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ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE MARANAOS IN MADALUM, LANAO DEL SUR, PHILIPPINES

A Thesis Presented to The Department of Biological Sciences College of Science and Mathematics MSU- Iligan Institute of Technology Iligan City

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements For the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology (Botany)

Obaida Dimalomping Omar OCTOBER 2013

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

The researher was born on the 17thofMay 1991 and was raised in Iligan City, Lanao del Norte. She was the youngestdaughter of OmarRominimbang Alipontoand Sakina Dimalomping

Aliponto. She has two older sistersand three younger brothers. She finished her Kindergarten at St. Therese Academy. She graduated elementary at Iligan City Central

Schooland finished highschool at La Salle Academy. With accordance to Gods will, she passed the entrance examination of Mindanao State

Unversity- Iligan Institute of Technology where she took up BS Biology (BOTANY).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . I would never have been able to finish my undergraduate thesis without the help of various individuals. I would like to give gratitude to the following people for their invaluable help and support: To my adviser, Prof. Nanette Hope Sumaya for giving ideas for the improvement of the study; and for her patience, understanding and encouragement; To my panels, Prof. Ma. Reina Suzette Madamba and Prof. Henry Rivero, for giving thoughts, advice and ideas for improvement of the study; To the traditional healers for helping me during the sampling days; To my friends, Lady Jane G. Morilla and RayhaniA. Amer for the sleepless nights we were working together before deadlines, and for all the fun we have had in the last three years; To my IBSSM family- thank you for all the encouragement and support you have given me; To my ever beautiful cousins,Sittie Ajannah Y. Alawiand SittieMerriliza M. Dimalompingfor always willing to help me; To my aunties, Paisa A. Dimalomping, AquizaA. Dimalomping, NoranidaD. Yasin and AlyndaD. Yasin for also giving support and

encouragement and guidance to pursue my study; for giving trust, love, and patience; To my grandmother, Ina Bano for always being so loving, kind, understanding and supportive to me; To my father, Omar R. Aliponto for inspiring me always to study hard; Thanks are also due to those I forgot to mention, nevertheless, I am grateful for everyone of you; And last but certainly not the least, I am thanking Almighty Allah, our Lord and Savior, for giving the wisdom, strength, support and knowledge in exploring things; for helping me surpass all the trials that I encountered and for giving determination to pursue my study and to make this study possible

Dang <3

This paper is dedicated To my deceased mother- Sakina Dimalomping Aliponto My father- Omar Rominimbang Aliponto My ever loving, kind and supportive grandmother- Ina Bano Siblings, Aunts and Uncles, Cousins, Relatives, Friends, Classmates And to Our ALMIGHTY ALLAH Great provider, Most Merciful and the Lover of all

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE APPROVAL SHEET BIOGRAPHICAL DATA ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEDICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area Ethnobotanical Survey Collection of Plant Specimens Relative Frequency Analysis 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Collected specimens 8 Habit of growth of the medicinal plants Method of Preparation and Application Plant parts that are used for medicinal purposes Distribution of the methods of preparation Distribution of the methods of application CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION LITERATURE CITED APPENDICES

i ii iii iv vi vii viii ix x xi 1 4 4 5 6

7 10 12 16 17 18 20 21 22 28

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 2

Title Collected specimens in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur Medicinal Plants with their Corresponding Method of Preparation and Application

Page 8 12

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 2 3 4

Title The map of the study area Habit of growth of the medicinal plants Plant parts that are used for medicinal purposes The distribution of the methods of preparation of the medicinal plants

Page 5 10 16 17

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A B C

Title Photograph of the collected specimens Photograph with the Traditional Healers Sample Questionnaire

Page 28 69 70

ABSTRACT

OMAR, OBAIDA D. 2013 Ethnomedicinal Plants of the Maranaos in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur. Undergraduate Thesis. BS Biology- Botany. Department of Biological Sciences. College of Science and Mathematics.MSU- Iligan Institute of Technology. 70 pages.

Thesis Adviser: Nanette Hope Sumaya, MS.c

An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment ofailments in Madalum, Lanao del Sur, Philippines. Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants were conducted with the traditionalhealers and other local people using open-ended semi-structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods ofpreparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded. A total of forty one (41) medicinal plant species belonging to twenty six (26) families were recorded during the study. The mostcommonly used plant families recorded were Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Malvaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (58%), followed by roots (15%), fruits (10%), flower (8%), bark (2%) and stem (2%). Among the 41 species observed, there were twenty one (21) herbs, ten (10) trees, six (6) shrubs, two (2) grasses and two (2) vines. Most of the medicinal plants used were leaves prepared for oral application.The most common methods of preparation were decoction, pounding, extraction and poultice. Most of the medicinal plants are applied internally by the respondents.Preservation of knowledge of botanical therapeutics alone, however, is insufficient to maintain indigenous medical self- sufficiency. Successful conservation strategies should be developed and priority given to sustainable harvesting of the plants.

