin'" #ho can not prepare good food but in(ites star(elings to diet3 can not sa(e their li(es' #ho can not mo% grass and gro% rice but promotes the distribution of loans3 alms3 prizes3 and gifts3 can not enrich the people' The learned men of today3 in their speeches3 do not emphasize the need of primary callings but are fond of ad(ocating secondary %or$s and preach the gospel of emptiness and saintliness so as to delight the people' To do this is as fallacious as to in(ite people to poor diet' ,ny persuasion of the "in(itation-to-poor-diet" 9@ type the intelligent so(ereign ne(er accepts' #hen %ritings are too s$etchy3 pupils debateH %hen la%s are too (ague3 (agabonds dispute 9A ' For this reason3 the %ritings of the sages al%ays illustrate their discussions3 the la%s of the intelligent ruler al%ays penetrate the minute details of fact' To e5ert thought and consideration and forecast gains and losses3 is hard e(en to %ise menH to hold the antecedent %ord accountable for the conse8uent result3 is easy e(en to fools' The intelligent so(ereign accepts %hat is easy to stupid men but reFects 9D %hat is difficult to %ise men' Therefore3 %ithout resorting to %isdom and thought3 the state is in good order'

If the taste3 %hether sour or s%eet3 salty or insipid3 is not Fudged by the mouth of the so(ereign but determined by the chef& then all the coo$s %ill slight the ruler and re(ere the chef+ If the note3 %hether high or lo%3 clear or mi5ed3 is not Fudged by the ear of the so(ereign but by the head musician3 then the blind 9E players %ill slight the ruler and re(ere the head musician' Similarly3 if the go(ernment of the state3 %hether right or %rong3 is not Fudged by the so(ereign*s o%n tact but determined by his fa(ourites3 then the ministers and inferiors %ill slight the ruler and re(ere the fa(ourites' The lord of men3 %ho does not personally obser(e deeds and e5amine %ords but merely entrusts the inferiors %ith all matters of restriction and Fudgment3 is nobody other than a lodger and boarder in the state' Suppose people ha(e neither clothes nor food and suffer neither hunger nor cold and3 moreo(er3 do not fear death3 then they %ill ha(e no intention to ser(e the superior' If they intend not to be ruled by the ruler3 the ruler can not employ them' 7o%3 if the po%er o(er life and death is (ested in the chief (assals3 then no decree of the so(ereign can e(er pre(ail' Should tigers and leopards ma$e no use of their cla%s and fangs3 in influence they %ould become the same as rats and miceH should families %orth ten thousand pieces of gold ma$e no use of their riches3 in status they %ould become the same as gate-$eepers' If the ruler of a country could neither benefit men he appro(es nor inFure men he disappro(es3 to ma$e men fear and re(ere him %ould be impossible' Ministers %ho act at random and gi(e rein to their %ants3 are said to be chi(alrousH the lord of men %ho acts at random and gi(es rein to his %ants3 is said to be outrageous' Ministers %ho slight the superior3 are said to be bra(e 9= H the lord of men %ho slights the inferiors is said to be (iolent' #hile the principles of conduct follo% the same trac$3 the inferiors thereby recei(e praises and the superior thereby incurs blame' If the ministers gain so much3 the lord of men %ill lose so much' In the state of an intelligent so(ereign3 ho%e(er3 there are noble ministers but no po%erful ministers' By noble ministers are meant those %hose ran$s are high and %hose posts are bigH by po%erful ministers are meant those %hose counsels are adopted and %hose influences are enormous' In the state of the intelligent so(ereign3 again3 officials are raised and ran$s are granted according to their respecti(e merits3 9I %herefore there are noble ministersH %ords al%ays turn into deeds 9; and any fraud is al%ays censured3 %herefore there are no po%erful ministers' 'otes
9' Ê說' Its 2nglish rendering by -' T' hen is "The 2ight Theories" :-iang3 op+ cit+& p' 9@I3 f' A>3 %hich is inaccurate' @' #ith #an Hsien-ch!ien ‹ before - is superfluous' A' #ith #ang i before Ø is superfluous' D' #ith )u )uang-ts!? í should be Ý' E' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien ‹ before Ðì is superfluous' =' )u )uang-ts*? read € for ‘'

I' #ith Sun I-Fang Ó` should be ’“' ;' )u )uang-ts*? read ” for •' <' Such %as the practice of one of the Si5 ,rts in the school curriculum during the hou .ynasty' 9J' These %ere special $inds of %eapons employed by )ing #?n of hou' 99' #ang Hsien-shen proposed } for 乘' 9@' â–之說' 9A' #ith )u )uang-ts!? N•— should be N%•' 9D' #ith )u Ë abo(e ˜ should be 不' 9E' Most famous musicians in those days %ere talented blind fol$' 9=' Sun I-Fang proposed ™ for "' 9I' #ith #ang Hsien-shen šl›œl•ž, means šl›Ÿ@¢=,' 9;' #ith #ang ´不˜[ should be ´@['

