You are on page 1of 8

Chapter #28: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Big Picture Themes 1.

. The Progressives grew out of the Populist (or Peoples) Party and sought to correct injustices. 2. Progressives and muckraker writers attacked city corruption, corporate greed, poor living and working conditions, alcohol, and womens right to vote. Each of these ills saw laws and/or Amendments passed to attempt to better the condition. 3. Teddy Roosevelt made a name for himself as a trust-buster. That is, he broke up a few high-profile companies that he said were monopolies (or trusts). Busting trusts and thus creating competition was to benefit the average person. 4. He also obtained huge tracts of land, usually out West, for parks and conservation. 5. Roosevelt picked Taft to follow him, but Taft began to stray from Roosevelts ways and the two split. Chapter# 28: Identifications Jacob Riis Author of How the Other Half Lives, a shocking description of the New York slums. Ida Tarbell Leading muckraking journalist whose articles documented the Standard Oil Companys abuse of power. Robert M. LaFollete The most influential of the state-level progressive governors and a presidential aspirant in 1912 Charles Evans Hughes Republican nominee for the 1916 presidential election. He was infamous for changing his position depending on his audience and was thus nicknamed Charles Evasive Hughes. Upton Sinclair Author of the novel, The Jungle, that inspired pro-consumer federal laws regulating meat, food, and drugs. Initiative Progressive proposal to allow voters to bypass state legislatures and propose legislation themselves. Referendum When citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. The referendum originated as a populous reform in the populist party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement. Recall Progressive device that would enable voters to remove corrupt or ineffective officials from office.

Muckrakers Popular journalists who used publicity to expose corruption and attack abuses of power in business and government. Elkins Act The Elkins Act of 1903 was an act passed by Congress against the Railroad industries. It was specifically targeted at the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It was part of the Progressive Reform movement. Hepburn Act Effective railroad-regulation law of 1906 that greatly strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission. Northern Securities Case The Northern Securities Company was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first trust bust. Meat Inspection Act Progressive law aimed at curbing practices like those exposed in Upton Sinclairs The Jungle. Pure Food and Drug Act It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer. Newlands Act Let federal government collect money from the sale of lands in the west and use the money for irrigation projects. Dollar diplomacy Generally unsuccessful Taft foreign policy in which government attempted to encourage overseas business ventures. Payne-Aldrich Act Lowered tariffs on unimportant things that no one bought. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelts conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.

Chapter #28: Guided Reading Questions Progressive Roots Know: Progressives, Laissez-faire, Henry Demarest Lloyd, Jacob Riis, Theodore Dreiser, Jane Addams, Lillian Weld 1. What were the goals of the Progressives? To stop monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers Know: McClure's, Lincoln Steffens, Ida M. Tarbell, Thomas W. Lawson, David G. Phillips, Ray Stannard Baker, John Spargo

2. What issues were addressed by the major muckrakers? The negatives of society: corruption in big business, business tactics of the Standard Oil Company, practices of stock market speculators, treason of the senate, child labor, life for southern blacks, and unregulated medicines. Political Progressivism Know: Direct Primary Elections, Initiative, Referendum, Recall, Australian Ballot, Millionaires' Club, Seventeenth Amendment, Suffragists 3. Define each of the major political reforms that progressives desired. Initiative: voters could initiate laws, rather than waiting and hoping a legislator might do it Referendum: voters could vote proposed bills into law, circumventing unresponsive legislators Recall: voters could remove elected officials rather than waiting for his term to expire Secret Ballot: (Australian ballot) help get a true vote and avoid intimidation at the polls 17th amendment: direct election of senators by the people Progressivism in the Cities and States Know: Robert M. La Follette, The Wisconsin Idea, Hiram W. Johnson, Charles Evans Hughes 4. What changes did progressives make at the city and state level? Galveston, TX successfully used the city-manager system (use professional people trained in their field of city management, rather than using friends of a corrupt mayor or city boss.) The cracked down on slumlords, rampant prostitution, and juvenile delinquency. Progressive Women Know: Triangle Shirtwaist Company, Muller v. Oregon, Lochner v. New York, Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Frances E. Willard, "Wet" and "Dry" 5. How successful were Progressives in combating social ills? The Muller v. Oregon case was won, but led to further difficulties for women looking for jobs. The Lochner v. New York case was lost, but the Triangle Shirtwaist Company occurrence sped up reform for women. TR's Square Deal for Labor Know: Square Deal, Department of Commerce and Labor 6. What were the three C's of the Square Deal? Control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. TR Corrals the Corporations Know: Elkins Act, Hepburn Act, Trustbusting, Northern Securities Company 7. Assess the following statement, "Teddy Roosevelt's reputation as a trustbuster is undeserved." He busted less trusts than Taft did, and had left good trusts in place while getting rid of bad trusts. Caring for the Consumer Know: The Jungle, Meat Inspection Act 8. What was the effect of Upton Sinclair's book, The Jungle? It revealed the plight of the workers, but was also written to gross out America and initiate action in Congress. It motivated Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. Earth Control Know: Forest Reserve Act, Gifford Pinchot, Newlands Act, Conservation, Call of the Wild, Boy Scouts, Sierra Club 9. What factors led Americans to take an active interest in conservation? They natural resources they thought to be inexhaustible was actually slowly diminishing, causing many to become aware of the need for conservation.