Keywords: botanical therapeutics, conservation strategies, medicinal plants, traditional knowledge

INTRODUCTION

An American botanist J. W. Harshberger first defined the term ethnobotany in 1896 as the studies of plants used by primitive and aboriginal people (Balick and Cox 1996). Since then, many attempts have been made to provide a descriptive definition (Bennett 1997). In broad terms, ethnobotany is the study of the relationship and interactions between plants and people. This field of study analyzes the results of indigenous manipulations of plant material together with the cultural context in which plants are used (Balick and Cox 1996). It includes collaboration with disciplines such as ecology, chemistry, anthropology, economics, and linguistics (Prance 1991).

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 80% of the worlds population in developing countries depend on locally available plant resources for their primary healthcare, since western pharmaceuticals are often expensive, inaccessible or unsuitable (Ayyanar et al., 2006).Further, in this decade, the world is experiencing an increasing rate of resistance by pathogens to some of the synthetic drugs, as well as the struggle against some chronically complex and uncontrolled infections. There is therefore a need to study and validate ethnomedicines for wider acceptance, recognition and

utilization by all stakeholders in the society. However, overtime, ethnomedicinal knowledge has been undermined by mortality of resource persons, extinction of plant resources, inadequate scientific research and poor documentation(Cunningham et al., 2002).

Maranaois the term used officially by the Philippine government in reference to the southern tribe who are now the people of the lake called Ranao, a predominantly Muslim region in the Philippines island of Mindanao. They are famous for their artwork, sophisticated weaving, wood and metal crafts, and their epic literature. The Maranaos are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group. The life of the Maranaos is centered on Lake Lanao, the largest lake in Mindanao, and the second largest and deepest lake in the Philippines. This breathtakingly beautiful lake is surrounded with myths and legends, it is the main source of fisheries, and the main source of a hydroelectric plant installed on it; and the Agus River system that generates 70% of the electricity used by the people of Mindanao (Internet 1). This study attempted to dig into the indigenous knowledge (IK) related to the uses of medicinal plantsby the lake dwelling Maranao tribe in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur. This specifically integrated thebiological, cultural and linguistic information to understand the practices and beliefs that

indigenous and traditional communities in relation to their biological environments, their practices of use, and their management of the botanical resources found in their community. The following are the specific objectives of the study: 1. To obtain voucher specimensof the plant identified as commonly used medicinal plants inMadalumLanao del Sur. 2. To identify the plants to its local, common, scientific and family names. 3. To determine which plant parts are used, how they are prepared and what are the methods of medicinal application. This study was an attempt to come up withthe ethnomedicinal information of plants used by indigenous people in MadalumLanao del Sur. The generated information can be used in the future to explore ways of informing the community on the sustainable utilization of the forest resources so as to minimize their genetic loss (Amri et al., 2012). This study was limited only within locality of Madalum, Lanao del sur. Plant identification up to plants medicinal values used was noted.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A. Study Area Madalum is a Philippine municipality in the province Lanao Del Sur in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The municipality Madalum is seated about 26 km west-south-west of province capital Marawi City and about 821 km south-south-east of Philippine main capital Manila. Madalum is a 3rd class municipality. Regarding urbanization Madalum is classified as partly urban. Madalum occupies an area of 498.39 km. By the end of 2007 Madalum was the home of 25,585 residents. Thus by average 51.34 people are living on one km. Administratively the Municipality of Madalum is subdivided into 37 barangays. One forms the center of the city wheras the other 36 are in the outlying areas. Some of them are even several kilometers away from the center of the Municipality (Internet 2).

Figure 1. Map of Lanao del Sur, Philippines showing the location of Madalum municipalty.

B. Ethnobotanical Survey A prior informed consent was done through the Barangay chairman and local administrators. At least three (3) barangays were selectively chosen as sampling sites namely: Brgy. Dandamun, Brgy. Paridi and Brgy. Talub.

Ethnobotanical knowledge was gathered from a series of interviews using a semi-structuredquestionnaire (Appendix C). The interviews were informal conversations in order to let them speak spontaneously and not feel pressured. Traditional healers and other local people that have the knowledge on medicinal plants were interviewed(Olowa et al., 2012). C. Collection of Plant Specimen The local name, parts of plants used, ailments treated, preparations and mode of used were recorded. Samples were collected for scientific identification. Photos were taken and collected plants were pressed, dried, identified, and deposited in the MSU-IIT museum. The photos that were taken were uploaded in theCos digital flora of the Philippines. Plant specimens were identified using taxonomic key as assisted by plant expert (Olowa et al., 2012). D. Relative Frequency Analysis Relative frequency was used to show the habit of growth of plants collected, the most common plant part used, most common ailment treated, most common method of preparations and application. Formula: Relative frequency (RF) = Frequency/ Total frequency x 100% Where, Relative frequency (RF) is the rate of recurrence.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The ethnomedicinal plants are arranged alphabetically, giving information on family, scientific names, common or local names and habit of growth. A total of forty one (41) medicinal plant species in twenty six (26) families were recorded as being used to treat different types of diseases or disorders as shown in Table 1.Among the total species identified, there were twenty six (26) families namely: Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae,

Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Asteraceae, Caricaceae, Combretaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Frankeniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moringaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Verbenaceae, Xanthorrhoeceae and Zingiberaceae.It indicated that the area consists of considerable diversity of plant species of medicinal value.