Chapter 2L0III. 3ight Canons1
1. Accor+ance "ith H)&an eelings 7$ Acc)&)lation of Wis+o& 3 4enerally spea$ing3 the order of ,ll-under-Hea(en must accord %ith human feelings' Human feelings ha(e li$es and disli$es3 %herefore re%ard and punishment can be applied' If re%ard and punishment are applicable3 prohibitions and orders %ill pre(ail and the course of go(ernment %ill be accomplished' ,s the ruler has the handles in his grip and thereby upholds his august position3 %hat is ordered %or$s and %hat is prohibited stops' The handles are regulators of life and deathH the position is the means of o(ercoming the masses' If dismissal and appointment ha(e no constant rule3 the so(ereign*s prerogati(e %ill be profanedH if matters of re%ard and punishment are administered in common by the so(ereign and the inferiors3 the so(ereign*s authority %ill be sha$en' For this reason3 the intelligent so(ereign does not listen %ith the attitude of lo(e nor does he scheme %ith the sense of delight' For3 if he does not compare the %ords he heeds3 his prerogati(e %ill be sha$en by rapacious ministersH if he does not ma$e use of the ministers* %isdom and strength3 he %ill be harassed by the ministers' Therefore3 the so(ereign3 %hen enforcing regulations3 is as magnificent as hea(en3 and3 %hen using men3 is as mysterious as the spirit' For hea(en cannot be confuted and the spirit cannot be harassed by human beings' #hen the position functions and the training is strict3 though the ruler acts contrary to the %orld3 nobody dares to disobey' &nce

blame and praise pre(ail under a unified system3 nobody dares to dispute' Therefore3 to re%ard the %ise and punish the (iolent is the best %ay to e5alt good peopleH to re%ard the outrageous and punish the %ise is the e5tremity to e5alt bad people3 %hich is said to be re%arding participants in %ic$edness and punishing opponents to it' 7o%3 re%ards should not be other%ise than liberal3 so that the people %ill consider them profitableH honours should not be other%ise than attracti(e3 so that the people %ill consider them gloriousH censures should not be other%ise than strict3 so that the people %ill consider them se(ereH and blame should not be other%ise than odious3 so that the people %ill consider it disgraceful' Thereafter3 the ruler %ill uni(ersally enforce his la%s' #hen prohibitions and censures of pri(ate families mean no harm to the people3 and %hen men of merit deser(ing re%ard and culprits deser(ing punishment are al%ays $no%n3 the system of intelligent ser(ice is accomplished' 7. The Tao of the ,o!ereign8$ (rgani5ing the Wise 9 ,s one man in physical strength can not ri(al a multitude of people and in %isdom can not comprehend e(erything3 using one man*s strength and %isdom can not be compared %ith using the strength and %isdom of the %hole state' Therefore3 %ho %ith his o%n strength and %isdom defies people3 %ill be o(ercome in all things' If he by chance hits the obFect3 he %ill ha(e already o(er-%or$ed himselfH if he misses the obFect3 he %ill be held responsible = for the mista$e' The inferior ruler e5erts his o%n abilityH the a(erage ruler e5erts people*s physical strengthH and the superior ruler e5erts people*s %isdom' For this reason3 in case of emergency he gathers the %ise men3 listens to each one3 and calls a conference' If he does not listen to each one3 conse8uent results %ill be contrary to antecedent %ords' If conse8uent results are contrary to antecedent %ords3 there %ill be no distinction I bet%een the stupid and the %ise' If the ruler does not call a conference3 there %ill be hesitation and no decision' #ithout decision3 e(erything %ill come to a standstill' If the ruler adopts one of the counsels himself3 he %ill ha(e no fear of falling into the trap of rapacious people' Therefore3 he should let e(erybody utter his opinions' ,fter opinions are settled3 he should hold them responsible ; for e8ui(alent results' For this purpose3 on the day that opinions are uttered3 he should ma$e %ritten memoranda' Thus3 the organizer of %ise men (erifies their %ords after starting the tas$sH the organizer of able men estimates < their merits after seeing their %or$s' Success and failure lea(e e(idence3 %hich re%ard and punishment follo% respecti(ely' If tas$s are successfully accomplished3 the ruler har(ests their fruitsH if they fail3 the ministers face criminal charges' #ho rules o(er men3 ne(er busies himself %ith the identification of tallies3 not to mention laborious %or$' 7or does he busy himself in case of 9J emergency at hand3 still less %ith distant affairs' Therefore3 self-e5haustion is not the right policy in personnel administration' The ruler does not ta$e ad(ice from the same source' If ministers unify their %ords3 the ruler %ill reprimand them' If he ma$es people e5ert their respecti(e abilities3 he %ill become godli$e' If he is godli$e3 the inferiors %ill e5ert their %isdom' If e(ery inferior e5erts his %isdom 99 the ministers %ill not ta$e ad(antage of the ruler and the Tao of the so(ereign %ill be accomplished' 3. Pre!enting the 1ise of Co&&otions17