The "Roosevelt Panic" of 1907 10. What were the results of the Roosevelt Panic of 1907? It revealed the need for a more elastic currency supply, and that banks needed reserves to release into circulation if times got tough. Congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act which authorized national banks to release money into circulation. The Rough Rider Thunders Out Know: William Howard Taft, Eugene V. Debs 11. What was the legacy of Teddy Roosevelt's presidency? It was to begin to tame unbridled capitalism. He wasnt an enemy of business, but brought it under control. He also wanted the increase of the power of the presidency, he initiated reforms, and he showed that the US was a world power and thus held great responsibilities. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole 12. "William Howard Taft was less suited for the presidency than he appeared to be." Explain He took a hands-off approach toward Congress which did not serve him well, and he was a mild progressive only, more inclined toward the status quo than reform. The Dollar Goes Abroad as a Diplomat Know: Dollar Diplomacy 13. What was dollar diplomacy and how was it practiced? It was a policy encouraged by Taft where Americans invested in foreign countries to gain power. Wall Street was urged to invest in strategic areas, especially the Far East and Latin America. Taft the Trustbuster Know: Rule of Reason 14. Who deserves the nickname "Trustbuster," Roosevelt or Taft? Taft deserves the nickname Trustbuster because he busted more than double of what Roosevelt did in his 4 years in office. Taft Splits the Republican Party Know: Payne-Aldrich Tariff, Richard Ballinger, Gifford Pinchot, Joe Cannon 15. Why did the Progressive wing of the Republican Party turn against Taft? They turned against Taft because the Progressives were for a lower tariff while Tafts actions continued to increase the tariff. His involvement in the Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel also caused him to make enemies with the Progressive wing. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture 16. How did the Republican Party split at the party's 1912 convention? The party split into the National Progressive Republican League in 1911 with Sen. Robert La Follette as the candidate. TR was upset with Taft and so also became the candidate instead of Follette.

Chapter #29: Wilsonian Progressivism Abroad Big Picture Themes 1. Wilson won the presidency mainly because Teddy Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate and split the Republican vote with Taft. 2. Wilson was an idealist and progressive who sought to clean up problems. He attacked the tariff as too high, banks as corrupt by the rich, and trusts as milking the people. 3. Wilson hated war and wanted American foreign policy to be fair and just to all. Conditions in Latin America, however, forced this peaceful president to take military action. Notably, he ordered the US Army to chase Pancho Villa in Mexico. 4. In Europe, war had begun. In the Atlantic ocean, German subs began to sink sinks carrying Americans, notably the Lusitania. Wilson tried to keep America out of the war, and did, for the time being.