Most of the medicinal plants collected in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur were herbs (51%), trees (24%), shrubs (15%), grasses (5%), and vines (5%) as shown in Figure 1. A high usage of herbs could be an indication of their abundance, especially in areas receiving year round rainfall.Thus, the variation in parts of medicinal plants usedmay be related to differences in seasonality though alsoarise from differences in socio-cultural beliefs, and practices of the healers of different regions or countries (Ketema et al., 2013).

Grass, 5%

Vine, 5%

Shrub, 15% Herb, 51% Tree, 24%

Figure 1. Habit of growth of the medicinal plants collected in Madalum, Lanao del Sur, Philippines.

The listed medicinal plants and their corresponding method of preparation and application based on the information given by the tribal herbalist are shown in Table 2. Most of the plant species were used to treat one disease, while some were used to treat two or more diseases. In terms of

frequency of medicinal plant uses, the most common diseases treated were fever, allergy, toothache, diabetes, hypertension, cough and wounds. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (58%), followed by roots (15%), fruits (10%), flowers (8%), stem (5%), bark (2%), and sap (2%) as shown in Figure 2. Leaves were mostly used in the treatment of diabetes, allergy, fever, cough, wounds and hypertension, while roots were mostly used in the treatment of toothache, cough and fever. Leaves are the most dominant part used in treating several diseases. It serves as the plants site manufacture and storage of many chemical compounds through photosynthesis including alkaloids, tannins, coumarines, flavonoids, essential oils and inulins which are active component of most herbal preparation in high concentration. The used of the leaves provide conservation for the plants compare to those remedies that requires roots or whole plants in which the plant should be uprooted. Leaves are the most abundant plant part that are

easier to collect and can also be generated (Okoewale, 2001). This study corroborates with previous ethnobotanical studies that leaves are the most common plant used to treat disorder or diseases (Olowa et al., 2012).

8% 10% 15%

5% 2% 2%

Leaves Roots Fruit 58% Flower Stem Sap/fluid the plant Bark

Figure 2.Plant parts that are used for medicinal purposes by Maranaos in Madalum, Lanao del Sur, Philippines, and the corresponding percentages of the medicinal plant species.

The methods of preparation by the Maranao tribe in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur include: decoction (52%), pounding (23%), extraction (21%) and poultice (4%). Decoction was most common method of preparation used by the Maranao tribe in Madalum, Lanaodel Sur. Decoctions are generally inconvenient and unpleasant herbal preparations that are used only as the situation might require. There are some good reasons for using decoctions and the primary one has to do with dosage (Dharmananda, 2013). Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling, of dissolved chemicals, from herbal or plant material, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes. This involves first mashing, and then boiling in water to extract oils, volatile organic compounds, and other chemical substances (Internet 3). On the other hand pounding is to crush or break into very smallpieces by

hitting it again and again.

Extractions are a way to separate a desired

substance when it is mixed with others. The mixture is brought into contact with a solvent in which the substance of interest is soluble, but the other substances present are insoluble (Internet 4). Poultice is a soft moist mass, often heated and medicated, that is spread on cloth over the skin to treat an aching, inflamed, or painful part of the body. It can be used on wounds such as cuts (Internet 5).

Poultice 4%

Extraction 21%

Decoction 52% Pounding 23% Figure 3.The distribution of the methods of preparation of the medicinal plants used by the local Maranaos of Madalum, Lanao del Sur, Philippines.

Most medicinal plant preparations were taken orally (77%), while the others were externally used (23%) as shown in Figure 4. Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect, reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream, for

example (Internet 6). External application can either be done by massage or applying it directly on the affected area. The choice of oral administration may be related to the use of some solvents or additives (milk, butter, alcoholic drinks, boiled coffee, and food) that are commonly believed to serve as a vehicle to transport the remedies. The additives are also important to minimize discomfort, improve the taste and reduce adverse effects such as vomiting and diarrhea, and enhance the efficacy and healing conditions (Etana, 2010). Similar findings were reported by many other researchers, indicating the oral route as the most preferred mode of administration (Mesfin et al., 2009). However, there is no consensus on the dosage used and frequency of the medication among healers.

External 23% Oral 77%

Figure 4.The distribution of the methods of application of medicinal plants used by the locals of Madalum, Lanao del Sur, Philippines.

CONCLUSION A total of 41 medicinal plant species in 26 families were recorded as being used to treat different types of diseases or disorders. This study showed that traditional medicine, mainly involving the use of medicinal plants, is playing a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the three barangays. Acceptance of traditional medicine and limited access to modern healthcare facilities could be considered as the main factors for the continuation of the practice. Documented knowledge of the traditional healers can be used to support the countrys human and livestock health care system and improve lives and livelihoods. Information generated will be used in future studies to validate bioactivity of selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers, so to increase their acceptability in health care systems both nationally and internationally.

RECOMMENDATIONS Preservation of knowledge of botanical therapeutics alone, however, is insufficient to maintain indigenous medical self-sufficient. Successful conservation strategies should be developed and priority given to sustainable harvesting of the plants. The effort from some traditional practitioners to cultivate medicinal plants at home gardens calls for a sustained governmental support to promote overall in situ and ex situ conservation strategies for medicinal plants of the District. It is also recommended to establish a traditional healers association in the District and strengthen members by providing professional support and land to establish as much medicinal plant nurseries as possible so as to conserve the fast- eroding medicinal plant wealth of the area.

