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Video

CSEE W4840 Prof. Stephen A. Edwards


Columbia University

Spring 2014

Television: 1939 Du Mont Model 181

Inside a CRT

London Science Museum/renaissancechambara

Inside a CRT

Ehsan Samuel, Technological and Psychophysical Considerations for Digital Mammographic Displays, RadioGraphics. 25, March 2005.

Vector Displays

Raster Scanning

Raster Scanning

Raster Scanning

Raster Scanning

Raster Scanning

NTSC or RS-170

Originally black-and-white 60 Hz vertical scan frequency 15.75 kHz horizontal frequency 15.75 kHz = 262.5 lines per eld 60 Hz White Black Blank Sync 1V 0.075 V 0V 0.4 V

A Line of B&W Video

White

Black Blank Sync H Front Porch 0.02H Sync 0.08H Back porch 0.06H Blanking 0.16H

Interlaced Scanning

Interlaced Scanning

Interlaced Scanning

Interlaced Scanning

Interlaced Scanning

Interlaced Scanning

Color Television

Color added later: had to be backwards compatible. Solution: continue to transmit a black-and-white signal and modulate two color signals on top of it. RGB vs. YIQ colorspaces 0.30 0.59 0.11 R Y 0.60 0.28 0.32 G = I 0.21 0.52 0.31 B Q Y baseband 4 MHz black-and-white signal I as 1.5 MHz, Q as 0.5 MHz at 90 : modulated at 3.58 MHz

CIE Color Matching Curves

YIQ color space with Y=0.5

International Standards

lines NTSC PAL SECAM 525 625 625

active lines 484 575 575

vertical res. 242 290 290

aspect ratio 4:3 4:3 4:3

horiz. res. 427 425 465

frame rate 29.94 Hz 25 Hz 25 Hz

PAL: Uses YUV instead of YIQ, ips phase of V every other line SECAM: Transmits the two chrominance signals on alternate lines; no quadrature modulation

Computer Video: VGA


1 Red 6 RGND 11 ID0 ID2 GND 2 Green 7 GGND 12 ID1 ID0 GND GND 3 Blue 8 BGND 13 hsync 4 ID2 9 (+5V) 14 vsync 5 GND 10 GND 15 ID3

ID1 GND -

Monochrome, < 1024768 Color, < 1024768 Color, 1024768

DDC1

ID2 vsync

Data from display also data clock I2 C SDA I2 C SLC

DDC2

ID1 ID3

VGA Timing
Mode VGA VGA VGA SVGA SVGA SVGA XGA SXGA HDTV UXGA UXGA WUXGA Resolution 640350 640400 640480 800600 800600 800600 1024768 12801024 19201080i 16001200 16001200 19201200 Vertical 70 Hz 70 Hz 59.94 Hz 56 Hz 60 Hz 72 Hz 60 Hz 61 Hz 60 Hz 60 Hz 85 Hz 70 Hz 75 kHz 105.77 kHz 87.5 kHz 162 MHz 220 MHz 230 MHz Horizontal 31.5 kHz 31.5 kHz 31.469 kHz 35.2 kHz 37.8 kHz 48.0 kHz 48.5 kHz 64.2 kHz Pixel Clock 25.175 MHz 25.175 MHz 25.175 MHz 36 MHz 40 MHz 50 MHz 65 MHz 110 MHz

Video Standards
320 x 200

CGA

720 x 480

NTSC

WVGA
800 x 480

QVGA
320 x 240

WVGA
854 x 480

WSVGA
1024 x 600

HD 720
1280 x 720 1280 x 768 1366 x 768

640 x 480

VGA

1152 x 768

WXGA

768 x 576

PAL

1280 x 800

WXGA

WSXGA+
1680 x 1050

800 x 600

SVGA

1440 x 900 1440 x 960

HD 1080
1920 x 1080 2048 x 1080

1024 x 768

XGA

1280 x 854 1280 x 960

2K

WUXGA
1920 x 1200

1280 x 1024

SXGA

SXGA+
1400 x 1050

17:9 5:3
1600 x 1200

16:9 8:5

UXGA

3:2
2048 x 1536

(16:10)

QXGA

5:4

4:3

WQXGA
2560 x 1600

2560 x 2048

QSXGA

Detailed VGA Timing


640 480, 60 Hz 25.175 MHz 31.469 kHz 59.94 Hz Pixels 8 96 40 8 640 8 800 Role Front Porch Horizontal Sync Back Porch Left border Active Right border total per line Dot Clock Line Frequency Field Frequency Lines 2 2 25 8 480 8 525 Role Front Porch Vertical Sync Back Porch Top Border Active Bottom Border total per eld

Active-low Horizontal and Vertical sync signals.

Horizontal Timing
HTOTAL BACK_PORCH HACTIVE FRONT_PORCH Video HSYNC HSYNC

For a 25.175 MHz pixel clock, HSYNC BACK_PORCH HACTIVE FRONT_PORCH HTOTAL 96 pixels 48 640 16 800