#ho $no%s ruler and minister differ in interest3 %ill become supreme' #ho regards the difference 9A as identity3 %ill be intimidated' #ho administers the state affairs in common %ith his ministers3 %ill be $illed' Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign %ill scrutinize the distinctions bet%een public and pri(ate interests and the relati(e positions of benefit and harm3 so that %ic$ed men %ill find no chance to act' There are si5 $inds of creators of commotions3 namely3 do%agers3 concubines3 bastards3 brothers3 chief (assals3 and celebrities for %isdom' If magistrates are appointed and ministers bear responsibilities in accordance %ith la%3 the so(ereign*s mother %ill not dare any $ind of rampancy' If propriety and besto%al ha(e different grades3 concubines can not speculate %hether their sons might replace the heir apparent' If the supreme position tolerates no ri(alry3 bastards cannot dispute %ith legitimate sons' If authority and position 9D are not sha$en3 royal brothers cannot trespass on the ruler*s po%er' If subordinate officials are not from the same clan3 chief (assals can not delude the ruler' If prohibitions and re%ards are al%ays enforced3 celebrities for %isdom cannot create any commotion' ' ' ' 9E Ministers ha(e t%o resorts3 called outer and inner' The outer is said to be "the feared"H the inner3 "the lo(ed"' #hat is re8uested by the feared is grantedH %hat is suggested by the lo(ed3 is follo%ed' Thus3 the feared and the lo(ed are %hat the rapacious ministers appeal to' If officials recommended by foreign states are cross-e5amined 9= and censured for their continuous de(elopment of personal friendships and acceptance of bribes from abroad3 they %ill not count on the outer resort' If ran$s and bounties follo% meritorious ser(ices3 and if those %ho ma$e re8uest on behalf of their friends and relati(es are e8ually implicated in the practice of fa(ouritism3 nobody %ill count on the inner resort' If both the outer and the inner resorts are not relied on3 culprits outside and inside 9I the court %ill be suppressed' &fficials %ho ad(ance according to the regular order till they reach posts of great responsibilities3 are %ise' Those %hose posts are high and responsibilities are great3 should be held under sur(eillance by three means of control3 namely3 "ta$ing hostages" 9; 3 "holding securities" 9< 3 and "finding sureties" @J ' 0elati(es3 %i(es and sons can be ta$en as hostagesH ran$s and bounties can be held as securitiesH and the "three units and basic fi(es" that are implicated @9 in any of the members* illegal acts3 can be found as sureties' #orthies refrain from e(ils for fear of "hostage-ta$ing"H greedy people are transformed by the measure of "security-holding"H and culprits are harassed by the measure of "surety-using"' If the superior does not e5ercise these means of control3 the inferiors %ill dare to infringe upon his authority @@ ' If small culprits are not eliminated3 he %ill ha(e to censure great culprits' #hen censuring @A culprits3 if name and fact correspond to each other3 he should immediately enforce the censure' If their life is detrimental to the state affairs and their death penalty is harmful to the ruler*s name3 then he should poison them through drin$ing or eating3 other%ise send them into the hands of their enemies' This is said to "eliminate in(isible culprits" @D ' Harbouring @E culprits is due @= to the practice of misrepresentation' The practice of misrepresentation is due to the contempt for the la%' If (isible merits are al%ays re%arded and disclosed crimes are punished3 the practice of misrepresentation %ill stop' Him %ho gi(es no opinion of right or %rong3 presents unreasonable persuasions and remonstrations3 and sho%s contempt for the la%3 the ruler should not ta$e into ser(ice'