LITERATURE CITED Muthu C, Ayyanar M, Raja N, Ignacimuthu S. 2006. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India. J EthnobioEthnomed, 2:43-48. Yineger H, Yewhalaw D. 2007. Traditional Medicinal Plant Knowledge and Use by Local Healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. J EthnobiolEthnomed, 3:24-36. Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Mbabazi PK, Weisheit A. 2009.Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used inKatoro Ward, Bukoba District. J EthnobiolEthnomed 5:24-25. Fabrega H: The need for an ethnomedical science. 1975. Science189:969-975. Browner, C., Ortiz de Montellano, B., and Rubel, A. 1988.A methodology for cross-cultural ethnomedical research. Current Anthropology 29:681-702. Mesfin F, Demissew S, Teklehaymanot T. 2009.An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in WonagoWoreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. J EthnobiolEthnomed5:28-30. McDade T, Reyes-Garcia V, Blackinton P, Tanner S, Huanca T, Leonard W. 2007. Ethnobotanical knowledge is associated with indices of child health in the Bolivian Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(15):6134-6139. Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language, Knowledge, and the Environment Edited by Maffi L: Smithsonian; 2001:190-211. Olowa, L., Torres, M.A., Aranico, E., &Demayo, C. 2012. Medicinal Plants Used by the Higaonon Tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, Mindanao, Philippines. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(4): 1442-1449. Ortiz de Montellano B: Empirical Aztec medicine. Science 1975, 188:215220.

Lulekal.,Kelbessa E., Bekele, T., and Yineger, H. 2013.Ethnomedicinal

study of plants used for human ailments in Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9:63. Singh, A. and N. K. Dubey 2012. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants inSonebhadra District of Uttar, Pradesh India with reference to their infection by foliar fungi. De Macvean, A. L. and E. PLL: Ethnobotany. Herbario, Instituto de InvestigacionesUniversidaddel Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala. Mukherjee, P.K. and Wahil, A. 2006.Integrated approaches towards drug development from Ayurveda and other systems of medicine. Patil H.M. January 2012.Ethnobotanical Notes on Satpura Hills of Nandurbar District, Maharashtra, India. Lulekal, E., Kelbessa E., Bekele, T., and Yineger, H. 2008.An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in ManaAngetu District, southeasternEthiopia. S Ignacimuthu, M Ayyanar, and K Sankarasivaraman. 2008. Ethnobotanical studyof medicinal plants used by Paliyartribals in Theni district of Tamil Nadu, India. Cunningham AB, Ayuk E, Franzel S, Duguma B, Asanga C. 2002. An economicevaluation of medicinal tree cultivation: Prunusafricana in Cameroon. Peoples and Plants Working Paper 10 UNESCO, Paris. . Zent S: Acculturation and Ethnobotanical Knowledge Loss among the Piaroa of Venezuela: Demonstration of a Quantitative Method for the Empirical Study of TEK Change. Amri, E. and Kisangau, P. 2012. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania. Herndon, C., Uiterloo M., Uremaru A. et al. 2009. Disease concepts and treatment by tribal healers of an Amazonian forest culture. Dharmananda, Subhuti. Dosage and form of herbs. Decoctions, Dried Decoctions, Powders, Pills, Etc.

Ketema T, Etana D, Spiridoula A, Adugna T, Gebeyehu G and Jos H. 2013. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia. Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2013, 9:32. Internet 1. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maranao_People Internet 2. In http://www.philippine-islands.ph/en/madalum-lanao_del_sur philippines.html Internet 3. Inhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decoction Internet 4. In http://www.chemicool.com/definition/extraction.html Internet 5.In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultice Internet 6. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_administration Interntet 7. In http://www.stuartxchange.com/Uray.html Internet 8. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion Internet 9. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic Internet 10. In http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=604 Interntet 11. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centella_asiatica Internet 12. In http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org Internet 13. In http://www.thismia.com/S/Sanicula_gregaria.html Internet 14. In http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Plumiera_acuminata Internet 15. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colocasia_esculenta Internet 16. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ageratum_conyzoides Internet 17. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_vulgaris Internet 18.In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromolaena_odorata

Internet 19.In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysanthemum Internet 20. In http://www.stuartxchange.com/Dilang-aso.html Internet 21. In http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets Internet 22. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tridax_procumbens Internet 23. In http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papaya Internet 24. In http://www.stuartxchange.com/Niyog.html Internet 25. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Momordica_charantia Internet 26. In http://en.wikipedia.org Internet 27. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphorbia_hirta Internet 28. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatropha_curcas Internet 29. In http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/frankenia.html Internet 30. In http://www.stuartxchange.com/Oregano.html Internet 31. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleus Internet 32. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado Internet 33. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okra Internet 34. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_rosa-sinensis Internet 35. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobroma_cacao Internet 36. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lansium_domesticum Internet 37. Inhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa_oleifera Internet 38. In http://ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?plantid=9567 Internet 39. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peperomia_pellucida

Internet 40. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon Internet 41. In http://eol.org/pages/488254/overview Internet 42. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin Internet 43. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysophyllum_cainito Internet 44. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duranta_erecta Internet 45. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera Internet 46. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turmeric Internet 47. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginger

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A

Fig. 1 FAMILY AMARANTHACEAE AmaranthusspinosusL.