Chapter #29: Identifications Eugene Debs Head of the American Railway Union and directory of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America. Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923). Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. He wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor. John J. Pershing US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didnt capture him. Central Powers The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and other nations allied with them opposing the Allies in World War I. Allies Alliance between Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain during World War I. Lusitania American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI. Sussex Pledge A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning. Federal Reserve Act A 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to contol the money supply. New Nationalism Roosevelts progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice. New Freedom

Woodrow Wilsons program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one. Underwood Tariff 1913; substantially reduced import fees and enacted a graduated income tax under the approval of the 16th Amendment. Federal Trade Commission An independent agency of the US federal government that maintains fair and free competition. Clayton Antitrust Act New anti-trust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Anti-trust Act, namely, its effectiveness against labor unions.

Chapter #29 Identifications The "Bull Moose" Campaign of 1912 Know: Bull Moose, New Nationalism, New Freedom 1. Explain the difference between Roosevelt's form of progressivism and Wilson's. New Freedom (Wilson) - made up of liberal and progressive policies. It supported small business and wanted to bust all trusts, not distinguishing good or bad. New Nationalism (Roosevelt) inspired by The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly (1910). It wanted to leave good trusts alone but to control bad trusts. It also pushed for female suffrage and social programs such as minimum wage laws and social insurance programs. Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President 2. "The [1912] election results are fascinating." Explain. Wilson won 435 electoral votes to Roosevelts 88 and Tafts 8, but had only 41% of the peoples votes while Roosevelt and Taft totaled 50%. Wilson: The Idealist in Politics 3. How did Wilson's personality and past affect the way he conducted himself as president? He was born and raised in the South and sympathized with the Confederacys struggle to rule itself during the Civil War, so has been influenced his self-determination policy where the people choose their government. His father, a Presbyterian minister, also influenced his speaking skills. Wilson Tackles the Tariff Know: Underwood Tariff 4. What were the three parts of the "triple wall of privilege?" Triple wall of privilege: the tariff, the banks, and trusts. Wilson Battles the Bankers Know: The Federal Reserve Act 5. How was the Federal Reserve System different than the banking system that existed in the U.S. in 1913? The Federal Reserve System was given the power to issue paper money and thus could regulate the amount of money in circulation by issuing, or holding back, paper money.

The President Tames the Trusts Know: Federal Trade Commission Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act 6. How did Wilson curb the trusts? He passed many acts including the Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) and the Clayton AntiTrust Act (1914). Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide Know: The Federal Farm Loan Act, Warehouse Act, La Follette Seamen's Act, Workingmen's Compensation Act, Adamson Act, Louis D. Brandeis 7. Describe some of the positive and negative outcomes of Wilsons progressive legislation and actions. Positive: farmers go government help, loans were offered on security of staple crops, sailors were guaranteed good treatment and decent wage, aid for federal civil-service employees during a time of disability, and an 8 hour workday. Negative: shipping rates shot upward with the new governmental regulations. New Directions in Foreign Policy Know: Haiti 8. Contrast Wilson's ideas of foreign policy with those of Roosevelt and Taft. Wilson: a pacifist and was against Roosevelts Big Stick Policy and Tafts Dollar Diplomacy. He acted depending on the situation, and either pulled out of loans or used military action. Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico Know: Victoriano Huerta, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco ("Pancho") Villa, ABC Powers, John J. ("Black Jack") Pershing 9. Why did Mexico give such trouble to the Wilson administration? The resources of Mexico had been used for years by American oil, railroad, and mining businesses, causing the extremely poor people of Mexico to revolt in 1913. Thunder Across the Sea Know: Central Powers, Allied Powers 10. What caused Europe to plunge into WWI in 1914? The Austrian heir-to-the-throne Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in 1914, causing a war, and pulling in the allies of both sides. A Precarious Neutrality Know: Kaiser Wilhelm II 11. What caused an officially neutral America to turn against the Central Powers? German U-boats began sinking American ships and a briefcase of a Central Powers operative was found to contain plans to sabotage American industries. America Earns Blood Money Know: Submarine, Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex 12. How did Germany's use of submarines lead to tense relations with the U.S.? Germans used submarines targeted and sunk American ships without warning and even broke the Sussex Pledge, reverting back to unrestrained submarine warfare. Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916 Know: Charles Evans Hughes, "He Kept Us Out of War" 13. What were the keys to Wilson's electoral victory in 1916? Wilson won the victory due mostly to the idea that He kept us out of war as the Democrats advocated.