6ncles3 cousins3 or %orthy and e5cellent ministers3 li(ing in e5ile3 are said to be "roaming calamities" @I ' Their menace comes from their pro(ision of neighbouring enemies %ith numerous opportunities' 2unuchs and courtiers are said to be "profligate rebels"' @; Their menace comes from their ill %ill caused by irritation and suspicion' To conceal anger3 shelter criminals3 and harbour them3 is said to "increase commotions" @< ' The menace lies in the rise of men e5pecting godsends and ma$ing arbitrary promotions' To delegate e8ual authority to t%o chief (assals and maintain the balance of po%er bet%een them %ithout partiality3 is said to "nourish calamities" AJ ' The menace lies in the precipitation of family 8uarrels A9 3 intimidations3 and regicides' To be careless and not to $eep oneself godli$e3 is called to "lose prestige" A@ ' Its menace lies in the rise of such treason as regicide by poisoning' These fi(e are menaces3 %hich3 if the lord of men ignores them3 %ill e(entually precipitate such disasters as intimidation and regicide' If matters of dismissal and appointment originate from inside3 then there %ill be orderH if from outside AA 3 then chaos' Therefore3 the intelligent so(ereign %ould estimate meritorious ser(ices inside the court and har(est profits from abroad' onse8uently3 his state is al%ays orderlyH his enemies3 al%ays chaotic' The reason for chaos is that unduly hated ministers %ould create such outer commotions by means of delusion3 and unduly lo(ed (assals %ould create such inner commotions by means of poisoning' 8. 3nforcing the ,yste& of Three 6nits an+ *asic i!es38 The system of "three units and basic fi(es" means to choose the plan held by the maFority %hen different opinions are subsumed under three categories3 and to organize basic groups of fi(e families and implicate all the members of each group in any member*s misconduct' Thus3 the comparison of different opinions al%ays differentiates the maFority and the minority from each otherH the organization of groups of fi(e families al%ays holds members of the same group Fointly responsible AE ' If not differentiated3 they %ould profane the superior*s authorityH if not held responsible3 they %ould co-operate in e(il doings' A= Therefore3 the ruler should differentiate them %hen their number is still small and can be easily $no%n' #hen angry3 he should censure only the culprits but not their relati(es' His position of obser(ing deeds and heeding speeches is demonstrated by his punishing AI all cli8ue members3 re%arding non-partisans A; 3 censuring %omen A< inter(ie%ers3 and con(icting their adherents' 0egarding the di(erse opinions uttered simultaneously3 he should estimate them in the light of their bac$grounds3 scrutinize them %ith the principles of hea(en3 (erify them by the course of affairs3 and compare them %ith the sentiments of man$ind' If these four demonstrations coincide %ith one another3 then the ruler may proceed to obser(e deeds' ompare different %ords and thereby $no% the true one' hange DJ the perspecti(es and thereby detect D9 the choice abode' Stic$ to your o%n (ie% and thereby hold your e5traordinary D@ standpoint' 6nify the system of personnel administration and thereby %arn the courtiers' DA .ignify your %ords and thereby scare distant officials' ite the past facts and thereby chec$ the antecedent %ords' )eep detecti(es near by the officials and thereby $no% their inner conditions' Send detecti(es DD afar and thereby $no% outer affairs' Hold to your clear $no%ledge and thereby in8uire into obscure obFects' 4i(e ministers false encouragements and thereby e5tirpate their attempts to infringe on the ruler*s rights' In(ert your %ords and thereby try out the suspects' 6se contradictory arguments DE and thereby find out the in(isible culprits' 2stablish the

s the intelligent so(ereign ta$es both the superior and the inferior %ays3 no culprit is e(er missed' Members of the same group of fi(e families3 of the same (illage3 ED and of the same county3 EE all li(e li$e close neighbours' #ho denounces anybody else*s fault3 is re%ardedH %ho misses E= anybody else*s fault3 is censured' The same is true of the superior to%ards the inferior and of the inferior to%ards the superior' . Co&paring .e!otion to .ccordingly3 superior and inferior3 high and lo%3 %arn each other to obey the la%3 and teach each other to secure profits' EI By nature e(erybody %ants to li(e in fact and in reputation' So does the ruler %ant both the name of being %orthy and intelligent and the fact of re%arding and punishing people' #hen fame and fact are e8ually complete3 he %ill certainly be $no%n as luc$y and good' :.i(ulge false ideas and thereby ma$e the inferiors thin$ matters o(er' In the case of similarities and resemblances3 identify their common points' #hen stating anybody*s faults3 grasp the causes3 $no% the due penalties3 D. and thereby Fustify D< the e5ercise of your authority' Send out spies in secret to inspect the enemy states from time to time and thereby find their signs of decay' 4radually change en(oys sent abroad and thereby brea$ up their secret communications and pri(ate friendships %ith foreign states' Put e(ery subordinate under sur(eillance by his immediate principal' Thus3 ministers discipline their (assalsH (assals discipline their dependentsH soldiers and officials discipline their troopsH en(oys discipline their deputiesH prefects discipline their subordinatesH courtiers discipline their attendantsH and 8ueens and concubines discipline their court maids' Such is said to be "the systematic thorough %ay" EJ ' If %ords are di(ulged and affairs lea$ out3 then no statecraft %ill function at all' 9.n unreal thing3 if its e5istence is asserted by ten men3 is still subFect to doubtH if its e5istence is asserted by one hundred men3 its .system of espionage D= and thereby rectify the fraudulent DI people' Ma$e appointments and dismissals and thereby obser(e the reactions of %ic$ed officials' Spea$ e5plicitly and thereby persuade people to a(oid faults' Humbly follo% others* speeches and thereby discriminate bet%een earnest men and flatterers' 4et information from e(erybody and $no% things you ha(e not yet seen' reate 8uarrels among adherents and partisans and thereby disperse them' 25plore the depths of one culprit and thereby %arn the mind of the many' .ifferent . .ecrecy91 The lord of men has the duty of de(oting his attention to secrecy' For this reason3 %hen his delight is re(ealed3 his conduct %ill be slightedH E@ %hen his anger is re(ealed3 his prestige %ill fall to the ground' The %ords of the intelligent so(ereign3 therefore3 are bloc$aded in such %ise that they are not communicable out%ards and are $ept in such secrecy that they are un$no%able' Therefore3 to find ten culprits %ith the %isdom of one person is an inferior %ay3 to find one culprit through the mutual %atch of ten persons is a superior %ay' EA .peeches9? If speeches heard from inferiors are not compared3 the superior %ill find no reason to call the inferiors to account' If speeches are not held responsible for their utility3 heretical theories %ill be%ilder the superior' . %ord is such that people belie(e in it because its upholders are numerous' .