Local Name: Katebek English Name: Pigweed Description: Stems are armed with slender, axillary spines. Leaves are glabrous, long-petioled, elliptic-lanceolate, and alternate. Flowers are very numerous and stalkless (Internet 7). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves and roots Treatment: Used for allergy

Fig. 2 FAMILY AMARYLLIDACEAE Allium cepaL.

Local Name: Sibuyas English Name: Onion Description: It is a biennial plant but is usually grown as an annual. The leaves are blueish-green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy, hollow and cylindrical, with one flattened side. The base of each leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc. From the underside of the disc, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil (Internet 8). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area Part/s Applied: Rhizome Treatment: Used for toothache

Fig. 3 FAMILY AMARYLLIDACEAE Allium sativumL.

Local name: Ahus English Name: Garlic Description: Allium sativum is a bulbous plant. It grows up to 1.2 m (4 ft) in height. It produces hermaphrodite flowers. Pollination occurs by bees and other insects (Internet 9). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area Part/s Applied: Rhizome Treatment: Used for toothache

Fig. 4 FAMILY ANNONACEAE AnnonamuricataL.

Local Name: Rabanos English Name: Soursop Description: Soursop trees are bushy and low, only about 7.5-9 m tall. The smooth, glossy, dark green leaves are oblong to elliptical and pointed at both ends. Solitary flowers emerge anywhere on the trunk, branches or twigs. The fruit is fairly variable in size, ranging from 10-30 cm long and up to 15 cm in width. They can weigh as much as 6.8 kg. The fruit is covered with a leatheryappearing, inedible, bitter skin which is covered with many flexible spikes (Internet 10). Method of Preparation: Decoction and extraction Part/s Applied: Leaves and fruit Treatment: Used for menstrual period and for diarrhea

Fig. 5 FAMILY APIACEAE Centellaasiatica L.

Local Name: Tangila a lupa English Name: Asiatic pennywort Description: Centellaasiatica grows in tropical swampy areas. The stems are slender, creeping stolons, green to reddish-green in color, connecting plants to each other. The leaves are borne on pericladial petioles, around 2 cm. The rootstock consists of rhizomes, growing vertically down (Internet 11). Method of Preparation: Decoction and for swelling heat the leaves and directly apply it on the affected area Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for kidney problem

Fig. 6 FAMILY APIACEAE Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.

Local Name: Gotokola English name: Marsh Pennywort Description: Pennywort is a ground cover for moist to wet areas. Stems clad with round, peltate, short-stalked leaves with scalloped edges float in very shallow water or creep along the ground, rooting at the nodes as they go. Purplish-green flowers are inconspicuous. Many of the leaves are penny-size, hence the common name (Internet 12). Method of Preparation: Chewing fresh leaves Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for diabetes, allergy and high blood

Fig. 7 FAMILY APIACEAE Saniculagregaria

Local Name: Sagayamanok English Name: Gregarious Black Snakeroot, Fragrant Sanicle, Common Black Snakeroot Description: Saniculagregaria is herbaceous perennial. Flowers greenishyellow; sepals of staminate flowers deltoid-lanceolate, less than 1 mm long; styles conspicuous, much longer than the bristles, recurving back over the fruit. Ovaries and fruits short- stipitate.Plants typically with a yellow-green appearance (Internet 13). Method of Preparation: Chewing fresh leaves Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Applied for pregnant woman

Fig. 8 FAMILY APOCYNACEAE Plumeria acuminate L.

Local Name: Kalachuchi English Name: Temple flower Description: Kalachuchi is a small, deciduous tree, standing at 3 to 7 meters. Its crooked trunk bears fleshy, thick branches, and contains a sticky, milky sap. The bark is smooth and papery, while the wood is yellowish-white and soft. The leaves are alternate, oblong or oblanceolate, 20 to 40 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and arranged in a spiral at the ends of the branches (Internet 14). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Flower Treatment: Used for epilepsy

Fig. 9 FAMILY ARACEAE ColocasiaesculentaL.

Local Name: Gabi English Name: Elephant ear Description: Rhizomes of different shapes and sizes. Leaves sprouts from rhizome, dark green above and light green beneath, triangular-ovate, subrounded and mucronate at apex, tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded. Female portion at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Neuters above the females, rhomboid or irregular oblong.Male portion above the neuter (Internet 15). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for anemia

Fig. 10 FAMILY ASTERACEAE Ageratum conyzoidesL.

Local Name:Kasapi-sapi English Name:Billygoat Weed Description: Annual herb, 10-60 cm. Leaves: base usually blunt or rounded, rarely cordate. Florets blue or white.Phyllaries 3-4 mm, oblong, abruptly acuminate, sparingly if at all hairy on the back, erose and ciliate. Style arms exserted 1 mm from corolla tube (Internet 16). Method of Preparation: Decoction and extraction Part/s Applied: Leaves and stem Treatment:Used for fever, cough and for healing wound.

Fig. 11 FAMILY ASTERACEAE Artemisia vulgaris L.

