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Soap and Detergent

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CONTENTS
• meaning of soap
• soap preparation process
• meaning of detergent
• detergent preparation process
• cleansing action of soap and detergent
• compare and contrast the effectiveness of the
cleansing action of soap and detergent
• additives in detergent and their respective
functions
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MEANING OF SOAP
• General formula:
+ +
RCOOˉNa or RCOO ˉK

• Example:
Sodium palmitate, CH3(CH2)14COO-K+
Potassium stearate, CH3(CH2)16COO-K+

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SOAP PREPARATION PROCESS
• Soaps are prepared by the alkaline hydrolysis of fats and oils. This
process is known as saponification.

Oil or fat Alkali Glycerol Soaps

• A by-product of this reaction is glycerol which is useful as in foods,


as an antifreeze, as a tobacco-moistening agent, and in the
manufacture of nitroglycerine and dynamite.

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aponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali solutions
Example:

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MEANING OF DETERGENT

R – OSO3-

alkyl sulphate ion

alkylbenzene sulphonate ion

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DETERGENT PREPARATION
PROCESS
Preparation of sodium alkyl sulphate:
• Step 1: Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid

• Step 2: Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution.

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Preparation of sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate
• Step 1 : Alkylation

• Step 2 : Sulphonation

• Step 3 : Neutralisation

lkylation is the introduction of the alkyl group tohsleonhs@hotmail.com


an organic molecule
ulphonation is the introduction of the sulphonic acid group, -SO3H to an organic molecule to form sulphonic acid
CLEANSING ACTION OF SOAP
AND DETERGENT
• A piece of cloth with a greasy stain on it, is dipped in a soap or detergent solution.
Soap or detergent reduces the surface tension of water. This increases the wetting
ability of water. Therefore, the surface of the cloth is wetted thoroughly.
• The hydrophobic part of the soap or detergent anion dissolves in the grease. The
hydrophilic part is attracted to the water molecules.
• Mechanical agitation during scrubing helps pull the grease free and also break the
grease into small droplets.
• The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth due to the
repulsion between the negative charges on their surface. These droplets are
suspended in water forming an emulsion. Rinsing washes away these droplets and
leaves the surface clean.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CLEANSING
ACTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT
Characteristic Soap Detergent
Cleansing ability Weaker Stronger

Rinsing ability difficult to rinse completely. Rinses easily and completely out of
Soap that is left behind damages clothes and other objects.
the material
Molecular structure It can only be determined by the It can be modified to suit the job of
structure of the fatty acid used to cleaning. For example, the formula of
produce soap a detergent can be specially made to
be able to clean dishes and other
utensils only
pH Alkaline Can be controlled to suit the type of
detergent required

Suspension Forms scum in hard water Does not form scum or any other
kinds of suspension in hard water
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ADDITIVES USED IN DETERGENT AND
THEIR RESPECTIVE FUNCTIONS
Additives Function
Biological enzymes Break down fat and protein molecules in food stains to
(amylase, lipase, protease)produce fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids that are soluble
in water, thus increase the cleansing power of a detergent

Whitening agents (sodium Remove stains, clothes become white and cleaner
perborate)
Builders (sodium Soften hard water by removing calcium ions, Ca2+ and
tripolyphosphate) magnesium ions, Mg2+, increase the pH value of water
Brighteners Make fabrics appear white and brighter
Drying agents (sodium Ensure that the detergent in powdered form is always in a dry
sulphate, sodium silicate) condition

Stabilisers Prevent the formation of foam


Perfumes Make clothes smell fresh and clean
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