Confi+ing in the La":3 &fficials are o(er-po%erful because there are no effecti(e la%s' -a%s stop functioning because the superior is stupid' If the superior is stupid and upholds no rule3 the officials %ill act at random' .ccording to the right %ay of heeding suggestions in general3 the ruler re8uires the minister to spea$ loyally to him about any culprit3 and to cite %ide illustrations of e(ery suggestion presented to him for adoption' =J If the so(ereign is not %ise3 culprits %ill gain the ad(antage' Bet according to the intelligent so(ereign*s %ay3 the ruler3 %hen pleased by any counsellor3 %ould e5amine the accepted counsel in detailH %hen angered by any counsellor3 he %ould reconsider the %hole contentions for the argument3 and profane his Fudgment till his feelings ha(e become normal in order that he may thereby find sufficient reason to a%ard the counsellor honour or disgrace and determine %hether his moti(e is public Fustice or pri(ate greediness' Ministers usually present as many counsels as possible to display their %isdom and let the ruler choose one out of them3 so that they can a(oid responsibilities' Therefore3 %hen numerous counsels appear simultaneously3 only the fallen ruler %ould heed them' .s the officials act at random3 their salaries %ill be surpassed by no precedent' If their salaries are surpassed by no predecessor3 ta5es %ill be increased' .gain3 if spo$en about by stammerers3 it is susceptible to doubtH if spo$en about by elo8uent persons3 it becomes belie(able' #ic$ed men3 %hen (iolating their superior3 rely on the support of the many for their bac$ground3 display their elo8uence by 8uoting forced analogies so as to embellish their selfish acts' If the lord of men sho%s no anger at them but e5pects to compare and identify their deeds %ith their %ords3 by force of circumstances his inferiors %ill be benefited' The so(ereign upholding the true path3 %hen heeding %ords3 holds them accountable for their utility3 and charges them %ith their functions' From the re8uirement of successful functions there issue matters of re%ard and punishment' Therefore3 %hoe(er displays useless elo8uence3 is ne(er $ept in the courtH %hoe(er is appointed to office3 if $no%n to be unable to perform his duties3 is remo(ed from his postH E< and %hoe(er tal$s big and e5aggerates e(erything3 is dri(en to his %its* end by the disappointing outcome' In conse8uence3 there %ill be disclosed %ic$ednesses3 %herefore the superior %ill be in a position to reprimand the culprits' .s ta5es are increased3 they %ill become %ealthy' The %ealth and po%erfulness of the officials e(entually breed chaos' =D .reality becomes probableH and if its e5istence is asserted by one thousand men3 it becomes undoubtable' .s for the intelligent so(ereign3 he %ould admit no alternati(e %ord in addition to the original3 but enact the system of future testimony by ma$ing =9 the conse8uent result testify the antecedent proFect so as to ascertain the falsity or sincerity =@ of the counsellor' The %ay of the intelligent so(ereign ne(er tolerates t%o different counsels by one minister3 but restricts one person to one counsel at one time3 allo%s nobody to act at random3 and al%ays synthesizes the results of comparison' Therefore3 the culprits find no %ay to ad(ance' ..ny %ord that does not truly materialize %ith no e5traneous hindrance3 is a fraud' &f fraud the spea$er should then be con(icted' In other %ords3 e(ery %ord has its retributionH e(ery theory has its responsibility for utility' onse8uently3 the %ords of rapacious ministers* adherents and partisans %ill not go into the superior*s ear' .