Local Name: Salimbawangen English Name: Mugwort, Felon Herb Description: It is a tall herbaceousperennial plant growing 12 m tall, with a woody root. The leaves are 520 cm long, dark green, pinnate, with dense white tomentose hairs on the underside. The erect stem often has a redpurplish tinge. The rather small flowers are radially symmetrical with many yellow or dark red petals. The narrow and numerous capitula spread out in racemosepanicles (Internet 17). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for flu

Fig. 12 FAMILY ASTERACEAE ChromolaenaodorataL.

Local Name: Ragoaamo English Name: Siam Weed, Christmas Bush, Devil Weed, Camfhur Grass Description: Chromolaenaodorata is a rapidly growing perennial herb. It is a multi-stemmed shrub to 2.5 m tall in open areas. It has soft stems but the base of the shrub is woody. It can then become up to 10 m tall. The plant is hairy and glandular and the leaves give off a pungent, aromatic odour when crushed. The leaves are opposite, triangular to elliptical with serrated edges (Internet 18). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for fever

Fig. 13 FAMILY ASTERACEAE Chrysanthemum indicumL.

Local Name: Tae a tarapan Common Name: Roman camomile Description: Chrysanthemum indicumareherbaceousperennial plants or subshrubs. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The simple row of ray florets are white, yellow or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colors. The fruit is a ribbed achene (Internet 19). Method of Preparation: Pounding, decoction, and poultice. Part/s Applied: Leaves and roots Treatment: Used for headache and cough.

Fig. 14 FAMILY ASTERACEAE Pseudelephantopusspicatus(Juss.)Rohr.

Local Name: Tambda English Name: Elephant weed Description: Pseudelephantopusspicatusis an erect, much branched, hairy or nearly smooth, rather stiff herb, 20 to 80 centimeters in height. Leaves are oblong-obovate and 9 to 14 centimeters long, with a blunt tip and narrowed base; those of the upper part of the stem are smaller. Flowering heads are about 1.5 centimeters long, without stalks, occurring in clusters of 2 to 5, borne in the axils of the very much-reduced leaves, and arranged along the few, elongated, spikelike branches of the inflorescence (Internet 20). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area. Part/s Applied: Leaves and roots Treatment: Used for healing wound and applied for pregnant woman

Fig. 15 FAMILY ASTERACEAE SpilanthesacmellaMurr.

Local Name: Burangit English Name: Toothache plant Description: Annual erect or ascending stout herbs, 20-50 cm high. Opposite, petiolate, broadly ovate, narrowed at base, acute or obtuse at apex.Opposite, petiolate, broadly ovate, narrowed at base, acute or obtuse at apex (Internet 21). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area. Part/s Applied: Leaves and flower Treatment: Used for toothache.

Fig. 16 FAMILY ASTERACEAE TridaxprocumbensL.

Local Name: Kabiro-biro English Name: Coat Buttons Description: The plant bears daisylike yellow-centered white or yellow flowers with three-toothed ray florets. The leaves are toothed and generally arrowhead-shaped. Its fruit is a hard achene covered with stiff hairs and having a feathery, plumelike white pappus at one end. The plant is invasive in part because it produces so many of these achenes, up to 1500 per plant. This weed can be found in fields, meadows, croplands, disturbed areas, lawns, and roadsides in areas with tropical or semi-tropical climates (Internet 22). Method of Preparation: Pounding and extraction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for healing wound

Fig. 17 FAMILY CARICACEAE Carica papaya L.

Local Name: Kopaya English Name: Papaya Description: It is a large plant, like a tree, without branches; it is a herbaceous plant because the stem does not have much wood and remains soft and green until its death. The single stem grows from 5 to 10 m tall with all the leaves on the top. The leaves are large, 5070 cm wide. Generally, the fruit is oval to nearly round and, in some cases, like a big pear. Fruits are 15-50 cmlong and 1020 cm wide, and weigh up to 9 kg (Internet 23). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for diabetes

Fig. 18 FAMILY COMBRETACEAE QuisqualisindicaLinn.

Local Name: Noni English Name: Rangoon creeper Description: Quisqualisindicais a large climbing, woody shrub reaching a length of 2 to 8 meters. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, opposite, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange, exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on the same flower stalk. Fruit is narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, with five, sharp, longitudinal angles or wings. Seeds are pentagonal and black (Internet 24). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for ulcer and tumor

Fig. 19 FAMILY CUCURBITACEAE Momordicacharantia

Local Name: Ampalaya English Name: Bitter melon Description: This herbaceous, tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears simple, alternate leaves 412 cm across, with three to seven deeply separated lobes. Each plant bears separate yellow male and female flowers. The fruit has a distinct warty exterior and an oblong shape (Internet 25). Method of Preparation: Slice it into small pieces then chew it Part/s Applied: Fruit Treatment: Used for diabetes

Fig. 20 FAMILY CYPERACEAE CyperuskyllingiaL.

Local Name: Geteget English Name: White Kyllinga Description: Cyperuskyllingiais a perennial plant, that may reach a height of up to 140 cm. The leaves sprout in ranks of three from the base of the plant, around 520 cm long. The flowerstems have a triangular cross-section. The flower is bisexual and has three stamina and a three-stigma carpel, with the flower head have 3-8 unequal rays. The fruit is a three-angled achene (Internet 26). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for hepatitis

Fig. 21 FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia hirtaL.

