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Grade9- Cells and Reproduction Unit.

1. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis? 2. What is the meaning of the zygote? 3. What happens during fertilization? 4. What is the difference between the haploid and a diploid cell? 5. What happens during prophase 1 specifically? 6. What is crossing over? 7. Define thea) cell membrane b) cytoplasm c) Golgi body d) lysosome e) mitochondrion f) nuclear membrane g) nucleus h) ribosome i) rough endoplasmic reticulum j) smooth endoplasmic reticulum k) vacuole l) Cell wall m) Chloroplasts 8. What is meiosis? 9. What are the differences between the plant cells and animal cells? 10. What is the order of the four stages of mitosis, and what happens during each process? 11. What part of the male reproductive system produces sperm and the hormone testosterone? 12. What part of the female reproductive system produces eggs? 13. What is the function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum? 14. What is the role of the Chloroplast in a plant cell? 15. What does each of the following parts of the male reproductive system do?

a) Testesb) Scrotumc) Sperm Ducts (Vas deferens) d) Prostate Glande) Urethraf) Penisg) Epididymish) Seminal vesicle16. What is Puberty? 17. Throughput the journey, of a baby being formed, how many weeks does it take for a baby to be fully developed?

Answers: 1. Ans. Mitosis is a process of cell duplication and/or reproduction whereas Meiosis is division of germ cell. 2. Ans. Zygote is a fertilized egg. 3. Ans. Process when a male gamete and a female gamete unite to form an offspring. 4. Ans. Haploid has half the number of chromosomes. Diploid has a full set of chromosomes (all except sperm and egg). 5. Ans. Nuclear membrane disappears and crossing over occurs when the homologous chromosomes pair up. 6. Ans. Homologous chromosomes from tetrads in meiosis 1, they exchange portions of their chromatids. 7. a) the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others. b) the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located. c) (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell. d) (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.

e) spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. f) the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. g) The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane. h) small organelles that are sites of protein synthesis. i) (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). j) smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes. k) fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell. l) (only for plants): It is rigid structure that provides support for the cell. m) (only for plant cells): They make the plant green, and it is where photosynthesis happens.

8. Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces sperm or eggs/ova with half the number of chromosomes as their parent cells. 9. The differences between the plant cells and animal cells are that: The plant cells have a cell wall and a chloroplast whereas animal cells do not. Animal cells have a round shape, and are irregular but plant cells have a rectangular shape. 10. Prophase: The chromosomes become visible, and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. Metaphase: Spindle fibers pull the chromosomes into a line in the center of the cell.

Anaphase: Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibres. This stage is completed once the chromatids (daughter chromosomes) are at separate ends and stop moving. Telophase: A nucleur membrane is formed along each of the daughter chromosomes. The daughter chromosomes unwind into chromatin.

11. The testicles. 12. The ovaries. 13. To carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another. 14. Produces glucose and oxygen 15. a) Testes: a male human has two testicles. A testes is a male gland which produces sperms and the male sex hormone testosterone, b) Scrotum: it is the sac which contains the testicles, c) Sperm Ducts (Vas deferens): They are two muscular tubes, each connected to a testis. They carry the sperms from the testis to the urethra, d) Prostate Gland: It secretes a nutritive fluid to the sperms to form a mixture called semen, e) Urethra: It is a tube inside the penis which is the pathway of semen and urine out of the body, f) Penis: It is the male sex organ which ejaculates semen into the vagina during sexual intercourse, g) Epididymis: coiled tubes in which sperms are stored, h) Seminal vesicle: it is another gland like the prostate gland. It also secretes nutritive fluids for sperms to feed from and swim in forming semen.

16. Puberty is where a childs body changes into an adults body. Puberty is also where humans can start to reproduce. Both genders, male and female, bodies will change into an adult form. 17. For a baby to be fully developed, it takes roughly about 40 weeks for a baby to be fully developed.