6nder the intelligent so(ereign*s Tao3 only trust%orthy men are ta$en into ser(ice3 only dutiful officials are praised3 and only men of merit are re%arded' #hen anybody recommends anybody else to the so(ereign3 if his %ord materializes truly and thereby delights the ruler3 then both he and the official should be e8ually benefitedH if his %ord does not truly materialize and thereby angers the ruler3 then both he and that official should be e8ually punished' If so3 ministers %ill not dare grant their uncles and cousins personal fa(ours3 but %ill recommend their enemies %ho ha(e the re8uired abilities' Their influences are sufficient to enforce the la%3 their allo%ances are sufficient to perform their duties3 and their self-see$ing acti(ities find no room to gro% in' In conse8uence3 the people %ill %or$ hard and lessen the officials* burden' #hoe(er is entrusted %ith public affairs3 should not be o(er-po%erful' &nly to his ran$ should the ruler ascribe his honour' #hoe(er holds office should not be selfsee$ing' &nly to his bounty should the ruler limit his income' In conse8uence3 the people %ill honour ran$s and esteem bounties' Thus3 ran$ and bounty %ill become means of re%ard' #hen the people esteem these means of re%ard3 the state %ill be in good order' If norms are intricate3 it is because terms are mista$en' If prizes and praises are not ade8uate3 the people %ill hang in suspense' 7o% that the people hold both fame and prizes in e8ual esteem3 if the re%arded are slandered3 re%ard %ill not be fit to encourage peopleH if the punished are admired3 then punishment %ill not be fit to suppress culprits' It is the intelligent so(ereign*s %ay that re%ards al%ays result from contributions to public benefit and that fame al%ays originates in ser(ices to the superior' If re%ard and fame follo% the same trac$ and slander and censure proceed in parallel3 the people %ill find nothing more glorious than to be re%arded =E and the recei(ers of hea(y penalties %ill al%ays incur bad names' In conse8uence3 the people %ill fear punishment3 that is3 means of prohibition' If the people fear means of prohibition3 the state %ill be in good order' ?. 6phol+ing the ,o!ereign#s .ignity:: If the so(ereign manifests chi(alrous conduct3 his dignity %ill be sha$en' If he follo%s theories of compassion and bene(olence3 legal institutions %ill crumble' &n account of such institutions the people re(ere the superiorH by (irtue of his position the superior holds do%n the inferior' Therefore3 if inferiors act at random3 unscrupulously (iolate the la%3 and honour the custom of slighting the ruler3 then the so(ereign*s dignity %ill be sha$en' The people on account of the la% hesitate to (iolate the superiorH the superior on account of the la% suppresses the sentiments of compassion and bene(olence' Thus3 the inferiors appreciate fa(ours and charities and stri(e for a go(ernment %ith bribes and pay' =I For this reason3 la%s and orders are failing in their aim' Pri(ate actions are honoured3 %hereby the so(ereign*s dignity is sha$en' Bribes and pay are used3 %hereby the efficacy of la%s and orders =; is doubted' If such (ices are tolerated3 the go(ernment %ill be disturbedH if not3 the so(ereign %ill be slandered' In the long run3 the ruler*s status %ill be despised and the regulations for the officials %ill be confused' Such is called "a state %ithout constant authority" =< ' 6nder the Tao of the intelligent so(ereign3 no minister is allo%ed to practise chi(alry and gi(e honours nor is he allo%ed to accomplish any merit for his family*s sa$e' ,chie(ement and reputation are al%ays based on the initiati(e of the regulations of

the officials' #hat is against la%3 though it may in(ol(e difficulties3 cannot be celebrated' In conse8uence3 the people %ill find no reason to ma$e their reputation' 7o%3 to establish la%s and regulations is to unify the peopleH to ma$e re%ard and punishment faithful is to e5ert their abilitiesH and to ma$e slander and honours clear is to encourage good and discourage e(il' Fame and titles3 re%ards and punishments3 la%s and orders3 are three pairs IJ of statecraft' ' ' ' I9 Therefore3 any action by the chief (assals %ill aim to honour the rulerH any ser(ice by the hundred surnames %ill aim to benefit the superior' Such is called "a state on the true path" I@ ' 'otes
9' Êž' The te5t of this %or$ %as originally so corrupt that )u )uang-ts*? ga(e it up as hopeless' Since the time of #ang Hsien-shen scholars ha(e managed to read it intelligibly' Êž literally means "eight %arps"3 each %arp representing a canon gi(ing the ruler ad(ice on ho% to control his ministers' In structure and function this %or$ closely resembles those on the "Inner and &uter ongeries of Sayings"' @' ¢•3 remo(ed from the end of the canon to the beginning' A' 收™' The sub-title is original' D' Jj' E' ™' The sub-title is original'

=' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n ( should be )' I' #ith )ao H?ng Š belo% 不 should be ¡' I disagree %ith him' ;' #ith )ao 怒 belo% 而 means ˜' <' #ith #ang Hsien-sh?n N is a mista$e for É' 9J' #ith )u )uang-ts*? ™ should be Â' 99' #ith #ang Hsien-shen ƒ abo(e l is superfluous' 9@' ¢¡' 9A' #ith #ang3 hao*s edition has _ belo% Ë' 9D' #ith )ao H?ng £ belo% % means §位' 9E' #ang Hsien-shen thought there %ere hiatuses follo%ing this passage' 9=' #ith Sun I-Fang and #ang Hsien-ch!ien abo(e N should be ¤'

9I' Ì refers to culprits outsideH ¥ to those inside' 9;' ¦'