Local Name: Talawatawa English Name: Pill-bearing spurge, Asthma plant, Hairy spurge, Garden spurge, Pillpod sandman Description: This erect or prostrate annual herb can get up to 60 cm long with a solid, hairy stem that produced an abundant white latex. The leaves are simple, elliptical, hairy with a finely dentate margin. Leaves occur in opposite pairs on the stem. The flowers are unisexual and found in axillary cymes at each leaf node. The fruit is a capsules with three valves and produces tiny, oblong, four-sided red seeds (Internet 27). Method of Preparation: Decoction; apply the sap on the affected skin Part/s Applied: Whole plant Treatment: Used for kidney, fever, measles, and skin disease

Fig. 22 FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE JathropacurcasL.

Local Name: Katangan-tangan English Name: Bellyache Bush Description: The leaves have significant variability in their morphology. In general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and threeto five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. Plants are monoecious and also presents hermaphroditic flowers occasionally. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, becoming naturalized in some areas. J. curcas is a poisonous, semi-evergreenshrub or small tree, reaching a height of 6 m (Internet 28). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for highblood and swelling

Fig. 23 FAMILY FRANKENIACEAE Frankeniagrandifolia

Local Name: Biyala Common Name: Yerba reuma Description: This is a small shrubby plant, with a prostrate, much-branched stem, about 6 inches long. It is a native of California, and is found in abundance in sandy localities near the coast. The leaves are opposite, entire, obovate, tapering at the base, and ending in a small, mucronate point. The flowers are sessile, between the forks of the branches, small, and of a brightpink color (Internet 28). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for urinary tract infection

Fig. 24 FAMILY LAMIACEAE Coleus aromaticusBenth.

Local Name: Kapal English Name: Country borage Description: Coleus aromaticusis an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls (Internet 29). Method of Preparation: Extraction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for cough

Fig. 25 FAMILY LAMIACEAE Coleus blumeiL.

Local Name: Mayana English Name: Buntblatt, Buntnessel Description: In the wild, Coleus blumei can grow up 3 feet tall, and about 1 foot around. The leaves are oval shaped with rounded tooth edges and brightly colored, with green edges and blood-red veins in the center as well as many splotches of dark red, maroon, and brown. The flowers are very small (Internet 30). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for cough, fever and healing wound

Fig. 26 FAMILY LAURACEAE PerseaamericanaMill.

Local Name: Abokado English Name: Avocado Description: They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pearshaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. The tree grows to 20 m with alternately arranged leaves. The flowers are inconspicuous and greenish-yellow (Internet 31). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for diarrhea

Fig. 27 FAMILY MALVACEAE AbelmoschusesculentusL.

Local Name: Okra English Name: Lady's fingers Description: The species is an annual or perennial, growing to 2 m tall. The leaves are 1020 cm long and broad, palmately lobed with 57 lobes. The flowers are 48 cm in diameter, with five white to yellow petals. The fruit is a capsule up to 18 cm long, containing numerous seeds (Internet 32). Method of Preparation: Slice into small pieces then put it on a glass of water then leave it for 24 hours and drink it. Part/s Applied: Fruit Treatment: Used for diabetes

Fig. 28 FAMILY MALVACEAE Hibiscus rosasinensisL.

Local Name: Gumamela English Name: Rose mallow, Chinese hibiscus, China rose and Shoe flower Description: Hibiscus rosasinensis is a bushy, evergreenshrub or small tree growing 2.55 m tall and 1.53 m wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers (Internet 33). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area Part/s Applied: Flower Treatment: Used for wound and swelling

Fig. 29 FAMILY MALVACEAE Theobroma cacao L.

Local Name: Kakao English Name: Cacao Description: Leaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 1040 cm and 520 cm broad. The flowers are produced in clusters directly on the trunk and older branches; this is known as cauliflory. The flowers are small, 12 cm diameter, with pink calyx. While many of the world's flowers are pollinated by bees or butterflies/moths cacao flowers are pollinated by tiny flies (Internet 34). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Fruit Treatment: Used for brain problem

Fig. 30 FAMILY MELIACEAE LansiumdomesticumCorrea.

Local name: Bowaan English Name: Lanzones Description: The tree is average sized, reaching 30 metres in height and 75 centimetres in diameter. The pinnately compound leaves are odd numbered, with thin hair, and 6 to 9 buds at intervals. The buds are long and elliptical. The flowers are located in inflorescences that grow and hang from large branches or the trunk; the bunches may number up to 5 in one place. The fruit can be elliptical, oval, or round, measuring 2 to 7 centimetres by 1.5 to 5 centimetres in size (Internet 35). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Bark Treatment: Used for diabetes

Fig. 31 FAMILY MORINGACEAE Moringaoleifera Lam.

Local Name: Kalamunggay English Name: Horseradish-tree, Ben-oil tree, Drumstick-tree Description: The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 12 meters and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arm's reach. The leaves are the most nutritious part of the plant, being a significant source of B vitamins, vitamin C, provitamin A as beta-carotene, vitamin K, manganese and protein, among other essential nutrients (Internet 36). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for anemia and diabetes

Fig. 32 FAMILY MYRTACEAE PsidiumguajavaL.