9<' §' @J' 固' @9' #ang Hsien-shen proposed ˜怒 for ö¨' @@' #ith #ang ©不ílƒÙ should be Ù不ílƒ©' @A' #ith )u )uang-ts*? N should be supplied abo(e 而' @D' &TÌ' "In(isible culprits" refer to those %ho do not openly (iolate any %ritten la% and so can not be publicly con(icted of any crime3 but are in reality antagonists to the e5isting la%' @E' #ith BM BMeh P means ’' @=' #ith )ao H?ng B in both cases should be ¢' @I' ªo' @;' ¾Ž' @<' «¡' AJ' ¬o' #ith Sun I-Fang ¬ should be -' A9' Sun read A for š' A@' ®~' #ith #ang Hsien-ch*ien ® is a mista$e for ¯' AA' "To originate from inside" means "to originate on the initiati(e of the ruler himself" and "to originate from outside" means "to originate %ith enemy states"' AD' 1j' j here refers to -°之j' Cf+ Supra& 111I3 p' E3 f' @' AE' #ith )ao H?ng 怒 in both cases should be ˜' A=' #ith )ao ± stands for ² meaning ²b' AI' )ao proposed the supply of J abo(e >Æ' A;' #ith )ao and -u #?n-shao p belo% -_ is superfluous' A<' #ith )ao ³é means ´é' DJ' #ith #ang Hsien-shen = should be µ' D9' #ith #ang Ú should read ¦' D@' Hiraza%a proposed =¯ for Ô¯' To me the change is unnecessary'

DA' #ith )ao H?ng N abo(e –O should be P %hich means Q' DD' #ith BM BMeh ’± should be ±’' DE' #ith BM 論8 should be 8論' D=' #ang #ei read R for S' DI' #ang Hsien-ch!ien read T for U' D;' #ith )ao H?ng V refers to OOO %hich is synonymous %ith W' D<' #ith )ao 止 abo(e ~ should be X' EJ' YZa‡' E9' For the topic of this canon Hiraza%a*s edition has k[ in place of \l' I regard ƶ as more suitable than -´' E@' )u )uang-ts*? read _ for ·' EA' )ao H?ng called the former %ay of Fudicial administration "deducti(e" and the latter "inducti(e'" ED' ¸ consists of t%o hundred and fifty families' EE' ¹ consists of t%o thousand fi(e hundred families' E=' #ang Hsien-shen %as %rong in regarding X as superfluous' EI' #ang proposed Ö for ¿' E;' -´ as the title of this canon suits the content (ery %ell' E<' #ith )u )uang-ts!? º belo% l is superfluous3 and l收 should be 收l' =J' #ith #ang Hsien-ch!ien § means »' =9' #ith -u #?n-shao and #ang Hsien-shen j is a mista$e for \' =@' #ith #ang « belo% ) is superfluous' =A' 產ì' =D' #ith #ang Hsien-ch*ien , belo% ¡ is superfluous' =E' #ang #ei thought the sentence 然lNRU?-之§ in(ol(es errors or hiatuses' Hiraza%a*s and the #aseda edition proposed ô for §' 2(idently they treated ? abo(e -之ô as a preposition3 "inside"' Then RU?-之ô means in 2nglish "no glory e5cept re%ard"' To me there is no need of changing § into ô' ,s ? can be treated as a conFunction3 "than"3 RU?-之§ means "nothing

more glorious than to be included among the re%arded" or concisely "nothing more glorious than to be re%arded'" ==' >~' The te5t of anon 2ight has ]É at the beginning and >~ at the end' >~ suits the general thought of this canon better than ]É' =I' #ith Sun I-Fang ^ should be _' =;' #ang Hsien-shen proposed the supply of ) belo% §' =<' Óùa•' IJ' I read ` for a' I9' #ang Hsien-shen thought there %ere hiatuses follo%ing this passage' I@' r‡a•'

Chapter 2LI2. i!e 0er&in$ A Pathological Analysis of Politics1
In the age of remote anti8uity3 human beings %ere fe% %hile birds and beasts %ere many' Man$ind being unable to o(ercome birds3 beasts3 insects3 and serpents3 there appeared a sage %ho made nests by putting pieces of %ood together to shelter people from harm' Thereat the people %ere so delighted that they made him ruler of ,llunder-Hea(en and called him the 7est-.%eller' In those days the people li(ed on the fruits of trees and seeds of grass as %ell as mussels and clams3 %hich smelt ran$ and fetid and hurt the digesti(e organs' ,s many of them %ere affected %ith diseases3 there appeared a sage %ho t%isted a drill to ma$e fire %hich changed the fetid and musty smell' Thereat the people %ere so delighted that they made him ruler of ,llunder-Hea(en' In the age of middle anti8uity3 there %as a great deluge in ,ll-under-Hea(en3 %herefore )ung and BM opened channels for the %ater' In the age of recent anti8uity3 hieh and ho% %ere (iolent and turbulent3 %herefore T!ang and #u o(erthre% them' 7o%3 if somebody fastened the trees or turned a drill in the age of the Hsia-hou lan3 he %ould certainly be ridiculed by )ung and BM' ,gain3 if somebody opened channels for %ater in the age of the Bin and hou .ynasties3 he %ould certainly be ridiculed by T*ang and #u' That being so3 if somebody in the present age praises the %ays of Bao3 Shun3 )ung @ 3 BM A 3 T!ang3 and #u3 he %ould3 no doubt3 be ridiculed by contemporary sages' That is the reason %hy the sage neither see$s to follo% the %ays of the ancients nor establishes any fi5ed standard for all times but e5amines the things of his age and then prepares to deal %ith them'

There %as in Sung a man3 %ho tilled a field in %hich there stood the trun$ of a tree' &nce a hare3 %hile running fast3 rushed against the trun$3 bro$e its nec$3 and died' Thereupon the man cast his plough aside and %atched that tree3 hoping that he %ould get another hare' Bet he ne(er caught another hare and %as himself ridiculed by the people of Sung' 7o% supposing somebody %anted to go(ern the people of the present age %ith the policies of the early $ings3 he %ould be doing e5actly the same thing as that man %ho %atched the tree' In olden times3 men did not need to till3 for the seeds of grass and the fruits of trees %ere sufficient to feed themH nor did %omen ha(e to %ea(e3 for the s$ins of birds and beasts %ere sufficient to clothe them' Thus3 %ithout %or$ing hard3 they had an abundance of supply' ,s the people %ere fe%3 their possessions %ere more than sufficient' Therefore the people ne(er 8uarrelled' ,s a result3 neither large re%ards %ere besto%ed nor %ere hea(y punishments employed3 but the people go(erned themsel(es' 7o%adays3 ho%e(er3 people do not regard fi(e children as many' 2ach child may in his or her turn beget fi(e offspring3 so that before the death of the grandfather there may be t%enty-fi(e grand-children' ,s a result3 people ha(e become numerous and supplies scantyH toil has become hard and pro(isions meager' Therefore people 8uarrel so much that3 though re%ards are doubled and punishments repeated3 disorder is ine(itable' #hen Bao %as ruling ,ll-under-Hea(en3 his thatched roof %as untrimmed and his beam unplaned' He ate unpolished grain and made soup of coarse greens and %ore deers$in garments in %inter and rough fibre-cloth in summer' 2(en the clothes and pro(isions of a gate-$eeper %ere not more scanty than his' #hen BM %as ruling ,llunder-Hea(en3 he led the people %ith plough and spade in hands3 till his thighs had no do%n and his shins gre% no hair' 2(en the toil of a prisoner of %ar %as not more distressful than his' Spea$ing from this (ie%point3 indeed3 he %ho abdicated the throne of the Son of Hea(en in fa(our of others in olden times3 %as simply foresa$ing the li(ing of a gate-$eeper and the toil of a prisoner of %ar' Therefore the inheritance of ,ll-under-Hea(en in olden days %as not (ery great' Bet the prefect of today3 upon the day of his death3 hands do%n lu5urious chariots to his descendants from generation to generation' ,ccordingly people thin$ much of his position' Thus3 in the matter of lea(ing office3 men ma$e light of resigning from the ancient dignity of the Son of Hea(en and consider it hard to 8uit the present post of a prefect' 0eally it is the difference bet%een meagerness and abundance' Indeed3 those %ho d%ell in the mountains and dra% %ater from the (alleys3 gi(e %ater to each other on the occasion of festi(alsH those %ho li(e in s%amps hire men to open channels for the %ater' -i$e%ise3 in the spring of famine years men do not e(en feed their infant brothers3 %hile in the autumn of abundant years e(en strange (isitors are al%ays %ell fed' 7ot that men cut off their blood-relations and lo(e passers-by3 but that the feelings are different in abundance and in scarcity' For the same reason3 men of yore made light of goods3 not because they %ere bene(olent3 but because goods %ere abundantH %hile men of today 8uarrel and pillage3 not because they are brutish3 but because goods are scarce' ,gain3 men of yore made light of resigning from the dignity of the Son of Hea(en3 not because their personalities %ere noble3 but because the po%er of the Son of Hea(en %as scantyH %hile men of today ma$e much of fighting for office in go(ernment D 3 not because their personalities are mean3 but

because the po%ers of the posts are great' Therefore the sage3 considering 8uantity and deliberating upon scarcity and abundance3 go(erns accordingly' So it is no charity to inflict light punishments nor is it any cruelty to enforce se(ere penalties+ the practice is simply in accordance %ith the custom of the age' Thus3 circumstances change %ith the age and measures change according to circumstances' &f old3 )ing #?n3 located bet%een F?ng and )ao3 in a territory of one hundred s8uare li3 practised bene(olence and