Local Name: Bayaba English Name: Guava Description: A small tree to 33 ft high, with spreading branches, the Guava is easy to recognize because of its smooth, thin, copper-colored bark that flakes off, showing the greenish layer beneath and also because of the attractive, "bony" aspect of its trunk which may in time attain a diameter of 10 inches (Internet 37). Method of Preparation: Decoction and pounding Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for allergy and healing of wound

Fig. 33 FAMILY PIPERACEAE Peperomiapellucida

Local Name:Sinaw-sinaw English Name: Shiny bush, Pepper elder, Silverbush Description: Peperomiapellucida is an annual, shallow-rooted herb, usually growing to a height of about 15 to 45 cm. it is characterized by succulent stems, shiny, heart-shaped, fleshy leaves and tiny, dot-like seeds attached to several fruiting spikes. It has a mustard-like odor when crushed (Internet 38). Method of Preparation: Decoction and pounding Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for allergy and healing of wound

Fig. 34 FAMILY POACEAE Cymbopogoncitratus

Local Name: Bawing English Name: Oil grass, Lemon grass Description: Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes short.Culms 100200 cm long.Ligule an eciliatemembrane.Leaf-blades tapering towards sheath; 4590 cm long; 1020 mm wide; aromatic. Inflorescence synflorescence compound; paniculate; 3060 cm long; open. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed (Internet 39). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for lowering cholesterol

Fig. 35 FAMILY RUTACEAE Citrus maxima

Local name: Pega English name: Pomelo Description: The C. maxima tree, which is the most cold-intolerant citrus species, has a rounded crown and grows 5 to 15 m tall. The tree has large evergreen oblong to elliptic leaves, 10.5 to 20 cm long, with winged petioles. The flowers and fruits are borne singly, in contrast to grapefruits, in which they grown in clusters of 2 to 20. The fruits, which vary from round to pearshaped and ripen to yellow, orange, or red, are large--30 cm or more in diameter, and weighing up to 9 kg (Internet 40). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for paralyzed person and for highblood

Fig. 36 FAMILY RUTACEAE Citrofortunellamicrocarpa

Local Name: Lemonsito English Name: Calamandarin, Golden lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange Description: Citrofortunellamicrocarpa is a shrub or small tree growing to 3 6 metres. The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25-35mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. The center pulp and juice is the orange color of a tangerine with a very thin orange peel when ripe (Internet 41). Method of Preparation: Extraction Part/s Applied: Fruit Treatment: Used for cough and sore throat

Fig. 37 FAMILY SAPOTACEAE Chrysophyllumcainito L.

Local Name: Apel English Name: Star apple Description: The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple oval, entire, 515 cm long; the underside shines with a golden color when seen from a distance. The tiny flowers are purplish white and have a sweet fragrant smell. The tree is also hermaphroditic (self-fertile). It has round, purple-skinned fruit that is often green around the calyx, with a star pattern in the pulp (Internet 42). Method of Preparation: Decoction Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for diarrhea

Fig. 38 FAMILY VERBENACEAE DurantaerectaL.

Local Name: Duranta English Name: Golden dewdrop Description: Durantaerecta is a sprawling shrub or a small tree. It can grow to 6 m tall and can spread to an equal width. The leaves are light green, elliptic to ovate, opposite, and grow up to 7.5 cm long and 3.5 cm broad, with a 1.5 cm petiole. The flowers are light-blue or lavender, produced in tight clusters located on terminal and axillary stems, blooming almost all year long. The fruit is a small globose yellow or orange berry(Internet 43). Method of Preparation: Pound and apply to affected area Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for healing wound

Fig. 39 FAMILY XANTHORRHOEACEAE Aloe veraL.

Local Name: Aloe vera English Name: Aloe vera Description: Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60100 cm tall, spreading by offsets. The leaves are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on their upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of the leaf is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower being pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 23 cm (Internet 44). Method of Preparation: Cut the leaves then rub the liquid part on the scalp. Part/s Applied: Leaves Treatment: Used for preventing hair loss

Fig. 40 FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE Cucurma longa

Local Name: Kalawag English Name: Turmeric Description: Turmeric is a leafy plant, 1 to 1.5 meters tall, with 5 to 6 leaves. Rhizomes are bright yellow inside, thick and cylindric. Leaf blade is green, oblong, 30 to 45 centimeters long and 10 to 20 centimeters wide. Petiole is as long as the blade. Spikes are 10 to 20 centimeters in length and about 5 centimeters in diameter. Flowers are pale yellow, as long as the bracts. Fruits are capsules (Internet 46). Method of Preparation: Pound and extraction Part/s Applied: Rhizome Treatment: Used for tuberculosis

Fig. 41 FAMILY ZINGIBERACEAE Zingiberofficinale

Local Name: LuyaPagerisen English Name: Ginger Description: Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting (Internet 47). Method of Preparation: Pound and rub it on the gums Part/s Applied: Rhizome Treatment: Used for babies starting growing their teeth

APPENDIX B Photograph with the Traditional Healers

APPENDIX C Sample Questionnaire

Date_____ INFORMANT INFORMATION Name: Gender: Age: Profession Work/Livelihood: Address: Ethnic Affialiation: Civil Status:

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Village Name: Habitat/ Vegetation Type: Plant Local Name: Short Description of the Plant: Medicinal Uses: Parts Used: Preaparation: Mode of Application: